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  • 201.
    Bodnar, Taras
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Parolya, Nestor
    Schmid, Wolfgang
    The Exact Solution of Multi-period Portfolio Choice Problem with Exponential Utility2016Inngår i: Operations Research Proceedings 2014: Selected Papers of the Annual International Conference of the German Operations Research Society (GOR), RWTH Aachen University, Germany, September 2-5, 2014 / [ed] Marco Lübbecke, Arie Koster, Peter Letmathe, Reinhard Madlener, Britta Peis, Grit Walther, Springer, 2016, s. 45-51Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper we derive the exact analytical solution of the multiperiod portfolio choice problem for an exponential utility function. It is assumed that the asset returns depend on predictable variables and that the joint random process of the asset returns follows a vector autoregression. We prove that the optimal portfolio weights depend on the covariance matrices of the next two periods and the conditional mean vector of the next period. The case without predictable variables and the case of independent asset returns are partial cases of our solution.

  • 202.
    Bodnar, Taras
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Zabolotskyy, Taras
    How risky is the optimal portfolio which maximizes the Sharpe ratio?2017Inngår i: AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, ISSN 1863-8171, E-ISSN 1863-818X, Vol. 101, nr 1, s. 1-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the properties of the optimal portfolio in the sense of maximizing the Sharpe ratio (SR) and develop a procedure for the calculation of the risk of this portfolio. This is achieved by constructing an optimal portfolio which minimizes the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and at the same time coincides with the tangent (market) portfolio on the efficient frontier which is related to the SR portfolio. The resulting significance level of the minimum VaR portfolio is then used to determine the risk of both the market portfolio and the corresponding SR portfolio. However, the expression of this significance level depends on the unknown parameters which have to be estimated in practice. It leads to an estimator of the significance level whose distributional properties are investigated in detail. Based on these results, a confidence interval for the suggested risk measure of the SR portfolio is constructed and applied to real data. Both theoretical and empirical findings document that the SR portfolio is very risky since the corresponding significance level is smaller than 90 % in most of the considered cases.

  • 203.
    Boguslaw, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Svensk invandringspolitik under 500 år: 1512-20122012 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 204.
    Boguslaw, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    When the Kids Are Not Alright: Essays on Childhood Disadvantage and Its Consequences2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three self-contained essays on childhood disadvantage and its consequences in Sweden.

    A Longitudinal Look at Child Poverty Using Both Monetary and Non-monetary Approaches. In this paper, we broaden the analysis of child poverty by using both monetary and non-monetary measures of poverty and by comparing these over time. We use a composite of questionnaire answers from children regarding possession of socially perceived necessities and participation in social activities to develop two non-monetary child-centric concepts of disadvantage: material deprivation and social exclusion. The empirical analysis is based on two cross-sections and a panel of children in the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey matched with parental survey data and administrative income records. Consistent with previous findings, we find that relative income poverty among children increases significantly between the year 2000 and 2010. The fraction of children that is disadvantaged in two dimensions, monetary and non-monetary, is relatively small (0.9–7.0 percent) but increases significantly during the period of study. The modest size of the overlap suggests that our measures capture different dimensions of disadvantage, thereby pointing to the importance of alternative poverty indicators. We also find that income status in childhood is the best predictor of socio-economic outcomes in young adulthood.

    The Aspirations-attainment Paradox of Immigrant Children: A Social Networks Approach. Using two independent and nationally representative samples of Swedish children, I compare the university aspirations and expectations between children of immigrants and children of natives. In line with existing findings, I find that children with foreign-born parents have significantly higher aspirations and expectations than their native-majority peers with and without conditioning on school performance, academic potential and friendship networks. I do not find any evidence of a significant immigrant-non-immigrant aspirations-expectations gap; immigrant children's aspirations and expectations are not less aligned than those of their native-majority peers. This result suggests that immigrant-native disparities in school outcomes are not driven by an aspirations-expectations gap. Finally, the results reveal significant gender differences. Native-majority girls with academic potential are, for example, more likely to express an aspirations-expectations gap. Moreover, having only female friends makes one less likely to belong to the aforementioned category.

    The Key Player in Disruptive Behavior: Whom Should We Target to Improve the Classroom Learning Environment? In this paper, I address the question: Who is the individual that exerts the greatest negative influence on the classroom learning environment? To answer this question, I invoke the key player model from network economics and use self-reported friendship data in order to solve the methodological problems associated with identifying and estimating peer effects. I overcome the issue of endogenous group formation by using the control function approach where I simultaneously estimate network formation and outcomes. The results show that the typical key player scores well on language and cognitive ability tests and is not more likely to be a boy than a girl. I also find evidence that removing the key player has a significantly larger effect on aggregate disruptiveness in a network than removing the most disruptive individual, implying that policy aimed at the most active individual could be inadequate.

  • 205.
    Boguslaw, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Appendix till kapitel 2. Humanisterna och den svenska arbetsmarknaden2011Inngår i: Humanisterna och framtidssamhället., Stockholm: Institutet för framtidsstudier , 2011, s. 153-178Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 206.
    Boguslaw, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Integration och integrationspolitik i Sverige2014Inngår i: Innvandring og Arbeidsmarkedsintegrering i Norden / [ed] Anne Britt Djuve och Anne Skevik Grødem, Oslo: NordMod2030, Fafo , 2014, s. 39-56Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 207.
    Boguslaw, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Invandrad arbetskraft2011Inngår i: Invandrare & Minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, Vol. 38, nr 4-5, s. 10-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 208.
    Boguslaw, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vilka var humanisterna? Humanisterna och den svenska arbetsmarknaden2011Inngår i: Humanisterna och framtidssamhället, Stockholm: Institutet för framtidsstudier , 2011, s. 25-75Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 209. Bohlin, Nils
    Essays on urban wages, location and retail trade2003Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 210.
    Bold, Tessa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Kaizzi, Kayuki
    Svensson, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Yanagizawa-Drott, David
    Low quality, low returns, low adoption: evidence from the market for fertilizer and hybrid seed in Uganda2015Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce poverty and food insecurity in Africa requires raising productivity in agriculture. Systematic use of fertilizer and hybrid seed is a pathway to increased productivity, but adoption of these technologies remains low. We investigate whether the quality of agricultural inputs can help explain low take-up. Testing modern products purchased in local markets, we find that 30% of nutrient is missing in fertilizer, and hybrid maize seed contains less than 50% authentic seeds. We document that such low quality results in negative average returns. If authentic technologies replaced these low-quality products, average returns for smallholder farmers would be over 50%.

  • 211.
    Bold, Tessa
    et al.
    Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Kimenyi, Mwangi
    Mwabu, Germano
    Sandefur, Justin
    Can Free Provision Reduce Demand for Public Services?: Evidence from Kenya2015Inngår i: World Bank Economic Review, ISSN 0258-6770, E-ISSN 1564-698X, Vol. 29, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2003 Kenya abolished user fees in all government primary schools. We show that this policy contributed to a shift in demand away from free schools, where net enrollment stagnated after 2003, toward fee-charging private schools, where both enrollment and fee levels grew rapidly after 2003. These shifts had mixed distributional consequences. Enrollment by poorer households increased, but segregation between socio-economic groups also increased. We find evidence that the shift in demand toward private schooling was driven by more affluent households who (i) paid higher ex ante fees and thus experienced a larger reduction in school funding, and (ii) exited public schools in reaction to increased enrollment by poorer children. JEL Codes: H52, I22, O15

  • 212.
    Bold, Tessa
    et al.
    Goethe University, Germany.
    Kimenyi, Mwangi
    Mwabu, Germano
    Sandefur, Justin
    Can Free Provision Reduce Demand for Public Services? Evidence from Kenyan Education2014Inngår i: World Bank Economic Review, ISSN 0258-6770, E-ISSN 1564-698XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2003 Kenya abolished user fees in all government primary schools. We show that this policy contributed to a shift in demand away from free schools, where net enrollment stagnated after 2003, toward fee-charging private schools, where both enrollment and fee levels grew rapidly after 2003. These shifts had mixed distributional consequences. Enrollment by poorer households increased, but segregation between socio-economic groups also increased. We find evidence that the shift in demand toward private schooling was driven by more affluent households who (i) paid higher ex ante fees and thus experienced a larger reduction in school funding, and (ii) exited public schools in reaction to increased enrollment by poorer children.

  • 213.
    Bold, Tessa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Kimenyi, Mwangi
    Africa Growth Initiative.
    Mwabu, Germano
    University of Nairobi.
    Sandefur, Justin
    University of Oxford.
    Did Abolishing School Fees Reduce School Quality: Evidence from Kenya2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 214.
    Bold, Tessa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. Goethe University Frankfurt.
    Kimenyi, Mwangi S.
    Sandefur, Justin
    Public and Private Provision of Education in Kenya2013Inngår i: Journal of African Economies, ISSN 0963-8024, E-ISSN 1464-3723, Vol. 22, s. ii39-ii56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, Kenyas traditional model of local, community finance and management of schools has been crowded out from two directions. First, the Kenyan government has expanded its role in public education, through free provision of primary and, more recently, secondary education. Second, the market for private, fee-charging schools has grown rapidly, particularly at the primary level. We examine whether the abolition of fees presented a trade-off between quantity and quality in primary schools, comparing Kenyas experience with others in the region. We examine the superior performance of private primary schools and elite, public secondary schools in examinations and summarise research testing whether this performance reflects causal returns to these school types. Finally, we explore the potential implications of expanding public finance for private schooling or incorporating organisational structures from the private sector into public schools, making particular note of possible general equilibrium effects and political economy constraints to doing so.

  • 215.
    Bold, Tessa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. Goethe University Frankfurt.
    Svensson, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Policies and Institutions for Effective Service Delivery: The Need of a Microeconomic and Micropolitical Approach2013Inngår i: Journal of African Economies, ISSN 0963-8024, E-ISSN 1464-3723, Vol. 22, s. ii16-ii38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent political economy literature on institutions for growth views low and ineffective spending on service delivery sectors as a symptom of the underlying institutional environment. But if institutions are the outcome of decisions by policymakers and serve the purpose of benefitting some at the cost of the majority, what can be done to facilitate empowerment and thus the development of inclusive political institutions? In this paper, we argue that a microeconomic approach that explicitly takes political and bureaucratic incentives and constraints into account provides a fruitful, and complementary, way forward. We discuss several promising lines of research.

  • 216.
    Bonfiglioli, Alessandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Equities and Inequality2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the relationship between investor protection, the development of financial markets and income inequality. In the presence of market frictions, investor protection promotes financial development by raising confidence and reducing the costs of external financing. Developed financial systems spread risks among financiers and firms, allocating them to the agents bearing them the best. Therefore, financial development plays the twofold role of encouraging agents to undertake risky enterprises and providing them with insurance. By increasing the number of risky projects, it raises income inequality. By extending insurance to more agents, it reduces it. As a result, the relationship between financial development and income inequality is hump-shaped. Empirical evidence from a cross-section of sixty-nine countries, as well as a panel of fifty-two countries over the period 1976-2000, supports the predictions of the model.

  • 217.
    Bonfiglioli, Alessandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Essays on Financial Markets and Macroeconomics2005Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three papers, which address different aspects of financial markets and institutions.

    Equities and Inequality studies the relationship between investor protection the development of financial markets and income inequality. In the presence of market frictions, investor protection promotes financial development by raising confidence and reducing the costs of external financing. Developed financial systems spread risks among financiers and firms, allocating them to the agents bearing them the best. Therefore, financial development plays the twofold role of encouraging agents to undertake risky enterprises and providing them with insurance. By increasing the number of risky projects, it raises income inequality. By extending insurance to more agents, it reduces it. As a result, the relationship between financial development and income inequality is hump-shaped. Empirical evidence from a cross-section of sixty-nine countries, as well as a panel of fifty-two countries over the period 1976-2000, supports the predictions of the model.

    How Does Financial Liberalization Affect Economic Growth? assesses the effects of international financial liberalization and banking crises on investments and productivity in a sample of 93 countries (at its largest) observed between 1975 and 1999. I provide empirical evidence that financial liberalization spurs productivity growth and marginally affects capital accumulation. Banking crises depress both investments and TFP. Both levels and growth rates of productivity respond to financial liberalization and banking crises. The paper also presents evidence of conditional convergence in productivity across countries. However, the speed of convergence is unaffected by financial liberalization. These results are robust to a number of econometric specifications.

    Explaining Co-movements Between Stock Markets: US and Germany explains co-movements between stock markets by explicitly considering the distinction between interdependence and contagion. It proposes and implements a full information approach on data for US and Germany to provide answers to the following questions: (i) is there long-term interdependence between US and German stock markets? (ii) Is there short-term interdependence and contagion between US and German stock markets, i.e. do short-term fluctuations of the US share prices spill over to German share prices and is such co-movement unstable over high volatility episodes? The answers are no to the former and yes to the latter.

  • 218.
    Bonfiglioli, Alessandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    How Does Financial Liberalization Affect Economic Growth?2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the effects of international financial liberalization and banking crises on investments and productivity in a sample of 93 countries (at its largest) observed between 1975 and 1999. I provide empirical evidence that financial liberalization spurs productivity growth and marginally affects capital accumulation. Banking crises depress both investments and TFP. Both levels and growth rates of productivity respond to financial liberalization and banking crises. The paper also presents evidence of conditional convergence in productivity across countries. However, the speed of convergence is unaffected by financial liberalization. These results are robust to a number of econometric specifications.

  • 219. Bonnier, Evelina
    et al.
    Dreber, Anna
    Hederos, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sandberg, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Dressed for Success? The effects of Half-Naked Women on Economic Behavior2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 220. Bonnier, Evelina
    et al.
    Dreber, Anna
    Hederos, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sandberg, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Exposure to half-dressed women and economic behavior2019Inngår i: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 168, s. 393-418Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Images of half-dressed women are ubiquitous in advertising and popular culture. Yet little is known about the potential impacts of such images on economic decision making. We randomize 648 participants of both genders to advertising images including either women in bikini or underwear, fully dressed women, or no women, and examine the effects on risk taking, willingness to compete and math performance in a lab experiment. We find no treatment effects on any outcome measure for women. For men, our results indicate that men take more risk after having been exposed to images of half-dressed women compared to no women.

  • 221. Bonnier, Evelina
    et al.
    Puolsen, Jonas
    Rogall, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Stryjan, Miri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Preparing for genocide: community work in Rwanda2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How do political elites prepare the civilian population for participation in violent conflict? We empirically investigate this question using village-level data from the Rwandan genocide in 1994. Every Saturday before 1994, Rwandan villagers had to meet to work on community infrastructure, a practice called Umuganda. This practice was highly politicized and, in the years before the genocide, regularly used for spreading political propaganda. To establish causality, we exploit cross-sectional variation in meeting intensity induced by exogenous weather fluctuations. We find that an additional rainy Saturday resulted in a five percent lower civilian participation rate in genocide violence. These results pass a number of indirect tests of the exclusion restriction as well as other robustness checks and placebo tests.

  • 222.
    Boppart, Timo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Structural Change and the Kaldor Facts in a Growth Model With Relative Price Effects and Non-Gorman Preferences2014Inngår i: Econometrica, ISSN 0012-9682, E-ISSN 1468-0262, Vol. 82, nr 6, s. 2167-2196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    U.S. data reveal three facts: (1) the share of goods in total expenditure declines at a constant rate over time, (2) the price of goods relative to services declines at a constant rate over time, and (3) poor households spend a larger fraction of their budget on goods than do rich households. I provide a macroeconomic model with non-Gorman preferences that rationalizes these facts, along with the aggregate Kaldor facts. The model is parsimonious and admits an analytical solution. Its functional form allows a decomposition of U.S. structural change into an income and substitution effect. Estimates from micro data show each of these effects to be of roughly equal importance.

  • 223.
    Boppart, Timo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Falkinger, Josef
    Grossmann, Volker
    Protestantism and education: reading (the Bible) and other skills2014Inngår i: Economic Inquiry, ISSN 0095-2583, E-ISSN 1465-7295, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 874-895Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During industrialization, Protestants were more literate than Catholics. This paper investigates whether this fact may be led back to the intrinsic motivation of Protestants to read the bible and to what extent other education motives might have been involved as well. We employ a historical data set from Switzerland which allows us to differentiate between different cognitive skills: reading, numeracy, essay writing, and Swiss history. We develop an estimation strategy to examine whether the impact of religious denomination was particularly large with respect to reading capabilities. We find support for this hypothesis. However, we also find evidence which is consistent with the view that Protestants' education motives went beyond acquiring reading skills. (JEL I20)

  • 224.
    Boppart, Timo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. University of Zurich.
    Falkinger, Josef
    Grossmann, Volker
    Woitek, Ulrich
    Wuethrich, Gabriela
    Under which conditions does religion affect educational outcomes?2013Inngår i: Explorations in economic history (Print), ISSN 0014-4983, E-ISSN 1090-2457, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 242-266Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines under which conditions religious denomination affects public spending on schooling and educational performance. We employ a unique data set which covers, inter alia, information on numerous measures of public school inputs in 169 Swiss districts for the years 1871/72, 1881/82 and 1894/95, marks from pedagogical examinations of conscripts (1875-1903), and results from political referenda to capture conservative or progressive values. Although Catholic districts show on average significantly lower educational performance and spend less on primary schooling than Protestant districts, Catholicism is harmful only in a conservative milieu. We also exploit information on absenteeism of pupils from school to separate provision of schooling from use of schooling.

  • 225.
    Boppart, Timo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Staub, Kevin E.
    Online Accessibility of Scholarly Literature, and Academic Innovation2014Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 226. Borghans, Lex
    et al.
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Job Mobility in Europe, Japan and the United States2012Inngår i: British Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0007-1080, E-ISSN 1467-8543, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 436-456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence about job mobility outside the United States is scarce and difficult to compare cross-nationally because of non-uniform data. We document job mobility patterns of college graduates in their first three years in the labour market, using unique uniform data covering 11 European countries and Japan. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we replicate the information in this survey to compare the results with the United States. We find that (a) US graduates hold more jobs than European graduates, (b) contrasting conventional wisdom, job mobility in Japan is only somewhat lower than the European average, and (c) there are large differences in job mobility within Europe.

  • 227. Borghans, Lex
    et al.
    Golsteyn, Bart H.H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Heckman, James
    Humphries, John Eric
    Identification problems in personality psychology2011Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 315-320Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and illustrates identification problems in personality psychology. The measures usedby psychologists to infer traits are based on behaviors, broadly defined. These behaviors are producedfrom multiple traits interacting with incentives in situations. In general, measures are determined bythese multiple traits and do not identify any particular trait unless incentives and other traits are controlledfor. Using two data sets, we show, that substantial portions of the variance in achievement testscores and grades, which are often used as measures of cognition, are explained by personality variables. 

  • 228.
    Bos, Marieke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Essays on Household Finance2010Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three self-contained essays on household finance.

     “Pawn Credit and the Importance of Financial Exclusion” explores the importance of access to regular credit to the demand for pawn credit. I find that the rejection of one's loan application by a regular bank increases the probability that one will take pawn credit, on average, by 9 percent, relative to individuals whose loan application has been granted. However, of all pawn credit borrowers, 73 percent do not even try to get regular bank credit first. For these borrowers, I find that 93 percent are implicitly excluded from regular bank credit at the time they decide to take pawn credit.

    “Should Credit Remark Be Forgotten? Evidence from a Legally Mandated Removal” (with Leonard Nakamura) analyzes what happens when Swedish law mandates the removal of credit remarks from credit reports after three years. We find that removal induces an abrupt improvement in individuals' credit scores, an improvement that is not reversed in the long run. Further, the excess loan applications caused by the boost in creditworthiness translate into significant access to new credit. We find evidence that only a minority of the individuals who received a credit remark may be inherently high risk which suggests that credit remark removal is welfare enhancing.

    “Accept or Reject: Do Immigrants Have Less Access to Bank Credit? Evidence from Swedish Pawnshop Customers” asks if immigrants have less access to mainstream credit than their Swedish born counterparts. I find that immigrants are six percent less likely to be accepted when applying for mainstream credit, relative to Swedish born. This holds in particular for immigrants of African descent, who are 15 percent less likely. This effect disappears for second-generation immigrants with African parents. Immigrant pawnshop borrowers that do not apply for mainstream credit before they take pawn credit are found to make well-informed decisions.

  • 229.
    Boschini, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lika lön kräver fast ingångslön och en ny föräldraförsäkring2017Inngår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 26 novemberArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 230.
    Boschini, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Olika kön, olika lön – en ESO-rapport om diskriminering på arbetsmarknaden2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är ett av världens mest jämställda länder med högt kvinnligt arbetskraftsdeltagande och kvinnor utbildar sig sedan länge mer än män. Ändå tjänar kvinnor mindre än män – även efter att hänsyn tagits till individuella val som till exempel utbildning, yrke och arbetstid. Varför är det så? I den här rapporten till ESO studerar Anne Boschini utvecklingen av det så kallade könslönegapet i Sverige och diskuterar olika typer av diskriminering som kan förekomma. Hon finner att löneskillnaderna förvisso har minskat över tid, men att ett oförklarat lönegap mellan män och kvinnor kvarstår. För att ge kvinnor och män mer likartade förutsättningar på arbetsmarknaden föreslår Anne fasta inträdeslöner för nyutexaminerade och reformering av den svenska föräldraförsäkringen.

  • 231.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Dreber, Anna
    von Essen, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Muren, Astri
    Ranehill, Eva
    Gender, risk preferences and willingness to compete in a random sample of the Swedish population2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 232.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristin
    Gendered Trends in Income Inequality2018Inngår i: Nordic Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1904-4526, E-ISSN 1904-8092, nr 519, s. 100-127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the gender dimension of income inequality in the Nordic countries. While income inequality is commonly studied at the household level, we examine  individual-level inequality in order to measure differences between genders and within genders. We estimate Gini coefficients for men’s and women’s disposable and labour incomes separately, and study the trends in gender gaps at different percentile levels. Our results emphasize that important gender differences in inequality are not captured by the commonly used household inequality measures, but need to be assessed employing individual-level inequality measures.

  • 233.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristin
    Roine, Jesper
    Women in top incomes – Evidence from Sweden 1971–20172020Inngår i: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 181, artikkel-id 104115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using yearly register data on the full population of Sweden we study gender differences in top incomes, down to the top 0.01 percentile group, over the period 1971–2017. We find that, while women are still a minority of the top decile, and typically make up a smaller share the higher up in the distribution we move, their presence has steadily increased in all top groups over the past half-century. At the beginning of the period, top income women relied more on capital incomes, but the rise in the share of top women is not due to the growing importance of capital. Instead, women have increased their presence in the top by gains in the top of labour incomes, while top income men have captured most of the growth in capital incomes. Studying gender differences in observable characteristics we find small gender differences in some respects, convergence in others, but also some important remaining differences. Overall, our results suggest that many findings in the top income literature have a clear gender component and that understanding gender equality in the top of the distribution requires studying not only earnings and labour market outcomes but also incomes from other sources, as well as family circumstances.

  • 234.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristin
    Roine, Jesper
    Women in top incomes - evidence from Sweden 1974-20132017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 235.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Roine, Jesper
    Kvinnorna i toppen av den svenska inkomstfördelningen2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Betydligt färre kvinnor än män har höga inkomster. Men sedan 1970-talet har andelen kvinnor i toppen av inkomstfördelningen tredubblats och utgör nu runt 18 procent. En internationell jämförelse visar dock att utvecklingen går snabbare i många andra länder.

    Sverige är vi vana vid att vara bland de bästa i världen på jämställdhet mellan kvinnor och män. Men ser man till den ekonomiska eliten är bilden en annan. De högsta positionerna i samhället innehas i betydligt större utsträckning av män än av kvinnor.

    Få kvinnor i toppen men andelen ökar stadigt. För att närmare förstå utvecklingen har tre nationalekonomer studerat balansen mellan könen i inkomstfördelningens topp sedan mitten av 1970-talet. Bilden som framträder är på många sätt positiv. Till exempel så har kvinnors representation i inkomsttoppen stadigt ökat och mest har det ökat i den absoluta toppen. I mitten av 1970-talet var andelen kvinnor i hundradelen av befolkningen med de högsta inkomsterna bara 6 procent. I dag är den runt 18 procent.

    Fler kvinnor har höga arbetsinkomster. En annan tydlig förändring är att kvinnor i högre utsträckning hamnar i toppen till följd av sin inkomst från arbete snarare än från kapital. Andelen änkor i toppen har också minskat.

    Kvinnorna i toppen är ofta gifta med höginkomsttagare. Forskarna har också studerat familjeförhållanden hos kvinnor och män med de högsta inkomsterna. Här finner de att de flesta män i toppen av inkomstfördelningen är gifta medan detta bara gäller ungefär hälften av kvinnorna. Dessutom är en majoritet av männen i toppen gifta med någon som inte befinner sig i inkomsttoppen, medan situationen är den omvända för kvinnorna i toppen.

    En anledning till att det ser ut så kan enligt författarna vara att villkoren för män och kvinnor i toppen av inkomstfördelningen ser mycket olika ut när det gäller möjligheterna att kombinera karriär med familjeliv.

  • 236.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Roine, Jesper
    Ny rapport: Näringslivet halkar efter2018Inngår i: Dagens industri, ISSN 0346-640XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 237.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Muren, Astri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Vetenskapliga sanningar och feministiska myter2011Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 39, s. 5-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en nyligen publicerad bok presenterar och avfärdar samhällsdebattören Pär Ström vad han betraktar som sex olika "feministiska myter". I denna artikel granskas framställningen. Vi finner att den på en rad punkter vilar på en mycket svag empirisk grund. Pär Ström använder sig av statistik och citat på ett selektivt vis och verkligheten är mer komplicerad än vad han vill ge sken av.

  • 238.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Muren, Astri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Constructing Gender Differences in the Economics Lab2012Inngår i: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 84, nr 3, s. 741-752Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of experimental design on male and female behavior in a dictator game. Following social identity we investigate how experimental procedure may affect outcome through gender priming, i.e. the activation of gender stereotypes specifying that women behave altruistically and men egoistically. We prime subjects by asking them to indicate their gender in a questionnaire, before playing the game. In our experiment, such gender priming is effective (i.e. creates a gender difference in generosity) in gender-mixed environments, but not in single-sex environments. Further, men are more sensitive to priming than women are.

  • 239.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Muren, Astri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Men among Men Don’t Take Norm Enforcement Seriously2011Inngår i: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 40, s. 523-529Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is ample evidence of a society-wide cooperation norm, it is not as clear who upholds this norm. In the present paper, we investigate whether there are gender differences with respect to norm enforcement. We let 1403 subjects play games of punishment and reward, individually or in groups with varying gender composition. Broadly, the results indicate that there are no clear gender differences: men are about as inclined as women to punish norm-breakers. However, behavior is context-dependent: men acting among other men are less inclined to uphold a cooperation norm than are women, or men in gender-mixed groups.

  • 240.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Pettersson, Jan
    Roine, Jesper
    The Resource Curse and its Potential Reversal2013Inngår i: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 43, s. 19-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent papers suggest that the negative association between natural resource intensity and economic growth can be reversed if institutional quality is high enough. We try to understand this result in more detail by decomposing the resource measure, using alternative measures of both resources and institutions, and by studying different time periods. While an institutional reversal is present in many specifications, only ores and metals interacted with the ICRG measure of institutional quality consistently have a negative growth effect but a positive interaction that turns the curse around when institutions are good enough.

  • 241.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Roine, Jesper
    The share of women in top incomes2020Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While the rising income share of top earners has received enormous attention in recent years, the share of women at the top has not been examined as closely. This column analyses income tax data from Sweden, where taxes are filed individually regardless of marital status. It finds that while the share of women among the wealthiest groups has steadily increased over time, women remain a clear minority, especially at the very top. Unlike top-income men, top-income women are much more likely to have partners who are also in the top of the income distribution.

  • 242.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Det ojämlika faderskapet2018Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 33-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att barnlösheten är högre bland män än bland kvinnor är välbekant, men inte lika känt är att barnlösheten bland män har ökat på senare år medan den har minskat något bland kvinnor. Samtidigt pekar tidigare studier på att de flesta individer önskar få barn någon gång i livet. Barnlösheten är således till övervägande del ofrivillig. I den här artikeln ger vi en översikt av kunskapsläget vad gäller manlig barnlöshet utifrån samhällsvetenskapliga studier och beskriver de barnlösa männen i fråga om utbildning, inkomst och sysselsättning. Vi pekar också ut några viktiga kunskapsluckor.

  • 243.
    Boström, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Education, skills and gender: The impact of a grading reform and the business cycle on labor market outcomes2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three self-contained essays in economics, all concerned with different aspects of education and labor market outcomes. The abstracts of the three studies are as follows.

    A flight of hurdles? Effects on graduation and long-term labor market outcomes of a nationwide grading reform.

    In the academic year 1994/1995, a grading reform was implemented in Swedish upper secondary schools. The reform replaced norm-referenced grading with criteria-referenced grading that raised the hurdle to graduate on time. By exploiting exogenous variation in exposure to the reform due to exact date of birth coupled with implementation date, the effects on upper secondary school completion and subsequent long-term labor market outcomes are explored in a difference-in-discontinuity design. Results indicate that the probability to graduate from upper secondary school decreased throughout the ability distribution, with the strongest effects at the left tail. Furthermore, many of these individuals still lack a degree at age 33. Nevertheless, the grading reform does not seem to have had any clear effects on long-term labor market outcomes.

    The effects of graduating from college in a recession: The case of Sweden

    This paper studies the long-term labor market consequences of graduating college into the Swedish economic crises of the 1990s. I use a sample of Sweden born men who graduated college between the years 1985 and 1998. I estimate the effects of labor market conditions at the time of graduation on labor market outcomes using a panel covering 12 years post-graduation. Since the timing of graduation might be affected by economic conditions, I instrument the unemployment rate at graduation using the unemployment rate at age 25, which is the modal age of graduation. I find a significant negative effect on real annual earnings that last up to 5 years after graduation before fading out. The heterogeneity analysis reveals that graduates in the lower end of the distribution of cognitive abilities experience a substantial earnings loss that persists for at least eight years before fading out, while individuals with high cognitive ability are unaffected. Furthermore, I find that graduates well-endowed with noncognitive abilities, individuals we would expect to perform well on the labor market, also experience significant earnings losses.

    Gender and field of study: The impact of graduating college into a recession.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate if there are gender differences from entering the labor market during an economic downturn. Using a sample of Swedish college graduates who completed their first college degree between 1996 and 2007, I estimate short- and medium-term effects of graduating into adverse labor market conditions on a range of labor market outcomes such as annual earnings, nonemployment and skill-mismatch. I find that the overall differences between the genders of graduating college into a recession are driven by the choice of field of study and the fact that females outnumber male graduates with degrees aimed towards occupations in the public sector. The analysis shows only small differences between the genders when I compare outcomes within Business, Law and Engineering graduates, degrees leading to occupations that typically require workers to maintain a high degree of labor market attachment.

  • 244.
    Branson, William H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Factor Inputs, U.S. Trade, and the Heckscher-Ohlin Model1973Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 245.
    Branson, William H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Factor Inputs, U.S. Trade, and the Heckscher-Ohlin Model1973Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 246.
    Branson, William H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Macroeconomic Equilibrium with Portfolio Balance in Open Economies1972Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 247.
    Branson, William H.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Myhrman, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Inflation in Open Economies: Supple-Determined versus Demand-Determined Models1973Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 248.
    Brash, Donald T.
    Governor of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
    Inflation Targeting in New Zealand: Experience and Practice1998Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 249.
    Brash, Donald T.
    Governor of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
    Inflation Targeting in New Zealand: Experience and Practice1998Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 250. Bratberg, Espen
    et al.
    Davis, Jonathan
    Mazumder, Bhashkar
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Schnitzlein, Daniel D.
    Vaage, Kjell
    A Comparison of Intergenerational Mobility Curves in Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the US2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, nr 1, s. 72-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine intergenerational mobility differences between Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the US. Using ranks, we find that the US is substantially less intergenerationally mobile than the three European countries and that the most mobile region of the US is less mobile than the least mobile regions of Norway and Sweden. Using a linear estimator of income share mobility, we find that the four countries have very similar rates of intergenerational mobility. However, when we use non-parametric versions of rank and income share mobility, we find that the US tends to experience lower upward mobility at the bottom of the income distribution than Norway and Sweden.

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