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  • 201.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Konstruktioner som produkt och process - en studie av hur L1- och L2-talare utnyttjar "det är"2008In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 79-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linguistic constructions can be viewed as products or processes. The paper explores connections between these aspects, focussing on L1 and L2 speakers’ use of Swedish constructions formed with the highly polyfunctional syntactic fragment det är ‘it is’. A usage-based model of language development is adopted, and the role of frequency of use is taken into account. The data for the study were extracted from a corpus of Swedish L1 and L2 conversational speech. This displays a rich use of different det är constructions, both in terms of the width of the repertoire and in terms of the frequency of use. The learners gradually acquire a pattern of usage which is largely similar to that of the native speakers, some structures occurring earlier than others; there appears a characteristic developmental profile. Det är has a prominent role in utterance production, often serving as a (sometimes only tentative) sentence introducer. There are indications that det är is acquired and functions as a formulaic sequence with a role in supporting utterance planning and execution. A particularly interesting phenomenon is the frequent occurrence of a formulation break after det är, with various ways of continuing the utterance; this provides insights into the ongoing formulation work.

  • 202.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svenska som målspråk1975In: Språkvård, ISSN 0038-8440, Vol. 1975, no 2, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 203.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svenskan i ljuset av invandrares språkfel1977In: Nysvenska studier, ISSN 0345-8768, Vol. 57, p. 60-73Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The insufficiency of error analysis1974In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 12, no 1-4, p. 185-192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The languages of the multilingual: Some conceptual and terminological issues2010In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 48, no 2-3, p. 91-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on individual multilingualism and third language acquisition has expanded greatly in recent years. A theoretical correlate of this is the recognition of the fact that humans are potentially multilingual by nature, that multilingualism is the default state of language competence, and that this in turns has implications for an adequate theory of language competence, use and acquisition. Traditional SLA research usually treats all non-first language learners as L2 learners. The recent focus on L3 acquisition means that one has begun taking the complexity of multilingual learners’ language background into account. This gives raise to reflection about some of the currently used basic terminology in the field, in particular how the concepts first, second and third language are understood.

    These terms are used variably in the literature. One approach, the common practice of labelling a multilingual’s languages along a linear chronological scale as L1, L2, L3, L4 etc., is shown here to be untenable, being based on an inadequate conception of multilingualism. A different and arguably more satisfactory approach is based on the conventional dichotomy of L1 (established during infancy) versus L2 (added after infancy) and relates the notion of L3 to the presence of a more complex language background.

    The limitation to a three-order hierarchy involving the distinction between the concepts of L1, L2 and L3 is discussed and adopted as a working hypothesis, awaiting further research on this issue.

    Finally, the problems with the expressions first, second and third language have become more apparent with the emergence of research on L3 acquisition. Maybe the time is ripe to work for a change of these established terms? As possible replacements, primary, secondary and tertiary language are put forward for discussion.

    The paper stresses the need for reconsideration and clarification of the concepts L1, L2 and L3 from the point of view of multilingual language users and learners.

  • 206.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Anaforiska processer i svenskan i invandrarperspektiv1976In: Nysvenska studier, ISSN 0345-8768, Vol. 55-56, p. 213-226Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The place-holder constraint, language typology, and the teaching of Swedish to immigrants1977In: Studia linguistica, ISSN 0039-3193, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 106-131Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Hancock, Victorine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Pragmatic use of temporal adverbs in L1 and L2 French: Functions and syntactic positions of textual markers in a spoken corpus2012In: Language, Interaction & Acquisition, ISSN 1879-7865, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 29-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the functions of a number of frequent temporal adverbs and their placement in the information structure produced by highly advanced L2 speakers of French. The study concerns both structural and pragmatic aspects of learner language that seem relevant for characterizing the highly proficient French L2 user. The pragmaticalization of these adverbs, i.e. the development of different pragmatic functions in L2, is investigated. The adverbs can occupy different positions in the utterance and we expect that the pragmaticalization of the adverbs entails their syntactic isolation in the information structure. The analysis of positions showed that, for two adverbs, argumentative functions in outer positions were absent even in the most advanced speaker group.

  • 209.
    Hancock, Victorine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, French and Italian.
    Kirchmeyer, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, French and Italian.
    Compétence discursive des apprenants avancés et quasi-natifs: étude du marqueur polyfonctionnel vraiment.2009In: L’information grammaticale, Vol. 120, p. 14-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Le but de cette étude est de caractériser les occurrences de vraiment dans un corpus oral chez des locuteurs natifs francophones et chez des apprenants suédophones (Le corpus InterFra, voir Bartning & Schlyter 2004). Ces apprenants sont semi-guidés (apprentissage en milieu naturel et institutionnel). Chanet (2004) observe à propos des marqueurs discursifs en général, que dans le Corpus de référence du français parlé, la forme enfin a la fonction d'adverbe régi (= il a enfin terminé sa thèse) dans seulement 0,1 % [sic] des occurrences, et celle de marqueur discursif/particule dans 98 % des cas (2 % ambigu). L'auteur commente ces observations qui "laissent imaginer la gymnastique mentale que doivent effectuer les enfants passant d'une perception orale de la langue à un apprentissage de l'écrit [...]". Ces chiffres laissent aussi imaginer les difficultés rencontrées par les apprenants de notre corpus, qui font eux le chemin inverse. Ceux-ci doivent passer d'un apprentissage essentiellement de l'écrit (ou d'une norme de l'écrit) à une perception orale d'une langue étrangère. Étant donné cet écart écrit-oral, on pourrait faire l’hypothèse qu’un certain nombre de fonctionnements de vraiment comme marqueur discursif n’apparaissent que tardivement dans l’acquisition.

    Aux conditions d'apprentissage dans un milieu institutionnel s'ajoutent souvent une attitude normative envers les phénomènes propres à l'oralité, tels que les marqueurs discursifs : ils sont souvent catégorisés comme des « disfluences » (cf. Chanet 2004).

    Dans notre étude, nous partons de la complexité syntaxique et discursive de vraiment à la fois à l’écrit et à l'oral (cf. Fernandez 1994 et Bilger 2004) : « l’adverbe vraiment est très ambigu et peut modifier toutes les catégories » (Abeillé 2002, cité par Bilger 2004). Notre corpus nous permet aussi de caractériser les conditions externes de l'acquisition du marqueur discursif. Nous considérons la distribution fonctionnelle de vraiment dans les unités informationelles (partie thématique et modale / rhématique / postrhématique) ainsi que sa variation idiosyncrasique.

  • 210.
    Hancock, Victorine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, French and Italian.
    Sanell, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, French and Italian.
    The acquisition of four adverbs in a learner corpus of L2 French2009In: Discours : revue de linguistique, psycholinguistique et informatique, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This empirical study of a learner corpus of 40 interviews, investigates the acquisition of the four adverbs aussi, peut-être, seulement and vraiment (also, mayby, only and really). Although these four adverbs are non-obligatory elements in the utterance, they seem to have two fundamental modifying functions, namely enhancement (aussi and vraiment) and mitigation (peut-être and seulement). They also appear at early stages of acquisition. The study concentrates on the positions and discourse functions of the adverbs in a developmental perspective. Each adverb is characterized with respect to these two parameters across six developmental stages (Bartning, Schlyter, 2004) and a “near-native” learner variety. We combine a functional framework for acquisition (cf. Klein, Perdue 1997; Benazzo 2000, 2005) with earlier observations from corpus studies concerning the positions and the semantics of the adverbs (Schlyter, 1977; Chanet, 2004; Bilger, 2004). We expected that the number of functions of the adverbs would increase with the stages and we focus on the very advanced levels (stages 5-6). The study is to our knowledge one of the first to cover learner production from beginners to very advanced and “near-native” speakers. One hypothesis generated by the study is that frequency patterns of the target language could be acquired earlier than positional patterns. As a result of the study, we propose an order of acquisition of the four adverbs.

  • 211. Hartelius, Lena
    et al.
    Schalling, Ellika
    Krull, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Formant Transitions in Ataxic Speech: The Shape and Speed of Formant Trajectories in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis and Control Speakers2010In: Journal of medical speech-language pathology, ISSN 1065-1438, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trying to identify the acoustic bases of reduced intelligibility, investigators have paid special attention to the behavior of the second formant (F2) examining its extent, duration, and rate of change. In theoretical and clinical work, it would be useful to be able to measure speaking rate defined in terms of both movement speed and number of units per second, and to be able to measure the F2 slope independent of an individual's general rate of speech. The present study evaluates a method for numerically specifying the shape and speed of formant trajectories. The procedure consists of fitting damped exponentials to transitions traced from spectrograms, and determining their time constants. The formant transitions of 10 speakers with ataxic dysarthria due to multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 control speakers, pronouncing the syllables /da:/, /do:/, and /du:/ in a carrier phrase were analyzed. Results showed that the time constants were significantly different in the two groups. Speakers with MS were slower, and given that this measure is independent of speaking rate, we can conclude that the actual articulatory movements were slower. Future research efforts will focus on exploring the formant trajectories in more speakers with varying severities of dysarthria as well as determining the effects of phonetic context, stress, and word length.

  • 212.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Introductory commentary: Lived experiences of qur’anic schooling in Scandinavia2019In: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 7-13Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading the contributions to this special issue, it is striking how little research has hitherto been conducted on qur’anic schooling and Qur’an faith literacy practices in Scandinavia, despite it being well-known that the Qur’an schools constitute important religious and social meeting points for many Muslim faith members (e.g., Risenfors, Gurdal, & Sorbring, 2011). In all of the Scandinavian countries, numerous children and adolescents regularly attend qur’anic schooling from a very young age. As argued by Day and Rogaly (2014), shared Islamic faith literacy practices and participation in qur’anic schooling thus contribute to creating a sense of social belonging and coherence for many faith members. Despite this being the case, we still know very little about faith members’ lived experiences of qur’anic schooling. This lack of attention in the research seems to be a global rather than a local phenomenon. For example, Moore (2011) claims that qur’anic schooling is “[o]ne of the least-studied and most poorly understood educational institutions in today's world.” Consequently, all of the papers in this special issue make a valuable contribution in widening the research focus, and in counteracting the invisibilization of qur’anic schooling and faith literacy in the research.

  • 213.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Magnusson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Performative functions of multilingual policy in second language education in Sweden2019In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper targets the aim of 'strengthening the students' multilingualism' in a second language subject in Sweden, Swedish as a second language (SSL), which represents a relatively rare L2 design internationally. The study investigates how ideological space for multilingualism with regard to this aim opens implementational space at the classroom level [Hornberger. 2002. "Multilingual Language Policies and the Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach." Language Policy 1 (1): 27-51]. We draw on ethnographic fieldwork in three linguistically diverse upper secondary schools in Sweden, where SSL is a parallel subject to Swedish, free of choice, and is taught by qualified teachers. Ideological and implementational space was found to be primarily for empowering students and valorizing their multilingualism and less for learning functions and pedagogical multilingual practices. Some students emphasized multilingual aspects as being empowering and as a reason for choosing SSL, indexing the performative function [Fairclough. 2014. "Semiotic Aspects of Social Transformation and Learning." In The Discourse Studies Reader. Main Currents in Theory and Analysis, edited by Johannes Angermuller, Dominique Maingueneau, and Ruth Wodak, 378-387. Amsterdam: John Benjamins] of macro-level policy in combination with teacher agency. We argue that in spite of the brevity of the formulated multilingual macro policy and its restricted 'potential space' [Johnson 2011. "Implementational and Ideological Spaces in Bilingual Education Language Policy, Practice, and Research." In Bilingual Education and Bilingualism: Educational Linguistics in Practice: Applying the Local Globally and the Global Locally, edited by Frances M. Hult and Kendall A. King, 126-139. Bristol, GBR: Multilingual Matters], it still had a significant bearing at the local level. This finding reinforces the importance of researching established macro-multilingual policies in situ in education.

  • 214.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Magnusson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Student ambivalence toward second language education in three Swedish upper secondary schools2020In: Linguistics and Education, ISSN 0898-5898, E-ISSN 1873-1864, Vol. 55, article id 100767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relatively unique educational design of the school subject Swedish as a second language (SSL) through ethnographic fieldwork in three linguistically diverse schools in Sweden. A main point is the importance of carefully considering the local educational context in relation to its organizational design and embeddedness in language ideologies and linguistic hierarchies when researching and discussing educational practices designed for linguistically and culturally diverse students. Since L2 education2 may become part of a negative social categorization of students (e.g. Talmy, 2011), we focus on student perspectives, i.e. 15 students’ narrated experiences of SSL in upper secondary schools where SSL is a voluntary subject3 and the teachers are highly qualified. On the basis of stance analysis (Du Bois, 2007, Jaffe, 2009), we discuss both the students’ motives for choosing SSL and their reasons for continuing to study SSL. Findings show an ambivalence toward the subject, which is related to conflicting discourses surrounding it (Hedman & Magnusson, 2018). On the one hand, the narratives reflect that SSL may be associated with negative societal discourses on immigration and L2 use; on the other, they provide examples of affordances of SSL, i.e. counter images to these discourses (cf. contrastive insights, Hymes, 1996). Not least, pedagogical scaffolding of advanced content was analyzed as a main reward. The fact that attending SSL in these schools was not an exception, separating a few from the majority, also allows for a problematization of “mainstream”.

  • 215. Heegård, Jan
    et al.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Geomorphic coding in Palula and Kalasha2018In: Acta Linguistica Hafniensia. International Journal of Structural Linguistics, ISSN 0374-0463, E-ISSN 1949-0763, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 129-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes the geomorphic systems of spatial reference in the two Indo-Aryan languages Palula and Kalasha, spoken in adjacent areas of an alpine region in Northwestern Pakistan. Palula and Kalasha encode the inclination of the mountain slope as well as the flow of the river, in systematic and similar ways, and by use of distinct sets of nominal lexemes that may function adverbially. In their verbal systems, only Palula encode, landscape features in a systematic way, but both languages make use of a number of verbal sets that in different ways emphasise boundary-crossing. The article relates the analysis to Palmer's Topographic Correspondence Hypothesis that predicts that the linguistic system of spatial reference will reflect the topography of the surrounding landscape. The analysis of the geomorphic systems in Palula and Kalasha supports this hypothesis. However, data from a survey of spatial strategies in neighbouring languages, i.e., languages spoken in a similar alpine landscape, reveal another system that does not to the same extent or in a similar way encode typical landscape features such as the mountain slope and the flow of the river. This calls for a revision of Palmer's hypothesis that also takes language contact into consideration.

  • 216.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Adjectives and clausal complementation2012In: Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax, ISSN 1100-097X, Vol. 89, p. 37-67Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Finiteness in Swedish2012In: Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax, ISSN 1100-097X, Vol. 90, p. 81-110Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 218.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Long object shift and reflexives2010In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short communication is concerned with long object shift of reflexives in Swedish. Only 3rd person reflexives can shift across their antecedent. For some reason this is possible even if the antecedent is 1st or 2nd person as well, but certain requirements on the antecedent are necessary. This paper shows that neither a purely syntactic nor a purely semantic analysis can account for all the facts. Instead the best analysis seems to be one that makes use of Bonet's (1995) post-syntactic morphological processes: feature delinking, feature erasure and feature insertion.

  • 219.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Detection thresholds for gaps, overlaps and no-gap-no-overlaps2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 130, no 1, p. 508-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection thresholds for gaps and overlaps, that is acoustic and perceived silences and stretches of overlapping speech in speaker changes, were determined. Subliminal gaps and overlaps were cate- gorized as no-gap-no-overlaps. The established gap and overlap detection thresholds both corre- sponded to the duration of a long vowel, or about 120 ms. These detection thresholds are valuable for mapping the perceptual speaker change categories gaps, overlaps, and no-gap-no-overlaps into the acoustic domain. Furthermore, the detection thresholds allow generation and understanding of gaps, overlaps, and no-gap-no-overlaps in human-like spoken dialogue systems.

  • 220.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    On the reliability of overall intensity and spectral emphasis as acoustic correlates of focal accents in Swedish2003In: Journal of Phonetics, ISSN 0095-4470, E-ISSN 1095-8576, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 39-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows that increases in overall intensity and spectral emphasis are reliable acoustic correlates of focal accents in Swedish. They are both reliable in the sense that there are statistically significant differences between focally accented words and nonfocal ones for a variety of words, in any position of the phrase and for all speakers in the analyzed materials, and in the sense of their being useful for automatic detection of focal accents. Moreover, spectral emphasis turns out to be the more reliable correlate, as the influence on it of position in the phrase, word accent and vowel height was less pronounced and as it proved a better predictor of focal accents in general and for a majority of the speakers. Finally, the study has resulted in data for overall intensity and spectral emphasis that might prove important in modeling for speech synthesis.

  • 221.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Pauses, gaps and overlaps in conversations2010In: Journal of Phonetics, ISSN 0095-4470, E-ISSN 1095-8576, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 555-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores durational aspects of pauses gaps and overlaps in three different conversational corpora with a view to challenge claims about precision timing in turn-taking Distributions of pause gap and overlap durations in conversations are presented and methodological issues regarding the statistical treatment of such distributions are discussed The results are related to published minimal response times for spoken utterances and thresholds for detection of acoustic silences in speech It is shown that turn-taking is generally less precise than is often claimed by researchers in the field of conversation analysis or interactional linguistics These results are discussed in the light of their implications for models of timing in turn-taking and for interaction control models in speech technology In particular it is argued that the proportion of speaker changes that could potentially be triggered by information immediately preceding the speaker change is large enough for reactive interaction controls models to be viable in speech technology.

  • 222.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Strangert, Eva
    Umeå University.
    Temporal effects of focus in Swedish2001In: Journal of Phonetics, ISSN 0095-4470, E-ISSN 1095-8576, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 329-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The four experiments reported concern the amount and domain of lengthening associated with focal accents in Swedish. Word, syllable and segment durations were measured in read sentences with focus in different positions. As expected, words with focal accents were longer than nonfocal words in general, but the amount of lengthening varied greatly, primarily due to speaker differences but also to position in the phrase and the word accent distinction. Most of the lengthening occurred within the stressed syllable. An analysis of the internal structure of stressed syllables showed that the phonologically long segments-whether vowels or consonants-were lengthened most, while the phonologically short vowels were hardly affected at all. Through this nonlinear lengthening, the contrast between long and short vowels in stressed syllables was sharpened in focus. Thus, the domain of focal accent lengthening includes at least the stressed syllable. Also, an unstressed syllable immediately to the right of the stressed one was lengthened in focus, while initial unstressed syllables, as well as unstressed syllables to the right of the first unstressed one, were not lengthened. Thus, we assume the domain of focal accent lengthening in Swedish to be restricted to the stressed syllable and the immediately following unstressed one.

  • 223.
    Hellberg, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Polysemy across image schemas: Swedish fram2007In: Studia Linguistica, ISSN 0039 3193, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 20–58-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been some reluctance among scholars to accept the possibility that the image schema structure for a polysemous word can vary from one subsense to another, one image schema dominating for one subsense and another for the other. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that this possibility does indeed exist. For the polysemous Swedish adverb or particle fram, it is shown that no less than four image schemas are primary in different subsenses, viz. the front-back schema, the centre-periphery schema, the source-path-goal schema, and the container schema. Furthermore, although these schemas also appear in backgrounded functions in other subsenses, thus securing the network, no single schema is present in all subsenses.

  • 224. Holmberg, Per
    et al.
    Grahn, Inga-Lill
    Magnusson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Systemisk-funktionell lingvistik. Att analysera språkets betydelsepotential2014In: Folkmålsstudier, ISSN 0356-1771, Vol. 52, p. 9-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the theory of Systemic functional linguistics (SFL), first developed by Michael Halliday, and exemplifies how the theory can be applied in empirical analysisof text and talk. It shows how SFL is centered on the idea that language functions in social meaning making, and how this idea is theoretically elaborated in terms of stratification, metafunctional diversity, systemic choices and registers. The article includes a theoretical description of these four central notions, followed by a presentation of two empirical studies. Both studies explore lexicogrammatical and semantic choices within the ideational metafunction, though in different registers.The first study is an analysis of the use of grammatical metaphor in text written by monolingual and multilingual upper secondary school students. Grammatical metaphor is the realization of meaning in atypical, or incongruent, ways. In the study, grammatical metaphor is a developmental trait, allowing students to express specialized meanings through new combinations between semantics and lexicogrammar.In the second analysis SFL is applied on talk in interaction and combined with activity analysis. The study explores the successive instantiation of the meaning potentialof language in a certain context, namely when participants talk about thinkingin radio phone-in counseling conversations. An analysis within the ideational metafunctioncombined with the notion of communicative projects describes how, in this specific case, the participants’ lexicogrammatical choices between a verb and a nominalform contributes in a critical way to a successful outcome of the ongoing counseling activity.

  • 225.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Deaf lecturers’ translanguaging in a higher education setting. A multimodal multilingual perspective2018In: Applied Linguistics Review, ISSN 1868-6303, E-ISSN 1868-6311, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 90-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a few universities around the world courses are offered where the primary language of instruction is a national sign language. Many of these courses are given by bilingual/multilingual deaf lecturers, skilled in both national sign language(s) and spoken/written language(s). Research on such deaf-led practices in higher education are lacking, and this study will contribute to a greater understanding of these practices. Drawing on ethnographically created data from a higher education setting in Sweden, this case study examines the use of different languages and modalities by three deaf lecturers when teaching deaf and hearing (signing) students in theoretic subjects. The analysis is based on video-recordings of the deaf lecturers during classroom activities at a basic university level in which Swedish Sign Language (SSL) is used as the primary language. The results illustrate how these deaf lecturers creatively use diverse semiotic resources in several modes when teaching deaf and hearing (signing) students, which creates practices of translanguaging. This is illustrated by classroom activities in which the deaf lecturers use different language and modal varieties, including sign languages SSL and ASL as well as Swedish, and English, along with PowerPoint and whiteboard notes. The characteristics of these multimodal-multilingual resources and the usage of them will be closely presented in this article.

  • 226.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Vilken kunskap och kompetens finns hos Sveriges kommuner avseende hörselskadade elever i grundskolan?2016In: DHB-dialog, ISSN 0281-3106, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 227. Huhtamäki, Martina
    et al.
    Grahn, Inga-Lill
    Lindström, Jan
    Nilsson, Jenny
    Norrby, Catrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Wide, Camilla
    Frasformade instruktioner med uppföljningar under personlig träning2019In: Språk och stil, ISSN 1101-1165, E-ISSN 2002-4010, Vol. 29, p. 9-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal training is a new form of institutional interaction that has not been considerably studied as regards language. Still, alongside embodied interaction, language is central in this activity. In this paper, phrasal utterances are studied as a resource for instructing in personal training. The data consist of 7 h 23 min of video recordings of training sessions with Swedish-speaking participants from Finland and Sweden, which are supplemented with field notes. The theoretical–methodological framework includes interactional linguistics, ethnography of communication, and variational pragmatics. Results show that participants use all semiotic information at hand when they produce and understand phrasal instructions during personal training. This process involves the overall activity, the participants’ institutional roles as trainer and client, their body positions and movements, and trajectories of earlier interaction and embodied elements of the instructions themselves. Phrasal instructions are short; thus, they are focused and easily integrated into the ongoing physical activity. Certain differences are observed between the data from Finland and from Sweden, e.g., Finnish data have more phrasal instructions, whereas the Swedish data have more third-turn follow-ups, which may indicate cultural differences in this domain. The article concludes that phrasal utterances are not only useful as instructions in personal training but also well-suited for the activity type. 

  • 228.
    Hunley, Keith
    et al.
    Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Dunn, Michael
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reesink, Ger
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Terrill, Angela
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Healey, Meghan E.
    Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Koki, George
    Human Genetics, Institute for Medical Research, Goroka, Papua New Guinea.
    Friedlaender, Françoise R.
    Independent Researcher, Sharon, Connecticut, United States of America.
    Friedlaender, Jonathan S.
    Department of Anthropology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Genetic and Linguistic Coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia2008In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 4, no 10, article id e1000239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain). There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast, global patterns may emphasize more ancient demographic events, including population splits associated with the early colonization of major world regions.

  • 229.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Halvhjärtat åtagande2006In: Invandrare och minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, no 2, p. 10-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 230.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Second language ultimate attainment: Effects of maturation, exercise, and social/psychological factors2018In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 921-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mayberry and Kluender (2017) offer a rich review of empirical research that contributes to the understanding of age-related effects on first and second language acquisition. Their keynote article compiles current, primarily linguistic and neurolinguistic, research on the notion of a critical period for language (CPL). The authors conclude “that the putative CPL applies to L1 learning, and that L2 effects are a consequence of this prior learning” (Mayberry & Kluender, 2017: p. 6). As they propose a clear role for CPL in L1 learning, and because their exact position on its role in L2 learning is, to my mind, not as clearly articulated, I will take the opportunity to argue the following: If a CPL exists at all, it should have identifiable implications for all kinds of language acquisition (cf. Gleitman & Newport, 1995). In the case of L2 acquisition what needs to be identified is how maturational constraints (implicated by a CPL) interact with other conditions that are at hand when the second language comes onto the scene.

  • 231.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Vilket undervisningsspråk favoriserar vilka elever?2008In: Sprogforum, Temanummer: Førstesproget som ressource, ISSN 0909-9328, no 43, p. 44-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 232.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Våra inhemska minoriteter2005In: Vandringar med böcker, litteraturvägledning från BTJ förlag., ISSN 0503-6968, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 233.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age and L2 learning: The hazards of matching practical “implications” with theoretical “facts”.: (Comments on Stefka H. Marinova-Todd, D. Bradford Marshall, and Catherine E. Snow’s “Three misconceptions about age and L2 learning”).2001In: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 151-170Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Introduction: High-Level L2 Acquisition, Learning, and Use2012In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 177-186Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Who can become native-like in a second language? All, some, or none?: On the maturational constraints controversy in second language acquisition.2000In: Studia Linguistica, ISSN 0039-3193, E-ISSN 1467-9582, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 150-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 236.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Âge de l’exposition initiale et niveau terminal chez des locuteurs quasi-natifs du Suédois L2.2003In: Acquisition et Interaction en Langue Étrangère, Vol. 18, p. 99-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 237.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Park, Hyeon-Sook
    Dominant-language replacement. The case of international adoptees2009In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 121-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article challenges a recent proposal for the theoretical interpretation of L1 and L2 interaction that results from the abrupt change of language environment in internationally adopted children. According to this proposal (Pallier, Dehaene, Poline, LeBihan, Argenti, Depoux and Mehler, 2003; Ventureyra, Pallier and Yoo, 2004), such children experience a total loss of their L1, while, as adults, they exhibit a nativelike ultimate attainment of their L2. These authors suggest that what they see as a total loss of L1 allows a resetting of the neural network that normally subserves L1 retention and hence permits a complete acquisition of the L2. Data from two of our own research projects, one on L1 remnants in Korean adoptees in Sweden (see Park, forthcoming), and the other on age of acquisition and ultimate L2 attainment of Swedish (see Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam, in press), which included data from Latin American adoptees in Sweden among other participants, suggest (i) that L1 remnants are indeed maintained, (ii) that L2 attainment is not enhanced by severe L1 attrition, and (iii) that there is an age dimension to both the degree of L1 attrition and the level of L2 ultimate attainment in international adoptees. We therefore contend that a maturational interpretation of language replacement data is preferable.

  • 238.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Österberg, Rakel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Foreign language provision at secondary level in Sweden2010In: Sociolinguistica: Internationales Jahrbuch fuer Europaeische Soziolinguistik, ISSN 0933-1883, E-ISSN 1865-939X, Vol. 24, p. 85-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239. Hyman, Larry M.
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Lahiri, Aditi
    Nichols, Johanna
    The unabashed typologist: A Frans Plank Schubertiade2017In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 21, p. 1-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 240.
    Hynninen, Niina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    ICL at the micro level: L2 speakers taking on the role of language experts2012In: AILA Review, ISSN 1461-0213, Vol. 25, p. 13-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the construction of language expertise in international, university-level English-medium courses where English is used as a lingua franca. Even if the courses are not language courses, language sometimes becomes the topic of discussion in the form of language correcting and commentary. This paper looks into these instances, where the teachers (i.e. subject experts) and students can be seen to take on, or be allotted, the role of language experts. The findings show that this role can be (1) based on a speaker’s professional role and expertise in the relevant subject,(2) allotted to a native speaker of English, (3) negotiated between speakers, or (4) assigned to an English instructor. The paper discusses the implications of who takes on the role of language expert, and considers, in particular, to what extent the role still falls on native speakers of English. It will be shown that non-native speakers of English take on the role of language experts, and that this has implications for the kind of regulation done in the lingua franca interaction. The findings shed light on the micro-level realisation of Integrating Content and Language in Higher Education.

  • 241.
    Hynninen, Niina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Kuka päättää, mikä on oikein?2013In: Tempus, ISSN 0355-8053, no 5, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 242.
    Håkansson, Gisela
    et al.
    Språk- och litteraturcentrum, Lunds universitet.
    Norrby, Catrin
    Dept of Languages and Linguistics, The University of Melbourne.
    Environmental influence on language acquisition: Comparing second and
 foreign language acquisition of Swedish2010In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 628-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the influence of the learning environment on the second language acquisition of Swedish. Data were collected longitudinally over 1 year from 35 university students studying Swedish in Malmö, Sweden, and in Melbourne, Australia. Three areas were investigated: grammar, pragmatics, and lexicon. The development of grammar was analyzed within the framework of Processability Theory (Pienemann, 1998, 2005). For the pragmatic analysis, the learners’ production in a gap-filling task was measured against answers from 100 native speakers. A scoring system was devised to enable comparisons between learners and native speakers. The lexical analysis was based on a word association test. The results show that the grammar developed similarly in the two groups, whereas differences between the groups were found in pragmatics and lexicon. This variation is explained by differences in target language exposure.

  • 243.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Functional motivations behind direct object fronting in written Swedish: A corpus-distributional account2018In: Glossa: a journal of general linguistics, E-ISSN 2397-1835, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish, grammatical functions are primarily encoded by word order. In prototypical transitive sentences, the subject precedes the direct object. However, Swedish also allows for fronting of the direct object, although such sentences are potentially ambiguous with respect to grammatical functions. This study therefore investigates direct object fronting in written Swedish with respect to 1) which functions this construction serves and 2) whether the use of direct object fronting is dispreferred when the grammatical functions cannot be determined on other information types. These questions are investigated on the basis of quantitative differences in the distribution of NP prominence properties (e.g., givenness and animacy) and formal, morphosyntactic cues to grammatical functions (e.g., case marking and verb particles) between OVS and SVO sentences, and between OVS sentences and passives. The results indicate that direct object fronting is used when the object either is topical and highly discourse prominent, or when it is contrastive. I also argue that direct object fronting is used to introduce new topics into the discourse. Subjects are more frequently high in discourse prominence in object-initial sentences than in subject-initial sentences. I suggest that this stems from a motivation to keep the information in object-initial sentences following the sentence-initial object “informationally light” and predictable. Unambiguous formal markers of grammatical functions are used more frequently in OVS sentences than in SVO sentences, but less frequently in passives than in SVO sentences. OVS sentences also more frequently contain an animate subject and an inanimate object than SVO sentences, and in passives, animate subjects and inanimate objects are even less frequent. Writers therefore seem to prefer the structurally unambiguous passive construction over the potentially ambiguous object-initial construction, when grammatical functions cannot be determined on the basis of other formal markers or an NP argument animacy difference. Further, sentences with two animate arguments more frequently contain formal markers than sentences with at most one animate argument. These findings indicate that writers actively avoid direct object fronting when it potentially results in an ambiguity, and provide evidence for the hypothesis that writers are inclined to actively avoid ambiguities more generally.

  • 244.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Influences of form and function on the acceptability of projective prepositions in Swedish2008In: Spatial Cognition and Computation, ISSN 1387-5868, E-ISSN 1573-9252, ISSN 1387-5868, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 193-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Projective prepositions express the relation between two objects by referring to a direction in space and have traditionally been regarded as expressing purely geometric relations. Recent studies have shown that the appropriateness of English and Spanish projectives also depends on functional relations between objects. This study investigates if the acceptability of the Swedish projectives över, under, ovanför and nedanför are influenced by functional factors as well, and whether över and under are differentially influenced by function than ovanför and nedanför, as has been shown for their English cognates. It also investigates how the shape and parts of the related objects influence their functional interaction, and thereby the acceptability of the prepositions. This is done with respect to the predictions of the AVS-model, a model of the perceptual processes underlying the apprehension of projectives, which takes both the geometric and the functional relation between objects into account. It was found that acceptability judgments about the prepositions are influenced by function as their corresponding English and Spanish prepositions. The acceptability of över was more sensitive to function than ovanför, whereas under and nedanför were not differentially influenced by function, as has been shown for Spanish. It was further found that the shape and parts of both of the related objects influence acceptability regions associated with the prepositions in predictable ways, as functional interactions between objects largely depend on their parts. The results finally show that the AVS-model needs to be further developed in order to account for the form and function of the located object.

  • 245.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The neurophysiological correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish2013In: Language and cognitive processes (Print), ISSN 0169-0965, E-ISSN 1464-0732, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 388-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language comprehension is assumed to proceed incrementally, and comprehenders commit to initial interpretations even in the absence of unambiguous information. Initial ambiguous object arguments are therefore preferably interpreted as subjects, an interpretation that needs to be revised towards an object initial interpretation once the disambiguating information is encountered. Most accounts of such grammatical function reanalyses assume that they involve phrase structure revisions, and do not differ from other syntactic reanalyses. A number of studies using measurements of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) provide evidence for this view by showing that both reanalysis types engender similar neurophysiological responses (e.g., P600 effects). Others have claimed that grammatical function reanalyses rather involve revisions of the mapping of thematic roles to argument noun phrases (NPs). In line with this, it has been shown that grammatical function reanalysis during spoken language comprehension engenders a N400 effect, an effect which has been shown to correlate with general problems in the mapping of thematic roles to argument NPs in a number of languages. This study investigated the ERP correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish. Postverbal NPs that disambiguated the interpretation of object-topicalised sentences towards an object-initial reading engendered a N400 effect with a local, right-parietal distribution. This ‘‘reanalysis N400’’ effect provides further support for the view that grammatical function reanalysis is functionally distinct from syntactic reanalyses and rather involves a revision of the mapping of thematic roles to the sentence arguments. Postverbal subject pronouns in object-topicalised sentences were also found to engender an enhanced P300 wave in comparison to object pronouns, an effect which seems to depend on the overall infrequency of object-topicalised constructions. This finding provides support for the view that the ‘‘reanalysis N400’’ in some cases can be attenuated by a task-related P300 component.

  • 246.
    Iannaccaro, Gabriele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Proverbi meteorologici in ladino dolomitico: una prima ricognizione2015In: Mondo Ladino, ISSN 1121-1121, Vol. 39, p. 13-46Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is a first approach to the weather proverbs in Dolomite Ladin, and stands as the first phase of possible research to come. The proverbs come from published sources, but have been controlled through field research, and are discussed under a romanistic, pragmatic and ethnolinguistic point of view.

  • 247.
    Iannaccaro, Gabriele
    et al.
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    Dell'Aquila, Vittorio
    Per un atlante paremiologico romanzo2012In: Géolinguistique: bulletin du centre de dialectologie, ISSN 0761-9081, no 13, p. 179-230Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 248.
    Iannaccaro, Gabriele
    et al.
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    Dell'Aquila, Vittorio
    Una proposta per lo studio della vitalità delle lingue2013In: Atti del Sodalizio Glottologico Milanese, ISSN 1972-9901, Vol. 2012, no 7, p. 66-82Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the establishment of a series of procedures to find out and measure the subjective ethnolinguistic vitalities of lesser used languages when the overall sociolinguistic situation is quite well-known. Such a goal can be achieved through the analysis of a number of sociolinguistic and pragmatic parameters – discussed in depth – and a proper mathematical treatment of the emerging data. Examples are given, taken from research experiences throughout Europe.

  • 249.
    Iannaccaro, Gabriele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Dell'Aquila, Vittorio
    Borghi, Guido
    Sull’etimo di cianta, gonna ladina2015In: Mondo Ladino, ISSN 1121-1121, Vol. 39, p. 47-52Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 250. Ibbotson, Paul
    et al.
    Hartman, Rose M.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Frequency filter: an open access tool for analysing language development2018In: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, ISSN 2327-3798, E-ISSN 2327-3801, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1325-1339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an open-access analytic tool, which allows researchers to simultaneously control for and combine language data from the child, the caregiver, multiple languages, and across multiple time points to make inferences about the social and cognitive factors driving the shape of language development. We demonstrate how the tool works in three domains of language learning and across six languages. The results demonstrate the usefulness of this approach as well as providing deeper insight into three areas of language production and acquisition: egocentric language use, the learnability of nouns versus verbs, and imageability. We have made the Frequency Filter tool freely available as an R-package for other researchers to use at https://github.com/rosemm/FrequencyFilter.

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