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  • 201.
    Taylor, Alexandra K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Hellström, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Effects of trap density and duration on vole abundance indices2011In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 45-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate if patterns of immigration by voles into removal plots on the third day of trapping are evident in the grey-sided vole, and if altering the number of traps at each station will result in increased precision of the vole abundance estimate. Traps were placed using the small quadrat method, with one, three, or five traps placed at each corner. Traps were checked twice a day for five days. Mixed-effect models were used to investigate the relationship between the number of traps and the length of time the traps were out on the abundance index. There was no difference between having three or five traps. Having one trap resulted in an inflated estimate. Five traps had the highest number of successful trapping events, reducing the number of zeros in the data set and leaving fewer individuals unaccounted. There was a peak in catches on the third day, driven by younger individuals and by males. These are suspected immigrants that are exploiting the territories left by individuals trapped in the first two days, suggesting this is not a closed system.

  • 202.
    Temrin, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Nordlund, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Sterner, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Are stepchildren overrepresented as victims of lethal parental violence in Sweden?2004In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 271, p. S124-S126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Thorén, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Kappeler, Peter
    Universität Göttingen.
    Phylogenetic analyses of dimorphism in primates: evidence for stronger selection on canine size than on body size2006In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ISSN 0002-9483, E-ISSN 1096-8644, Vol. 130, no 1, p. 50-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to analyze the consequences of sexual selection on canine size and canine size dimorphism in primates. Our analyses of previously published body mass and canine size data revealed that the degree of sexual selection is correlated with canine size dimorphism, as well as with canine size in both sexes, in haplorhine but not in strepsirrhine primates. Consistent with these results, male and female canine size was found to be highly correlated in all primates. Since canine dimorphism and canine size in both sexes in haplorhines were found to be not only related to mating system but also to body size and body size dimorphism (characters which are also subject to or the result of sexual selection), it was not apparent whether the degree of canine dimorphism is the result of sexual selection on canine size itself, or whether canine dimorphism is instead a consequence of selection on body size, or vice versa. To distinguish among these possibilities, we conducted matched-pairs analyses on canine size after correcting for the effects of body size. These tests revealed significant effects of sexual selection on relative canine size, indicating that canine size is more important in haplorhine male-male competition than body size. Further analyses showed, however, that it was not possible to detect any evolutionary lag between canine size and body size, or between canine size dimorphism and body size dimorphism. Additional support for the notion of special selection on canine size consisted of allometric relationships in haplorhines between canine size and canine size dimorphism in males, as well as between canine size dimorphism and body size dimorphism. In conclusion, these analyses revealed that the effects of sexual selection on canine size are stronger than those on body size, perhaps indicating that canines are more important than body size in haplorhine male-male competition

  • 204. Vogel, Heiko
    et al.
    Musser, Richard O.
    Celorio-Mancera, Maria de la Paz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Transcriptome responses in herbivorous insects towards host plant and toxin feeding2014In: Insect-Plant Interactions / [ed] Claudia Voelckel, Georg Jander, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, p. 197-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food source is a major determinant of physiological performance and a strong selection force for insect herbivores. The ability to adequately respond to chemical challenges posed by their host plants is the primary determinant of larval fitness. Most herbivorous insects must consume large quantities of plant material to meet their nutritional requirements and, at the same time, cope with numerous mechanical, chemical and protein-based defences posed by their sessile hosts. Despite the importance of host plants on essential life history traits of insect herbivores, data on global responses to both individual plant-derived compounds and plant feeding is scarce. Here we discuss the existing data on herbivore responses to host plant exposure, toxin feeding or nutrient limitations, and we make an attempt at identifying changes in genome-wide expression patterns of generalist and/or specialist herbivores. While generalists face an array of different plant defences, and therefore likely need to invest in broad detoxifying strategies, specialist herbivores need to fine-tune their adaptation to specific plant defences.

  • 205.
    von Seth, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Larsson, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Hasselgren, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Dussex, Nicolas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Liliana, Farelo
    Wallén, Johan Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kutschera, Verena E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Øystein, Flagstad
    José, Melo-Ferreira
    Norén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Dalén, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Temporal genomic change in the Scandinavian arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 206.
    von Seth, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Tom, van der Valk
    Lord, Edana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hanna, Sigeman
    Remi-André, Olsen
    Michael, Knapp
    Olga, Kardailsky
    Fiona, Robertson
    Marie, Hale
    Dave, Houston
    Euan, Kennedy
    Dalén, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Norén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Melanie, Massaro
    Bruce C., Robertson
    Dussex, Nicolas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Genomic trajectories of a near-extinction event in the Chatham Island black robinManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 207. Wang, Yi-ting
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Sundström, Aksel
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Lindberg, Staffan I.
    No democratic transition without women’s rights: A global sequence analysis 1900-20122015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines countries’ successful transition to democracy? Research has focused on socioeconomic and institutional factors, yet the assumption that political liberalization has to precede democratization has not been systematically examined. We explore the impacts of granting civil rights in authoritarian regimes and especially the gendered aspect of this process. We argue that both men’s and women’s liberal rights are essential conditions for democratization to take place: giving both men and women rights reduce an inequality that affects half of the population, thus increasing the costs of repression for authoritarian rulers, and enabling the formation of women’s movements – historically important as a spark of protests in initial phases of democratization. We test this argument empirically using data that cover 160 countries over the years 1900–2012 and contain more nuanced measures than commonly used. Through sequence analysis we obtain results suggesting that liberal rights for both men and women enhance civil society organizations, and then lead to electoral democracy. The results suggest that influential modernization writings – stressing the role of economic development in democratization processes – may partly have been misinformed in their blindness for gender. The reported pattern may be at least part of the explanation of the ‘Arab spring’ failures.

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  • 208. Wang, Yi-ting
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Sundström, Aksel
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Paxton, Pamela
    Lindberg, Staffan I.
    Women's rights in democratic transitions: A global sequence analysis, 1900–20122017In: European Journal of Political Research, ISSN 0304-4130, E-ISSN 1475-6765, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 735-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines countries’ successful transition to democracy? This article explores the impact of granting civil rights in authoritarian regimes and especially the gendered aspect of this process. It argues that both men's and women's liberal rights are essential conditions for democratisation to take place: providing both women and men rights reduces an inequality that affects half of the population, thus increasing the costs of repression and enabling the formation of women's organising – historically important to spark protests in initial phases of democratisation. This argument is tested empirically using data that cover 173 countries over the years 1900–2012 and contain more nuanced measures than commonly used. Through novel sequence analysis methods, the results suggest that in order to gain electoral democracy a country first needs to furnish civil liberties to both women and men.

  • 209.
    Wiklund, Christer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Friberg, Magne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    The evolutionary ecology of generalization: among-year variation in host plant use and offspring survival in a butterfly2009In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 90, no 12, p. 3406-3417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of phytophagous insects are relatively specialized in their food habits, and specialization in resource use is expected to be favored by selection in most scenarios. Ecological generalization is less common and less well understood, but it should be selected for by (1) rarity of resources, (2) resource inconstancy, or (3) unreliability of resource quality. Here, we test these predictions by studying egg distribution and offspring survival in the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, on different host plants in Sweden over a five-year period. A total of 3800 eggs were laid on 16 of the 18 crucifers available at the field site during the five years. Three main factors explained host plant generalization: (1) a rarity of food resources in which the female encounter rate of individual crucifer plants was low and within-year phenological succession of flowering periods of the different crucifers meant that individual species were suitable for oviposition only within a short time window, which translates to a low effective abundance of individual crucifer species as experienced by females searching for host plants, making specialization on a single crucifer species unprofitable; (2) variation in food resources in which among-year variation in availability of any one host plant species was high; and (3) larval survivorship varied unpredictably among years on all host plants, thereby necessitating a bet-hedging strategy and use of several different host plants. Unpredictable larval survival was caused by variation in plant stand habitat characteristics, which meant that drowning and death from starvation affected different crucifers differently, and by parasitism, which varied by host plant and year. Hence, our findings are in agreement with the theoretical explanation of ecological generalization above, helping to explain why A. cardamines is a generalist throughout its range with respect to genera within the Cruciferae.

  • 210.
    Yom-Tov, Yoram
    et al.
    Department of Zoology,Tel Aviv University.
    Yom-Tov, Shlomith
    Department of Zoology,Tel Aviv University.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Body size of the weasel Mustela nivalis and the stoat M. erminea in Sweden.2010In: Mammalian Biology, ISSN 1616-5047, E-ISSN 1618-1476, Vol. 75, p. 420-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examined temporal and geographical variations in a sample of 124 skulls of the weasel Mustela nivalis and 146 skulls oft hestoat M. erminea, collected in Sweden between 1959-1992 and 1913-1990, respectively. We used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to combine the effects of latitude, longitude, year of collection, mean ambient temperature and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The first principal component (PC1) contained latitude, ambient temperature and NPP and was significantly and positively related to male (but not female) skull size of both stoats and weasels. None of the other factors or their interactions were significantly related to skull size. We conclude that ambient temperature, either directly through energy savings, or indirectly through improved food availability (increasedNPP), had a significant effect on determining body size of male stoats and weasels in Sweden. Our results support the hypothesis that male and female of these species are affected by different selection pressures and thus react differently to changing environmental conditions.

     

  • 211.
    Åhman, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Karlsson, Bengt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Flight endurance in relation to adult age in the green-veined white butterfly Pieris napi2009In: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 34, p. 783-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. 1. The flight apparatus in butterflies as well as in other insects is costly to manufacture. Since most animals live in a world where resources are limited, trade-offs are expected and available resources must thus be allocated between flight and other functions such as reproduction.

    2. To mitigate this trade-off, previous studies have shown that butterflies can break down flight muscles in the thorax as they age in order to use muscle nutrients for reproduction.

    3. Although breakdown of flight muscles is expected to reduce flight ability, relative flight muscle ratio (thorax mass/body mass) in many butterfly species does not decrease with age.  Our aim in this study was to test the relationship between flight endurance and adult age in the green-veined white butterfly Pieris napi (L.). The tests were performed in the laboratory under five different temperatures.

    4. The results showed that age has a significant influence on butterfly flight endurance; older butterflies showed reduced flight endurance. Male butterflies fly for a longer time than females and flight endurance increase with temperature in both sexes.

2345 201 - 211 of 211
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