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  • 201.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Trädgårdskonst och trädgårdsodling2003In: Rosendals slott / [ed] Christian Laine, Stockholm: Byggförlaget/Kultur , 2003, p. 258-297Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Trädgårdskonsten2002In: Signums svenska konsthistoria: [Bd 12], Konsten 1915-1950, Lund: Bokförlaget Signum, 2002, p. 597-635Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 203.
    Nolin, Catharina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Bergström, Anders
    Arkitekturskolan, KTH.
    Millesgården: Arkitektur och trädgård2004Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Millesgården på Lidingö norr om Stockholm är ett av Sveriges mest välkända konstnärshem. Här uppförde skulptören Carl Milles från 1908 en kombinerad ateljé och bostad med anslutande trädgård. Trots att Milles var en mycket produktiv och framgångsrik skulptör, finns det skäl att framhålla Millesgården som hans främsta konstnärliga arbete. I denna rikt illustrerade bok skildrar författarna Millesgårdens tillkomst i nära anslutning till den samtida utvecklingen inom arkitektur och trädgårdskonst. Anläggningen fungerade inte bara som hem och ateljé utan även som utställningsmiljö.

  • 204.
    Nyström, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Søgaard Jørgensen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Carpenter, S. R.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Anatomy and resilience of the global production ecosystem2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 575, p. 98-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the Earth's biosphere has been appropriated for the production of harvestable biomass in the form of food, fuel and fibre. Here we show that the simplification and intensification of these systems and their growing connection to international markets has yielded a global production ecosystem that is homogenous, highly connected and characterized by weakened internal feedbacks. We argue that these features converge to yield high and predictable supplies of biomass in the short term, but create conditions for novel and pervasive risks to emerge and interact in the longer term. Steering the global production ecosystem towards a sustainable trajectory will require the redirection of finance, increased transparency and traceability in supply chains, and the participation of a multitude of players, including integrated 'keystone actors' such as multinational corporations.

  • 205. Obregón, C.
    et al.
    Lyndon, A. R.
    Barker, J.
    Christiansen, H.
    Godley, B. J.
    Kurland, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Piccolo, J. J.
    Potts, R.
    Short, R.
    Tebb, A.
    Mariani, S.
    Valuing and understanding fish populations in the Anthropocene: key questions to address2018In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 828-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the values of fish populations and fisheries has primarily focused on bio-economic aspects; a more nuanced and multidimensional perspective is mostly neglected. Although a range of social aspects is increasingly being considered in fisheries research, there is still no clear understanding as to how to include these additional values within management policies nor is there a cogent appreciation of the major knowledge gaps that should be tackled by future research. This paper results from a workshop held during the 50th anniversary symposium of the Fisheries Society of the British Isles at the University of Exeter, UK, in July 2017. Here, we aim to highlight the current knowledge gaps on the values of fish populations and fisheries thus directing future research. To this end, we present eight questions that are deeply relevant to understanding the values of fish populations and fisheries. These can be applied to all habitats and fisheries, including freshwater, estuarine and marine.

  • 206.
    Olsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Risk för kontinuitetsglapp och förlust av biologisk mångfald i Solnas ekmiljöer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker kontinuiteten, vitaliteten, exponeringen och möjliga naturvårdsåtgärder i Solnas ekmiljöer. Enligt det 16:e miljökvalitetsmålet "ett rikt växt och djurliv" ska den biologiska mångfalden bevaras och nyttjas på ett hållbart sätt för nuvarande och framtida generationer. Gamla ekar har visat sig hysa en hög biologisk mångfald, men tyvärr minskar estånden av jätteträd kontinuerligt i Sverige samtidigt som föryngringen går långsamt eller i värsta fall helt avstannat. Åsikterna om jätteekarnas minskning verkar enstämmiga och bero på kontinuitetsglapp, upphörd hävd, igenväxning, plantering av gran på gamla odlingsmarker, brist på skötsel och ny bebyggelse i urbana miljöer. Kontinuiteten studerades genom att undersöka fördelningen mellan värdefulla ekar och ekefterträdare i hela Solnaområdet samt i fyra bestämda ektrakter. Kriteriet för god kontinuitet var 15 % värdefulla ekar och 85 % ekefterträdare. För att bedöma ekarnas vitalitet studerades andelen permanent döda grenar i trädkronan och för att bedöma ekarnas exponering struderades hur stor andel av trädkronan som täcktes av omgivande trädkronor. I varken hela Solnaområdet eller i trakterna observerades god ekkontinuitet. I hela Solnaområdet mår ekefterträdarna procentuellt sett sämre i samtliga vitalitetsklasser jämfört med de värefulla ekarna. För ekarnas exponeringstillstånd över hela Solnaområdet hade ekefterträdarna samma procentuella fördelning som de värdefulla ekarna när det gällde halvöppen exponering, men utöver det var ekefterträdarna jämförelsevis sämre exponerade. En viktig naturvårdsåtgärd för ekefterträdarna är att öka deras exponering, vilket kan göras med hjälp av frihuggning, slåtterhävd eller beteshävd.

  • 207. Olsson, Jens
    et al.
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Ojaveer, Henn
    Gårdmark, Anna
    Pöllumäe, Arno
    Muller-Karulis, Bärbel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Ustups, Didzis
    Dinesen, Grete E.
    Peltonen, Heikki
    Putnis, Ivars
    Szymanek, Lena
    Simm, Mart
    Heikinheimo, Outi
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    Axe, Philip
    Bergström, Lena
    Temporal development of coastal ecosystems in the Baltic Sea over the past two decades2015In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 2539-2548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal areas are among the most biologically productive aquatic systems worldwide, but face strong and variable anthropogenic pressures. Few studies have, however, addressed the temporal development of coastal ecosystems in an integrated context. This study represents an assessment of the development over time in 13 coastal ecosystems in the Baltic Sea region during the past two decades. The study covers between two to six trophic levels per system and time-series dating back to the early 1990s. We applied multivariate analyses to assess the temporal development of biological ecosystem components and relate these to potential driving variables associated with changes in climate, hydrology, nutrient status, and fishing pressure. Our results show that structural change often occurred with similar timing in the assessed coastal systems. Moreover, in 10 of the 13 systems, a directional development of the ecosystem components was observed. The variables representing key ecosystem components generally differed across systems, due to natural differences and limitation to available data. As a result of this, the correlation between the temporal development of the biological components in each area and the driving variables assessed was to some extent area-specific. However, change in nutrient status was a common denominator of the variables most often associated with changes in the assessed systems. Our results, additionally, indicate existing strengths as well as future challenges in the capacity of currently available monitoring data to support integrated assessments and the implementation of an integrated ecosystem-based approach to the management of the Baltic Sea coastal ecosystems.

  • 208.
    Ouedraogo, Issa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Burkina Faso.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Sri Lanka.
    Tumbo, Siza D.
    Kahimba, Frederic C.
    Land Cover Transition in Northern Tanzania2016In: Land Degradation and Development, ISSN 1085-3278, E-ISSN 1099-145X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 682-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land conversion in sub-Saharan Africa has profound biophysical, ecological, political and social consequences for human well-being and ecosystem services. Understanding the process of land cover changes and transitions is essential for good ecosystem management policy that would lead to improved agricultural production, human well-being and ecosystems health. This study aimed to assess land cover transitions in a typical semi-arid degraded agro-ecosystems environment within the Pangani river basin in northern Tanzania. Three Landsat images spanning over 30years were used to detect random and systematic patterns of land cover transition in a landscape dominated by crop and livestock farming. Results revealed that current land cover transition is driven by a systematic process of change dominated by the following: (i) transition from degraded land to sparse bushland (108%); (ii) conversion from sparse bushland to dense bushland in lowland areas (60%); (iii) conversion from bushland to forest (48%); and (iv) conversion from dense bushland to cropland in the highlands (45%). Agricultural lands under water harvesting technology adoption show a high degree of persistence (60-80%) between time slices. This suggests that there is a trend in land-use change towards vegetation improvement in the catchment with a continuous increase in the adoption of water harvesting technologies for crop and livestock farming. This can be interpreted as a sign of agricultural intensification and vegetation regrowth in the catchment.

  • 209. Padmanaban, Rajchandar
    et al.
    Bhowmik, Avit K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cabral, Pedro
    Zamyatin, Alexander
    Almegdadi, Oraib
    Wang, Shuangao
    Modelling Urban Sprawl Using Remotely Sensed Data: A Case Study of Chennai City, Tamilnadu2017In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 19, no 4, article id 163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sprawl (US), propelled by rapid population growth leads to the shrinkage of productive agricultural lands and pristine forests in the suburban areas and, in turn, adversely affects the provision of ecosystem services. The quantification of US is thus crucial for effective urban planning and environmental management. Like many megacities in fast growing developing countries, Chennai, the capital of Tamilnadu and one of the business hubs in India, has experienced extensive US triggered by the doubling of total population over the past three decades. However, the extent and level of US has not yet been quantified and a prediction for future extent of US is lacking. We employed the Random Forest (RF) classification on Landsat imageries from 1991, 2003, and 2016, and computed six landscape metrics to delineate the extent of urban areas within a 10 km suburban buffer of Chennai. The level of US was then quantified using Renyi's entropy. A land change model was subsequently used to project land cover for 2027. A 70.35% expansion in urban areas was observed mainly towards the suburban periphery of Chennai between 1991 and 2016. The Renyi's entropy value for year 2016 was 0.9, exhibiting a two-fold level of US when compared to 1991. The spatial metrics values indicate that the existing urban areas became denser and the suburban agricultural, forests and particularly barren lands were transformed into fragmented urban settlements. The forecasted land cover for 2027 indicates a conversion of 13,670.33 ha (16.57% of the total landscape) of existing forests and agricultural lands into urban areas with an associated increase in the entropy value to 1.7, indicating a tremendous level of US. Our study provides useful metrics for urban planning authorities to address the social-ecological consequences of US and to protect ecosystem services.

  • 210. Pampura, T. V.
    et al.
    Meili, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Holm, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Candaudap, F.
    Probst, A.
    Buried Paleosols as Reference Objects for Assessing the Current Level of Soil Pollution with Lead in the Lower Volga Steppes2019In: Eurasian Soil Science, ISSN 1064-2293, E-ISSN 1556-195X, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 34-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of soil contamination with anthropogenic lead requires uncontaminated analogues of the recent soils for comparison. For this purpose, a paleosol buried under a 2-m high burial mound of the Bronze Age and protected by it from atmospheric deposition during 4500 years was studied. The content and isotopic composition of mobile and total lead in the buried and recent soils (roadside and remote from lead sources) were compared. Obvious signs of anthropogenic contamination were revealed in only the upper layer of the roadside soil within 10 m from a highway. These were an increase in the absolute content of all lead forms; a high relative content of mobile forms; high ratios of Pb relative to Ti, Zr, and Y; and the similarity between isotopic compositions of the soil lead and the lead from modern atmospheric aerosols and Russian gasoline. Interestingly, no significant difference was found in the total lead contents or in the isotopic compositions between the recent soil remote from roads and the buried soil. However, some signs of anthropogenic impact could be revealed by the analysis of mobile lead forms, which make up a small portion of the total content.

  • 211. Pan, Haozhi
    et al.
    Deal, Brian
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Zhang, Yalei
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sociohydrology modeling for complex urban environments in support of integrated land and water resource management practices2018In: Land Degradation and Development, ISSN 1085-3278, E-ISSN 1099-145X, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 3639-3652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that a systems' thinking and explicit modeling approach is needed to address noted weaknesses (in terms of practicality and usefulness) in integrated water resource management. A process of coupling complex regional land use, economy, and water system interactions in integrated modeling is demonstrated with proof-of-concept applications to two urban cases (Chicago and Stockholm). In this uniquely coupled systems model, urban land use scenarios are considered a complex urban system represented by dynamic systems models of land use, economics, and water with a focus on urban environments that include drivers and system feedbacks with implications focused on urban water systems. The integrated model results reveal that the physical availability of land for economic activities (forecasted via a bottom-up land use change model) and their locations differ sharply from top-down sectoral-based economic forecasts. This shows that both human systems (economic and land use planning) and natural systems (land use limitations and associated water implications) need to be considered in order to accurately account for system(s) impacts. For example, flood zone regulations divert land use to other locations, whereas land cover changes can greatly affect the water infiltration characteristics of land surfaces and thereby alter hydrological outcomes. Our results indicate that modeling social and natural processes using a systems approach can provide a more comprehensive understanding of coupled causal mechanisms, impacts, and feedbacks in applications of integrated water resource management.

  • 212. Pauleit, Stephan
    et al.
    Ambrose-Oji, Bianca
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Anton, Barbara
    Buijs, Arjen
    Haase, Dagmar
    Elands, Birgit
    Hansen, Rieke
    Kowarik, Ingo
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Mattijssen, Thomas
    Olafsson, Anton Stahl
    Rall, Emily
    van der Jagt, Alexander P. N.
    van den Bosch, Cecil Konijnendijk
    Advancing urban green infrastructure in Europe: Outcomes and reflections from the GREEN SURGE project2019In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 40, p. 4-16Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban green infrastructure (UGI) is a promising concept when developing multifunctional green space systems to address major challenges of urbanization such as increasing social cohesion, promoting the transition to a green economy, adaptation to climate change and conservation of biodiversity. In response to the European Commission's Communication on Green Infrastructure from 2013, the GREEN SURGE project aimed to further advance the development of UGI in European cities by (i) strengthening the conceptual foundations of UGI, (ii) developing improved methods and tools for assessment of its state, benefits and governance and, (iii) applying these to build a stronger evidence base. This paper aims to provide an overall synthesis of the project's main achievements. GREEN SURGE adopted an inter-and transdisciplinary approach. Urban Learning Labs and focal Learning Alliances in five cities were instrumental for intensive collaboration between disciplines and across science and practice. Pan-European surveys, e.g. of planning and governance practice or human-nature interactions established the state-of-the-art across the continent and identified good practices. The project consolidated green infrastructure planning and governance conceptually, and it mapped opportunities for better linking government-led planning with bottom-up initiatives for creating and managing UGI. It also introduced a framework for knowledge integration to support UGI valuation. Importantly, development and application of the concept of biocultural diversity gave new insights into human-nature relationships in multicultural urban societies. The results strongly call for more context-sensitive development of UGI that addresses the different needs and diverse cultural practices of people engaging with nature. In a nutshell, GREEN SURGE showed that UGI indeed can make a major contribution to sustainable and resilient urbanisation. Transdisciplinary research in urban labs, if well-conceived, has shown to hold great potential to advance UGI concepts, methods, knowledge and practice.

  • 213. Pauly, Daniel
    et al.
    Belhabib, Dyhia
    Blomeyer, Roland
    Cheung, William W. W. L.
    Cisneros-Montemayor, Andres M.
    Copeland, Duncan
    Harper, Sarah
    Lam, Vicky W. Y.
    Mai, Yining
    Le Manach, Frederic
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mok, Ka Man
    van der Meer, Liesbeth
    Sanz, Antonio
    Shon, Soohyun
    Sumaila, U. Rashid
    Swartz, Wilf
    Watson, Reg
    Zhai, Yunlei
    Zeller, Dirk
    China's distant-water fisheries in the 21st century2014In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 474-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conservatively estimate the distant-water fleet catch of the People's Republic of China for 2000-2011, using a newly assembled database of reported occurrence of Chinese fishing vessels in various parts of the world and information on the annual catch by vessel type. Given the unreliability of official statistics, uncertainty of results was estimated through a regionally stratified Monte Carlo approach, which documents the presence and number of Chinese vessels in Exclusive Economic Zones and then multiplies these by the expected annual catch per vessel. We find that China, which over-reports its domestic catch, substantially under-reports the catch of its distant-water fleets. This catch, estimated at 4.6 million t year(-1) (95% central distribution, 3.4-6.1 million t year(-1)) from 2000 to 2011 (compared with an average of 368 000 t year(-1) reported by China to FAO), corresponds to an ex-vessel landed value of 8.93 billion year(-1) (95% central distribution, 6.3-12.3 billion). Chinese distant-water fleets extract the largest catch in African waters (3.1 million t year(-1), 95% central distribution, 2.0-4.4 million t), followed by Asia (1.0 million t year(-1), 0.56-1.5 million t), Oceania (198 000 t year(-1), 144 000-262 000 t), Central and South America (182 000 t year-1, 94 000299 000 t) and Antarctica (48 000 t year(-1), 8 000-129 000 t). The uncertainty of these estimates is relatively high, but several sources of inaccuracy could not be fully resolved given the constraints inherent in the underlying data and method, which also prevented us from distinguishing between legal and illegal catch.

  • 214. Pavelka, Marian
    et al.
    Acosta, Manuel
    Kiese, Ralf
    Altimir, Núria
    Brümmer, Christian
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Darenova, Eva
    Fuss, Roland
    Gielen, Bert
    Graf, Alexander
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Lohila, Annalea
    Longdoz, Bernhard
    Lindroth, Anders
    Nilsson, Mats
    Maraňón Jiménez, Sara
    Merbold, Lutz
    Montagnani, Leonardo
    Peichl, Matthias
    Pihlatie, Mari
    Pumpanen, Jukka
    Ortiz, Penelope Serrano
    Silvennoinen, Hanna
    Skiba, Ute
    Vestin, Patrik
    Weslien, Per
    Janous, Dalibor
    Kutsch, Werner
    Standardisation of chamber technique for CO2, N2O and CH4 fluxes measurements from terrestrial ecosystems2018In: International Agrophysics, ISSN 0236-8722, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 569-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chamber measurements of trace gas fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere have been conducted for almost a century. Different chamber techniques, including static and dynamic, have been used with varying degrees of success in estimating greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) fluxes. However, all of these have certain disadvantages which have either prevented them from providing an adequate estimate of greenhouse gas exchange or restricted them to be used under limited conditions. Generally, chamber methods are relatively low in cost and simple to operate. In combination with the appropriate sample allocations, chamber methods are adaptable for a wide variety of studies from local to global spatial scales, and they are particularly well suited for in situ and laboratory-based studies. Consequently, chamber measurements will play an important role in the portfolio of the Pan-European long-term research infrastructure Integrated Carbon Observation System. The respective working group of the Integrated Carbon Observation System Ecosystem Monitoring Station Assembly has decided to ascertain standards and quality checks for automated and manual chamber systems instead of defining one or several standard systems provided by commercial manufacturers in order to define minimum requirements for chamber measurements. The defined requirements and recommendations related to chamber measurements are described here.

  • 215. Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep
    et al.
    Gardmark, Anna
    Karlson, Agnes M. L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden .
    Kauppila, Pirkko
    Bergenius, Mikaela
    Bergstrom, Lena
    The role of climate and fisheries on the temporal changes in the Bothnian Bay foodweb2016In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 1739-1749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, eutrophication, and fishing are main pressures associated with changes in the abiotic and biotic environment in several sub-basins of the Baltic Sea. Identifying the nature of such changes is of relative importance for fisheries and environmental management. The Bothnian Bay is the northernmost sub-basin in the Baltic Sea and the responses of the foodweb to long-term changes in combined pressures have not been investigated. In this study, we explore long-term changes in the Bothnian Bay foodweb, represented by key species across all trophic levels over the past 34 years, and identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers. The results indicate that salinity is the most important driver to explain changes in the composition of the offshore biota in the Bothnian Bay. These changes are probably driven by indirect effects of salinity rather than bottom-up effects. A decline in the herring spawning-stock biomass was most plausibly attributed to an increased competition for food due to a parallel increase in vendace, which uses the same food resources (zooplankton and zoobenthos) and may benefit from declining salinity due to its limnic origin. A strong increase in the abundance of grey seal and ringed seal populations was seen in the late 2000s but was not related to any of the pressure variables analysed. Temperature and nutrients were not identified as important drivers of changes in the overall biota. Our study explores correlative relationships between variables and identifies potential interactions in the foodweb to generate hypotheses for further studies.

  • 216. Petersson, Erik V.
    et al.
    Arif, Usman
    Schulzova, Vera
    Krtkova, Veronika
    Hajslova, Jana
    Meijer, Johan
    Andersson, Hans Christer
    Jonsson, Lisbeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Sitbon, Folke
    Glycoalkaloid and Calystegine Levels in Table Potato Cultivars Subjected to Wounding, Light, and Heat Treatments2013In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 61, no 24, p. 5893-5902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potato tubers naturally contain a number of defense substances, some of which are of major concern for food safety. Among these substances are the glycoalkaloids and calystegines. We have here analyzed levels of glycoalkaloids (alpha-chaconine and a-solanine) and calystegines (A(3), B-2, and B-4) in potato tubers subjected to mechanical wounding, light exposure, or elevated temperature: stress treatments that are known or anticipated to induce glycoalkaloid levels. Basal glycoalkaloid levels in tubers varied between potato cultivars. Wounding and light exposure, but not heat, increased tuber glycoalkaloid levels, and the relative response differed among the cultivars. Also, calystegine levels varied between cultivars, with calystegine B-4 showing the most marked variation. However, the total calystegine level was not affected by wounding or light exposure. The results demonstrate a strong variation among potato cultivars with regard to postharvest glycoalkaloid increases, and they suggest that the biosynthesis of glycoalkaloids and calystegines occurs independently of each other.

  • 217.
    Petersson, Matilda Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Transnational partnerships' strategies in global fisheries governance2019In: Interest Groups & Advocacy, ISSN 2047-7414, E-ISSN 2047-7422, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 460-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of transnational partnerships within a transboundary policy problem, namely illegal, unregulated, and unreported (IUU) fishing. It focuses on an understudied aspect in the partnership literature, namely 'how and why do partnerships engage in advocacy'? The article theorizes and empirically explores the variation in strategies used by transnational partnerships to shape IUU policy development and implementation, drawing on theories from comparative politics and international relations. The paper finds that transnational partnerships often combine inside strategies with service provision, but that they rarely use outside strategies, and analyzes this variation in strategies by looking at changes in issues complexity, institutional complexity, and salience for state concerning IUU fishing policy. The paper ends by discussing the implication of these findings in relation to the previous literature on interest groups in comparative politics and on international non-governmental organizations and transnational partnerships in international relations.

  • 218. Planque, Benjamin
    et al.
    Mullon, Christian
    Arneberg, Per
    Eide, Arne
    Fromentin, Jean-Marc
    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina
    Hoel, Alf Håkon
    Niiranen, Susa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ottersen, Geir
    Sandø, Anne Britt
    Sommerkorn, Martin
    Thébaud, Olivier
    Thorvik, Thorbjørn
    A participatory scenario method to explore the future of marine social-ecological systems2019In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 434-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anticipating future changes in marine social-ecological systems (MSES) several decades into the future is essential in the context of accelerating global change. This is challenging in situations where actors do not share common understandings, practices, or visions about the future. We introduce a dedicated scenario method for the development of MSES scenarios in a participatory context. The objective is to allow different actors to jointly develop scenarios which contain their multiple visions of the future. The method starts from four perspectives: fisheries management, ecosystem, ocean climate, and global context and governance for which current status and recent trends are summarized. Contrasted scenarios about possible futures are elaborated for each of the four single perspectives before being integrated into multiple-perspective scenarios. Selected scenarios are then developed into storylines. Focusing on individual perspectives until near the end allows actors with diverse cultures, interests and horizons to confront their own notions of the future. We illustrate the method with the exploration of the futures of the Barents Sea MSES by 2050. We emphasize the following lessons learned: first, many actors are not familiar with scenario building and attention must be paid to explaining the purpose, methodology, and benefits of scenarios exercises. Second, although the Barents Sea MSES is relatively well understood, uncertainties about its future are significant. Third, it is important to focus on unlikely events. Fourth, all perspectives should be treated equally. Fifth, as MSES are continuously changing, we can only be prepared for future changes if we collectively keep preparing.

  • 219.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Södertörn University, Sweden; University of Bremen, Germany.
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Acharya, Kamal
    Brunet, Jörg
    Chabrerie, Olivier
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Diekmann, Martin
    Graae, Bente J.
    Heinken, Thilo
    Hermy, Martin
    Kolb, Annette
    Lemke, Isgard
    Liira, Jaan
    Naaf, Tobias
    Verheyen, Kris
    Wulf, Monika
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Where does the community start, and where does it end? Including the seed bank to reassess forest herb layer responses to the environment2017In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 424-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    QuestionBelow-ground processes are key determinants of above-ground plant population and community dynamics. Still, our understanding of how environmental drivers shape plant communities is mostly based on above-ground diversity patterns, bypassing below-ground plant diversity stored in seed banks. As seed banks may shape above-ground plant communities, we question whether concurrently analysing the above- and below-ground species assemblages may potentially enhance our understanding of community responses to environmental variation. LocationTemperate deciduous forests along a 2000km latitudinal gradient in NW Europe. MethodsHerb layer, seed bank and local environmental data including soil pH, canopy cover, forest cover continuity and time since last canopy disturbance were collected in 129 temperate deciduous forest plots. We quantified herb layer and seed bank diversity per plot and evaluated how environmental variation structured community diversity in the herb layer, seed bank and the combined herb layer-seed bank community. ResultsSeed banks consistently held more plant species than the herb layer. How local plot diversity was partitioned across the herb layer and seed bank was mediated by environmental variation in drivers serving as proxies of light availability. The herb layer and seed bank contained an ever smaller and ever larger share of local diversity, respectively, as both canopy cover and time since last canopy disturbance decreased. Species richness and -diversity of the combined herb layer-seed bank community responded distinctly differently compared to the separate assemblages in response to environmental variation in, e.g. forest cover continuity and canopy cover. ConclusionsThe seed bank is a below-ground diversity reservoir of the herbaceous forest community, which interacts with the herb layer, although constrained by environmental variation in e.g. light availability. The herb layer and seed bank co-exist as a single community by means of the so-called storage effect, resulting in distinct responses to environmental variation not necessarily recorded in the individual herb layer or seed bank assemblages. Thus, concurrently analysing above- and below-ground diversity will improve our ecological understanding of how understorey plant communities respond to environmental variation.

  • 220.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Hermy, Martin
    Consistent seed bank spatial structure across semi natural habitats determines plot sampling2012In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 505-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Seed bank sampling remains a critical bottleneck to the quality of studies investigating community patterns in the seed bank. The main cause is a large knowledge gap in two aspects critical to sampling, i. e. spatial autocorrelation and species-area relations. The central question of this study is howthe seed bank of a single plot should be sampled, in order to obtain more precise estimates on plot seed bank characteristics, without resorting to a disproportionate investment of available resources. Similar seed bank samples may then enable better plot-based statistical inference of ecological patterns in the seed bank in community ecology studies. Location: Semi-natural habitats in Flanders (Belgium) and northern France. Methods: We investigated the fine-scale spatial structure of individual seed banking species across 12 2.1 m 9 2.1 m plots in three widespread habitats: temperate forest, grassland and heathland. Soil core samples (128) were collected in each plot, using a combined systematic (64) and random design (64). This enabled both geostatistical analyses of the fine-scale spatial structure of individual species-plot combinations as well as the calculation of sampled-based species rarefaction curves. Results: Fine-scale (i. e. within plot) spatial seed bank structure was detected in all plots in each habitat, in at least one or usually more plant species. Over half of the species records displayed significant spatial structure -visible as a random distribution of seed clusters -with medium to strong spatial dependence between point observations of a species of ca. 30 cm. Species rarefaction curves did not attain an asymptote at the actual sampling intensity of 128 samples. Seven out of 12 extrapolated species rarefaction curves did reach an asymptote in less than 384 samples. Conclusions: Using these consistent results in spatial structure and species-area relations across habitats, we present a method of how researchers can develop a tailor-made seed bank design to accommodate their individual needs, abiding by simple predefined boundaries. When the tailored design samples ca. 3% of a plot surface area along a systematic grid with a mesh width of at least 30 cm, these studies will potentially significantly increase the comparability among future seed bank community studies in semi-natural habitats.

  • 221. Pope, John G.
    et al.
    Bartolino, Valerio
    Kulatska, Nataliia
    Bauer, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Horbowy, Jan
    Ribeiro, Joana P. C.
    Sturludottir, Erla
    Thorpe, Robert
    Comparing the steady state results of a range of multispecies models between and across geographical areas by the use of the jacobian matrix of yield on fishing mortality rate2019In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 209, p. 259-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like other fisheries models, multispecies models are subject to various sources of error. However, with regard to their use for ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) between model errors are likely to be most important. As multispecies models are by definition many-dimensional, comparing them is potentially a complex task. The paper uses a simple approach. This is to calculate the Jacobian matrix of long term steady state catch by species with respect to the fishing mortality relative to status quo levels on all species. This enables the comparison of the relative strength of species interactions among models both within and between regions. This Jacobian matrix approach to comparing multispecies models is applied to available models for the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and from Icelandic waters. Moreover, this information is used to provide the basis for estimating a multidimensional quadratic yield surface for each model in the near field. Used this way it is possible to compare different model estimations of fishing mortality rate changes needed to approach yield-related management goals. The results suggest considerable variation between models in their detailed results but more coherence in suggesting directions for changing fishing mortality rate. Thus the approach is of considerable importance in specifying the confidence with which it is possible to make multispecies predictions for EBFM.

  • 222. Porter, John R.
    et al.
    Dyball, Robert
    Dumaresq, David
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Australian National University, Australia.
    Matsuda, Hirotaka
    Feeding capitals: Urban food security and self-provisioning in Canberra, Copenhagen and Tokyo2014In: Global Food Security, ISSN 2211-9124, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people live in cities, but most food system studies and food security issues focus on the rural poor. Urban populations differ from rural populations in their food consumption by being generally wealthier, requiring food trade for their food security, defined as the extent to which people have adequate diets. Cities rarely have the self-provisioning capacity to satisfy their own food supply, understood as the extent to which the food consumed by the city's population is produced from the city's local agro-ecosystems. Almost inevitably, a city's food security is augmented by production from remote landscapes, both internal and external in terms of a state's jurisdiction. We reveal the internal and external food flows necessary for the food security of three wealthy capital cities (Canberra, Australia; Copenhagen, Denmark; Tokyo, Japan). These cities cover two orders of magnitude in population size and three orders of magnitude in population density. From traded volumes of food and their sources into the cities, we calculate the productivity of the city's regional and non-regional ecosystems that provide food for these cities and estimate the overall utilised land area. The three cities exhibit differing degrees of food self provisioning capacity and exhibit large differences in the areas on which they depend to provide their food. We show that, since 1965, global land area effectively imported to produce food for these cities has increased with their expanding populations, with large reductions in the percentage of demand met by local agro-ecosystems. The physical trading of food commodities embodies ecosystem services, such as water, soil fertility and pollination that are required for land-based food production. This means that the trade in these embodied ecosystem services has become as important for food security as traditional economic mechanisms such as market access and trade. A future policy question, raised by our study, is the degree to which governments will remain committed to open food trade policies in the face of national political unrest caused by food shortages. Our study demonstrates the need to determine the food security and self-provisioning capacity of a wide range of rich and poor cities, taking into account the global location of the ecosystems that are provisioning them.

  • 223. Purcell, Steven W.
    et al.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Lalavanua, Watisoni
    Eriksson, Hampus
    Distribution of economic returns in small-scale fisheries for international markets: A value-chain analysis2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 86, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fishers are often believed to receive marginal earnings for seafood relative to other value-chain actors but proportionate incomes across different traded species are rarely compared. This study compares value chains for 15 species of sea cucumbers between Fiji and Kiribati using data collected on sale prices of dried products (beche-de-mer) from fishers to middlemen and exporters, export prices and market retail prices in China. Pacific islanders comprised almost all fishers, but represented only some middlemen and few exporters. Proportional increases in prices along the value chains differed greatly among sea cucumber species and between countries. Fishers' earnings varied greatly among species. The relative share of the end market value they received was negatively related to product end-market value; on average 50% of the end retail value for the lowest-value species but < 10% for the highest-value species. Most fishers lacked information about market prices. The gross markup of exporters differed greatly between the two countries. Downstream actors reaped increasingly higher proportions of the product value for higher value species. Variation in sale prices between countries and fishers for the same product indicates a potential for higher earnings to fishers. Improved transparency of prices to fishers could empower them to negotiate higher prices, especially for more valuable species. Upgrading of value-chain governance, e.g. through fisher cooperatives or auction systems, could improve efficiency and fisher incomes, potentially reducing the need for high fishing rates. Such interventions will benefit from understanding the value-chain patterns among different species harvested in multispecies fisheries.

  • 224.
    Qazi, Mousumi Rahman
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Nelson, Buck Dean
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    DePierre, Joseph W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    High-dose dietary exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoate or perfluorooctane sulfonate exerts toxic effects on myeloid and B-lymphoid cells in the bone marrow and these effects are partially dependent on reduced food Consumption2012In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 50, no 9, p. 2955-2963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exerts adverse effects on the thymus and spleen. Here, we characterize the effects of a 10-day dietary treatment with these compounds (0.001-0.02%, w/w) on the bone marrow (BM) of mice. At a dose of 0.02%, both compounds reduced food consumption and caused atrophy of the thymus and spleen. At this same dose, histopathological and flow cytometric analysis revealed that (i) the total numbers of BM as well as the numbers of myeloid, pro/pre B, immature B and early mature B cells were all reduced significantly; and (ii) these adverse effects were reversed either partially or completely 10 days after withdrawal of these compounds. At the lower dose of 0.002%, only PFOA reduced the B-lymphoid cell population. Finally, mice fed an amount of diet equivalent to that consumed by the animals exposed to 0.02% PFOA also exhibited atrophy of the thymus and spleen, and a reduction in the number of B-lymphoid population, without affecting myeloid cells. Thus, in mice, immunotoxic doses of PFOA or PFOS induce adverse effects on the myeloid and B-lymphoid cells in the BM, in part as a consequence of reduced food consumption.

  • 225.
    Quin, Andrew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Water Centre for Innovation, Sweden.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Large-scale comparison of flow-variability dampening by lakes and wetlands in the landscape2018In: Land Degradation and Development, ISSN 1085-3278, E-ISSN 1099-145X, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 3617-3627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the potential of wetlands to dampen temporal variability of water flow through the landscape, they are increasingly considered as possible nature-based solutions to mitigate risks of flooding and drought. In this study, we investigate flow variability by means of a flow dampening factor and use observation data from 1984 to 2013 for 82 Swedish catchments to statistically and comparatively analyze the large-scale effects on this factor of multiple wetlands and lakes in the landscape. The results show good correlation between large-scale flow dampening and relative area of lakes and floodplain wetlands within a catchment. An increase in relative area up to around 15% for lakes and 0.5% for floodplain wetlands lowers the temporal standard deviation of runoff (R) to around 10%-15% of that for precipitation (P), compared with a common flow-variability dampening of around 35% for catchments with lake-wetland area close to zero. Further increase in these relative areas, or in those of wetland types other than floodplain wetlands, has little or no flow dampening effect. The results indicate that the large-scale flow dampening effect of lakes and floodplain wetlands is mainly due to their water-storage capacity and less due to their possible effects on the partitioning of P between R and evapotranspiration. Overall, the results emphasize the importance of accounting for the problem scale and relative water-storage capacity of wetlands when considering their large-scale efficiency as possible nature-based solutions for large-scale flow-variability regulation in whole catchments.

  • 226. Ranlund, Åsa
    et al.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Johansson, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    Nordin, Ulrika
    Gustafsson, Lena
    Epiphytic lichen responses to environmental change due to clear-cutting differ among tree taxa2018In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1065-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question Many species-rich communities are associated with a foundation species. While we often have detailed information about the foundation species, we know less about its associated species. We explore such a situation, comparing the responses of lichen species associated with different tree taxa, which differ in successional strategy, to the environmental change that takes place when the surrounding trees are clear-cut. Location Boreal forests in Sweden. Methods We illustrated general differences in lichen species composition among four tree taxa and three stand categories using ordination of species occurrences. To analyse responses to clear-cutting we modelled the occurrence probability individually for 144 epiphytic lichen species from the lower 2 m of 2,400 tree trunks of four tree taxa in 130 stands, and compared trees in closed-canopy forests with those retained in logged stands, using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results The composition of lichens on aspen trees deviated clearly from that on the other tree species. Also lichen responses to logging differed among main host tree taxa, where lichen species associated with birches, European aspen, and Scots pine increased in probability of occurrence on trees in logged areas compared to intact forest, while lichen species associated with Norway spruce decreased. We found that time lags for changes in occupancy existed primarily in the increase, but not in the decline, of the groups of lichens associated with different tree taxa. Conclusions Lichens associated with different tree taxa vary in their response to the environmental change brought about by logging, but in a way that differs from the differences in species composition among host trees. Our results highlight the importance of considering the taxa of trees in forest management for the conservation of their associated lichen species. The extent to which the ecology of foundation species influences their associated species merits further inquiry, since such knowledge may facilitate predictions of responses of associated species also in other species-rich communities.

  • 227.
    Resare Sahlin, Kajsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Delicious Sustainability?: Synergies and goal conflicts between eating quality and environmental sustainability in Swedish beef production2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Improved production and reduced consumption of beef is often highlighted as key aspects for tackling sustainability issues of the food system because the environmental impact of beef is ~100 times higher than plant-based foods. Both scientist and civil society organisations argue that eating “less but better” beef is important for sustainability. Better quality can encompass better eating quality as well as improved sustainability, but despite the two being very important for overall quality, very little research on interactions between them exists. No tools, applicable in Sweden, allowing for joint assessment have been developed. This study investigates the synergies and trade-offs between eating quality and environmental sustainability by using Swedish beef production as a case study. It reviews peer reviewed literature on factors that contribute to eating quality (flavour, tenderness and juiciness), and four factors that contribute to environmental sustainability (climate, biodiversity, feed/food competition and animal welfare). Based on the findings, an indicator-based sustainability assessment framework and a meat quality grading scheme differentiating Premium and Standard eating quality is developed, aimed to be practical tools for Swedish beef assessments. The study provides a systems-based understanding of synergies and trade-offs that may occur when “less but better” is presented as a strategy for tackling the environmental impact of beef. Results show that there are synergies between eating quality and biodiversity, animal welfare and with the right choices of feed, feed/food competition but with consequent trade-offs with climate impact. The discussion addresses the potential of enhanced eating quality to increase the profitability of Swedish beef production without consequent substantial negative impact on sustainability. The suggested methods have the potential to facilitate a shift from quantity- to quality-based consumption, but further empirical studies are required.

  • 228. Robertson-Andersson, Deborah V.
    et al.
    Potgieter, Michelle
    Hansen, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Bolton, John J.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Anderson, Robert J.
    Halling, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Probyn, Trevor
    Integrated seaweed cultivation on an abalone farm in South Africa2008In: Journal of Applied Phycology, ISSN 0921-8971, E-ISSN 1573-5176, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 579-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-based abalone aquaculture in South Africa, based on the local species Haliotis midae, started in the early 1990s and has grown rapidly in the last decade, with 13 commercial farms now producing over 850 t per annum. Over 6,000 t per annum of kelp Ecklonia maxima are now harvested for this purpose, and some kelp beds are reaching maximum sustainable limits. Research into seaweed aquacultureas feed (Ulva and some Gracilaria) for abalone started in the late 1990s on the southeast coast (where thereare no kelp beds) using abalone waste water. A growing body of evidence suggests that a mixed diet of kelp plus other seaweeds can give growth rates at least as good ascompound feed, and can improve abalone quality and reduce parasite loads. A pilot scale Ulva lactuca and abalone integrated recirculation unit using 25% recirculation was designed and built on the south west coast of South Africa using one 12,000-L abalone tank containing 13,200 15±2.5 g abalone, connected to two 3,000-L seaweed tanks containing an initial starting biomass of 10 kg of seaweed, replicated 3 times. In an 18-month period, there were no significant differences in abalone health or growth rates, sediment build up and composition, mobile macro fauna densities and species between the recirculation or the flowthroug hunits. Transfer of oxygen generated by the seaweeds to the abalone tanks was poor, resulting in the recirculated abalone tanks having lower (33%) dissolved oxygen concentrations than a comparable flow-through abalone unit. Seaweed nutrient content and specific growth rates in the units were comparable to seaweeds cultivated in fertilized effluent (SGR=3.2±3.4%.day−1; Yield=0.2±0.19 kg.m2.day−1). Indications were that at this low recirculation ratio the seaweeds in the units were nutrient limited and that there were no negative effects to the abalone being cultivated insuch a recirculation unit at this recirculation ratio.

  • 229. Rodrigues, Leonor
    et al.
    Lombardo, Umberto
    Fehr, Seraina
    Preusser, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Veit, Heinz
    Pre-Columbian agriculture in the Bolivian Lowlands: Construction history and management of raised fields in Bermeo2015In: Catena (Cremlingen. Print), ISSN 0341-8162, E-ISSN 1872-6887, Vol. 132, p. 126-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent archaeological research suggests that some parts of the Amazon Basin were significantly modified by pre-Columbian populations. One of the most impressive examples of such transformations is the raised fields of south-western Amazonia, in the Llanos de Moxos in the Bolivian Lowlands. Despite a growing interest in raised field agriculture, due to the important role it seems to have played in the development of pre-Columbian complex societies, very few field-based investigations have been performed in the Amazon Basin. As a result, there is limited knowledge of how these fields were constructed, managed and within which time-frame they were in use. This study provides a new interpretation of how pre-Columbian raised fields were managed and a chronological sequence of their utilisation and eventual abandonment. Fieldwork was carried out in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos, where some of the best preserved fields in the Llanos Moxos are found. Magnetic susceptibility and the geochemistry of the sediments, combined with radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating, show that the raised fields were in intermittent use since as early as AD 570-770. The original surface on which the fields were built and distinct periods of construction and use have been identified. The data suggests that raised fields were built during a few separate construction events, probably linked to periods of more frequent and severe floods. The study challenges the most widely accepted theory that suggests that pre-Columbians were able to cultivate these fields on a continuous basis by transferring nutrient-rich sediments from the canals to the fields. We conclude that pre-Columbians built raised fields to overcome periods of increased flooding, with the main objective of improving drainage.

  • 230. Rosenstock, Nicholas P.
    et al.
    Stendahl, Johan
    van der Heijden, Gregory Alexander
    Lundin, Lars
    Mcgivney, Eric
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Base cations in the soil bank: non-exchangeable pools may sustain centuries of net loss to forestry and leaching2019In: Soil, ISSN 2199-3971, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 351-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurately quantifying soil base cation pool sizes is essential to interpreting the sustainability of forest harvests from element mass-balance studies. The soil-exchangeable pool is classically viewed as the bank of available base cations in the soil, withdrawn upon by plant uptake and leaching and refilled by litter decomposition, atmospheric deposition and mineral weathering. The operational definition of this soil bank as the exchangeable (salt-extractable) pools ignores the potential role of other soil nutrient pools, including microbial biomass, clay interlayer absorbed elements, and calcium oxalate. These pools can be large relative to exchangeable pools. Thus neglecting these other pools in studies examining the sustainability of biomass extractions, or need for nutrient return, limits our ability to gauge the threat or risk of unsustainable biomass removals. We examine a set of chemical extraction data from a mature Norway spruce forest in central Sweden and compare this dataset to ecosystem flux data gathered from the site in previous research. The 0.2 M HCl extraction released large pools of Ca, K, Mg, and Na, considerably larger than the exchangeable pools. Where net losses of base cations are predicted from biomass harvest, exchangeable pools may not be sufficient to support more than a single 65-year forest rotation, but acid-extractable pools are sufficient to support many rotations of net-ecosystem losses. We examine elemental ratios, soil clay and carbon contents, and pool depth trends to identify the likely origin of the HCl-extractable pool. No single candidate compound class emerges, as very strongly supported by the data, as being the major constituent of the HCl-extractable fraction. A combination of microbial biomass, fine grain, potentially shielded, easily weatherable minerals, and non-structural clay interlayer bound potassium may explain the size and distribution of the acid-extractable base cation pool. Sequential extraction techniques and isotope-exchange measurements should be further developed and, if possible, complemented with spectroscopic techniques to illuminate the identity of and flux rates through these important, and commonly overlooked, nutrient pools.

  • 231.
    Roufidou, Chrysoula
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Borg, Bertil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ovarian fluid in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus: effects of egg overripening and sex steroid treatment2019In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 446-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ovarian fluid properties of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus were studied in overripe and non-overripe ovulated female sticklebacks and in females that were implanted with Silastic capsules containing testosterone (T), oestradiol (E2), 17,20-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20-P) or progesterone (P4) into the abdominal cavity. Overripe females had less ovarian fluid than non-overripe females, but with higher dry mass, higher protein concentration and lower viscosity. T and 17,20-P increased the amount of ovarian fluid and the fluid protein concentration was increased by 17,20-P. 1-D sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that ovarian fluid contains several proteins, with high individual variability but with no consistent differences between groups. Some of the ovarian fluid proteins appeared to correspond to proteins from the eggs. The results suggest that secretion of ovarian fluid may be influenced by steroid hormones and that changes in its properties are related to the overripening of ovulated eggs. In at least some respects it appears that the changes in the ovarian fluid is a result, rather than the cause of overripening.

  • 232.
    Roufidou, Chrysoula
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Feidantsis, Konstantinos
    Mente, Eleni
    Sarropoulou, Elena
    Antonopoulou, Efthimia
    Heat shock protein (HSP) expression and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation during early embryonic developmental stages of the Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)2018In: Mediterranean Marine Science, ISSN 1108-393X, E-ISSN 1791-6763, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 240-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both heat shock proteins (HSPs), which have key roles in vital cell functions, as well as members of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which adjust gene expression by transducing cellular signals to the nucleus, are necessary for normal embryonic development in vertebrates. Therefore, protein expression levels of HSP70 and HSP90 and the activation of members of the MAPK protein family, such as p38 MAPK, ERKs, and JNKs were studied in the early developmental stages of the Gilthead sea bream, Spams aurata Linnaeus, 1758. The protein expression of HSP70 and the phosphorylation ratio of JNKs remained at equal levels at all examined developmental stages, while the other examined proteins exhibited a differential profile. HSP90 levels were mostly increased at the 16-cell stage and towards the morula stages, and the lowest values were observed at the two- to four-cell and one-half epiboly stages. While p38 MAPK phosphorylation ratio exhibited increased values mostly in the early developmental stages, the opposite was observed concerning ERK phosphorylation ratio, where increased values were observed in the later embryonic stages (high blastula to one-half epiboly stages). These differential profiles of the examined protein expression levels highlight the importance of these proteins during embryogenesis and pave the way for further research to unveil their distinct role in early development.

  • 233.
    Rowiński, Piotr K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mateos-Gonzalez, F.
    Sandblom, E.
    Jutfelt, F.
    Ekström, A.
    Sundström, L. F.
    Warming alters the body shape of European perch Perca fluviatilis2015In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 87, no 5, p. 1234-1247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consequences of elevated temperature on body shape were investigated by comparing European perch Perca fluviatilis from the Forsmark area of the Baltic Sea to P. fluviatilis from a nearby Biotest enclosure. The Biotest is a man-made enclosure within the Baltic Sea that has received warm water from a nuclear power plant since 1980, resulting in temperatures that are elevated 5-10 degrees C relative to the surrounding Baltic Sea. Sampled fish ranged from young-of-the-year to 14years. Geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistical analysis revealed significant morphological differences between individuals of P. fluviatilis from these two habitats. Most importantly, relative shape changed with size, with small individuals of P. fluviatilis from Biotest being characterized by a deeper body shape and a larger caudal peduncle than the smaller Baltic individuals. In large specimens, smaller differences were found with Biotest individuals being more slender than Baltic individuals. These results show that, in order to have a full understanding of the biological effects of elevated temperatures, studies that cover the entire size range of organisms will be important. Apart from the direct influence of temperature on growth rate and body shape, other ecological factors affected by temperature are discussed as possible contributors to the observed differences between the two populations.

  • 234.
    Runefelt, Leif
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Inledning2008In: Svensk mosskultur: Odling, torvanvändning och landskapets förändring 1750-2000, 2008, p. 11-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Runefelt, Leif
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Mosskultur i Europa 1870-19452008In: Svensk mosskultur: Odling, torvanvändning och landskapets förändring 1750-2000, k. Skogs- och lantbruksakademien , 2008, p. 273-304Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Runefelt, Leif
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Svensk mosskultur: odling, torvanvändning och landskapets förändring 1750-20002010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book contains all you ever wanted to know about Swedish moor cultivation. If you're interested in the subject, this is the only possible startingpoint.

  • 237.
    Runefelt, Leif
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Svensk mosskultur som överhetsprojekt före 18862008In: Svensk mosskultur: Odling, torvanvändning och landskapets förändring 1750-2000, 2008, p. 27-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Runefelt, Leif
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Svenska Mosskulturföreningen 1886-19392008In: Svensk mosskultur: Odling, torvanvändning och landskapets förändring 1750-2000, k. Skogs- och lantbruksakademien , 2008, p. 53-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Runefelt, Leif
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Torvbubblan 1900-19252008In: Svensk mosskultur: Odling, torvanvändning och landskapets förändring 1750-2000, k. Skogs- och lantbruksakademien , 2008, p. 329-357Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 240.
    Samnegård, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Eardley, Connal
    Nemomissa, Sileshi
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Turnover in bee species composition and functional trait distributions between seasons in a tropical agricultural landscape2015In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 211, p. 185-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive understanding of how spatial variation across landscapes regulates local abundances and species richness also needs to consider possible temporal changes in such relationships. In many tropical areas, the contrast between dry and rainy season is pronounced and the types and distributions of the main floral resources differ (herbs vs trees). This shift in resources could result in different pollinator abundances, species richness and trait compositions between seasons, as well as in how these components are spatially distributed. We compared the bee species composition between dry and rainy season in an agricultural mosaic landscape in southwestern Ethiopia, and analyzed it in relation to forest cover. We sampled bees for 67 days in the dry season and 86 days in the rainy season with pan and vane traps in 28 homegardens covering a gradient from low to high tree cover in the surrounding area. We found a clear shift in species composition between seasons, with more small bee species and more below-ground nesting bees in the rainy season compared to the dry season. The distribution of height at which the bees were foraging shifted between seasons with a higher proportion of the bees foraging at tree level in the dry season. Bee abundance and richness were generally positively affected by higher forest cover surrounding the homegardens, but there were no clear interaction effects between seasons, in contrast to our hypothesis. The clear turnover in species composition between seasons and the positive effect of forest cover show that mechanisms acting both at spatial and temporal scales are important in regulating local bee communities.

  • 241.
    Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Export Banana production systems in Costa Rica: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable productionIn: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green revolution technologies transformed agricultural production. Large-scale, monocropped systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides have become the norm for export crop production. This production system, while increasing yields, has deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates the level of variation in production practices for export banana production inCosta Rica, in order to identify pioneering producers, who have managed to transform production practices to reduce agrochemical use. Thirty-nine banana producers were interviewed. Correspondence analysis showed that there is not structured variation in export banana producers’ practices, but two other banana production systems identified produce bananas for processing and for the national market: an organic production system and a coffee-banana intercropped system. Although they target different markets, systems level research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  • 242. Santoro, Maurizio
    et al.
    Beaudoin, Andre
    Beer, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Cartus, Oliver
    Fransson, Johan B. S.
    Hall, Ronald J.
    Pathe, Carsten
    Schmullius, Christiane
    Schepaschenko, Dmitry
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Thurner, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany.
    Wegmueller, Urs
    Forest growing stock volume of the northern hemisphere: Spatially explicit estimates for 2010 derived from Envisat ASAR2015In: Remote Sensing of Environment, ISSN 0034-4257, E-ISSN 1879-0704, Vol. 168, p. 316-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and assesses spatially explicit estimates of forest growing stock volume (GSV) of the northern hemisphere (north of 10 degrees N) from hyper-temporal observations of Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) backscattered intensity using the BIOMASAR algorithm. Approximately 70,000 ASAR images at a pixel size of 0.01 degrees were used to estimate GSV representative for the year 2010. The spatial distribution of the GSV across four ecological zones (polar, boreal, temperate, subtropical) was well captured by the ASAR-based estimates. The uncertainty of the retrieved GSV was smallest in boreal and temperate forest (<30% for approximately 80% of the forest area) and largest in subtropical forest. ASAR-derived GSV averages at the level of administrative units were mostly in agreement with inventory-derived estimates. Underestimation occurred in regions of very high GSV (>300 m(3)/ha) and fragmented forest landscapes. For the major forested countries within the study region, the relative RMSE between ASAR-derived GSV averages at provincial level and corresponding values from National Forest Inventory was between 12% and 45% (average: 29%).

  • 243. Scander, Henrik
    et al.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Nilsen, Bente
    Tellström, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Food and beverage dinner combinations, patterns among Swedish adults2018In: International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, ISSN 1878-450X, E-ISSN 1878-4518, Vol. 14, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Since the taste preferences of food and beverage combinations are considered subjective properties and have been studied in several different ways, mainly within the field of sensory science, this study contributes to the field of food and beverage combination studies by using self-reported eating habits.

    Objective: This article explores the relationships between food and beverage combinations, recorded by a Swedish adult population.

    Method: Analyses were made using data from the national dietary survey, Riksmaten (2010-2011), performed by the Swedish National Food Agency. A total of 1753 Swedish adults (53% women) aged 18-80 contributed dietary intake data during four consecutive days. All dinner choices were categorized into beverage categories and food categories. Combinations between beverage and food categories were analyzed by using cross tabulation. Correlation coefficients for non-parametric variables were used to determine the association power. Predictive factors for more important beverage and food combinations were explored by logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Water was the most frequent choice in combination with all food categories. The results also showed that alcoholic beverages are present in two of the three strongest food and beverage correlations, the spirits drinks and white wine. The most important predictive factors were where the dinner took place for non-alcoholic combinations (OR: 4.33; 95% CI: 2.28-8.21) and age and employment for alcoholic combinations (OR > 2; p < 0.05).

    Conclusion: Our results show correlations in reported consumption of food and beverage, which explain the occurrences of specific patterns of combinations of food and beverage. More studies on choice of beverage are needed to describe the patterns of intake, in order to understand the mechanisms behind beverage choice, in different settings, cultural situations and lifestyle backgrounds. Combinations in everyday life are described here and these are not always so sophisticated, rather building on availability than on optimal taste combinations. Our findings can offer an understanding of some common every-day choices to culinary professionals, useful for their guidance of food and beverage pairing, to enhance restaurant experiences.

  • 244.
    Schlyter, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Stjernquist, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Regulatory challenges and forest governance in Sweden2010In: Environmental Politics and Deliberative Democracy: Examining the Promise of New Modes of Governance / [ed] Bäckstrand, K., Khan, J., Kronsell, A. & Lövbrand E., Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar , 2010, p. 180-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 245. Schmidt, Hans Peter
    et al.
    Pandit, Bishnu Hari
    Martinsen, Vegard
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway; Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway.
    Conte, Pellegrino
    Kammann, Claudia I.
    Fourfold Increase in Pumpkin Yield in Response to Low-Dosage Root Zone Application of Urine-Enhanced Biochar to a Fertile Tropical Soil2015In: Agriculture (Basel), ISSN 2077-0472, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 723-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A widely abundant and invasive forest shrub, Eupatorium adenophorum, was pyrolyzed in a cost- efficient flame curtain kiln to produce biochar. The resulting biochar fulfilled all the requirements for premium quality, according to the European Biochar Certificate. The biochar was either applied alone or mixed with fresh cow urine ( 1: 1 volume) to test its capacity to serve as slow release fertilizer in a pumpkin field trial in Nepal. Treatments included cow- manure compost combined with ( i) urine- only; ( ii) biochar- only or ( iii) urine- loaded biochar. All materials were applied directly to the root zone at a biochar dry matter content of 750 kg . ha- 1 before seeding. The urine- biochar treatment led to a pumpkin yield of 82.6 t . ha- 1, an increase of more than 300% compared with the treatment where only urine was applied, and an 85% increase compared with the biochar- only treatment. This study showed for the first time that a low- dosage root zone application of urine- enhanced biochar led to substantial yield increases in a fertile silt loam soil. This was tentatively explained by the formation of organic coating of inner pore biochar surfaces by the urine impregnation, which improved the capacity of the biochar to capture and exchange plant nutrients.

  • 246.
    Seibert, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Sørensen, Rasmus
    Topographical influences on soil properties in boreal forests2007In: Geoderma, Vol. 141, no 1-2, p. 139-148Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 247. Shepon, Alon
    et al.
    Henriksson, Patrik John Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Malaysia; The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Wu, Tong
    Conceptualizing a Sustainable Food System in an Automated World: Toward a Eudaimonian Future2018In: Frontiers in nutrition, ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 5, article id 104Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrialized world has entered a new era of widespread automation, and although this may create long-term gains in economic productivity and wealth accumulation, many professions are expected to disappear during the ensuing shift, leading to potentially significant disruptions in labor markets and associated socioeconomic difficulties. Food production, like many other industrial sectors, has also undergone a century of mechanization, having moved toward increasingly large-scale monoculture production-especially in developed economies-with higher yields but detrimental environmental impacts on a global scale. Certain characteristics of the food sector and its products cast doubts on whether future automation will influence it in the same ways as in other sectors. We conceptualize a model of future food production within the socioeconomic conditions created by widespread automation. We ideate that despite immediate shocks to the economy, in the long run higher productivity can free up human activity to be channeled toward more interactive, skill-intensive food production systems, where communal efforts can reduce industrial reliance, diversify farming, and reconnect people to the biosphere-a realization of human well-being that resembles the classical philosophical ideal of Eudaimonia. We explore food production concepts, such as communal gardens and polyculture, and the economic conditions and institutions needed to underwrite them [e.g., a universal basic income (UBI)]. However, arguments can be raised as to why social-ecological systems would benefit from more labor-intensive food production. In this paper we: (1) discuss the current state of the food system and the need to reform it in light of its environmental and social impacts; (2) present automation as a lever that could move society toward more sustainable food production; (3) highlight the beneficial attributes of a Eudaimonian model; and (4) discuss the potential challenges to its implementation. Our purpose is to highlight a possible outcome that future research will need to refine and expand based on evidence and successful case studies. The ultimate aim is to promote a food system that can provide food security while staying within the safe operating space of planetary boundaries, produce more nutritious diets, enhance social capital, and reconnect communities with the biosphere.

  • 248.
    Sigurjónsdóttir, Hrefna
    et al.
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Thorhallsdottir, Anna G.
    Bioforsk Ost, Norway; The Agricultural University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Hafthorsdottir, Helga M.
    The Agricultural University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Granquist, Sandra
    Institute of Freshwater Fisheries and The Icelandic Seal Center, Iceland.
    The Behaviour of Stallions in a Semiferal Herd in Iceland: Time Budgets, Home Ranges, and Interactions2012In: International Journal of Zoology, ISSN 1687-8477, E-ISSN 1687-8485, article id 162982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent herd of Icelandic horses with four stallions and their harems was studied for a total of 316 hours in a large pasture (215 ha) inMay 2007 in Iceland. Interactions between stallions of different harems and other aspects of the horses’ behaviour were studied. One stallion and nine horses were introduced into the pasture prior to the study to examine the reactions of the resident stallions to a newcomer. The stallions spent significantly less time grazing than other horses and were more vigilant. Home ranges overlapped, but harems never mixed. The stallions prevented interactions between members of different harems indirectly by herding. Generally, interactions between resident stallions were nonviolent. However, encounters with the introduced stallion were more aggressive and more frequent than between the other stallions. Here, we show that four harems can share the same enclosure peacefully. The social network seems to keep aggression at a low level both within the harems and the herd as a whole. We encourage horse owners to consider the feasibility of keeping their horses in large groups because of low aggression and because such a strategy gives the young horses good opportunities to develop normally, both physically and socially.

  • 249.
    Sjöberg, Niklas B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wickström, Håkan
    Asp, Anders
    Petersson, Erik
    Migration of eels tagged in the Baltic Sea and Lake Malarenin the context of the stocking question2017In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 517-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eels (Anguilla spp.) are in decline worldwide, and the signs of reduced recruitment have been observed in continental Europe since the early 1970s. To aid recovery of the European eel, stocking is used by many European countries as a management option. In this study, tagging experiments were conducted to follow eel migration from Lake Malaren and four sites along the Swedish east coast in the Baltic Sea. The recaptured tagged eels were retrieved from fishermen, allowing for the opportunity to investigate their origin (brackish water, stocked in freshwater or a mix in between) by otolith microchemistry and to assess for morphological differences after tagging. Several changes took place; for example, eye index increased while weight and condition decreased with migrated distance and time until recapture. In Lake Malaren, the majority of tagged eels did not migrate out of the outlets, irrespective of their origin. Most of them were caught in the opposite direction and continued to be caught in the lake 1-3years after tagging, with significant weight losses. Overall, overwintering is suggested to be an inferior option, but it is uncertain whether this is a natural behaviour or a result of translocation and restocking. For coastal eels, origin had no effect on migratory behaviour; a majority of the tagged eels migrated towards the outlet of the Baltic Sea. Interestingly, a minority of the recaptured eels originated from stocked fish. Instead, recaptures were dominated by natural immigrants that had spent most of their lives in brackish waters.

  • 250.
    Skånes, Helle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Andersson, Anna
    Lantmäteriet i Luleå.
    Flygbildstolkningsmanual för Uppföljningsprojektet Natura 2000 version 4.0: UF 192010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppföljningsmanualen är indelad i fem kapitel.

    Kapitel 1.  Ger en kortfattad bakgrund som är gemensam för hela projektet och specifik för flygbildstolkningen.

    Kapitel 2.  Redovisar hur länsstyrelsen ska gå till väga för att på bästa sätt förbereda, planera och beställa uppföljning genom flygbildstolkning och vänder sig främst till länsstyrelsepersonalen. Flygbildstolkarna har god nytta av att känna till dessa rutiner för att på bästa sätt kunna utföra den beställda tolkningen. Här listas aktuella uppföljningsvariabler för denna manual samt ges en genomgång kring vilka naturtyper som finns föreslagna för uppföljning via flygbildstolkning i de olika uppföljningsmanualerna.

    Kapitel 3.  Vänder sig främst till flygbildstolkarna och redovisar rekommenderad arbetsgång för flygbildstolkning. Länsstyrelsen har god nytta av att känna till detta arbetssätt inför beställning och hantering av flygbildstolkade uppföljningsdata.

    Kapitel 4.  Går in på djupet kring de olika målindikatorer som kan beställas via flygbildstolkning och vänder sig främst till flygbildstolkarna. Länsstyrelsen har god nytta av att känna till detta arbetssätt inför såväl beställning som analys av flygbildstolkade uppföljningsdata.

    Kapitel 5.  Kort beskrivning av förfaranden kring leverans, kontroll och godkännande av flygbildstolkade data. Detta kapitel vänder sig till alla inblandade.

23456 201 - 250 of 288
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