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  • 201.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Infants' ability to form verb-action associations2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Four- to eight-month-old infants (n=56) were examined on their ability to acquire verb meaning. In a visual preference procedure they were tested on their ability to form verb-action associations by detecting the correlation between auditory speech stimuli and actions presented in short movie clips on a screen. If associations were formed, they were expected to significantly modify their looking behavior after exposure, looking closer to the target than during baseline. Instead of measuring total looking time as response, distance to target was the chosen measure. Eight-month-olds as well as a reference group of adults acquired the verb-action associations. Thus, eight months is the youngest age at which verb meaning acquisition could be demonstrated so far.

  • 202.
    Markovic, Biljana
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Self-presentation in the asynchronous communication on Facebook in Kenya and Uganda2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Flows of languages, cultural forms and people both in real and virtual space are consequences of globalization. The mobility of people in the virtual sense is facilitated through the Internet, where one of the most popular ways of communication and self-presentation is currently through Facebook. This research focuses on analyzing the orthographic and lexical strategies in self-presentation on Kenyan and Ugandan Facebook profiles, trying to see whether the forms reflecting the East African variety of English are present in asynchronous communication and whether there is appropriation of other varieties and registers. This was done through a reiterative process of reading 10 Kenyan and 10 Ugandan Facebook profiles, comparing the findings with online data on informal sociolinguistic situations in Uganda and Kenya such as YouTube videos and comments, blogs and newspaper articles and through informal conversations with some Kenyans and Ugandans. The results showed that the local forms as described in the literature are used on Facebook and that there are forms unaccounted for in the literature but whose presence was confirmed in the online data and the informal conversations. Appropriation of American English and hip hop and Rastafari languages was found in the sample. It was inferred that English has several usages in the sample, which serve to express the neutral, the local and the appropriated meanings in the asynchronous communication on Facebook and that those meanings are used strategically for the creation of the desired identities.

  • 203.
    Marra, Anton
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Communicative strategies in BELF negotiations: A qualitative study on misunderstandings and communicative strategies in BELF telephone negotiations2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper focuses on exploring the usage of communicative strategies (CSs) by business professionals who use business English as a lingua franca (BELF) in telephone negotiations. The purpose of the study is also to analyze the occurrence of misunderstanding and non-understandings. The data consists of nine naturally-occurring spoken ‘buy-sell’ negotiations between business professionals from seven different countries around Europe and Asia.  The negotiations summed up to 1 hour and 30 minutes of recorded material. The transcripts of these negotiations were analyzed in detail by using the qualitative method ‘conversation analysis’ (CA). The results show that business professionals use CSs as pre-empting measures to prevent misunderstanding. In addition, CSs in the present data appear to be used to create cooperativeness and subsequently reach successful communication. The present study also found two scenarios where communicative breakdown occurred but were subsequently repaired through ‘clarity requests’, ‘confirmation checks’ and repetition. Lastly, the present paper recognizes that previous knowledge of the other party is an effective aspect in keeping upbeat negotiations and reaching mutual understanding.

  • 204.
    Marttinen Larsson, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El trabajo delante suyo: Un estudio diacrónico y diatópico de la variación en el uso de las locuciones adverbiales locativas2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo investigar el uso de la construcción morfosintáctica adverbio locativo + pronombre posesivo (“delante suyo”), que alterna con la normativamente recomendada adverbio locativo + [preposición de + pronombre personal] (“delante de él”). El estudio proporciona un panorama de su distribución histórica y geográfica, un tema que anteriormente no ha sido abordado con profundidad en trabajos lingüísticos. El material analizado consiste en los tres corpus principales de la lengua española (CORDE, CREA y CORPES XXI), que en su conjunto aportan alrededor de 424 000 000 de formas, a partir de los cuales se ha construido una base de datos consistente con las ocurrencias de las construcciones en cuestión. Se ha partido de la hipótesis de que, en el caso del uso del posesivo, se trata de un fenómeno muy extendido por todo el ámbito hispánico y que, más recientemente, ha ido difundiéndose, compitiendo así con la construcción preposicional. Con base en el banco de datos elaborado, y considerando estudios anteriores que aluden al fenómeno, se ha logrado comprobar que la forma posesiva se registra en casi todo el mundo hispánico, pero que presenta una tradición de uso más larga en España – país donde se ha originado – y Argentina, siendo el último país el que presenta la frecuencia de uso más alta.

  • 205.
    Marttinen Larsson, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Un acercamiento variacionista al estudio de las locuciones adverbiales locativas: El caso de las construcciones del tipo "delante mío"2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El presente trabajo abarca el estudio de la variación en las construcciones adverbiales locativas. Esta variación se manifiesta en dos niveles: (1) la alternancia entre la construcción estándar ADVERBIO + preposición de + PRONOMBRE PERSONAL (por ejemplo, delante de mí), y su variante normativamente no recomendada ADVERBIO + PRONOMBRE POSESIVO (por ejemplo, delante mío); y (2) la alternancia entre la construcción posesiva con el sufijo -o (por ejemplo, delante mío), y la construcción posesiva con el sufijo -a (por ejemplo, delante mía), variante normativamente aún más disuadida. El objetivo fue estudiar estas dos variables lingüísticas y sus posibles predictores sociolingüísticos. Con esta finalidad, se han analizado datos provenientes de Twitter. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo en febrero del 2017. Se recogieron 2357 observaciones de construcciones adverbiales locativas de 21 países de habla hispana (incluyendo los Estados Unidos), de las cuales 1006 eran de la variante posesiva. En cuanto a la variación entre construcciones preposicionales y posesivas, se clasificaron los datos según cuatro variables independientes: el género (o sexo) del tuitero, la procedencia geográfica del tuit, el tipo de adverbio precedente y el número gramatical del referente. Con relación al uso del sufijo -a del posesivo, las observaciones fueron clasificadas según dos variables adicionales: la vocal final del adverbio y el género del referente gramatical. Se ha construido un modelo estadístico de regresión logística que mide el efecto de las variables independientes investigadas sobre el uso de (1) la construcción con el posesivo y (2) la construcción con el posesivo del sufijo -a respectivamente. Referente a (1), la alternancia en los complementos, el análisis revela que la zona dialectal del tuitero, el tipo del adverbio precedente y el número gramatical son los factores estadísticamente significativos para predecir el uso de la construcción posesiva. En lo que concierne a (2), la alternancia en los sufijos del posesivo, los datos apuntan a que tanto la zona dialectal del tuitero como el género del referente gramatical condicionan el uso del posesivo con la desinencia -a

  • 206.
    Martín Peña, María Elena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Los pronombres átonos.: Complejidad y usos divergentes.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    Debido a que estudios sobre la adquisición del Español como Lengua Extranjera (E/LE) en Suecia señalan que el aprendizaje de los pronombres de complemento directo (CD) y complemento indirecto (CI) resulta difícil al estudiante causándole problemas en la comprensión y producción; y debido a que esos pronombres átonos son introducidos en etapas iniciales del aprendizaje a pesar de la complejidad de los pronombres átonos del sistema casual general del español en el programa de E/LE en Suecia.

    Para eso, se hace explícita la descripción del uso de los pronombres átonos con el objetivo de ilustrar la complejidad en la adquisición (aprendizaje y uso) de ellos. En el espectro de la complejidad además de la función y característica se describen factores extrínsecos a nivel diatópico y a nivel diastrático. Se examina en el corpus cómo los apartados de explicación gramática referente a los pronombres átonos están diseñados y presentados. El método del trabajo es entonces descriptivo y lingüístico basado en teorías cognitivas sobre la adquisición de segundas lenguas, Mitchell & Myles (1998) así como en el rol del input en el aprendizaje y la enseñanza de la gramática en el E/LE, Cadierno (1995).

    A pesar de la introducción temprana de dichos elementos debido al uso frecuente de ellos en el español se encuentra que los libros de textos y manuales analizados no reflejan la complejidad descrita en el marco teórico. La distribución y uso de los pronombres átonos en el corpus no es conforme al sistema etimológico o sistema casual general del español, es decir, se mezclan diferentes sistemas. Por otra parte esos sistemas o usos divergentes son escasamente presentados al estudiante.

  • 207.
    Matz, Henriette
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    De som (som) vi använder: En korpusstudie av optionellt ’som’ i svenska objektsrelativsatser2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar förekomsten av den optionella subjunktionen som i svenska objektsrelativsatser. Sökningar gjordes i en svenskspråkig korpus för att hitta objektsrelativsatser med och utan som. Resultaten undersöktes mot bakgrund av två hypoteser gällande processningseffektivitet och tillgänglighet hos referenter. I båda fallen styrktes dessa hypoteser. Som tycks vara mer frekvent i relativsatser där många ord skiljer matrissatsens korrelat från relativsatsens finita verb vilket stödjer principen Maximize On-line Processing som formulerats av Hawkins och som grundar sig i teorier kring processningseffektivitet. Som tycktes också vara mer frekvent i relativsatser där det inbäddade subjektet var i hög grad tillgängligt, i fråga om pronominell och animat status hos referenten.

  • 208.
    Melin, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Det här makes no sense!: An explorative study about a group of native Swedish speaker’s attitudes towards code switching2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of Sociolinguistics, this study investigates a group of native Swedish speaker’s attitudes towards code switching. The data were gathered by using an online questionnaire inspired by Dewaele & Wei’s (2014) survey investigating attitudes towards code switching. The data sample consists of responses from 34 participants in total from two generations and 204 answers were given. In addition to the questionnaire, interviews with four participants were conducted. The findings from the questionnaire reveal that code switching is generally accepted by the participants, but also that the younger generation has a more positive attitude towards code switching. However, the interviews reveal some differences in contrast to the questionnaire. Further, the results imply that a change might be undergoing in attitude towards code switching in the older generation. The findings are important for further research.

  • 209.
    Melin, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Thanks! You look rather dashing yourself.: A contrastive pragmatics investigation of Singaporean and American compliment responses2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Set within the framework of the newly established field of variational pragmatics (Schneider and Barron, 2008), this study investigates pragmatic variation between two different regional varieties of English, namely American English and Singaporean English. Specifically, the speech act of compliment responses is compared. The data were collected through written discourse completion tasks (DCT) and responses were analysed and coded using an adapted version of Holmes’ (1988) categorization system for compliment responses (CRs). The CRs come from a total of 40 participants and a total of 320 compliment responses were analysed. The DCT was supplemented by an introspective-recall with six participants. The findings demonstrate that the preferred strategy for both groups is in the order of accept, evade and reject. Even so, the Singaporeans use more reject strategies and less accept strategies than the Americans do. Further, the Americans employ more combination strategies than the Singaporeans. The Singaporeans however, employ more non-verbal and paralinguistic cues than the Americans. The results also show differences in the two varieties’ attitudes to and perceptions of compliment responses. In addition, the study suggests that compliments in Singapore might be undergoing a change. The findings are particularly important for pedagogical purposes.

  • 210.
    Meza, Rodrigo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    El uso de los sustantivos abstractos/concretos y de los verbos de movimiento en hablantes no nativos de español muy avanzado2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    La presente investigación estudia el uso de los sustantivos abstractos/concretos y de los verbos de movimiento en hablantes no nativos de español muy avanzado.

    En este estudio, nosotros creemos que el input comprensible, la interacción y la frecuencia con que se utiliza la lengua meta son factores importantísimos para poder adquirir, desarrollar y afianzar el uso de las categorías que nos interesa estudiar.

    A partir de estas premisas, es posible pensar que un hablante no nativo (HNN) muy avanzado de una L2 debería tener un nivel idiomático muy parecido al de un hablante nativo (HN) dentro de los campos donde se da la interacción, pero ¿Qué sucede cuando un HNN es sometido a pruebas que disminuyen el efecto de estos factores? ¿Deberían, entonces, existir diferencias significativas en los recursos léxicos utilizados por ambos grupos (HNNs en relación a HNs)? Así, y a grandes rasgos, el objetivo principal de nuestra investigación es poder determinar cuándo los HNNs no alcanzan el nivel de ocurrencias presentado por los HNs.

     

  • 211.
    Migura García, Begoña
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier, Avdelningen för spanska.
    Elige tu propia aventura, ¿nudo gordiano para el tratamiento holístico de la expresión escrita?: Una experiencia de escritura narrativa creativa en Español como Lengua Extranjera, a través de trabajo cooperativo con wikis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo de la presente investigación es el de aproximarse al potencial que el género de hiperficción explorativa Elige tu propia aventura (ETPA), abordado desde la producción, puede tener de cara al desarrollo de la competencia escritora en ELE. Como muestra, se ha tomado a un grupo multicultural y plurilingüe de 18 estudiantes de la Universidad de Estocolmo, con una competencia comunicativa mínima en español de B2 marco. Se ha llevado a cabo un análisis cualitativo-cuantitativo que, de forma correlativa, abarcaba el estudio del proceso de composición, del producto alcanzado y del impacto de la tarea sobre el componente afectivo de los participantes. La investigación asignó al grupo de control, la composición cooperativa de un cuento tradicional a través de una wiki, y al experimental, la de un ETPA; todo ello en base a una hipotética oposición entre un ejercicio compositivo lineal y uno de tipo recursivo, respectivamente. Los resultados parecen sugerir que, efectivamente, la estructura no secuencial de la ficción hipertextual propicia un proceso de composición marcado por la recursividad que repercute en la consecución de un mejor producto, en especial, con relación a las propiedades textuales de adecuación, coherencia y cohesión. En lo afectivo, la composición de un ETPA también parece constituir una actividad que, por su novedad, incide positivamente en la motivación de los aprendientes y en un sentimiento de autoeficiencia generado por la resolución exitosa de la tarea.

  • 212.
    Morales Ruiz, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Competencia sociopragmática en aprendientes de ELE: Un estudio cualitativo sobre factores incidentes en el aula de bachillerato2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    Durante las últimas décadas se han llevado a cabo una serie de discusiones con respecto al rol que deben ocupar los estudios pragmáticos en la enseñanza de lenguas y sus implicaciones en la labor pedagógica (Bardovi-Harlig, 1996). En este sentido, el presente estudio cualitativo tiene por objetivo identificar factores que inciden en la competencia sociopragmática (CSP) en la enseñanza ELE (Español como Lengua Extranjera) dentro de un contexto escolar sueco, con estudiantes de bachillerato de nivel B1-B2 según el Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las lenguas (MCER). La medida de la CSP de los estudiantes se obtiene a través de las muestras de lenguaje proporcionados por actividades de elicitación mediante cuestionarios, mientras que los datos relacionados a los factores de incidencia en el aula se obtienen a través de entrevistas de profundización. Comparamos los niveles de CSP de los estudiantes con los factores de aula y los resultados obtenidos indican que el rol del profesor y su elección didáctica tienen mayor incidencia en la CSP de sus alumnos. Con respecto a las percepciones de los estudiantes, se observa que aquellos estudiantes con mayor nivel de CSP tienen una percepción positiva hacia estos contenidos, mientras que aquellos con niveles más bajos demuestran una visión negativa. Se concluye que existen, en efecto, factores positivos de incidencia en la CSP dentro de un contexto formal de enseñanza, principalmente centrados en el rol del profesor.

  • 213.
    Moreno, Rosa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    La interferencia interlingüística en la producción oral de jóvenes suecos de ELH: "Después el perrito se comió un corvito"2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El presente estudio investiga la influencia interlingüística a nivel léxico en la producción oral de jóvenes suecos de ELH, hablantes de la variedad chilena. Dos preguntas de investigación guían este trabajo. La primera pregunta examina el origen de las lenguas fuentes de influencias de ILL (Sueco L2 vs Inglés L3). La segunda pregunta se enfoca en los factores que determinan la incidencia de la ILL. Los datos fueron elicitados a través de una tarea narrativa y una entrevista. Asimismo, se utilizó un cuestionario para recabar información sociolingüística de los participantes. Los resultados indican que el sueco L2 fue la lengua fuente de mayor influencia en la ILL, frente al inglés L3 que no tuvo un rol muy importante. Se encontró, además, que la ocurrencia de la ILL vino determinada por varios factores lingüísticos. 

  • 214.
    Moser, Elena Vera
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Answers to Polarity Questions: A Typological Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Polarity questions, i.e. questions that demand as an answer either an affirmation or a denial (e.g. yes or no), are considered to be an universal language feature. Different strategies to answer polarity questions have been observed across languages. Sadock & Zwicky (1985) identified three systems of answer strategies: yes/no systems, agree/disagree systems and echosystems. Other studies have attested languages exhibiting a mix of these types (i.a. Floydet al. 2016, Holmberg 2016). Sadock & Zwicky (1985) do not offer any statements about the frequency distribution of the language systems, nor do they explain what kind of sample was used for their analysis. The aim of this study is to fill this gap. Specifically, the goals are to investigate the validity of the typology offered in Sadock & Zwicky (1985) and to establish some estimates about the cross-linguistic frequency of the types identified during this investigation. The data are collected through consultation of reference grammars and elicitation by means of a questionnaire.

  • 215.
    Mårtensson, Kajsa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Identifiering av svenska fragment: har kontexten någon betydelse?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning om identifiering av fragment och ordigenkänning visar att resultaten ökar om deltagare har sett orden de ska identifiera tidigare eller om ordfragmenten presenteras i sin rätta kontext. I den här studien undersöktes påverkan av kontexten vid identifiering av svenska fragment genom att använda primingparadigm. Svenska talare blev indelade i två grupper, Priming och Kontroll och testades med online-enkäter. I Priming fick deltagarna läsa en text och sedan fylla i fragment från texten medans deltagarna i Kontroll endast fyllde i fragmenten. Resultaten visade motsatsen till tidigare forskning. Deltagarna i kontrollgruppen presterade bättre och lyckades identifiera fler korrekta fragment än de deltagare som fick läsa orden i en komplett text innan de blev ombedda att fullfölja fragmenten. En möjlig orsak till detta kan vara att texten var för lång vilket ledde till en frustration hos deltagarna som hämmade dem från att få ett bra resultat. Resultaten visade även att män, överlag lyckades identifiera fler korrekta fragment än vad kvinnor kunde. Detta kan bero på faktorer som koncentration eller förmåga att komma ihåg detaljer. Vid identifiering av verb och substantiv visade det sig vara enklare att identifiera verb när de presenterades i isolation och substantiv när de presenterades i sin rätta kontext. Detta stämmer överrens med tidigare forskning som visade att verb och substantiv är representerade på olika platser i hjärnan och påverkas därför annorlunda vid processning. Vidare forskning med fler deltagare uppmuntras för att kunna undersöka ytterligare aspekter som kan ha påverkat resultatet.

  • 216.
    Möller, Mirjam
    Stockholms universitet. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Vowel Harmony in Bale: A study of ATR harmony in a Surmic language of Ethiopia2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    ATR, advanced tongue root, is a phonological feature among vowels. As vowels assimilate to share the same value of that feature, they display ATR harmony. This is a common phenomenon among many African languages. ATR harmony is examined in this paper as manifested across morpheme boundaries wihin nouns in a Surmic language of Ethiopia called Bale. The data presented was collected at a workshop on ATR harmony held by SIL International in Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia, 2009. The vowel system in Bale displays a nine vowel inventory with a feature dominance of [+ATR] vowels which spread their feature both leftward and rightward to recessive [–ATR] vowels. The [+ATR] dominance is also present as a floating feature without any phonological material. The vowel /a/ is analysed as a neutral vowel, co-occuring with both [+ATR] and [–ATR] vowels within roots.

  • 217.
    Narin, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Kinesiskans påverkan på hmu vid användning av genitiv och nominalisering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Kinesiska och miao-språket hmu har nära kontakt med varandra och påverkan från kinesiskan har iakttagits i hmu på lexikal och fonologisk nivå. Denna studie undersöker hur påverkan från kinesiskan ser ut även på syntaktisk nivå i fråga om användningen av genitiv och nominalisering. På kinesiska uttrycks detta med en och samma partikel, vilken har en motsvarighet i hmu. Studien delades upp i två delar: en korpusundersökning och en meningsanalys över två olika upplagor av Nya testamentet på hmu. I den tidigare upplagan användes den partikel flitigt som på hmu sägs uttrycka genitiv och nominalisering och korpusundersökningen visade en minskad användning av denna partikel i den senare upplagan av Nya testamentet. Meningsanalysen visade att kinesisk påverkan finns på användningen av genitiv men inte på nominalisering i hmu. Med detta har vi fått en klarare bild av hur kinesisk påverkan ser ut på just dessa syntaktiska funktioner i hmu.

  • 218.
    Narin, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Phonological features of Yazghulami: A field study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Yazghulami is a South-East Iranian language spoken in the Pamir area of Tajikistan by about 9000 people. This study gives an account of the phonology of the language by describing contrastive segments and their distribution and realizations, as well as describing suprasegmental features such as syllable structure and stress patterns. Field research was carried out in a community of Yazghulami speakers in Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan, by recording, transcribing and annotating spoken language. Yazghulami is analyzed as having 8 vowel phonemes of which one pair contrasts in length, and 36 consonant phonemes with a considerable display of palatal, velar and uvular phonemes, of which a set of three labialized plosives and three labialized fricatives is found. The syllable structure of Yazghulami allows for clusters of no more than two consonants in the onset and two in the coda; clusters in both positions do not occur in one and the same syllable. The stress generally falls on the last syllable of a word, although when nouns are inflected with suffixes, the stress instead falls on the last syllable of the stem. With these results, a foundation for further efforts to develop and increase the status of this endangered language is laid.

  • 219.
    Nejström, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    El uso de atenuaciones en español entre alumnos suecos del bachillerato: Rechazos, consejos y peticiones2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo principal de este estudio es examinar el uso de las atenuaciones como marcador de cortesía en español entre estudiantes suecos del bachillerato en los actos de habla de rechazos, consejos y peticiones. Compartimos la premisa de que en el uso del español como lengua extranjera hay una falta de competencia comunicativa en general, y también competencia en cuanto a las atenuaciones. Nuestra hipótesis es que en el uso de español como lengua extranjera por parte de estudiantes suecos del bachillerato, hay una competencia comunicativa suficiente como para transmitir contenidos temáticos pero no para expresarse de forma socioculturalmente adecuada en cuanto a los contenidos de cortesía, especialmente hay una falta del conocimiento y del uso de las atenuaciones. Se ha elaborado una encuesta con nueve situaciones, tres para cada tipo de acto de habla, donde 32 estudiantes suecos de bachillerato han tenido que rechazar invitaciones, dar opiniones y consejos y pedir favores. Para poder comparar los resultados tenemos un grupo de control de 10 jóvenes hispanohablantes, sin conocimientos de sueco. Según el Ministerio de Educación sueco, para poder obtener un aprobado en el nivel tres del bachillerato y poder acceder a los estudios universitarios, los estudiantes deben tener suficiente conocimiento de la lengua meta y su sociopragmática para poder adaptarse a diferentes situaciones y usar ciertas estrategias. Los resultados nos muestran que, en la mayoría de los casos, los estudiantes suecos atenúan con marcadores de cortesía, concretamente realizando un sobreuso de agradecimientos: han desarrollado así un sistema propio, o sea, una interlengua del español con elementos suecos, lo cual muestra que estos estudiantes aplican estrategias comunicativas que resultan eficaces. En general, realizan actos amenazantes para las imágenes del emisor y del destinario, bastante más que el grupo de control. Sin atenuaciones, estos actos de habla pueden ser interpretados como descortesía por el interlocutor hispanohablante y podrían surgir problemas en la comunicación.

  • 220.
    Nejström, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English as an academic lingua franca at Stockholm University School of Business: A sociolinguistic study of academic English in parallel-language settings2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on interviews with 20 students with Swedish as mother tongue, and observations from 10 lectures and seminars on advanced level at Stockholm University School of Business. The courses observed use English as a medium of instruction and the study explores how English is used as a lingua franca, how the students adapt to English in academic settings and the sociolinguistic functions of choosing English or Swedish in specific situations.

    The results show that English is used in parallel with Swedish, a great number of Swedish terms and expressions are used, both by students and teachers. Students speak Swedish with each other as well as with Swedish teachers in unofficial settings. English is used whenever a foreign teacher or student is around.

    Many students in the study claim to handle the English medium courses well but in reality they do have some difficulties. The students should be given instruction in English for academic purposes and reconsider their attitudes about what is correct and incorrect English.

  • 221.
    Nerelius, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Plain Language in the EU: Impact of Plain Language in Drafting and Translation of Different Types of EU Legislation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay assesses the impact of plain language campaigns in EU legislation. Different types of legislation as well as legislation with different intended recipients are analysed. The analysis includes calculating a LIX index score and complementing the index data with data from the texts. The data derives from textual parameters associated with plain language. The distinction between the recipient and the actual reader of legislation in the EU will also be discussed as the general public is asserted by the EU to be the reader of legislative acts. It is, however, shown in this essay that the general public is not the reader of legislative acts directed to them.

    The hypothesis in this essay is that there has been an impact of plain language in legislative acts in the EU over time, as a result of plain language campaigns in the EU. We may also see a difference in the impact of plain language between specific types of legislation and between legislation directed to different intended recipients. A specialist audience may be considered to have a higher competence of the register of law compared to the general public. However, as the results from the analysis are inconclusive we cannot see any coherent impact of plain language in the texts analysed in this essay. The analysis also suggests that using textual features associated with plain language is not an effective tool to use to assess improvement in terms of readability and impact of plain language over time. The different textual parameters do not cohere.

    In addition to the above, the impact of plain language in relation to translation in the EU is discussed. Plain language could perhaps enable more accurate and efficient translation to multiple languages, which is important in the EU’s multilingual environment. Consequently, by making an original language version of legislation less complex, the quality of translations may be improved. The qualitative analysis regarding plain language in translation suggests that a short, non-complex sentence in combination with the use of high frequency words enables a more natural translation in the Swedish language versions. The analysis also suggests some changes seen over time in relation to plain language in the translation process.

  • 222.
    Neubauer, Christine
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Neue Wörter -alte Ideen: Die Reproduktion nationalsozialistischen Sprachgebrauchs in den Parteiprogrammen der Nationaldemokratischen Partei Deutschlands und der Sverigedemokraterna2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 223.
    Nilsand, Katja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English Abbreviation and Acronym Usage Amongst Swedish Adolescents A Netspeak Inquiry2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s media society the Internet and the language that faces us therein is constant. Social Media (i.e. Facebook, Twitter etc.), Weblogs (blogs), Online Network games and the increasing amount of Internet use feed us with the new language features , and with a generation that is “Born to be wired,” a new language evolves.

         The aim of this paper is to find out what kind of English abbreviations and acronyms, springing from Netspeak, do Swedish adolescents from 12-15 years of age use. Which of them do they use in written language and which in spoken? And do they know what the abbreviations they use denote?

         The inquiry is based on a questionnaire survey given to pupils in junior high school and then studied through diverse perspectives.

         The results indicate that the Swedish adolescents to whom this survey was given claim to use Netspeak. The most common words they use are LOL (Laughing out Loud), OMG (Oh my God) and BTW (By the way). However, not all of them use them in spoken language and not all of them know what the abbreviations and acronyms they use mean.

    According to the survey a lot of the pupils read blogs, use Skype and other social medias, which can be a trigger for their massive use of English abbreviations.

  • 224.
    Nilsson, Jorunn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Rollspråk i dubbning och undertextning: En analys av rollspråket i den japanska undertextningen och dubbningen av en svensk barnfilm2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I Japan är s.k. rollspråk, dvs. stereotypt språk kopplat till en viss typ av karaktär, vanligt i material riktat till barn, såsom barnfilmer. Trots att rollspråk som forskningsområde är relativt nytt finns ett antal studier som behandlar rollspråk i litterära översättningar, undertextningar och dubbningar till japanska. Få eller inga har dock jämfört hur rollspråket påverkar karaktäriseringen dels i undertexterna, dels i dubbningen av en och samma film.

    Denna uppsats analyserar japansk undertextning och dubbning av den svenska barnfilmen Du är inte klok Madicken och finner att båda versionerna använder rollspråk på ett liknande sätt för att förenkla karaktäriseringen och framhäva de kvinnliga karaktärernas femininitet genom bl.a. feminina satsfinala partiklar, pronomen, verbformer och interjektioner.

  • 225.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Target Langauge in the Primary Classroom: Teachers' beliefs and practices2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of a monolingual norm in foreign language teaching during the last decades studies throughout the world show that teachers’ target language use varies significantly. This study sets out to examine to what extent the target language (TL) is used with young language learners and how this use correlates to teachers’ beliefs about foreign language teaching and first language (L1) inclusion. Moreover the paper discusses functions for L1 use and strategies used by teachers to support comprehension in the TL. Lesson observations and qualitative interviews were performed with four Swedish primary school class teachers. Despite the prevailing idea of exclusive TL use three of the four teachers do not subscribe to this approach and find L1 inclusion necessary. An emerging theme is the impact of teachers’ beliefs and how these are shaped by personal experience and/or education. L1 is legitimized in order to support comprehension and prevent pupils’ frustration. To varying degrees the L1 is used, mostly to facilitate learning but also for classroom management. The data suggests that teachers are well aware of their language use although they lack awareness and professional language to describe and be articulate about strategies they employ.

  • 226.
    Niva, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Meänkieli i den yngre generationen: En undersökning av meänkielis ställning bland unga personer i fem norrbottniska kommuner2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka meänkielis ställning bland barn och ungdomar i Norrbotten. Undersökningen bygger på enkätsvar från elever i de fem Norrbottenskommuner där meänkieli är förvaltningsspråk. Både elever med och elever utan anknytning till meänkieli besvarade enkäten. Frågorna rörde deras förståelse och bruk av meänkieli, deras attityd till språket samt vad de tror om framtiden för språket.  

    Av undersökningen framkom att målgruppen i högre utsträckning förstår meänkieli än vad de själva kan tala språket. De flesta av respondenterna anser det inte viktigt att meänkieli i framtiden lever kvar som talat språk. Av de som i någon utsträckning förstår meänkieli tror drygt hälften att deras framtida barn i någon mån också kommer att förstå språket. Respondenterna med kunskaper i meänkieli tror i högre grad än de utan kunskaper att språket kommer att föras över till nästa generation. Många respondenter anser dock att riksfinska är viktigare att lära sig än meänkieli.  

  • 227.
    Noll Menezes, Isadora
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    La percepción de la cortesía y la descortesía en ventas telefónicas2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El presentetrabajotiene por objetivo principal,desde las teorías pragmáticas relacionadas conla cortesía,caracterizar las expresiones de los informantes en situaciones comunicativas específicas deservice encountersenla venta telefónica. Noscentraremos en cómo estos hablantes expresan y percibenel usolasestrategias de (des) cortesía cuando participan de las conversaciones por vía telefónica, en lasque la ventade algúnproducto y/o servicioesté involucrada.Se trata de intercambios comunicacionales que poseen un carácter transaccional, caracterizadospor undiálogo conla existenciade un compromiso monetario ytienela base comercial correspondiente a la demanda y ofertade productos.Para profundizarnos en esta situación comunicacional,partimos de la hipótesis dequela condicióncomunicacional impuestainterfiereen la imagen negativade losreceptores, resultando en la experiencia predominantemente negativasobre el contrato conversacionalenel contextode una venta telefónica. Pararealizar este estudio se ha formado un cuestionario, respondido por 21 hispanohablantes residentes en Suecia, como modo deaveriguar lasestrategias que eligen hacerlos informantes cuandoestánenel rol de receptores/clientesde una venta telefónica. Desde los análisis de lasexpresiones de los informantes,se puede observarque estos,como modo de concluir y desvincularse de tal situación comunicativacorrespondiente a los diálogos telefónicos,tienden a hacer un uso más frecuente de enunciados descortesesy suelen despreocuparsedela protección de la imagen pública, haciendousode amenazas abiertas a la imagen yde estrategiasdedescortesía.

  • 228.
    Nordahl, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    “mænige calfru, þæt synt lytle and niwe fynd”: A study of additions and changes in the translation of the prose psalms in the Paris Psalter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The prose translation of the fifty first psalms in the Paris Psalter is quite unique as an early medieval scriptural translation (O’Neill 2016 p. x). There have been several studies made on the Paris Psalter recently, most notably by Patrick O’Neill. One focus of several of these studies has been whether or not the Prose translation is connected to Alfred the Great. However, there is still much left in this translation that has not yet been studied. Something that can be noticed when studying the prose psalms is that throughout the translation the translator made several additions and changes to the psalms. There are several different kinds of additions in the prose psalms, the most common of these is the þæt ys/þæt synt (‘that is’/‘those are’) type. This study focuses on these additions, and it will be suggested that the translator has made additions and changes to the psalms to describe metaphors and concepts that an Anglo-Saxon reader might not have been able to understand without these additions. 

  • 229.
    Norden, Anton Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Selected topics in the grammar of Français Tirailleur: A corpus study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This corpus-based study describes some grammatical and lexical features of Français Tirailleur (FT), a pidgin spoken in the French colonial army from the mid-1800’s to the 1950’s. By examining the largest corpus available of the language, this study aims to (1) discern hitherto undescribed or strengthen previous claims about grammatical and lexical features of FT, (2) compare these features with its lexifier language and (3) identify changes over time. The corpus has been manually part-of-speech tagged and all noun phrases have been marked up. The results include a description of the form and function of the FT noun phrase, covering (pro)nouns and their modifiers as well as noun phrases with an embedded prepositional phrase. Furthermore, the apparent diachronic development of the expression même chose is analyzed, along with examples of circumlocution. FT is shown to differ from French in several respects, e.g. in substituting the demonstrative determiners ce(t)/cette with ça, but no signs of substrate influence are found. Contrary to intution about the simplex nature of pidgins, FT appears to follow French in placing certain adjectives before the noun, while postposing others. There remain several interesting aspects to explore in the grammar of FT, among them the elusive, multi-functional items ya and yena. Our further understanding of pidgins would benefit from more data and cross-linguistic comparison.

  • 230.
    Nordén, Anton Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Adjektiv i hög grad: En korpusstudie av förstärkares distribution i svenska2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien är en korpusbaserad undersökning av hur bloggare vanligen förstärker adjektiv på svenska, och om förstärkningen varierar utifrån vilka adjektiv och/eller substantiv som modifieras. Tidigare litteratur belyser exempelvis hur adjektivförstärkning kan styras av semantiska och kontextuella faktorer samt hur förstärkare ofta grammatikaliseras. Undersökningen ämnar deskriptivt komplettera tidigare observationer, genom analys av större datamängder än motsvarande studier av svenska. Datan hämtades ur korpusen Swedish Blog Sentences (>6 miljarder tokens). Alla sammansatta adjektiv, adverb följda av adjektiv samt liknelser (”ADJ som en/ett N”) extraherades automatiskt. Därefter listades manuellt de 20 vanligaste förstärkande förleden, adverben och liknelserna, totalt och för 26 utvalda adjektiv. ”Förstärkning” definierades som ett uttryck för ’hög grad’ av egenskapen som adjektivet betecknar. Resultaten visade att förleden och adverben är nära Zipf-fördelade totalt sett, och ofta för enskilda adjektiv. Vidare fastslogs att adjektiv förstärks olika mycket och med olika förstärkare. Resultaten bedöms stödja teorin kring affixoider och grammatikalisering samt graderbarhet hos adjektiv. Det föreslås att framtida större studier skulle belysa skillnaden mellan lexikalt specifika och generella förstärkningar. Slutligen argumenteras för att liknelserna fyller samma förstärkande funktion som förleden och adverben.

  • 231.
    Nordén, Anton Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Epistemic modality in Ghanaian Pidgin English2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the expression of epistemic modality in a corpus of Ghanaian Pidgin English (GhaPE). The epistemic expressions are manually identified and thereafter distinguished from each other in terms of grammatical status and their indication of different epistemic and evidential notions. 7 different elements are found, ranging from 1 pre-verbal marker, 1 adverb, 2 particles and 3 complement-taking predicates. The results indicate, in line with existing research, that to differentiate between usage properties of individual modal expressions it may be necessary to subdivide them in terms of not only epistemic but also evidential meanings. Moreover, a functional parallel between the GhaPE particle abi, the Swedish modal particle väl and the Spanish adverbs a lo mejor and igual is demonstrated, with respect to their simultaneous function of expressing epistemic probability and asking the hearer for confirmation. Finally, the results suggest, contrary to previous accounts, that the pre-verbal marker fit may indicate epistemic possibility without the addition of a preceding irrealis marker go. It is proposed that future researchers should make use of bigger corpora in order to arrive at a more ample conception of both individual modal categories and their interrelations.

  • 232.
    Norrman, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Försämringsuttryck på finska: En undersökning av hur uttryck för organiska produkters försämringsprocess väljs i finska2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftade till att hitta kategorier till hur olika organiska produkters försämringsprocess beskrivs och hur försämringsuttrycken väljs på finska. Med hjälp av korpusar och ordböcker togs kombinationer av försämringsuttryck och deras subjekt fram samt beskrivningar på de olika uttrycken och deras etymologi. Resultatet blev att många av försämringsuttrycken går att använda med många olika organiska produkter (som mädäntyä ’ruttna’, som både kan användas med köttprodukter och frukter), medan användningen av andra försämringsuttryck kan vara väldigt begränsade och produktkategoriinterna och alltså bara går att användas med en viss organisk produkt (som eltaantua ’härskna’, som bara kan användas med fettprodukter). Alla försämringsuttrycken beskrev en skillnad i någon eller några parametrar – smak, lukt, utseende, konsistens osv., men en gemensam nämnare som alla försämringsuttrycken hade var att de alltid beskriver en skillnad i utseende.

  • 233.
    Norstedt, fd. Walberg, Heléne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Lateralization in speech perception? A first analysis of brain activation in 4-month-old children and adults2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Hemispheric lateralization in speech perception in infants and adults was studied by means of brain activation patterns via EEGmeasurement. Overall activation and ERPs in response to IDS-stimuli in Swedish, Portuguese and rotated Swedish were tested in 9 4-monthold infants and 13 adults with EEG head-nets. Left-hemispheric activation was expected in adults at least for intelligible speech stimuli, whereas non-specific activation in both hemispheres was expected in infants. The results showed a right-hemispheric lateralization tendency in adults. The infants showed no lateralization pattern. Further research on 9-month-old infants is the next step to understand lateralization development in infants.

  • 234.
    Norén Hakamäki, Sigrid
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Finithetsfenomen i djambarrpuyŋu2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det nord-australiska pama-njunganspråket djambarrpuyŋu har studerats med avseende på finita egenskaper. Det går att påstå att det finns en finithetsdistinktion i djambarrpuyŋu eftersom det finns satser som kan uttrycka vissa egenskaper (t ex tempus, modus, aspekt och nominativt/ergativt subjekt) samtidigt som det finns satsliknande konstruktioner som inte kan uttrycka detta. Ett möjligt samband mellan finita kriterier i djambarrpuyŋu är förmåga att fungera som talhandling och förmåga att overt kunna uttrycka nominativt/ergativt subjekt, men detta behöver studeras närmare. Ett annat möjligt samband är att endast konstruktioner som kan uttrycka nominativt/ergativt subjekt har möjlighet att uttrycka TMA på något vis, dvs overt TMA-markering ses då som ett möjligt (men icke-obligatoriskt) finit kriterium medan nominativt/ergativt subjekt ses som ett nödvändigt kriterium.

  • 235.
    Noske, Karina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska, Avdelningen för tyska.
    Einflussfaktoren auf die Aussprache einer Zweit-/Fremdsprache: Eine Forschungsübersicht2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 236.
    Noske, Karina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The influence of formal instruction on segmental speech production by German learners of English2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the influence of formal L2 English instruction (FEI) on pronunciation accuracy of similar and new vowels in the framework of Flege’s Speech Learning Model (Flege, 1995a, 1999, 2002), focusing on selected segmental pronunciation features produced by native German speakers. A spectral vowel production experiment was carried out with 24 German students who attend sixth, ninth and twelfth grade of a south German secondary school by the time this study was conducted. Spectral characteristics of the similar vowel /ɛ/ and the new vowel /æ/,produced by each subject of the three groups (G6, G9, and G12), were compared to vowel data of native English speakers. In order to test the influence of formal instruction on selected phonetic segments, which are known to cause difficulties for native German learners of English, three native English listeners judged on a three pointscale the intelligibility of the segments produced. The results of the vowel experiment showed significant influence of FEI on pronunciation accuracy of some characteristics of the similar vowel /ɛ/ but not of the new vowel /æ/. The listener rating experiment showed that FEI had on average no influence on pronunciation accuracy of the three L2 English learner groups.

  • 237.
    Nyberg, Joacim
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Negation in Japanese2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Negation has fascinated thinkers and scholars for some 2,500 years.However, within linguistics, it is only in the recent years that negation has been given the attention it deserves. Within language typology, the main subject of investigation has been the notion of standard negation. This is well covered and data from several languages has been presented.When it comes to Japanese, it has proved hard to come across a detailed description of negation. There is a rich general literature covering many aspects of Japanese grammar, but there seems to be a lack of a work that investigates and collects all negation phenomena in one place. Furthermore, the general grammars do not take the typological perspective of negation into consideration.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe various negation strategies and related phenomena in the Japanese language and to put them in a typological perspective. To carry this out, a questionnaire for describing negation is used. Information and examples are extracted from grammars, articles, and a corpus. This is a descriptive text, and the analyses and conclusions presented can clearly contribute to the already existing literature on negation in Japanese, with the addition of a typological perspective.

  • 238.
    Nylin, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Is e- the new cyber?: A corpus study on fashion cycles in vocabulary2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A central area of research in linguistics is the study of changes in vocabulary over time, be it over historical time periods or faster changes within generations. One contributing factor driving such fast changes could be “fashion cycles”, as this is a very general cultural phenomenon. Here, results are reported from a corpus study investigating trends over time in the use of cyber as the first part of compound nouns, and of alternatives which carry a similar meaning, such as e- as short for electronic. It is found that cyber was commonly used in the time period 1995-2004. Usage then strongly declined, but there was a new peak in popularity in the last year of available data (2012). Interestingly, cyber was initially used in positively charged or neutral contexts (e.g. cyberspace), but in recent years mostly in negatively charged words such as cyberbullying or cyber warfare. The hypothesis that cyber has been replaced with e- was partially supported (in particular in the case of e-mail, but e-books is another prominent example of a recent rising trend in vocabulary). However, in most other contexts usage of e- actually peaked a few years before the last years of the available corpus data. In general, results were consistent with “fashion cycles” in that the popularity of using cyber or e-, and in particular of specific words including these compound noun parts, seems to come and go rapidly over time. Interestingly use of cyber was seen mostly in negative contexts during later time periods. No such change was apparent in the use of e-. An emerging hypothesis partially supported by the data is that words in commercial contexts (e.g. cyber-business, e-business) rapidly lose their positive charge as they become common and are replaced by other, more novel and more fashionable words. Corpus linguistics is a very powerful tool for investigating such patterns of change in the popularity of words, and the processes behind them.

  • 239.
    Nyqvist, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Avdelningen för japanska.
    Onomatopoesi: Svenska studenters uppfattning och förståelse av japanska onomatopoetiska ord som beskriver tillstånd eller känslor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 240.
    Ocampo Sepulveda, Marta
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El aprendizaje del español L2 en los estudios universitarios: Un estudio sobre la relación existente entre contexto de aprendizaje, motivación, actitudes y resultados obtenidos2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    Hoy en día, el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera (LE) es esencial para poder trabajar, viajar o para comunicarse con otras personas. Pero, puede también ser interesante por la satisfacción que significan nuevos conocimientos en otra lengua. El éxito en el aprendizaje de una lengua varía mucho según los motivos, las actitudes y los intereses de los aprendices. Por eso, el objetivo de este estudio es investigar estos factores, y ver de qué manera influyen en el aprendizaje de la lengua española. Por un lado, se espera que los estudiantes que no tienen el español como lengua materna (Español I y Español III), presenten una motivación de tipo intrínseca. Por otro lado, se espera que los estudiantes hispanohablantes (Español I y Español III), a diferencia de los que tienen español como L2, tengan una motivación extrínseca que justifique la elección de estudiar español.

    Este estudio consta de 25 cuestionarios que fueron respondidos por estudiantes de dos niveles distintos de español LE en una universidad sueca (Español I y Español III). Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de los alumnos estudian el español porque puede ser útil para los estudios, la carrera profesional o para vivir en un país hispano (motivos extrínsecos). Sin embargo, existen diferencias notables según la lengua materna del estudiante y su nivel de estudio. Así, algunos de los estudiantes de Español III, motivan su deseo de aprender el español porque les gusta el idioma y es un placer estudiarlo (motivación intrínseca). En cuanto a las actitudes hacia la lengua, la gente hispana y sus países, la mayoría de los estudiantes los valora de manera muy positiva. Sin embargo, valoran de manera positiva al grupo de español y el curso, pero no tienen una opinión muy positiva de los profesores y del entorno en el que ocurre el aprendizaje. Además, los resultados muestran que los estudiantes están más interesados en la cultura de España que en la latinoamericana. Por último, los resultados indican que la mayoría de los alumnos que obtienen altos resultados en el curso tienen motivos extrínsecos. Sin embargo, la motivación extrínseca acompaña también resultados bajos en el rendimiento académico, mientras que la motivación intrínseca se relaciona únicamente con resultados altos.

  • 241.
    Ogawa, Jane
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Kinship terminology in the greater Hindu Kush2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of the kinship terminology used for one’s parents and their siblings in the languages in the greater Hindu Kush area (GHK). GHK stretches over the mountainous borderlands of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, China and India and homes a range of various languages from six different genera, Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Turkic, Tibeto-Burman, and the language isolate Burushaski. The study is based on questionnaires from native speakers of 55 language varieties collected in 2015-2017. The main distinction is one between descriptive and merging systems. The descriptive system have separate terms for all six relations and are found in the outer areas of GHK. The merging systems have terms that refer to two or more relations, and these are found in the center of the area. Within this center-area the languages are then further divided into six different terminologies depending on which relations are merged with one term. Semantic clusters can be observed, based on systematic and lexico-semantic parallels, both within and across family lines. The distribution is discussed from a historical, geographical and social point of view. 

  • 242.
    Olanders, Urban
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Parallelism: A Stylistic Device in Sarah Kane’s Cleansed2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Literature differs from other types of texts because it tends to use certain stylistic devices more frequently. Among these, parallelism has an important role, because it is very common. Parallelism means that identical or similar words, grammatical constructions, or phonological features occur in the same or adjacent lines in the text. In the present work the occurrence and function of lexical, phonological, syntactic and syntagmatic parallelism in the play Cleansed are examined. Cleansed was written by Sarah Kane and was staged in 1998 at the Royal Court Theatre in London. Parallelism is a common stylistic device in Cleansed. The effect of parallelism is that it contributes to emphasis and coherence to textual passages. In addition, parallelism has a poetic function, as it makes the language formulations themselves prominent. Particularly common forms of parallelism in Cleansed are repetitions of single words, like for instance anaphors in stage directions and repetition of expressions. By repeating words and expressions, or by alliteration, emphasis is given to particular parts of the text, and repetition of identical or similar items also creates coherence.  

  • 243.
    Oletic, Aleksandra
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Evaluative language in student reflections: A corpus-based study of online forum contributions2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the widespread use of English in higher education, there are many genres and registers that students need to master (e.g. Hood, 2010; Hyland, 2004; Hüttner, 2008; Kuteeva, 2012). Previous research on evaluation in academic writing has largely focused on expert genres such as research articles or graduate student writing. This paper aims to address the gap in research on student genres by providing a corpus-based analysis of a collection of student writing. The methodology consists of a textual analysis of evaluative language in student writing on data collected from students’ forum comments and reflections posted on Stockholm University’s online learning platform. The theoretical framework for the analysis of evaluative language draws primarily on the theoretical frameworks for the study of evaluative language inspired by Systemic Functional Linguistics. The dataset is labelled for instances of evaluation that express a positive, negative or neutral attitude of the writer. The types of evaluation are categorized into judgments of acceptability, difficulty, expectedness, goodness, importance, interestingness, and usefulness. Overall, the results indicate that students tend to evaluate positively in order to express a positive attitude within all categories of entities found in the data. However, differences exist between evaluations within different categories in terms of the expressed writer’s attitude. In their evaluations limited to discussions within specific research approaches, students tend to limit their evaluation to expressions of a positive or negative attitude. On the other hand, evaluations of theoretical concepts contain a more balanced distribution of attitude types and tend to be contextualized or paired with support in the discourse. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis of individual instances of evaluation shows that it can serve different communicative purposes depending on its form and position in the discourse. Finally, a connection can be drawn between the types of evaluation and the selection of writer’s voice, showing that students assume a range of voices in order to cope with the demand to perform evaluation at different levels of experience.

  • 244.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Iamitives: Perfects in Southeast Asia and beyond2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores grammatical markers with meanings similar to the English perfect tense and words like already, as found in numerous languages across the world, and perhaps especially in languages of Southeast Asia, with the aim of describing the main function of these markers. Such items have previously been treated as belonging to the same category as the perfects of European languages but are tentatively termed "iamitives" in this study (from Latin iam 'already') since they differ from perfects in many respects. The investigation focusses on the semantic and pragmatic factors that determine the use of iamitive-like markers in Indonesian/Malay, Thai, Vietnamese and Mandarin Chinese, based on questionnaire data obtained through work with native speakers of the languages, with additional data coming from a number of languages spoken in other parts of the world. The results highlight the differences and similarities that can be found between iamitives, perfects and 'already', and explicates a number of conditions that are crucial for the use of iamitives, notably involving notions such as change-of-state and speaker expectations

  • 245.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Subordinate clauses in Kashaya Pomo2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyzes subordinate clauses in Kashaya (Pomoan; Northern California). Subordinateclauses have not received any substantial attention in the literature on Kashaya, and the aim of the study istherefore to provide a general description of the morphosyntactic characteristics of some of the mostimportant subordinate clause types. Data was mainly taken from two sources: a collection of transcribedtexts (Oswalt 1964) and the manuscript of an unfinished dictionary (Oswalt, no date), from whichsentences that appeared to consist of combinations of two or more clauses were extracted. In order todetermine whether the constructions found in these sentences involved subordination, they wereexamined in accordance with the parameters proposed in Lehmann (1988). These parameters includerestrictions on word order, reduction of the grammatical categories expressed on the subordinate verb andthe presence of nominal morphology (e.g. case marking) on the subordinate verb. This investigationresulted in the identification of a number of subordinate clause types, of which seven are presented in thestudy: three complement clause constructions, one relative clause construction and three adverbialconstructions. Subordinate clauses are characterized by strictly verb-final word order and partialmorphological reduction. The study also provides a more thorough analysis of relativization strategiesand of the clausal nominalizations involved in several of the constructions that are examined.

  • 246.
    Olsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete.
    Schirren, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete.
    ”… det känns ju naturligt att få följa elevernas språkutveckling …”: Lärares sätt att erfara performansanalysen som bedömningsverktyg2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen är att beskriva de uppfattningar av bedömningsverktyget performansanalys som uttrycks av två lärare i svenska som andraspråk. Studiens delsyfte är att relatera dessa uppfattningar till det mål- och kunskapsrelaterade betygsystemet. Undersökningens fyra frågeställningar avser aspekter beträffande vad som möjliggör, försvårar och förutsätter bedömningsarbetet med performansanalys. Problemområdet, bedömning inom svenska som andraspråk, är komplext och mångfacetterat samt tenderar att vara tidskrävande och omfattande. Lärare inom ämnet behöver kunskaper om den speciella process som tillägnandet av ett andraspråk innebär, samt ett bedömningsverktyg som kan ta hänsyn till denna process. Performansanalys presenteras som en möjlig metod för detta. Som teoretiska utgångspunkter ligger den forskning kring andraspråksinlärning och andraspråksutveckling som utgör grunden för performansanalys. Vidare presenteras forskning kring summativ och formativ bedömning. Undersökningen är av kvalitativ karaktär och har en fenomenografisk forskningsansats, vilken strävar efter att kartlägga variationer av uppfattningar. Kvalitativa intervjuer har utgjort datainsamlingsmetod. Bearbetningsmetoden innefattar en beskrivande och en analytisk nivå med fyra steg: transkribering, datareferat i form av citat, menings-koncentrering och analys. Resultat och analys visar att lärarna erfar performansanalys på två övergripande sätt. Dels uppfattas performansanalys i enlighet med dess teoretiska utgångspunkter. Dels uppfattas performansanalys som ett summativt inriktat bedömningsverktyg, vilket har ett samband med tidsaspekten och kommunens inverkan på lärarnas arbete med bedömningsverktyget. Diskussionen visar på olika tolkningsmöjligheter av analysen.

  • 247.
    Olsson, Linus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Form and function of reduplicated nouns in Japanese2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the form and function of reduplication in nouns in Japanese. Three main areas were investigated: meaning, morphosyntactic behavior, and register. The study was conducted with informants participating in meetings which were audio recorded. The informants were asked to describe a number of reduplicated nouns belonging to three categories: concrete nouns, abstract nouns, and nouns relating to time. A number of pseudo forms were also included to see if similar patterns could be observed in nouns that did not belong to the regular lexicon. The results were analyzed for possible patterns relating to meaning, morphosyntactic behavior, and register across the three noun categories. Primarily two patterns were observed: 1. the reduplicated forms of concrete nouns tended to have a meaning of plurality and maintain their noun status, and 2. the reduplicated forms of nouns relating to time tended to acquire a sensation of extended time and frequency, and change word class into adverbs. These patterns were not observed as strongly among the pseudo forms. In addition to these patterns, other phenomena were observed among the reduplicated nouns that could not be categorized as belonging to specific patterns and should be investigated in further studies.

  • 248.
    Olsson, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Spädbarns anticipatoriska ögonrörelser som svar på ljud: Inlärning i ett eye-tracker-baserat hörseltest2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA) är en metod för att bedöma små barns hörtrösklar. Ett hörseltest med eye-tracking som bygger på VRA är under utveckling, och syftet med denna studie är att vidareutveckla inlärningsfasen i ett sådant hörseltest. Barn i åldern 6,5 till 7,5 månader fick lyssna på ljudstimuli från högtalare på vänster och höger sida om sig och samtidigt se visuella stimuli på motsvarande sida av en bildskärm. Barnens inlärning av det audio-visuella sambandet testades sedan genom att mäta deras ögonrörelser till platsen för visuella stimuli under tiden då ljudet presenterades. Resultaten kan inte tydligt visa att barnen lärt sig associationen, varför testets utformning bör utvecklas vidare för att tillgodose det behov som finns av ett fullt automatiskt och objektivt hörseltest för att utreda spädbarns hörtrösklar.

  • 249.
    Ottersten, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Andraspråksinlärares användning av olika verbtyper i det svenska teckenspråket2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Andraspråksinlärare använder speciella regler vid inlärningen av ett nytt språk. Det finns många teorier som beskriver hur. Interimspråkshypotesen och performansanalysen ligger till grund för denna undersökning. Verb är en av ordklasserna i svenska språket och specifikt för verb är att man kan uttrycka tempus. I teckenspråket kan verb ha formen fasta och polysyntetiska tecken, i både icke modifierad och modifierad form. Tidigare undersökningar (bl.a. Stenberg 2009) har fokuserat på de fel andraspråksanvändarna gör och har hittat att förenkling är den vanligast förekommande kategorin. Denna uppsats studerar hur informanterna använder verb. De använder främst fasta tecken för verb men efter mer undervisningstid använder de mer polysyntetiska tecken. Komplexiteten hos verb verkar öka från fasta till modifierade tecken och de polysyntetiska tecknen är de svåraste, i likhet med tyska studier. Man kan se generella likheter med interimspråkets teorier.

  • 250.
    Ouahabi, Zaynab
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Diferencias en la realización y percepción de actos de habla de (des)cortesía entre estudiantes universitarios en Suecia, hispanohablantes y suecos.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

            Nuestro objetivo con el presente estudio es analizar si existen diferencias en cuanto a lo que se considera cortés y/o respectivamente descortés entre hablantes nativos de sueco e hispanohablantes que residen en Suecia. Este objetivo nos motivó a realizar encuestas dirigidas a informantes representativos de ambos grupos. Las encuestas fueron diseñadas para observar en qué medida había diferencias en cuanto a la realización de ciertos actos de habla y si estas diferencias se debían a que los informantes percibían los actos como más o menos amenazantes dependiendo de los contextos socio-culturales vigentes en sus sociedades de origen. Estas encuestas se hicieron en el idioma del informante (sueco respectivamente español). A partir de las respuestas a las preguntas de la encuesta registramos algunas realizaciones de los actos en estudio que reflejaban diferencias en el estilo comunicativo de estos dos grupos de hablantes. Creemos que es la distinta pertenencia sociocultural de los integrantes de estos grupos, lo que influencia que haya diferencias en el modo de realizar actos de habla, en principio similares. Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que hay variación entre los grupos en estudio en  el modo de realizar los actos del saludo, el agradecimiento y la petición. Por otra parte también comprobamos la existencia de diferencias en el uso de las formulas de tratamiento. y Usted.

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