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  • 201.
    Berg, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Birgitta Almgren, Dröm och verklighet: Stellan Arvidsson - kärleken, dikten politiken, Stockholm: Carlssons 20162018In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 588-590Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Berg, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Public health and persecution: Debates on the possible migration of Jewish physicians to Sweden from Nazi Germany2016In: Doctors Beyond Borders: The Transnational Migration of Physicians in the Twentieth Century / [ed] Laurence Monnais, David Wright, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Berg, Heléne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Vernby, Kåre
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Post-WWI military disarmament and interwar fascism in Sweden2019In: Historical Methods, ISSN 0161-5440, E-ISSN 1940-1906, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 37-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of anti-democratic movements is a central puzzle to social science. We study a novel and rich historical dataset covering Swedish municipalities during the interwar years and find a strong link between the presence of a military garrison and the emergence of fascist parties. We interpret these results as suggesting that fascist mobilization in Sweden was driven by discontent with the process of disarmament brought about by democratization. In contrast, poor economic conditions, as captured both by levels of and changes in the local poverty rate and tax base, do not explain the strong link between the fascists and military garrisons. We relate these results to influential theories of democratization.

  • 204.
    Berg, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Abu Simbel – ett kulturarv från det kalla kriget2019In: Medusa. Svensk tidsskrift för antiken, ISSN 0349-456X, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 24-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 205.
    Berg, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Athen mellan dåtid, nutid och framtid2013In: Hellenika, ISSN 0348-0100, no 145, p. 11-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 206.
    Berg, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Den Sundwallska korrespondensen2019In: Tidens landskap: En vänbok till Anders Andrén / [ed] Cecilia Ljung, Anna Andreasson Sjögren, Ingrid Berg, Elin Engström, Ann-Mari Hållans Stenholm, Kristina Jonsson, Alison Klevnäs, Linda Qviström, Torun Zachrisson, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2019, p. 269-271Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Berg, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Dumps and Ditches: Prisms of archaeological practice at Kalaureia in Greece2013In: Making cultural history: New prespectives on Western heritage / [ed] Anna Källén, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2013, p. 173-183Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Berg, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    "Fälttåg" och "kappsäckslif" - arkeologiska självbilder och borgerlig manlighet runt sekelskiftet 19002014In: Svensk antikforskning vid Medelhavet: Gustaf VI Adolf och fältarkeologi i historiskt perspektiv / [ed] Frederick Whitling, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2014, p. 40-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Berg, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Kalaureia 1894 - den första svenska utgrävningen i Grekland2012In: Hellenika, ISSN 0348-0100, no 142Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 210.
    Berg, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Kalaureia 1894: A Cultural History of the First Swedish Excavation in Greece2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The excavation of the Sanctuary of Poseidon at Kalaureia in 1894 marks the beginning of Swedish archaeological fieldwork in Greece. During a couple of hot summer months, two philologists from Uppsala University, Sam Wide (1861-1918) and Lennart Kjellberg (1857-1936), worked in the sanctuary together with the architect Sven Kristenson (1858-1937), the Greek foreman Pankalos and around twenty local workmen. In 1997, the Swedish Institute at Athens began new excavations at the sanctuary.

    This thesis examines the beginnings of Swedish fieldwork in Greece. Within the framework of a cultural history of archaeology, inspired by archaeological ethnography and the New Cultural History, it explores how archaeology functioned as a cultural practice in the late nineteenth century. A micro-historical methodology makes use of a wide array of different source material connected to the excavation of 1894, its prelude and aftermath.

    The thesis takes the theoretical position that the premises for archaeological knowledge production are outcomes of contemporary power structures and cultural politics. Through an analysis of how the archaeologists constructed their self-images through a set of idealized stereotypes of bourgeois masculinity, academic politics of belonging is highlighted. The politics of belonging existed also on a national level, where the Swedish archaeologists entered into a competition with other foreign actors to claim heritage sites in Greece. The idealization of classical Greece as a birthplace of Western values, in combination with contemporary colonial and racist cultural frameworks in Europe, created particular gazes through which the modern country was appropriated and judged. These factors all shaped the practices through which archaeological knowledge was created at Kalaureia.

    Some excavations tend to have extensive afterlives through the production of histories of archaeology. Therefore, this thesis also explores the representations of the 1894 excavation in the historiography of Swedish classical archaeology. It highlights the strategies by which the excavation at Kalaureia has served to legitimize further Swedish engagements in Greek archaeology, and explores the way in which historiography shapes our professional identities.

  • 211.
    Berg, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Kalaureia 1894: Nytt ljus över svensk arkeologihistoria i Grekland2012In: Att återupptäcka det glömda: Aktuell forskning om forntidens förflutna i Norden / [ed] Påvel Nicklasson, Bodil Petersson, Lund: Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens historia, Lunds universitet , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Berg, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Ny bokserie öppnar antikvetenskapernas "svarta låda"2017In: Medusa. Svensk tidsskrift för antiken, ISSN 0349-456X, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 43-44Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 213.
    Berg, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Ola Wolfhechel Jensen (ed.): Histories of Archaeological Practices: Reflections on Methods, Strategies and Social Organisation in Past Fieldwork2014In: Norwegian Archaeological Review, ISSN 0029-3652, E-ISSN 1502-7678, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 223-225Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 214.
    Berg, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Wongs anklagelser mot arkeologer absurda2017In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 4 oktoberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 215.
    Berg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Den privata staden?2006In: Nya stadsarkeologiska horisonter, Riksantikvarieämbetet, Stockholm , 2006, p. 318-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Berg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Enköping och dess närmaste omgivning under medeltiden i det skriftliga källmaterialet2019In: En stad växer fram : människor och bebyggelse i kvarteret Fältskären, Enköping 1050-1350: arkeologisk undersökning, RAÄ 26:1-2, Centrum 22:3-12, Enköpings socken och kommun, Uppsala län / [ed] Anna Lagerstedt, Upplands Väsby: Arkeologikonsult , 2019, p. 21-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Berg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Estates and peasants in 17th century Sweden: from an old debate towards a new view2007In: Bauern zwischen Herrschaft und Genossenschaft: Peasant relations to lords and government. Scandinavia and the Alpine region 1000-1750 / [ed] Tore Iversen, John Ragnar Myking, Gertrud Thoma, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2007, p. 219-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Berg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Estates or freeholders?: Aspect of land-owning structures in medieval Östergötland, eastern Sweden2005In: Land, lords and peasants: Peasants' right to control land in the Middle Ages and the Early modern period - Norway, Scandinavia and the Alpine region, Department of History and Calssical Studies, Trondheim , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Berg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Skänninge i landskapet2013In: Borgare, bönder och bröder: arkeologiska perspektiv på Skänninges äldre historia / [ed] Rikard Hedvall, Karin Lindeblad, Hanna Menander, Stockholm: Riksantikvarieämbetet, 2013, p. 19-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Berg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Stormannamiljöer och landskap2000In: En bok om Husbyar / [ed] Michael Olausson, Stockholm: Riksantikvarieämbetet, 2000, p. 151-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Berge, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Sjukvårdens underklass: Sjukvården i den kommunala fattigvården 1910-19502007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken är ett pionjärarbete om en sektor av enklare kropps- och sinnessjukvård, som till betydande del bedrevs i små sjukhus vid de kommunala fattigvårdsanstalterna. Den visar att staten saknade en effektiv kvalitetskontroll av den kommunala sjukvården under de tre första årtiondena av 1900-talet. Vissa kommunala sinnessjukhus motsvarade tidens normer, andra var undermåliga eller bedrev ren vanvård. Jämförelser görs också med motsvarande små sjukhus i landstingens eller enskild regi. Detta var en sjukvård på olika villkor där penningen eller bostadsorten bestämde vilken sorts vård man fick.

  • 222. Bergenheim, Sophy
    et al.
    Edman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Kananen, Johannes
    Wessel, Merle
    Conceptualising public health: An introduction2018In: Conceptualising Public Health: Historical and Contemporary Struggles over Key Concepts / [ed] Johannes Kananen, Sophy Bergenheim, Merle Wessel, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Bergerbrant, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. allmän arkeologi.
    Body, Sex and Gender – Constructing Appearance in Archaeology.1999In: Aktuell Arkeologi, ISSN 1101-3087, Vol. VII, p. 147-154Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Bergerbrant, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Bronze Age Identities: Costume, Conflict and Contact in Northern Europe 1600-1300 BC2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with male and female social identities during the Middle Bronze Age (1600-1300 BC) in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany. South Scandinavian Bronze Age research has traditionally focused on the male sphere, while women have seldom been seriously considered or analysed in terms of their roles, power or influences on society. This study addresses the imbalance through discussing the evidence for gender relations, social structures and identity. The topic will be approached using case studies from different areas of northern Europe and from a variety of angles (e.g. costume and appearance, age, violence, long distance contacts), always drawing on the rich material from burials.

    How people presented themselves varied not only between different areas, but also over time. Groups that treated material culture in a fairly similar way during Period IB (c. 1600-1500 BC) start treating it in different ways during Period II (c. 1500-1300 BC). In southern Scandinavia during Period II the material culture is fairly similar on the whole, but the different geographical groups use the artefacts in different ways. The level of violence seems to have fluctuated in the area during the Middle Bronze Age, with some areas showing more signs of violence at certain times. On the other hand the view on ageing seems to have been fairly similar over a large part of central and northern Europe, and from age 14 one seems to have been regarded as an adult. The dissertation also shows that long distance contacts were important and wide-ranging, and people seem to have moved across large areas of Europe, even if the visible exogamous marriage pattern seems to have decreased in distance from Period IB to Period II. In conclusion, although there seems to have been a general European pattern concerning e.g. the view on age, the archaeological record reveals many local variations in how this was expressed, e.g. on the body.

  • 225.
    Bergerbrant, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Difference in the Elaboration of Dress in Northern Europe during the Middle Bronze Age2010In: The North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles NESAT X / [ed] Anderson Strand, E; Gleba, M; Mannering, U, Munkholt, C & Ringgaard, M, Owbow Books: Oxford , 2010, p. 21-25Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 226.
    Bergerbrant, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. allmän.
    Female interaction during the early and middle Bronze Age Europe, with special focus on bronze tubes2005In: Gender locales and local genders in Archaeology, 2005, p. 13-23Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Bergerbrant, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. allmän.
    Fremde Frau eller i lånade fjädrar?: Interaktion mellan Sydskandinavien och norra Europa under period I och II2005In: Mellan sten till järn: Rapport från det 9:e Nordiska bronsålderssymposiet, Göteborg oktober 2003-10-09/12, 2005, p. 229-240Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 228.
    Bergerbrant, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Allmän Arkeologi. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Genus, identitet och kulturtillhörighet under äldre bronsåldern i Sydskandinavien: ett diskussionsinlägg om hur vi ser på närbronsåldern börjar2009In: Det 10. Nordiske bronzealdersymposium: Trondheim 5. - 8. Okt 2006, trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag , 2009, p. 116-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses how the early south Scandinavian Bronze Age chronological systems have been created based on the evidence of raw material and artefacts as well as a gendered perspective. When does the south Scandinavian Bronze Age start? Are our chronologies gender-specific, and therefore fundamentally biased, or do they cross sex boundaries? This question is explored drawing mainly on burial material from the Sögel-Wohlde and Valsømagle cultures. The aim of this article is to inspire discussion and debate about how we classify the south Scandinavian Bronze Age.

  • 229.
    Bergerbrant, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. allmän arkeologi.
    Weaving Identity: Cultural Belonging and Cultural Change, 1600-1100 BC in Southern Scandinavia and Northern Germany2008In: Lund Archaeological Review, ISSN 1701-2189, Vol. 13-14, p. 5-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers technical, cultural and gender-related aspects of textile production in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany during the Middle Bronze Age. Specifically, female networks and weaving technology are discussed through the different combinations of s- and y- spun thread. It is argued that textile technology is a cultural phenomenon that was spread through female interaction. These lines of communication and interaction shift over time, but at a rate that is demonstrably different from other changes in the society as seen on e.g. bronze objects that are more likely to be a result of male interactions and exchange networks. The study as a whole demonstrates that the textile evidence is a rich and informative source for Middle Bronze Age society, providing a key to understanding female identity and cultural change

  • 230. Bergerbrant, Sophie
    et al.
    Klevnäs, Alison
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Editorial2018In: Current Swedish Archaeology, ISSN 1102-7355, Vol. 26, p. 7-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 231. Bergerbrant, Sophie
    et al.
    Klevnäs, Alison
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Editorial2019In: Current Swedish Archaeology, ISSN 1102-7355, Vol. 27, p. 7-10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 232.
    Bergerbrant, Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. allmän.
    Malmius, Anita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. AFL.
    A hidden treasure – Bronze Age textile remains from Lower Saxony2006In: Archaeological Textile News, Vol. 43, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Berggren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Seklets ungdom: retorik, politik och modernitet 1900-19391995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Bergh, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Landscape of the monuments: a study of the passage tombs in the Cúil Irra region1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Berglund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Bland stenkastare, kanaljer och slampställen.: Södermalmsupploppet 17192014In: Från skuggsidan: Folk och förbrytelser ur Stockholms historia / [ed] Rebecka Lennartsson, Stockholm: Stockholmia förlag, 2014, p. 60-69Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 236.
    Berglund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Contentious spaces: Urban arenas for violent crowds2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on Charles Tilly’s theories on popular contentions, this paper provides an analysis on different kinds of urban spaces as arenas for violent crowds.  In riots and open conflicts, otherwise hidden structures – for example structures of power, class struggle and gender structures – come up to surface, and will thus be available for historical investigations. By applying linkages between the contentious gatherings and the specific locations within the city, theses structures, connected to different kind of urban spaces, will be revealed. The subject of the paper is pre-industrial Stockholm, c. 1700–1850. Eight popular riots, including crowds of several hundreds of participants, and a large number of everyday street fights are analysed. The paper focuses on different kinds of urban spaces like the poor quarters, the political quarters, narrow alleys and spacious squares. The diversity of urban spaces put different demands on both the crowds and the local authorities.

  • 237.
    Berglund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Food riots in nineteenth-century Sweden2014In: Gender in urban Europe: sites of political activity and citizenship, 1750-1900 / [ed] Krista Cowman, Nina Javette Koefoed and Åsa Karlsson Sjögren, New York: Routledge, 2014, p. 93-107Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Berglund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Massans röst: Upplopp och gatubråk i Stockholm 1719–18482009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines riots and street violence in Stockholm between 1719 and 1848. By studying open conflicts, the thesis explores changes in societal power structures which otherwise are hidden. The study shows how these levels of power and conflict structures interacted with one another and thereby contributed to the social development during the period; from a patriarchal society of privilege to a society based on a democratic view of the world. The thesis focuses on three collective actors; the people, the authorities and the press.

    The investigation of the people in the crowds shows that the military element, as well as the lower strata of labourers and servants, was significant in the early events. However, in later phases, middle class groupings such as burghers and civil servants, dominated the masses. These changes in the social composition of the crowds are tightly connected to a similar change in the aims of the riots; from local issues to national policy matters.

    Tactics of the authorities in their encounter with street disturbances also changed during the period, from passive observation by the police in the 18th century to an active military confrontational approach in the 19th century. The legal base was however strong throughout the period. The parties attached great importance to court proceedings, and knowledge of the legal system was surprisingly good among the common people.

    During the second half of the period, the press became firmly established. At the turn of the century 1800, there were two short glimpses of free press in connection to the political turbulence in 1792 and 1809. But it was mainly from the 1830's that the newspaper editors became significant actors in the riots. The popular demands for international news and politics gradually grew stronger during the period. A bottom-up perspective thus shows that popular political involvement in a significant way helped to pave the way for the coming breakthrough of democracy.

  • 239.
    Berglund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Riots, popular unrest and fights in the streets of Stockholm, c. 1700-18502007In: Urban Europe in Comparative Perspective: Papers presented at the Eighth International Conference on Urban History, Stockholm 2006 / [ed] Lars Nilsson, Stockholm: Stads- och kommunhistoriska institutet , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Berglund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Soldater och stadsbor i förindustriellt gatuvåld: Stockholm, 1719–18482009In: Sammanflätat: Cilvilt och militärt i det tidigmoderna Sverige / [ed] Maria Sjöberg, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2009, p. 15-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar det militära manskapets roll i Stockholms gatuoro under förindustriella tiden. Ett övergripande resultat är att soldaternas närvaro i större upplopp, över tid gick från aktivt deltagande i de oroliga folkmassorna vid undersökningsperiodens början till att helt stå på myndigheternas sida vid periodens slut. Däremot kvarstod deras deltagande i de mer vardagliga gatubråken oförändrat genom hela perioden. Disciplineringsprocessen för soldatkåren har därmed stora likheter med motsvarande utveckling för den framväxande arbetarklassen.

  • 241.
    Berglund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Steve Hindle, The State and Social Change in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1640, St. Martin’s press, 19992013In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 157-158Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Berglund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stads- och kommunhistoriska institutet.
    Torbjörn Nilsson, Torgslaget 1829: Myter och minnen om ett norsk-svenskt drama2019In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 139, no 3, p. 625-627Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 243.
    Berglund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Varför måste Fersen dö?: Om mordet på Axel von Fersen den 20 juni 18102009In: Stormvindar: En bok om ödesåret 1809 / [ed] Ingvar von Malmborg, Stockholm: Statens arkiv , 2009Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 244.
    Berglund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Violent crowds in Stockholm and Copenhagen, 1700–18502014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Violent crowds in Stockholm and Copenhagen, 1700–1850

    PhD Mats Berglund, Institute of Urban History, Stockholm University

     

    In a European perspective, Scandinavian early modern towns have been considered comparatively calm. Research on upheavals and popular riots has focused on dense populated and violent countries in Europe, mainly England and France. Despite these countries’ central locations and good access to source material and research, there are reasons to regard them as the European exceptions. Thus, greater part of the “peaceful Europe” deserves further studies and more attention from scholars. Everyday resistance, such as street fights, labour strikes and riots in the cities and towns had an important function in forming cultures of popular politics across Europe during the period prior to and following the French Revolution.

    Both Stockholm and Copenhagen are to be considered mid-sized European cities. With a population of around 70,000 and 100,000 inhabitants respectively at the opening of the 1800s, they were far below the European mega-cities: London, Paris, Naples and Moscow. Nonetheless, they were unchallenged in dominating the urban system of Scandinavia and as gateway-cities to the European metropolises.

    Both countries experienced a turbulent medieval era. The final years of the Kalmar Union generated series of rebellions in the provinces of Småland, Scania and Halland, along the border between the two countries. However, in the aftermath of the collapse of the union, the situation stabilized. From the sixteenth century onward, riots and upheavals occurred infrequently in both countries. The Swedish historian Eva Österberg argued that the Swedish tradition differed from the European in that peasants were given, and chose, other ways to protest against authorities. The people and the ruling class meet to resolve their difference in local arenas like the parish councils (‘sockenstämma’) or the hundred courts (‘häradsrätt’), or through the peasant estate in the national parliament (‘Riksdagen’). From a European perspective, those institutions provided rather unique channels for people to communicate with the local or central authorities, and thus might be important reasons behind the relative lack of violent crowds.

    Negotiations and compromise as solutions to societal conflicts are the starting point for analysis in this paper. Important questions to address are therefore whether this pattern of a moderate Scandinavian conflict culture is also valid for urban areas, and further, whether it is valid in both countries.

    A severe riot occurred in southern part of Stockholm in 1719. For three consecutive nights, a large crowd of people destroyed a total number of 14 brothels and illegal taverns. Police forces were notably passive. But an extensive source material from the subsequent trial provides the course of events to be followed in detail. In addition, nearly one hundred individuals have been possible to identify. The passive intervention in the streets along with the extensive administrative efforts afterwards seems to be significant for the Swedish authorities’ handling of popular crowds in general. This passive approach normally prevented disturbances to escalate, which resulted in an extremely small amount of violence in the eighteenth century riots.

    A predominantly calm century was however eventually transformed into a significantly turbulent period of two decades around the turn of the century 1800. Major riots in Stockholm occurred at the years 1789, 1792, 1799 and 1810. After 1810, Stockholm authorities changed tactics. In riots towards the middle of the century, police and military guards were generally deployed in a relatively early stage when crowd was gathering. Major riots occurred in Stockholm in 1838 and 1848. Both of these can clearly be linked to the international wave of turbulence that swept over Europe.

    In Copenhagen 1715, a group of journeymen from the carpenter’s guild confronted their alderman in connection with an assignment involving moving a public punishing scaffold to the King’s New Square (‘Kongens Nytorv’). The incident was a striking example of an older form of labour conflict characterized by a ‘rowdy culture’ among pre-industrial workers and craftsmen. 

    During the century, similar incidents took place in Copenhagen in 1732 (carpenters), 1748 (shoemakers), 1733 and 1751 (masons), as well as the Great Carpenter Strike of 1794.  These recurring conflicts between masters, journeymen and apprentices has been noted in Scandinavian research and investigated as a principal historical strategy in forming the working class. In Stockholm however, these types of labour-related conflicts were not common before the onset of industrialization. But other groups and professions went through similar processes towards professionalization, such as personnel from the garrisons, and, in the case of Copenhagen, students.

    In June 1787, over a thousand students and citizens demonstrated their dissatisfaction with the Copenhagen police who had arrested several students. Military forces were deployed, and a battle between students and troops broke out and continued for several days. Another case occurred five years later, in February 1793, as a result of a fight between a student and an officer outside the central postal office at Merchant Street (‘Købmagergade’). Both the civic police and patrols from the garrisons had to be called upon. Authorities forced the mass down the street using batons and rifle butts. It soon became highly violent and people protested against police brutality. More than 160 people were interrogated, mostly people from the middle classes.

    In both of these incidents it was obviously violence on the part of the authorities that escalated the situation. It thus seems to differ from the Swedish tradition.

     

    Reasons for the unrest are often hard to find in the available sources. In contrast to both French and English towns, the pre-industrial Scandinavian capitals were never hit by food-related riots. However, although sources are rich, they generally do not tell us very much about the participation of women. Especially official court records seldom list women as guilty or even as witnesses. However, parallel records indicate that women were represented in the masses to the same high degree as men.

     

    Several riots started as ideological protests by political aware middle class people. But the social composition of masses sometimes changed during the course of the disturbances. When riots in the later stages expanded and get violent, it was largely people recruited from the lower strata that formed the crowd. This phenomenon of ‘the dual masses’ can be observed in both cities, mainly in the later part of the period.

  • 245.
    Berglund, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Nilsson, LarsStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Nordiska Lokalsamhällen i möte med globaliseringen 1950–20102015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 8–10 oktober 2012 stod Stads- och kommunhistoriska institutet värd för det tolfte nordiska lokalhistoriska seminariet. Temat denna gång var Nordiska lokalsamhällen i möte med globaliseringen 1950–2010. 

    I den här boken ingår åtta av de föredrag som presenterades på seminariet. Tillsammans täcker de ett spektrum av områden som på olika sätt berörts av globaliseringen och övergången till ett postindustriellt samhälle. 

    Bidragen kommer från Sverige, Norge, Danmark och Finland och ger en uppfattning om några samhälleliga processer som under de senaste 50–60 åren påverkat livet i städer, tätorter och andra lokalsamhällen i Norden. Samtidigt har orterna själva interagerat och genom egna beslut varit med och påverkat bland annat globaliseringen, avindustrialiseringen och övergången mot postindustrialism. 

  • 246.
    Bergman, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Att skriva en skilsmässa: Kvinnors jagberättelser om känslor, privatliv och uppbrott2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Papret behandlar kvinnors jagberättelser om känslor, familjeuppbrott och skilsmässa, mot en fond av Sverige i förändring. Med utgångspunkt i ett urval av kvinnliga självbiografier publicerade under 1900-talets mitt utforskas hur olika kvinnliga berättarjag förhåller privata livsbeslut till två tidslager, både den tid som format dessa kvinnor som unga och den pågående skrivande samtiden. Läsningen av materialet är inspirerad av forskning som ser jagberättelser i relation till samtida samhällsberättelser. Under kvinnornas levnad hade samhälleliga normer kring kön, intimitet, känsloliv och privatliv kommit att genomgå förskjutningar, något som de aktivt förhöll sig till i sina självbiografiska skildringar av skilsmässor och uppbrott. Papret undersöker därmed hur kvinnor byggde upp sina livsberättelser i dialog med samtidens förändrade berättelser och i relation till det maktutrymme som stod dem till buds.

  • 247.
    Bergman, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Divorce in the century of the child: Post-divorce parenthood in Sweden during the 20th century2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With a long historical lens, the paper addresses questions of change and continuity within Swedish political and professional discourses on divorce and post-divorce parenthood during the 20th century, the century proclaimed as “the century of the child” by the Swedish reformer Ellen Key. As divorce became a legally viable option early in the century, also for families with minor children, the question of what constituted proper post-divorce parenthood and family life became a matter of social work expertise. With regards to divorce, new interpretations of concepts such as “the child’s best interest” and “family stability” begun to circulate among social workers and family counselors. The paper discusses these transformations, where earlier efforts to foster family stability and shared responsibility for children within a marriage, were substitutes with techniques of regulating family life and parenthood also after divorce and separation.

  • 248.
    Bergman, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Feminism, kärlek och ilska: Känsloregler och känslopolitik i 1970-talets Sverige2017In: Känslornas revolution: Kärlek, ilska och lycka på 1970‐talet / [ed] Helena Bergman, Christina Florin, Jens Ljunggren, Stockholm: Appell Förlag , 2017, p. 157-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 249.
    Bergman, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Föräldraskap som problem och möjlighet i det tidiga 1900-talets reformdebatt2017In: Socialt arbete och socialpolitik: Om Centralförbundet för socialt arbete och dess betydelse / [ed] Hans Swärd, Per Gunnar Edebalk, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 329-343Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 250.
    Bergman, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Verklighetens Nora: Mia Leche Löfgren och hennes skilsmässoberättelse2015In: Personhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0031-5699, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
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