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  • 201.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Dreber, Anna
    von Essen, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Muren, Astri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Ranehill, Eva
    Gender and altruism in a random sample2018Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, ISSN 2214-8043, E-ISSN 2214-8051, Vol. 77, s. 72-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study gender differences in altruism in a large random sample of the Swedish population using a standard dictator game. Beside a baseline treatment we implement a priming treatment where participants are reminded of their gender, and two treatments with known male and female counterpart respectively. We find suggestive evidence that women are more altruistic than men only in the priming treatment. A post-hoc analysis using data on interviewer gender to explore gender context effects indicates that priming affects behavior only in mixedgender contexts.

  • 202.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Dreber, Anna
    von Essen, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Muren, Astri
    Ranehill, Eva
    Gender, risk preferences and willingness to compete in a random sample of the Swedish population2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 203.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Dreber, Anna
    von Essen, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Muren, Astri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Ranehill, Eva
    Gender, risk preferences and willingness to compete in a random sample of the Swedish population2019Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, ISSN 2214-8043, E-ISSN 2214-8051, Vol. 83, artikkel-id 101467Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental results from student and other non-representative convenience samples often suggest that men, on average, are more risk taking and competitive than women. We explore whether these gender preference gaps also exist in incentivized tasks in a simple random sample of the Swedish adult population. Our design comprises four different conditions to systematically explore how the experimental context may impact gender gaps; a baseline condition, a condition where participants are primed with their own gender, and two conditions where the participants know the gender of their counterpart (man or woman). We further look at competitiveness in two domains: a math task and a verbal task. We find no gender gap in risk taking or competitiveness in the verbal task in this random sample. There is some support for men being more competitive than women in the math task in the pooled sample, but the effect size is small. We further find no consistent impact of the respective conditions on (the absence of) the gender gap in preferences.

  • 204.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristin
    Gendered Trends in Income Inequality2018Inngår i: Nordic Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1904-4526, E-ISSN 1904-8092, nr 519, s. 100-127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the gender dimension of income inequality in the Nordic countries. While income inequality is commonly studied at the household level, we examine  individual-level inequality in order to measure differences between genders and within genders. We estimate Gini coefficients for men’s and women’s disposable and labour incomes separately, and study the trends in gender gaps at different percentile levels. Our results emphasize that important gender differences in inequality are not captured by the commonly used household inequality measures, but need to be assessed employing individual-level inequality measures.

  • 205.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristin
    Roine, Jesper
    Women in top incomes – Evidence from Sweden 1971–20172020Inngår i: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 181, artikkel-id 104115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using yearly register data on the full population of Sweden we study gender differences in top incomes, down to the top 0.01 percentile group, over the period 1971–2017. We find that, while women are still a minority of the top decile, and typically make up a smaller share the higher up in the distribution we move, their presence has steadily increased in all top groups over the past half-century. At the beginning of the period, top income women relied more on capital incomes, but the rise in the share of top women is not due to the growing importance of capital. Instead, women have increased their presence in the top by gains in the top of labour incomes, while top income men have captured most of the growth in capital incomes. Studying gender differences in observable characteristics we find small gender differences in some respects, convergence in others, but also some important remaining differences. Overall, our results suggest that many findings in the top income literature have a clear gender component and that understanding gender equality in the top of the distribution requires studying not only earnings and labour market outcomes but also incomes from other sources, as well as family circumstances.

  • 206.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristin
    Roine, Jesper
    Women in top incomes - evidence from Sweden 1974-20132017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 207.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Roine, Jesper
    Kvinnorna i toppen av den svenska inkomstfördelningen2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Betydligt färre kvinnor än män har höga inkomster. Men sedan 1970-talet har andelen kvinnor i toppen av inkomstfördelningen tredubblats och utgör nu runt 18 procent. En internationell jämförelse visar dock att utvecklingen går snabbare i många andra länder.

    Sverige är vi vana vid att vara bland de bästa i världen på jämställdhet mellan kvinnor och män. Men ser man till den ekonomiska eliten är bilden en annan. De högsta positionerna i samhället innehas i betydligt större utsträckning av män än av kvinnor.

    Få kvinnor i toppen men andelen ökar stadigt. För att närmare förstå utvecklingen har tre nationalekonomer studerat balansen mellan könen i inkomstfördelningens topp sedan mitten av 1970-talet. Bilden som framträder är på många sätt positiv. Till exempel så har kvinnors representation i inkomsttoppen stadigt ökat och mest har det ökat i den absoluta toppen. I mitten av 1970-talet var andelen kvinnor i hundradelen av befolkningen med de högsta inkomsterna bara 6 procent. I dag är den runt 18 procent.

    Fler kvinnor har höga arbetsinkomster. En annan tydlig förändring är att kvinnor i högre utsträckning hamnar i toppen till följd av sin inkomst från arbete snarare än från kapital. Andelen änkor i toppen har också minskat.

    Kvinnorna i toppen är ofta gifta med höginkomsttagare. Forskarna har också studerat familjeförhållanden hos kvinnor och män med de högsta inkomsterna. Här finner de att de flesta män i toppen av inkomstfördelningen är gifta medan detta bara gäller ungefär hälften av kvinnorna. Dessutom är en majoritet av männen i toppen gifta med någon som inte befinner sig i inkomsttoppen, medan situationen är den omvända för kvinnorna i toppen.

    En anledning till att det ser ut så kan enligt författarna vara att villkoren för män och kvinnor i toppen av inkomstfördelningen ser mycket olika ut när det gäller möjligheterna att kombinera karriär med familjeliv.

  • 208.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Roine, Jesper
    Ny rapport: Näringslivet halkar efter2018Inngår i: Dagens industri, ISSN 0346-640XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 209.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Roine, Jesper
    The share of women in top incomes2020Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While the rising income share of top earners has received enormous attention in recent years, the share of women at the top has not been examined as closely. This column analyses income tax data from Sweden, where taxes are filed individually regardless of marital status. It finds that while the share of women among the wealthiest groups has steadily increased over time, women remain a clear minority, especially at the very top. Unlike top-income men, top-income women are much more likely to have partners who are also in the top of the income distribution.

  • 210.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Håkanson, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Rosen, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Trading Off or Having It All? Completed Fertility and Mid-career Earnings of Swedish Men and Women2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 211.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Det ojämlika faderskapet2018Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 33-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att barnlösheten är högre bland män än bland kvinnor är välbekant, men inte lika känt är att barnlösheten bland män har ökat på senare år medan den har minskat något bland kvinnor. Samtidigt pekar tidigare studier på att de flesta individer önskar få barn någon gång i livet. Barnlösheten är således till övervägande del ofrivillig. I den här artikeln ger vi en översikt av kunskapsläget vad gäller manlig barnlöshet utifrån samhällsvetenskapliga studier och beskriver de barnlösa männen i fråga om utbildning, inkomst och sysselsättning. Vi pekar också ut några viktiga kunskapsluckor.

  • 212.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Can you stay at home today?: The relationship between economic dependence, parents' occupation and care leave for sick children2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 213.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Can you stay home today? Parents’ occupations, relative resources and division of care leave for sick children2015Inngår i: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 58, nr 4, s. 357-370Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This is one of only a few studies on the division of care leave for sick children (temporary parental leave) between parents in Sweden and is the first to examine the importance of differences in parents’ work characteristics. The study uses register data for parents with children born between 1999 and 2002 to analyse two aspects of parents’ employment that may be of importance for the division of care leave: their relative resources, in this case wages, and different occupations. First, the results show that a father’s share of care leave increases as the mother’s relative wage decreases. This suggests that decisions about care leave are influenced by bargaining power gained through differences in resources. Second, the resources of couples where both partners work in the same occupation are more equal, and such couples also divide care leave more equally than couples with different occupations. However, the fact that same-occupation couples tend to share care leave more equally does not seem to be explained by similarities in the partners’ work characteristics, and may instead be due to unmeasured, stable characteristics. Greater income and career possibilities for the women are proposed as a possible explanation of the division of care leave for same-occupation couples.

  • 214.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Care more, earn less? The association between care leave for sick children and wage among Swedish parents2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have shown that women’s and men’s wages relate to parenthood in general and to parental leave in particular, but we know little about the possible wage impact of leave to care for sick children, which is a part of the Swedish parental leave system. On the one hand, care leave may influence human capital and real or perceived work capacity similarly to parental leave and send the employer the same signals about work commitment and responsibilities outside of work. On the other hand, important differences, including timing, frequency and predictability, between care leave and parental leave influence paid work. This study uses Swedish register data to analyse the association between care leave and wages among mothers and fathers who had their first child in 1994. The results show that care leave is associated with a lower wage, particularly among men, up to 13 years after the birth of the first child. One reason for the gender difference in the association between care leave and wage may be that men’s care leave has a stronger signalling effect compared with women’s care leave.

  • 215.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Care More, Earn Less? The Association between Taking Paid Leave to Care for Sick Children and Wages among Swedish Parents2019Inngår i: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 983-1001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wages are related to parenthood and to child-related absences from work. The link between leave to care for sick children (CSC) and wages is understudied, however. CSC may negatively influence human capital and work capacity, and send the employer signals about work commitment. The short spells of CSC make this form of leave particularly suitable for testing the signalling theory. This study analysed data from Swedish population registers and showed that CSC use was associated with lower wages, particularly among men, up to 13 years after the birth of the first child. The association was strongest at high wage levels. Self-selection of parents with certain unmeasured characteristics into (high) CSC use was one, but not the only, explanation. The results support the idea that child-related time off negatively influences wages through a signalling effect. In addition, human capital or work capacity may suffer with frequent CSC use.

  • 216.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Dual-Earner Couples/Dual-Career Couples2014Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. / [ed] Axel C. Michalos, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, s. 1703-1706Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 217.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Happy hour? Studies on well-being and time spent on paid and unpaid work2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis focuses on causes and consequences of paid working hours and housework hours among women and men in Sweden and Europe. It consists of four studies.

    Study I investigates changes in the division of housework in Swedish couples when they become parents. The study shows that women adjust their housework hours to the number and age of children in the household, whereas men do not. Longer parental leave periods among fathers have the potential to counteract this change towards a more traditional division of housework.

    Study II explores the associations between psychological distress and paid working hours, housework hours and total role time in Sweden. The results suggest that women’s psychological distress decreases with increasing paid working hours and housework hours, but that a long total role time is associated with high levels of distress. The gender difference in time spent on housework accounts for 40 per cent of the gender difference in psychological distress.

    Study III asks whether hours spent on paid work and housework account for the European gender difference in well-being, and whether the associations between well-being and hours of paid work and housework is influenced by gender attitudes and social comparison. The results indicate that gender differences in time spent on paid work and housework account for a third of the gender difference in well-being. Gender attitudes and social comparison do not to any great extent influence the associations between well-being and paid work and housework, respectively.

    Study IV examines possible differences between European family policy models in the associations between well-being and hours of paid work and housework. Some model differences are found, and they are accounted for by experiences of work-family conflict among men, but not among women. For both women and men, work-family conflict appears to suppress positive aspects of paid working hours.

  • 218.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    How children impact on parent’s division of labour: A longitudinal study of changes in housework following the birth of a childManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 219.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Hushållsarbetets tid och fördelning2014Inngår i: Lönsamt arbete -  familjeansvarets fördelning och konsekvenser / [ed] Boye, K. och Nermo, M, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2014, s. 95-129Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 220.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mer vab, lägre lön? Uttag av tillfällig föräldrapenning för vård av barn och lön bland svenska föräldrar2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett flertal studier som visar att kvinnors och mäns löner hänger samman med föräldraskap i allmänhet och föräldraledighet i synnerhet. Lönen är lägre ju längre en förälder varit föräldraledig, vilket kan bero på att frånvaron påverkar individens humankapital eller att arbetsgivare tolkar frånvaron som ett tecken på bristande engagemang i arbetet. Vi vet dock väldigt lite om löneeffekter av tillfällig föräldrapenning för vård av barn, så kallad vab. Å ena sidan är det möjligt att vab påverkar humankapital och faktisk eller förväntad arbetskapacitet på samma sätt som föräldraledighet tycks göra. Å andra sidan finns det viktiga skillnader mellan vab och föräldraledighet när det gäller hur länge och ofta ledigheten tas ut och hur långt i förväg arbetsgivaren får reda på att en förälder ska vara frånvarande. I den här studien används svenska registerdata för att analysera sambandet mellan vab och lön bland mödrar och fäder som fick sitt första barn 1994. Dessa föräldrar följs fram till och med 2007. Resultaten visar att det finns ett samband mellan ett större uttag av vab-dagar och lägre lön, speciellt bland män, upp till 13 år efter första barnets födelse. En förklaring till könsskillnaden i sambandet mellan vab och lön kan vara att arbetsgivare i högre grad tolkar mäns vab-frånvaro än kvinnors vab som ett tecken på lågt engagemang i arbetet.

  • 221.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mot ett nytt föräldraskap2014Inngår i: Glimtar av jämställdhet / [ed] Anne Grönlund, Umeå: Boréa bokförlag , 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 222.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Relatively Different? How do Gender Differences in Well-Being Depend on Paid and Unpaid Work in Europe?2009Inngår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 93, nr 3, s. 509-525Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 223.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Time spent working: Paid work, housework and the gender difference in psychological distress2010Inngår i: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 419-442Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the connection between the time that women and men spend on paid work and housework and psychological distress, and addresses the question whether gender differences in time spent on these activities account for the gender difference in psychological distress. A group (n =1,277) of employed and cohabiting women and men from the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey 2000 (LNU 2000) are analysed using OLS regression. Results show that time spent on housework explains part of the gender difference in psychological distress. Among women, paid working time and possibly time spent on housework are associated with low psychological distress. However, spending too much time on one role decreases the possible beneficial effect of the other, and this is mainly caused by the resulting increase in total role time. Men's level of psychological distress is not associated with hours of paid work or housework. The study also shows that the division of housework between women and men is unusually uneven in households where women have a long total role time. Thus, an increase in men's participation in housework could decrease the gender difference in psychological distress as well as the number of women experiencing a high workload.

  • 224.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Work and well-being in a comparative perspective - the role of family policy2011Inngår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 16-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates whether associations between well-being and paid work and housework, respectively, differ between European family policy models, and whether any such differences can be attributed to differences in the experience of work–family conflict. Analysing data on mothers and fathers in 18 European countries, the study finds that the traditional family policy model shows the most positive association between women’s well-being and paid working hours, although this association is concealed by work–family conflict. Possibly, the selection into long paid working hours of women with rewarding jobs is greater here than elsewhere. Women’s housework hours are also most positively associated with well-being in the traditional model, although well-being decreases when housework hours become too long. In the market-oriented model, women’s paid working hours and housework hours are instead associated with decreasing well-being, the former association appearing to be caused by work–family conflict. The strongest positive association between men’s paid working hours and well-being is found in the market-oriented model, but again, control for work–family conflict reveals positive associations in this and other models. Hence, among both mothers and fathers, work–family conflict appears to be one important reason why paid working hours are not more clearly associated with high levels of well-being.

  • 225.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Föräldraskapsideal och deras förverkligande: En forskarrapport om föräldrars uppfattning om vad som underlättar och förhindrar ett delat föräldraskap i Sverige2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 226.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vem gör vad när? Kvinnors och mäns tid i betalt och obetalt arbete2014Inngår i: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, s. 158-184Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 227.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Grönlund, Anne
    Workplace Skill Investments - An Early Career Glass Ceiling? Job Complexity and Wages Among Young Professionals in Sweden2018Inngår i: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 368-386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite higher educational investments, women fall behind men on most indicators of labour market success. This study investigates whether workplace skill investments set men and women off on different tracks in which the human capital acquired through higher education is either devalued or further developed. A survey sample of Swedish men and women who recently graduated from five educational programmes, leading to occupations with different gender composition, is analysed (N approximate to 2300). Results show that, a few years after graduation, men are more likely than women to acquire complex jobs and that this difference contributes to early career gender gaps in wages and employee bargaining power. The findings do not support the notion that child-related work interruptions provide a main mechanism for sorting women into less complex jobs.

  • 228.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Halldén, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Könslönegapets utveckling. Betydelsen av yrkets kvalifikationsnivå och familjeansvar2014Inngår i: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, s. 185-211Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 229.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Halldén, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Stagnation only on the surface? The implications of skill and family responsibilities for the gender wage gap in Sweden, 1974–20102017Inngår i: British Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0007-1315, E-ISSN 1468-4446, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 595-619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The wage differential between women and men persists in advanced economies despite the inflow of women into qualified occupations in recent years. Using five waves of the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey (LNU), this paper explores the gender wage gap in Sweden during the 1974–2010 period overall and by skill level. The empirical analyses showed that the general gender wage gap has been nearly unchanged for the past 30 years. However, the gender difference in wage in less qualified occupations fell considerably, whereas the gender pay gap remained stable for men and women in qualified occupations. The larger significance of family responsibilities for wages in qualified occupations is one likely explanation for this result.

  • 230.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nermo, MagnusStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lönsamt arbete: familjeansvarets fördelning och konsekvenser2014Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 231. Bradbury, Bruce
    et al.
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Labour Income, Social Transfers and Child Poverty2019Inngår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 143, nr 1, s. 251-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper documents the variation in living standards of the poorest fifth of children in rich (and some middle-income) nations, with a focus on the relative importance and interaction of social transfers (net of taxes) and labour market incomes. Overall, the cross-national variation in the disposable income of disadvantaged children is comprised equally of variation in market and transfer income (with the two negatively correlated). The English-speaking countries stand out as all having relatively low market incomes, but substantial variation in transfer income. Their low market incomes reflect low employment hours in Australia and primarily low hours in the UK and Ireland, while in the US and Canada low hours and low pay contribute equally. Comparing incomes prior to and after the 2008 financial crisis, the real disposable incomes of the poorest fifth decreased substantially in Greece, Spain and Ireland, but were relatively stable in other rich nations.

  • 232.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Can the trailing spouse phenomenon be explained by employer recruitment choices?2018Inngår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, nr 6, artikkel-id e2141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that couples tend to relocate for the sake of the man's career rather than the woman's, also known as the “trailing spouse phenomenon.” The role of employer choices in this process is unknown however. If employers are hesitant to make job offers to women who live a long way from the workplace (e.g., because of work–family balance concerns or a perceived risk that they will not follow through on their applications, or stay hired if employed), this tendency might constitute an underlying mechanism behind the moving premium of partnered men. Ours is the first study to empirically test whether employers prefer geographically distant men over geographically distant women. We sent applications for 1,410 job openings in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parental status to otherwise equivalent applications from cohabiting or married women and men and recorded employer callbacks to these. The results indicate that employers in general tend to disfavour job applicants who live a long way from the employer's workplace. This tendency is stronger for women, both for mothers and for women with no children. Our estimated effects are imprecise but clearly suggest that employer recruitment choices contribute to the trailing spouse phenomenon by offering men a larger pool of geographically distant jobs. We call for more research on this hitherto ignored mechanism behind the trailing spouse phenomenon.

  • 233. Bratberg, Espen
    et al.
    Davis, Jonathan
    Mazumder, Bhashkar
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Schnitzlein, Daniel D.
    Vaage, Kjell
    A Comparison of Intergenerational Mobility Curves in Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the US2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, nr 1, s. 72-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine intergenerational mobility differences between Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the US. Using ranks, we find that the US is substantially less intergenerationally mobile than the three European countries and that the most mobile region of the US is less mobile than the least mobile regions of Norway and Sweden. Using a linear estimator of income share mobility, we find that the four countries have very similar rates of intergenerational mobility. However, when we use non-parametric versions of rank and income share mobility, we find that the US tends to experience lower upward mobility at the bottom of the income distribution than Norway and Sweden.

  • 234. Breen, R.
    et al.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Explaining Change in Social Fluidity: Educational Equalization and Educational Expansion in Twentieth-Century Sweden2007Inngår i: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 112, nr 6, s. 1775-1810Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 235. Breen, Richard
    et al.
    Mood, Carina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Nuffield College, Oxford University, UK.
    How much scope for a mobility paradox? The relationship between social and income mobility in Sweden2016Inngår i: Sociological Science, ISSN 0132-1625, E-ISSN 2330-6696, Vol. 3, s. 39-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often pointed out that conclusions about intergenerational (parent–child) mobility can differ depending on whether we base them on studies of class or income. We analyze empirically the degree of overlap in income and social mobility; we demonstrate mathematically the nature of their relationship; and we show, using simulations, how intergenerational income correlations relate to relative social mobility rates. Analyzing Swedish longitudinal register data on the incomes and occupations of over 300,000 parent–child pairs, we find that social mobility accounts for up to 49 percent of the observed intergenerational income correlations. This figure is somewhat greater for a fine-graded micro-class classification than a five-class schema and somewhat greater for women than men. There is a positive relationship between intergenerational social fluidity and income correlations, but it is relatively weak. Our empirical results, and our simulations verify that the overlap between income mobility and social mobility leaves ample room for the two indicators to move in different directions over time or show diverse patterns across countries. We explain the circumstances in which income and social mobility will change together or co-vary positively and the circumstances in which they will diverge.

  • 236.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Children's Living Conditions: Studies on Health, Family and School2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation includes four empirical studies, each of which focuses on specific aspects of children’s living conditions.

    Study I analyses the association between young people’s social relations and health complaints using Swedish nationally representative survey data on 10- to 18-year-olds. Both relations with parents and with peers are associated with health complaints. Relational content is more strongly associated with health complaints than is relational structure. With regard to relational content, strained relations are more strongly associated with health complaints than are supportive relations.

    Study II investigates how effort and reward in school are associated with pupils’ subjective health using data from the Stockholm School Survey. Both effort and reward are shown to be positively associated with subjective health, and in particular pupils who report to put in high effort in school have high levels of subjective health. Contextual variation in health is found for girls but not for boys.

    Study III is based on Swedish register data and analyses the association between family type and choice of programme in upper secondary school. Children in single-mother households less often choose the natural science/technology (NT) programme compared with children who live with two original parents. Having a resident or a non-resident parent with NT skills is positively associated with choice of the NT programme.

    Study IV analyses the association between family type and social support, health, and material resources in 24 countries. The data are derived from the international Health Behaviour of School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. In a majority of the countries studied, children in single-mother households report smaller resources compared with children living with two original parents. No clear pattern is found with regard to differences between countries.

  • 237.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Family structure and children’s living conditions: A comparative study of 24 countries2010Inngår i: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 127-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses large-scale cross-national data from 24 countries to describe the living conditions of children residing with a single mother as compared with children who live with two original parents. Three central areas are studied: children’s social support, health, and material resources. The data are derived from the international WHO study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) of 2001/02. The survey includes nationally representative samples of school pupils of 11, 13, and 15 years of age in countries in Europe and North America and in Israel. After relevant selections, total n=95,335. The general finding is that children in single-mother households have lower social support from parents, poorer health, and smaller material resources than children living with two original parents. The general tendency is rather similar across a large number of countries although more differences are found in some countries and fewer in others. There is no clear pattern in how the association with family type varies between countries, for example, according to the share of single-mother households, by welfare state regime, or in relation to single parents’ employment rates.

  • 238.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Parent presence and gender-typicalness of educational choice2008Inngår i: British Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0007-1315, E-ISSN 1468-4446, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 757-782Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Given parental influence on children’s educational choices, new family constellations may impact on sex segregation in school and thus in the labour market. This paper addresses the question of what consequence father absence and stepfather presence may have for choice of the male-dominated natural science/technology (NT) programme in Swedish upper secondary school. The data include register information on all pupils who attended the ninth grade of the Swedish compulsory school in 1998 and 1999 and their parents (n=73,824). While children in mother-only households are less likely to choose the NT programme compared with children residing with two original parents, this is accounted for by differences in socioeconomic conditions and in grade sum. Fathers, like mothers, also have a more direct influence on children’s educational choices of field of study via their own education and occupation. However, what has not been noted in previous research is that this also applies to 'absent' fathers and, for boys, to stepfathers as well.

  • 239.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Future orientation, gambling and risk gambling among youth: a study of adolescents in Stockholm2020Inngår i: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 52-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between adolescents’ future orientation and their engagement in gambling and in risk gambling, respectively. The data used come from the Stockholm School Survey, collected in 2016 among students in the ninth grade in elementary school (15–16 years) and in the second grade of upper secondary school (17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality (n = 11,661). The results showed that adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much worse’ than that of others were more inclined to engage in gambling and in risk gambling compared with adolescents who expected their future to be similar to that of others. Furthermore, adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much better’ than that of others had an increased likelihood of engaging in gambling but not in risk gambling. The results are discussed in the light of elements from rational choice theory.

  • 240.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Do health complaints in adolescence negatively predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood?2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 878-885Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-reported psychological and psychosomatic health complaints, such as nervousness, sadness, headache and stomach-ache, are common among adolescents, particularly among girls, and studies suggest that the prevalence has risen among adolescent girls during the last few decades. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the potential long-term consequences of such health complaints. The aim of the current study was to assess whether psychological and psychosomatic health complaints in adolescence predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood among women and men. Methods: The data used are from the Swedish Young-LNU, which is based on a nationally representative sample with self-reported survey information from adolescents aged 10–18 years in 2000 and from the same individuals at ages 20–28 in 2010 (n=783). Information was also collected from parents and from official registers. Results: Linear probability models showed that self-reported psychological complaints in adolescence were associated with a lower chance of having entered tertiary education 10 years later. This association was accounted for by differences in grade point average (GPA), suggesting that GPA may mediate the association between psychological complaints and later education. The pattern was similar for both genders. Furthermore, among men, psychosomatic complaints in adolescence were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of having entered tertiary education 10 years later when adjusting for GPA and social class in adolescence. A similar but non-significant tendency was found among women. Conclusions: The findings suggest that health complaints in adolescence may have long-term consequences in terms of lower educational attainment.

  • 241.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School-performance indicators and subjective health complaints: are there gender differences?2012Inngår i: Sociology of Health and Illness, ISSN 0141-9889, E-ISSN 1467-9566, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 608-625Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although boys and girls are generally located in the same physical school environment, it may be experienced differently by, and have varying implications for, boys and girls. Girls like school more and achieve higher school marks, but they also perceive more school-related pressure. Based on a total sample of 8456 ninth grade pupils in Stockholm in 2004, this study uses multilevel linear regression to analyse differences between boys and girls with regard to a number of school-performance indicators (demands, motivation, teacher support and school marks) and their association with subjective health complaints. Results showed that girls perceive more demands, show greater academic motivation, perform better in school and report more emotional support from teachers than boys. In contrast, instrumental and appraisal support from teachers are more commonly reported by boys. Associations between school-performance indicators and subjective health complaints were slightly stronger for girls than for boys. Contextual variation in health complaints, especially between classes, was found only for girls. High achievement motivation and emotional teacher support in the school class was associated with better pupil health, suggesting that a positive climate in terms of motivation and support favours class health as a whole.

  • 242.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School-related stress and subjective health: Effort and reward among school pupilsArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyses the relationship between effort and reward in school and the subjective health of ninth grade pupils in Stockholm, Sweden. Effort is constructed from two items: the pupil’s own assessment of his or her effort in very difficult school tasks, and whether he or she chooses to do something else if the school task is perceived as boring. Reward is operationalized in two alternate ways: as school marks, and as appreciation from teachers. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey (Stockholmsenkäten) of 2004, a survey of all pupils in the greater Stockholm area who attended the ninth and final grade of comprehensive school in 2004 (n=8,695). Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted. The main findings are that both effort and reward are positively related to pupils’ subjective health, and that high effort in particular is associated with better subjective health. Low effort combined with low reward in terms of school marks is associated with the poorest health, although this is largely accounted for by confounding variables. Low effort and low reward in terms of little appreciation from teachers are associated with the poorest health also when potential confounders are controlled for. Contextual effects on subjective health are found for girls but not for boys.

  • 243.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Pros and cons of social relations: An analysis of adolescents’ health complaints2006Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 611-623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the association between social relations and psychological and psychosomatic health complaints, among adolescents in Sweden. We focused on relationships with parents, as well as relationships with peers in school and in leisure time. Both the structure and the content of relations were analysed. For the latter, we looked at supportive as well as strained relations. The data was the pooled child supplements of the Swedish welfare surveys conducted in 2000–2003. This constitutes a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of 10–18-year-olds (n=5137), where information was collected from both adolescents and their parents. Results showed that young people's social relations with parents and peers clearly covaried with their health complaints. With regard to family relations and psychological complaints, the association was more pronounced for relational content than for relational structure. For instance, whether relations with parents were strained or not seemed more relevant than family structure and parental working hours. Moreover, strained relations were more strongly associated with health complaints, especially psychosomatic complaints, than were supportive relations. This applied to relationships with parents as well as with peers in school.

  • 244. Brunborg, Geir Scott
    et al.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Storvoll, Elisabet E.
    Latent developmental trajectories of episodic heavy drinking from adolescence to early adulthood: Predictors of trajectory groups and alcohol problems in early adulthood as outcome2018Inngår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 389-395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. To identify latent developmental episodic heavy drinking (EHD) trajectory groups for Norwegian adolescents, investigate risk factors associated with group membership and to assess differences in alcohol problems between different groups in early adulthood. Design and Methods. Data were from 1266 individuals measured at four time points from age 13/14years to age 26/27years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify groups with different EHD development. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigated if gender, impulsivity, school commitment, parents' socio-economic status, frequency of seeing parents drunk and parental knowledge could predict group membership. Differences in alcohol problem scores at age 26/27 were also assessed. Results. Four trajectory groups were identified: stable high', early increasers', late increasers' and stable low'. Membership of the high-risk trajectory groups stable high' and early increasers' was predicted by high impulsivity, low school commitment, high frequency of seeing parents drunk and low parental knowledge. The risk of alcohol problems at age 26/27 was greater for the stable high' group, the early increasers' and the late increasers' compared with the stable low' group. The stable high' and early increasers' had similar risk of alcohol problems. Discussion and Conclusions. Stable high and early increasing EHD in adolescence was associated with more alcohol problems in early adulthood. Such trajectories were predicted by high impulsivity, low school commitment, high frequency of seeing parents drunk and low parental knowledge. [Brunborg GS, Norstrom T, Storvoll EE. Latent developmental trajectories of episodic heavy drinking from adolescence to early adulthood: Predictors of trajectory groups and alcohol problems in early adulthood as outcome.

  • 245.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Making their mark. Disentangling the Effects of Neighbourhood and School Environments on Educational Achievement2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 246.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Making their mark: the effects of neighbourhood and upper secondary school on educational achievement2008Inngår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 463-478Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the literature on neighbourhood and school effects on individual educational outcomes by asking whether and to what extent adolescent educational achievement in metropolitan Sweden is determined by neighbourhood and upper secondary school characteristics net of observed individual-level background attributes. Extensive cross-classified multilevel regression analyses of comprehensive leaving certificate data for around 26,000 upper secondary school students show that characteristics attributable to upper secondary schools matter much more for the variability in achievement than do neighbourhoods. There are also indications of contextual effects of neighbour and schoolmate characteristics that operate above and beyond the impact of observed individual-level background attributes. Since the estimated effects of concentrations of (dis)advantage and immigrant density at neighbourhood and school level point in different directions, this study demonstrates the benefits of analysing the effects of neighbourhood and school on individual educational outcomes at the same time.

  • 247.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Neighbourhood effects on young people’s future living conditions: longitudinal findings from Sweden2012Inngår i: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 325-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neighbourhood effects on young people's future living conditions: longitudinal findings from Sweden Using extensive longitudinal data for three Swedish birth cohorts born in the late 1970s, this study asked whether the social characteristics of the neighbourhood affect future outcomes that are important for their living conditions (labour-market participation, economic hardship and criminality). To assist decision-making about the balance between area-targeted policies and wider form of social interventions at the individual level, this study also assessed whether the estimated impact of neighbourhood context has any bearing on the effect of preventive interventions directed at distressed neighbourhoods. The overall findings suggest that there is no clear evidence that the impact of neighbourhood varies sufficiently between the different types of neighbourhoods when selection and other confounding factors have been taken into consideration. It is concluded that the estimated effect of neighbourhood on youth development does not underpin area-targeted policies directed at distressed neighbourhoods.

  • 248.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Om särskilt kvalificerad kontaktperson - mentorskap och dess effekter2010Inngår i: Ungdomar som begår brott - Vilka insatser fungerar? / [ed] A-K. Andershed, K. Söderholm Carpelan, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag , 2010, s. 108-119Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 249.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Phantom of the Neighbourhood: Longitudinal Studies on Area-based Conditions and Individual Outcomes2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained but interrelated empirical studies focusing on theoretical, empirical and political questions in the multidisciplinary field of neighbourhood effect research. Along with a comprehensive introductory essay, each study addresses questions concerning the potential influence of neighbourhood characteristics on individual social and economic outcomes at different life stages.

    Study I combines longitudinal register and survey data from the ‘golden era’ of Swedish welfare policy to evaluate a hypothesised impact of neighbourhood poverty during adolescence on a wide range of outcomes (including, but not limited to, educational and employment status) within a counterfactual model framework based on matching on propensity scores. Extensive empirical analyses indicate that, when two groups of children who are identical according to observed factors before age 10 (including household income, family structure and welfare receipt) live in different types of neighbourhood in adolescence, the outcome for those who grow up in a poor neighbourhood is not more likely to be worse than for those who grow up in a more affluent neighbourhood.

    Study II considers the maximum theoretical scope of unique neighbourhood influence experienced during the years of growth on individuals’ later life income and social assistance recipiency. A three-level hierarchical linear model is applied to simultaneously distinguish variation in the outcomes over time from variation that is attributable to differences between neighbourhoods. By utilising longitudinal register data derived from a birth cohort who grew up in Stockholm at a time when Swedish welfare policy ambitions were at a peak, this study attempts to estimate the long-term significance of neighbourhood origin in the Swedish setting. The analyses clearly show that prior place of residence accounts for an exceedingly modest proportion of the variation in cohort members’ subsequent income and receipt of social assistance.

    Study III explores the hypothesised negative impact of disadvantaged neighbourhood conditions, individual disadvantage, and degree of labour market establishment on levels of social trust. Using data from the Swedish Longitudinal Survey among Unemployed, ordered logit regression analyses indicate that low levels of social trust are contingent upon perceived neighbourhood disorder, personal powerlessness, perceived fear of victimisation, and accumulated episodes of temporary employment. The tentative results also indicate that neighbourhood disorder, powerlessness, and fear of victimisation interact, magnifying the negative impact on social trust.

  • 250.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nyström, M.
    Om ungdomstjänst och dess effekter2010Inngår i: Ungdomar som begår brott : vilka insatser fungerar? / [ed] A-K. Andershed, K. Söderholm Carpelan, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag , 2010, s. 103-107Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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