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  • 201.
    Andersson, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    FTS Studies of diatomic molecules of supposed astrophysical interest2003Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 202.
    Andreas, Sandberg
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Melinder, Jens
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bik, Adrianus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Guaita, L.
    Limits on Lyman Continuum Escape from z = 2.2 Hα-emitting Galaxies2015Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 814, nr 1, artikel-id L10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The leakage of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons from star-forming galaxies is an elusive parameter. When observed, it provides a wealth of information on star formation in galaxies and on the geometry of the interstellar medium, and puts constraints on the role of star-forming galaxies in the reionization of the universe. Hα-selected galaxies at  trace the highest star formation population at the peak of cosmic star formation history, providing a base for directly measuring LyC escape. Here we present this method and highlight its benefits as well as caveats. We also use the method on 10 Hα emitters in the Chandra Deep Field South at  also imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope in the ultraviolet. We find no individual LyC detections, and our stack puts a 5σ upper limit on the average absolute escape fraction of <24%, consistent with similar studies. With future planned observations, the sample sizes should rapidly increase and the method presented here should provide very robust constraints on the escape fraction.

  • 203. Andreoni, I.
    et al.
    Ackley, K.
    Cooke, J.
    Acharyya, A.
    Allison, J. R.
    Anderson, G. E.
    Ashley, M. C. B.
    Baade, D.
    Bailes, M.
    Bannister, K.
    Beardsley, A.
    Bessell, M. S.
    Bian, F.
    Bland, P. A.
    Boer, M.
    Booler, T.
    Brandeker, Alexis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Brown, I. S.
    Buckley, D. A. H.
    Chang, S. -W.
    Coward, D. M.
    Crawford, S.
    Crisp, H.
    Crosse, B.
    Cucchiara, A.
    Cupak, M.
    de Gois, J. S.
    Deller, A.
    Devillepoix, H. A. R.
    Dobie, D.
    Elmer, E.
    Emrich, D.
    Farah, W.
    Farrell, T. J.
    Franzen, T.
    Gaensler, B. M.
    Galloway, D. K.
    Gendre, B.
    Giblin, T.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Green, J.
    Hancock, P. J.
    Hartig, B. A. D.
    Howell, E. J.
    Horsley, L.
    Hotan, A.
    Howie, R. M.
    Hu, L.
    Hu, Y.
    James, C. W.
    Johnston, S.
    Johnston-Hollitt, M.
    Kaplan, D. L.
    Kasliwal, M.
    Keane, E. F.
    Kenney, D.
    Klotz, A.
    Lau, R.
    Laugier, R.
    Lenc, E.
    Li, X.
    Liang, E.
    Lidman, C.
    Luvaul, L. C.
    Lynch, C.
    Ma, B.
    Macpherson, D.
    Mao, J.
    McClelland, D. E.
    McCully, C.
    Moller, A.
    Morales, M. F.
    Morris, D.
    Murphy, T.
    Noysena, K.
    Onken, C. A.
    Orange, N. B.
    Oslowski, S.
    Pallot, D.
    Paxman, J.
    Potter, S. B.
    Pritchard, T.
    Raja, W.
    Ridden-Harper, R.
    Romero-Colmenero, E.
    Sadler, E. M.
    Sansom, E. K.
    Scalzo, R. A.
    Schmidt, B. P.
    Scott, S. M.
    Seghouani, N.
    Shang, Z.
    Shannon, R. M.
    Shao, L.
    Shara, M. M.
    Sharp, R.
    Sokolowski, M.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Staff, J.
    Steele, K.
    Sun, T.
    Suntzeff, N. B.
    Tao, C.
    Tingay, S.
    Towner, M. C.
    Thierry, P.
    Trott, C.
    Tucker, B. E.
    Vaisanen, P.
    Krishnan, V. Venkatraman
    Walker, M.
    Wang, L.
    Wang, X.
    Wayth, R.
    Whiting, M.
    Williams, A.
    Williams, T.
    Wolf, C.
    Wu, C.
    Wu, X.
    Yang, J.
    Yuan, X.
    Zhang, H.
    Zhou, J.
    Zovaro, H.
    Follow Up of GW170817 and Its Electromagnetic Counterpart by Australian-Led Observing Programmes2017Ingår i: Publications Astronomical Society of Australia, ISSN 1323-3580, E-ISSN 1448-6083, Vol. 34, artikel-id e069Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (similar to 2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.

  • 204. Andresen, G. B.
    et al.
    Ashkezari, M. D.
    Baquero-Ruiz, M.
    Bertsche, W.
    Bowe, P. D.
    Butler, E.
    Carpenter, P. T.
    Cesar, C. L.
    Chapman, S.
    Charlton, M.
    Fajans, J.
    Friesen, T.
    Fujiwara, M. C.
    Gill, D. R.
    Hangst, J. S.
    Hardy, W. N.
    Hayden, M. E.
    Humphries, A. J.
    Hurt, J. L.
    Hydomako, R.
    Jonsell, Svante
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Madsen, N.
    Menary, S.
    Nolan, P.
    Olchanski, K.
    Olin, A.
    Povilus, A.
    Pusa, P.
    Robicheaux, F.
    Sarid, E.
    Silveira, D. M.
    So, C.
    Storey, J. W.
    Thompson, R. I.
    van der Werf, D. P.
    Wurtele, J. S.
    Yamazaki, Y.
    Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas2011Ingår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 106, nr 2, s. 025002-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination

  • 205. Andrievsky, Alexander
    et al.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    Noullez, Alain
    Zheligovsky, Vladislav
    NEGATIVE MAGNETIC EDDY DIFFUSIVITIES FROM THE TEST-FIELD METHOD AND MULTISCALE STABILITY THEORY2015Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 811, nr 2, artikel-id 135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of a large-scale magnetic field in the kinematic regime in the absence of an alpha-effect is investigated by following two different approaches: the test-field method and the multiscale stability theory relying on the homogenization technique. Our computations of the magnetic eddy diffusivity tensor of the parity-invariant flow IV of G. O. Roberts and the modified Taylor-Green flow confirm the findings of previous studies. and also explain some of their apparent contradictions. The two flows have large symmetry groups; this is used to considerably simplify the eddy diffusivity tensor. Finally, a new analytic result is presented: upon expressing the eddy diffusivity tensor in terms of solutions to auxiliary problems for the adjoint operator, we derive relations between the magnetic eddy diffusivity tensors that arise for mutually reverse small-scale flows v(x) and - v(x).

  • 206. Ao, Y.
    et al.
    Matsuda, Y.
    Henkel, C.
    Iono, D.
    Alexander, D. M.
    Chapman, S. C.
    Geach, J.
    Hatsukade, B.
    Hayes, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hine, N. K.
    Kato, Y.
    Kawabe, R.
    Kohno, K.
    Kubo, M.
    Lehnert, M.
    Malkan, M.
    Menten, K. M.
    Nagao, T.
    Norris, R. P.
    Ouchi, M.
    Saito, T.
    Tamura, Y.
    Taniguchi, Y.
    Umehata, H.
    Weiss, A.
    Deep Submillimeter and Radio Observations in the SSA22 Field. I. Powering Sources and the Ly alpha Escape Fraction of Ly alpha Blobs2017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 850, nr 2, artikel-id 178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the heating mechanisms and Ly alpha escape fractions of 35 Ly alpha blobs (LABs) at z approximate to 3.1 in the SSA22 field. Dust continuum sources have been identified in 11 of the 35 LABs, all with star formation rates (SFRs) above 100M(circle dot) yr(-1). Likely radio counterparts are detected in 9 out of 29 investigated LABs. The detection of submillimeter dust emission is more linked to the physical size of the Ly alpha emission than to the Ly alpha luminosities of the LABs. A radio excess in the submillimeter/ radio-detected LABs is common, hinting at the presence of active galactic nuclei. Most radio sources without X-ray counterparts are located at the centers of the LABs. However, all X-ray counterparts avoid the central regions. This may be explained by absorption due to exceptionally large column densities along the line-of-sight or by LAB morphologies, which are highly orientation dependent. The median Lya escape fraction is about 3% among the submillimeter-detected LABs, which is lower than a lower limit of 11% for the submillimeter-undetected LABs. We suspect that the large difference is due to the high dust attenuation supported by the large SFRs, the dense large-scale environment as well as large uncertainties in the extinction corrections required to apply when interpreting optical data.

  • 207. Aprile, E.
    et al.
    Aalbers, J.
    Agostini, F.
    Alfonsi, M.
    Amaro, F. D.
    Anthony, M.
    Arneodo, F.
    Barrow, P.
    Baudis, L.
    Bauermeister, Boris
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany.
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    Berger, T.
    Breur, P. A.
    Brown, A.
    Brown, E.
    Bruenner, S.
    Bruno, G.
    Budnik, R.
    Butikofer, L.
    Calven, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Cardoso, J. M. R.
    Cervantes, M.
    Cichon, D.
    Coderre, D.
    Colijn, A. P.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Cussonneau, J. P.
    Decowski, M. P.
    de Perio, P.
    Di Gangi, P.
    Di Giovanni, A.
    Diglio, S.
    Duchovni, E.
    Eurin, G.
    Fei, J.
    Ferella, Alfredo D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Fieguth, A.
    Franco, D.
    Fulgione, W.
    Rosso, A. Gallo
    Galloway, M.
    Gao, F.
    Garbini, M.
    Geis, C.
    Goetzke, L. W.
    Grandi, L.
    Greene, Z.
    Grignon, C.
    Hasterok, C.
    Hogenbirk, E.
    Itay, R.
    Kaminsky, B.
    Kessler, G.
    Kish, A.
    Landsman, H.
    Lang, R. F.
    Lellouch, D.
    Levinson, L.
    Le Calloch, M.
    Lin, Q.
    Lindemann, S.
    Lindner, M.
    Lopes, J. A. M.
    Manfredini, A.
    Maris, I.
    Undagoitia, T. Marrodan
    Masbou, J.
    Massoli, F. V.
    Masson, D.
    Mayani, D.
    Meng, Y.
    Messina, M.
    Micheneau, K.
    Miguez, B.
    Molinario, A.
    Murra, M.
    Naganoma, J.
    Ni, K.
    Oberlack, U.
    Orrigo, S. E. A.
    Pakarha, P.
    Pelssers, Bart
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Persiani, R.
    Piastra, F.
    Pienaar, J.
    Piro, M. -C.
    Plante, G.
    Priel, N.
    Rauch, L.
    Reichard, S.
    Reuter, C.
    Rizzo, A.
    Rosendahl, S.
    Rupp, N.
    Saldanha, R.
    dos Santos, J. M. F.
    Sartorelli, G.
    Scheibelhut, M.
    Schindler, S.
    Schreiner, J.
    Schumann, M.
    Lavina, L. Scotto
    Selvi, M.
    Shagin, P.
    Shockley, E.
    Silva, M.
    Simgen, H.
    v Sivers, M.
    Stein, A.
    Thers, D.
    Tiseni, A.
    Trinchero, G.
    Tunnell, C.
    Upole, N.
    Wang, H.
    Wei, Y.
    Weinheimer, C.
    Wulf, J.
    Ye, J.
    Zhang, Y.
    Results from a calibration of XENON100 using a source of dissolved radon-2202017Ingår i: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 95, nr 7, artikel-id 072008Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Rn-220 source is deployed on the XENON100 dark matter detector in order to address the challenges in calibration of tonne-scale liquid noble element detectors. We show that the Pb-212 beta emission can be used for low-energy electronic recoil calibration in searches for dark matter. The isotope spreads throughout the entire active region of the detector, and its activity naturally decays below background level within a week after the source is closed. We find no increase in the activity of the troublesome Rn-222 background after calibration. Alpha emitters are also distributed throughout the detector and facilitate calibration of its response to Rn-222. Using the delayed coincidence of Rn-220-Po-216, we map for the first time the convective motion of particles in the XENON100 detector. Additionally, we make a competitive measurement of the half-life of Po-212, t(1/2) = (293.9 +/- (1.0)(stat) +/- (0.6)(sys)) ns.

  • 208. Aprile, Elena
    et al.
    Aalbers, Jelle
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Antochi, Vasile Cristian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bauermeister, Boris
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ferella, Alfredo Davide
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Mahlstedt, Jörn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Pelssers, Bart
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zopounidis, J. P.
    Analysis of the XENON1T data for WIMP search: Background Models and Statistical InferenceManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The XENON1T experiment searches for dark matter recoils within a $2$ tonne liquid xenon target. The detector is operated as a dual-phase time projection chamber, and reconstructs the energy and position of interactions in the active volume. In the central volume of the target mass, the lowest background rate of a xenon-based direct detection experiment so far has been achieved. In this work we describe the detector response modelling, the background and signal models, and the statistical inference procedures used in a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) using 1\,tonne$\times$year exposure of XENON1T data.

  • 209. Archambault, S.
    et al.
    Aune, T.
    Behera, B.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Berger, K.
    Bird, R.
    Biteau, J.
    Bugaev, V.
    Byrum, K.
    Cardenzana, J. V.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chen, X.
    Ciupik, L.
    Connolly, M. P.
    Cui, W.
    Dumm, J.
    Errando, M.
    Falcone, A.
    Federici, S.
    Feng, Q.
    Finley, J. P.
    Fleischhack, H.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Galante, N.
    Gillanders, G. H.
    Griffin, S.
    Griffiths, S. T.
    Grube, J.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Hughes, G.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Johnson, C. A.
    Kaaret, P.
    Kertzman, M.
    Khassen, Y.
    Kieda, D.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Kumar, S.
    Lang, M. J.
    Madhavan, A. S.
    Maier, G.
    McCann, A.
    Meagher, K.
    Moriarty, P.
    Mukherjee, R.
    Nieto, D.
    de Bhroithe, A. O'Faolain
    Ong, R. A.
    Otte, A. N.
    Park, N.
    Pohl, M.
    Popkow, A.
    Prokoph, H.
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Rajotte, J.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Richards, G. T.
    Roache, E.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Shahinyan, K.
    Staszak, D.
    Telezhinsky, I.
    Tucci, J. V.
    Tyler, J.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vassiliev, V. V.
    Vincent, S.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Weinstein, A.
    Welsing, R.
    Wilhelm, A.
    Williams, D. A.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Albert, A.
    Baldini, L.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Bregeon, J.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Charles, E.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Digel, S. W.
    Di Venere, L.
    Drell, P. S.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guiriec, S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Jogler, T.
    Kuss, M.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Latronico, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Murgia, S.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Raino, S.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Ritz, S.
    Schaal, M.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spinelli, P.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Troja, E.
    Vianello, G.
    Werner, M.
    Wood, M.
    DEEP BROADBAND OBSERVATIONS OF THE DISTANT GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PKS 1424+2402014Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 785, nr 1, s. L16-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present deep VERITAS observations of the blazar PKS 1424+240, along with contemporaneous Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope, and Swift UV Optical Telescope data between 2009 February 19 and 2013 June 8. This blazar resides at a redshift of z >= 0.6035, displaying a significantly attenuated gamma-ray flux above 100 GeV due to photon absorption via pair-production with the extragalactic background light. We present more than 100 hr of VERITAS observations over three years, a multiwavelength light curve, and the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions. The source shows a higher flux of (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10(-7) photons m(-2) s(-1) above 120 GeV in 2009 and 2011 as compared to the flux measured in 2013, corresponding to (1.02 +/- 0.08) x 10-7 photons m(-2) s(-1) above 120 GeV. The measured differential very high energy (VHE; E >= 100 GeV) spectral indices are Gamma = 3.8 +/- 0.3, 4.3 +/- 0.6 and 4.5 +/- 0.2 in 2009, 2011, and 2013, respectively. No significant spectral change across the observation epochs is detected. We find no evidence for variability at gamma-ray opacities of greater than tau = 2, where it is postulated that any variability would be small and occur on timescales longer than a year if hadronic cosmic-ray interactions with extragalactic photon fields provide a secondary VHE photon flux. The data cannot rule out such variability due to low statistics.

  • 210. Arthur, S. J.
    et al.
    Henney, W. J.
    Mellema, Garrelt
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    De Colle, F.
    Vazquez-Semadeni, E.
    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of H II regions and their associated PDRs in turbulent molecular clouds2011Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 414, nr 2, s. 1747-1768Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the formation and expansion of H II regions and their surrounding photodissociation regions (PDRs) in turbulent, magnetized, molecular clouds on scales of up to 4 pc. We include the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing ultraviolet radiation and X-rays from population synthesis models of young star clusters. For all our simulations we find that the H II region expansion reduces the disordered component of the magnetic field, imposing a large-scale order on the field around its border, with the field in the neutral gas tending to lie along the ionization front, while the field in the ionized gas tends to be perpendicular to the front. The highest pressure-compressed neutral and molecular gas is driven towards approximate equipartition between thermal, magnetic and turbulent energy densities, whereas lower pressure neutral/molecular gas bifurcates into, on the one hand, quiescent, magnetically dominated regions and, on the other hand, turbulent, demagnetized regions. The ionized gas shows approximate equipartition between thermal and turbulent energy densities, but with magnetic energy densities that are 1-3 orders of magnitude lower. A high velocity dispersion (similar to 8 km s(-1)) is maintained in the ionized gas throughout our simulations, despite the mean expansion velocity being significantly lower. The magnetic field does not significantly brake the large-scale H II region expansion on the length and time-scales accessible to our simulations, but it does tend to suppress the smallest scale fragmentation and radiation-driven implosion of neutral/molecular gas that forms globules and pillars at the edge of the H II region. However, the relative luminosity of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation has a much larger influence than the presence or absence of the magnetic field. When the star cluster radiation field is relatively soft (as in the case of a lower mass cluster, containing an earliest spectral type of B0.5), then fragmentation is less vigorous and a thick, relatively smooth PDR forms.

  • 211.
    Asadi, Saghar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Freeland, Emily
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Probing cold dark matter subhaloes with simulated ALMA observations of macrolensed sub-mm galaxies2017Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 472, nr 1, s. 129-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    If the dark matter haloes of galaxies contain large numbers of subhaloes as predicted by the Lambda cold dark matter model, these subhaloes are expected to appear in strong galaxy-galaxy lens systems as small-scale perturbations in individual images. We simulate observations of multiply lensed sub-mm galaxies at z similar to 2 as a probe of the dark matter halo of a lens galaxy at z similar to 0.5. We present detection limits for dark substructures based on a visibility plane analysis of simulated Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) data in bands 7, 8 and 9. We explore two effects: local surface brightness anomalies on angular scales similar to the Einstein radius and the astrometric shift of macroimages. This improves the sensitivity of our lens modelling to the mass of the lens perturber. We investigate the sensitivity of the detection of low-mass subhaloes to the projected position of the subhalo on the image plane as well as the source structure and inner density profile of the lens. We demonstrate that, using the most extended ALMA configuration, pseudo-Jaffe subhaloes can be detected with 99 per cent confidence down to M = 10(7)M(circle dot) . We show how the detection threshold for the three ALMA bands depends on the projected position of the subhalo with respect to the lensed images and conclude that, despite the highest nominal angular resolution, band 9 provides the poorest sensitivity due to observational noise. All simulations use the ALMA Full ops most extended ALMA configuration setup in CASA.

  • 212. Asensio Ramos, A.
    et al.
    de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Sparse inversion of Stokes profiles I. Two-dimensional Milne-Eddington inversions2015Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 577, artikel-id A140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Inversion codes are numerical tools used to infer physical properties from observations. Despite their success, the quality of current spectropolarimetric observations and those expected in the near future presents a challenge to current inversion codes. Aims. The pixel-by-pixel strategy of inverting spectropolarimetric data that we currently use needs to be surpassed and improved. The inverted physical parameters have to take into account the spatial correlation that is present in the data and that contains valuable physical information. Methods. We used the concept of sparsity or compressibility to develop a new generation of inversion codes for the Stokes parameters. The inversion code uses numerical optimization techniques based on the idea of proximal algorithms to impose sparsity. In so doing, we allow for the first time exploiting the spatial correlation on the maps of physical parameters. Sparsity also regularizes the solution by reducing the number of unknowns. Results. We compare the results of the new inversion code with pixel-by-pixel inversions to demonstrate the increased robustness of the solution. We also show how the method can easily compensate for the effect of the telescope point spread function, producing solutions with an enhanced contrast.

  • 213. Asensio Ramos, A.
    et al.
    de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Martinez Gonzalez, M. J.
    Pastor Yabar, A.
    Inversion of Stokes profiles with systematic effects2016Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 590, artikel-id A87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative thermodynamical, dynamical and magnetic properties of the solar and stellar plasmas are obtained by interpreting their emergent non-polarized and polarized spectrum. This inference requires the selection of a set of spectral lines that are particularly sensitive to the physical conditions in the plasma and a suitable parametric model of the solar/stellar atmosphere. Nonlinear inversion codes are then used to fit the model to the observations. However, the presence of systematic effects, like nearby or blended spectral lines, telluric absorption, or incorrect correction of the continuum, among others, can strongly affect the results. We present an extension to current inversion codes that can deal with these effects in a transparent way. The resulting algorithm is very simple and can be applied to any existing inversion code with the addition of a few lines of code as an extra step in each iteration.

  • 214.
    Asensio Torres, Ruben
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    High-contrast imaging of low-mass companions and debris disks2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for exoplanets, i.e., planets orbiting other stars than the Sun, is a relatively new research field, but has already established itself as one of the most prolific and intriguing areas of astronomy. By now we are in a situation where the focus is not only on finding companions to stars, but also on characterising their atmospheres and physical properties, which overall allows us to put our Solar System into context. In the near future, these efforts could potentially lead to the first confirmation of a life-bearing planet besides the Earth. 

    The great majority of these exoplanet studies have been carried out indirectly, where the presence and characterisation of the companions are inferred solely from the observation of the host star. In the last decade, however, high-contrast direct imaging has been continuously developed to get rid of the starlight and reveal the existence of low-mass companions. Although this technique is currently limited to giant planets orbiting at large separations, it is able to directly detect the light emitted or scattered off the planet’s atmosphere at high signal to noise, which makes it the most promising planet-hunting method to characterise new worlds. Moreover, its capability to image faint objects close to the parent star allows for not only the detection of planetary-mass companions, but also low-mass stars, brown dwarfs, and circumstellar disks where planet formation takes place. This opens up a broad range of science cases where direct observations can be used to understand planet formation, atmospheric physics and stellar evolution.      

    In this PhD thesis I provide an up-to-date introduction to the basis of the direct imaging technique, and explain the star and planet formation mechanisms. Three publications are attached to this introduction, each of them dealing with distinct science cases that can be  assessed with high-contrast observations. In Paper I we resolve and model the aftermath of star formation, the so-called debris disk phase analogue to the asteroid and Kuiper belts in our Solar System, around the HD 32297 star with Subaru/HiCIAO.  We reveal an edge-on disk and find the first indications of a double-ring scenario. We also present the first polarimetric study of this system, constraining the properties of the dust around the star.  In Paper II we focus on the planetary-mass regime, and conduct the first direct imaging survey searching for circumbinary planets orbiting tight binary systems (SPOTS: Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars). We present the results of the observations of 62 targets with VLT/NaCo and VLT/SPHERE, and perform a statistical analysis on the findings, placing constraints on the population of giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide orbits. Finally, in Paper III we resolve a triple stellar system with the newly-commissioned SCExAO/CHARIS integral field spectrograph. Taking advantage of the coeval nature of the system and the different range of masses involved, we use the data to reaffirm a previously suggested isochronal age discrepancy between the low- and the intermediate-mass population of stars.

  • 215.
    Asensio-Torres, Ruben
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Janson, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Bonavita, M.
    Desidera, S.
    Thalmann, C.
    Kuzuhara, M.
    Henning, Th.
    Marzari, F.
    Meyer, M. R.
    Calissendorff, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Uyama, T.
    SPOTS: The Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars III. Complete sample and statistical analysis2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 619, artikel-id A43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Binary stars constitute a large percentage of the stellar population, yet relatively little is known about the planetary systems orbiting them. Most constraints on circumbinary planets (CBPs) so far come from transit observations with the Kepler telescope, which is sensitive to close-in exoplanets but does not constrain planets on wider orbits. However, with continuous developments in high-contrast imaging techniques, this population can now be addressed through direct imaging. We present the full survey results of the Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars (SPOTS) survey, which is the first direct imaging survey targeting CBPs. The SPOTS observational program comprises 62 tight binaries that are young and nearby, and thus suitable for direct imaging studies, with VLT/NaCo and VLT/SPHERE. Results from SPOTS include the resolved circumbinary disk around AK Sco, the discovery of a low-mass stellar companion in a triple packed system, the relative astrometry of up to 9 resolved binaries, and possible indications of non-background planetary-mass candidates around HIP 77911. We did not find any CBP within 300 AU, which implies a frequency upper limit on CBPs (1-15 M-Jup) of 6-10% between 30-300 AU. Coupling these observations with an archival dataset for a total of 163 stellar pairs, we find a best-fit CBP frequency of 1.9% (2-15 M-Jup) between 1 and 300 AU with a 10.5% upper limit at a 95% confidence level. This result is consistent with the distribution of companions around single stars.

  • 216.
    Asensio-Torres, Ruben
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Janson, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Hashimoto, J.
    Thalmann, C.
    Currie, T.
    Buenzli, E.
    Kudo, T.
    Kuzuhara, M.
    Kusakabe, N.
    Abe, L.
    Akiyama, E.
    Brandner, W.
    Brandt, T. D.
    Carson, J.
    Egner, S.
    Feldt, M.
    Goto, M.
    Grady, C.
    Guyon, O.
    Hayano, Y.
    Hayashi, M.
    Hayashi, S.
    Henning, T.
    Hodapp, K.
    Ishii, M.
    Iye, M.
    Kandori, R.
    Knapp, G.
    Kwon, J.
    Matsuo, T.
    McElwain, M.
    Mayama, S.
    Miyama, S.
    Morino, J.
    Moro-Martin, A.
    Nishimura, T.
    Pyo, T.
    Serabyn, E.
    Suenaga, T.
    Suto, H.
    Suzuki, R.
    Takahashi, Y.
    Takami, M.
    Takato, N.
    Terada, H.
    Turner, E.
    Watanabe, M.
    Wisniewski, J.
    Yamada, T.
    Takami, H.
    Usuda, T.
    Tamura, M.
    Polarimetry and flux distribution in the debris disk around HD 322972016Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 593, artikel-id A73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present high-contrast angular differential imaging (ADI) observations of the debris disk around HD32297 in H-band, as well as the first polarimetric images for this system in polarized differential imaging (PDI) mode with Subaru/HICIAO. In ADI, we detect the nearly edge-on disk at > 5 sigma levels from similar to 0.45 '' to similar to 1.7 '' (50-192AU) from the star and recover the spine deviation from the midplane already found in previous works. We also find for the first time imaging and surface brightness (SB) indications for the presence of a gapped structure on both sides of the disk at distances of similar to 0.75 '' (NE side) and similar to 0.65 '' (SW side). Global forward-modelling work delivers a best-fit model disk and well-fitting parameter intervals that essentially match previous results, with high-forward scattering grains and a ring located at 110AU. However, this single ring model cannot account for the gapped structure seen in our SB profiles. We create simple double ring models and achieve a satisfactory fit with two rings located at 60 and 95AU, respectively, low-forward scattering grains and very sharp inner slopes. In polarized light we retrieve the disk extending from similar to 0.25-1.6 '', although the central region is quite noisy and high S/N are only found in the range similar to 0.75-1.2 ''. The disk is polarized in the azimuthal direction, as expected, and the departure from the midplane is also clearly observed. Evidence for a gapped scenario is not found in the PDI data. We obtain a linear polarization degree of the grains that increases from similar to 10% at 0.55 '' to similar to 25% at 1.6 ''. The maximum is found at scattering angles of similar to 90 degrees, either from the main components of the disk or from dust grains blown out to larger radii.

  • 217.
    Asensio-Torres, Ruben
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Janson, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Tamura, Motohide
    Isochronal age-mass discrepancy of young stars: SCExAO/CHARIS integral field spectroscopy of the HIP 79124 triple system2019Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 622, artikel-id A42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present SCExAO/CHARIS 1.1--2.4 micron integral field direct spectroscopy of the young HIP 79124 triple system. HIP 79124 is a member of the Scorpius-Centaurus association, consisting of an A0V primary with two low-mass companions at a projected separation of <1 arcsecond. Thanks to the high quality wavefront corrections provided by SCExAO, both companions are decisively detected without the employment of any PSF-subtraction algorithm to eliminate quasi-static noise. The spectrum of the outer C object is very well matched by Upper Scorpius M4 pm 0.5 standard spectra, with a Teff = 2945 pm 100 and a mass of 350 MJup. HIP 79124 B is detected at a separation of only 180 mas in a highly-correlated noise regime, and it falls in the spectral range M6 pm 0.5 with Teff = 2840 pm 190 and 100 MJup. Previous studies of stellar populations in Sco-Cen have highlighted a discrepancy in isochronal ages between the lower-mass and higher-mass populations. This could be explained either by an age spread in the region, or by conventional isochronal models failing to reproduce the evolution of low-mass stars. The HIP 79124 system should be coeval, and therefore it provides an ideal laboratory to test these scenarios. We place the three components in a color-magnitude diagram and find that the models predict a younger age for the two low-mass companions (3 Myr) than for the primary star (6 Myr). These results imply that the omission of magnetic effects in conventional isochronal models inhibit them from reproducing early low-mass stellar evolution, which is further supported by the fact that new models that include such effects provide more consistent ages in the HIP 79124 system.

  • 218. Ashall, C.
    et al.
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Hoeflich, P.
    Stritzinger, M.
    Phillips, M. M.
    Morrell, N.
    Davis, S.
    Baron, E.
    Piro, A. L.
    Burns, C.
    Contreras, C.
    Galbany, L.
    Holmbo, S.
    Kirshner, R. P.
    Krisciunas, K.
    Marion, G. H.
    Sand, D. J.
    Shahbandeh, M.
    Suntzeff, N. B.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Carnegie Supernova Project-II: Using Near-infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Location of the Outer Ni-56 in Type Ia Supernovae2019Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 875, nr 2, artikel-id L14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the H-band wavelength region of 37 postmaximum light near-infrared spectra of three normal, nine transitional, and four subluminous type. Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), extending from +5. days to +20. days relative to the epoch of B-band maximum. We introduce a new observable, the blue-edge velocity, v(edge), of the prominent Fe/Co/Ni-peak H-band emission feature, which is quantitatively measured. The v(edge) parameter is found to decrease over subtype ranging from around -14,000 km s(-1) for normal SNe Ia, to -10,000 km s(-1) for transitional SNe. Ia, down to -5000 km s(-1) for the subluminous SNe. Ia. Furthermore, inspection of the +10 +/- 3 days spectra indicates that v(edge) is correlated with the color-stretch parameter, s(BV), and hence with peak luminosity. These results follow the previous findings that brighter SNe. Ia tend to have Ni-56 located at higher velocities as compared to subluminous objects. As v(edge) is a model-independent parameter, we propose it can be used in combination with traditional observational diagnostics to provide a new avenue to robustly distinguish between leading SNe. Ia explosion models.

  • 219. Ashworth, G.
    et al.
    Fumagalli, M.
    Krumholz, M. R.
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Calzetti, D.
    Chandar, R.
    Cignoni, M.
    Dale, D.
    Elmegreen, B. G.
    Gallagher, J. S.
    Gouliermis, D. A.
    Grasha, K.
    Grebel, E. K.
    Johnson, K. E.
    Lee, J.
    Tosi, M.
    Wofford, A.
    Exploring the IMF of star clusters: a joint SLUG and LEGUS effort2017Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, nr 2, s. 2464-2480Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the implementation of a Bayesian formalism within the Stochastically Lighting Up Galaxies (SLUG) stellar population synthesis code, which is designed to investigate variations in the initial mass function (IMF) of star clusters. By comparing observed cluster photometry to large libraries of clusters simulated with a continuously varying IMF, our formalism yields the posterior probability distribution function (PDF) of the cluster mass, age and extinction, jointly with the parameters describing the IMF. We apply this formalism to a sample of star clusters from the nearby galaxy NGC 628, for which broad-band photometry in five filters is available as part of the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS). After allowing the upper-end slope of the IMF (a3) to vary, we recover PDFs for the mass, age and extinction that are broadly consistent with what is found when assuming an invariant Kroupa IMF. However, the posterior PDF for a3 is very broad due to a strong degeneracy with the cluster mass, and it is found to be sensitive to the choice of priors, particularly on the cluster mass. We find only a modest improvement in the constraining power of a3 when adding Ha photometry from the companion Ha-LEGUS survey. Conversely, Ha photometry significantly improves the age determination, reducing the frequency of multi-modal PDFs. With the aid of mock clusters, we quantify the degeneracy between physical parameters, showing how constraints on the cluster mass that are independent of photometry can be used to pin down the IMF properties of star clusters.

  • 220. Ashworth, G.
    et al.
    Fumagalli, Michele
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Krumholz, Mark R.
    Theoretical predictions for IMF diagnostics in UV spectroscopy of star clusters2018Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 480, nr 3, s. 3091-3104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the possibility of using UV spectroscopy in combination with broad-band photometry as diagnostic tools for understanding the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) in unresolved stellar populations. Building on our previous work, we extend the Stochastically Lighting Up Galaxies (SLUG) code to include a high-resolution UV spectral synthesizer and equivalent width calculation capabilities. We first gain a qualitative understanding of how UV spectral features behave as the parameters that define a star cluster in SLUG (mass, age, extinction, and IMF slope alpha(3)) are changed. We then exploit Bayesian inference techniques to recover the alpha(3) values for clusters simulated with SLUG, using mock observations of these clusters comprised of broad-band photometry and equivalent width measurements of a selection of UV spectral features. We find some improvement when compared to attempts using broad-band photometry alone (with the interquartile range of the alpha(3) posterior PDF shrinking by similar or equal to 32%), although we still do not yet fully break the known degeneracy between the cluster mass and alpha(3). Finally, we make predictions about how effective real observations will be by quantifying our ability to constrain alpha(3) as a function of limiting equivalent width. We find that observations sensitive to a modest equivalent width of similar or equal to 9 angstrom are sufficient to improve the recovery of the IMF slope parameter by similar or equal to 32% (interquartile range of posterior PDF median residuals), moving to similar or equal to 39% when we include all the significant spectral features in the wavelength range 900 - 3000 angstrom.

  • 221.
    Asplund, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Nordita.
    No sign of a left-handedness in GeV photon arrival directions2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A non-zero helicity of cosmological magnetic fields could, if detected, have important implications for models of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. It has been suggested that the helicity of such a field could be related to the handedness of photon arrival directions in the diffuse gamma-ray sky observed by the \emph{Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT). \cite{tashiro_search_2014} found a left-handedness when applying this method, implying the existence of an extragalactic magnetic field with negative helicity. In this work the same method is applied, using twice as much data from the LAT due to the longer exposure time, providing higher statistical certainty. Additionally, the potential effects of the non-uniform LAT exposure and contamination of galactic emission are studied using simulated data sets. The results obtained indicate no significant signal, as the simulations suggest that the uncertainty was highly underestimated in \cite{tashiro_search_2014}, and any observed handedness using the updated LAT data is found to be compatible with zero within this new error estimate.

  • 222. Asplund, Martin
    et al.
    Grevesse, Nicolas
    Sauval, A. Jacques
    Scott, Pat
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    The Chemical Composition of the Sun2009Ingår i: Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0066-4146, E-ISSN 1545-4282, Vol. 47, s. 481-522Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The solar chemical composition is an important ingredient in our understanding of the formation, structure, and evolution of both the Sun and our Solar System. Furthermore, it is an essential reference standard against which the elemental contents of other astronomical objects are compared. In this review, we evaluate the current understanding of the solar photospheric composition. In particular, we present a redetermination of the abundances of nearly all available elements, using a realistic new three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent hydrodynamical model of the solar atmosphere. We have carefully considered the atomic input data and selection of spectral lines, and accounted for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) whenever possible. The end result is a comprehensive and homogeneous compilation of the solar elemental abundances. Particularly noteworthy findings are significantly lower abundances of C, N, O, and Ne compared to the widely used values of a decade ago. The new solar chemical composition is supported by a high degree of internal consistency between available abundance indicators, and by agreement with values obtained in the Solar Neighborhood and from the most pristine meteorites. There is, however, a stark conflict with standard models of the solar interior according to helio-seismology, a discrepancy that has yet to find a satisfactory resolution.

  • 223. Astier, P.
    et al.
    Balland, C.
    Brescia, M.
    Cappellaro, E.
    Carlberg, R. G.
    Cavuoti, S.
    Della Valle, M.
    Gangler, E.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Guy, J.
    Hardin, D.
    Hook, I. M.
    Kessler, R.
    Kim, A.
    Linder, E.
    Longo, G.
    Maguire, K.
    Mannucci, F.
    Mattila, S.
    Nichol, R.
    Pain, R.
    Regnault, N.
    Spiro, S.
    Sullivan, M.
    Tao, C.
    Turatto, M.
    Wang, X. F.
    Wood-Vasey, W. M.
    Extending the supernova Hubble diagram to z similar to 1.5 with the Euclid space mission2014Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 572, s. A80-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We forecast dark energy constraints that could be obtained from a new large sample of Type Ia supernovae where those at high redshift are acquired with the Euclid space mission. We simulate a three-prong SN survey: a z < 0.35 nearby sample (8000 SNe), a 0.2 < z < 0.95 intermediate sample (8800 SNe), and a 0.75 < z < 1.55 high-z sample (1700 SNe). The nearby and intermediate surveys are assumed to be conducted from the ground, while the high-z is a joint ground-and space-based survey. This latter survey, the Dark Energy Supernova Infra-Red Experiment (DESIRE), is designed to fit within 6 months of Euclid observing time, with a dedicated observing programme. We simulate the SN events as they would be observed in rolling-search mode by the various instruments, and derive the quality of expected cosmological constraints. We account for known systematic uncertainties, in particular calibration uncertainties including their contribution through the training of the supernova model used to fit the supernovae light curves. Using conservative assumptions and a 1D geometric Planck prior, we find that the ensemble of surveys would yield competitive constraints: a constant equation of state parameter can be constrained to sigma(omega) = 0.022, and a Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit of 203 is found for a two-parameter equation of state. Our simulations thus indicate that Euclid can bring a significant contribution to a purely geometrical cosmology constraint by extending a high-quality SN Ia Hubble diagram to z similar to 1.5. We also present other science topics enabled by the DESIRE Euclid observations.

  • 224. Atek, Hakim
    et al.
    Kunth, Daniel
    Hayes, Matthew
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Mas-Hesse, J. M.
    On the detectability of Ly-alpha emission in star forming galaxies. The role of dust2008Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 488, nr 491Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Lyman-alpha (Lyα) radiation is now widely used to investigate the galaxy formation and evolution in the high redshift universe. However, without a rigorous understanding of the processes regulating the Lyα escape fraction, physical interpretations of high-z observations remain questionable. Aims: We examine six nearby star forming galaxies to disentangle the role of the dust from other parameters such as gas kinematics, geometry, and ISM morphology in the obscuration of Lyα. Thereby, we attempt to understand the Lyα escape physics and infer the implications for high-redshift studies. Methods: We use HST/ACS imaging to produce continuum-subtracted Lyα maps, and ground-based observations (ESO/NTT and NOT) to map the Hα emission and the extinction E(B-V) in the gas phase derived from the Balmer decrement Hα/Hβ. Results: When large outflows are present, the Lyα emission does not appear to be correlated with the dust content, confirming the role of the Hi kinematics in the escape of Lyα photons. In the case of a dense, static Hi covering, we observe a damped absorption with a negative correlation between Lyα and E(B-V). We found that the Lyα escape fraction does not exceed 10% in all our galaxies and is mostly about 3% or below. Finally, because of the radiative transfer complexity of the Lyα line, star formation rate based on Lyα luminosity is underestimated with respect to that derived from UV luminosity. Simple reddening correction does not reconcile SFR(Lyα) with the total star formation rate. Conclusions: The dust is not necessarily the main Lyα escape regulatory factor. ISM kinematics and geometry may play a more significant role. The failure of simple dust correction to recover the intrinsic Lyα/Hα ratio or the total star formation rate should prompt us to be more cautious when interpreting high-z observations and related properties, such as SFRs based on Lyα alone. To this end, we propose a more realistic calibration for SFR(Lyα), which accounts for dust attenuation and resonant scattering effects via the Lyα escape fraction.

  • 225. Atek, Hakim
    et al.
    Kunth, Darnel
    Schaerer, Darnel
    Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel
    Hayes, Matthew
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kneib, Jean-Paul
    Influence of physical galaxy properties on Ly alpha escape in star-forming galaxies2014Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 561, s. A89-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Among the different observational techniques used to select high-redshift galaxies, the hydrogen recombination line Lyman-alpha (Ly alpha) is of particular interest because it gives access to the measurement of cosmological quantities such as the star formation rate (SFR) of distant galaxy populations. However, interpreting this line and calibrating such observables are still subject to serious uncertainties. Aims. In this context, it important to understand the mechanisms responsible for the attenuation of Ly alpha emission, and under what conditions the Ly alpha emission line can be used as a reliable star formation diagnostic tool. Methods. We used a sample of 24 Ly alpha emitters at z similar to 0.3 with an optical spectroscopic follow-up to calculate the Ly alpha escape fraction and its dependence upon different physical properties. We also examined the reliability of Ly alpha as a SFR indicator. We combined these observations with a compilation of Ly alpha emitters selected at z = 0-0.3 from the literature to assemble a larger sample. Results. We confirm that the Ly alpha escape fraction clearly depends on the dust extinction following the relation f(esc)(Ly alpha) = C-Ly alpha x 10(-0.4 E(B-V) kLy alpha) where k(Ly alpha) similar to 6.67 and C-Ly alpha = 0.22. However, the correlation does not follow the expected curve for a simple dust attenuation. A higher attenuation can be attributed to a scattering process, while f(esc)(Ly alpha) values that are clearly above the continuum extinction curve can be the result of various mechanisms that can lead to an enhancement of the Ly alpha output. We also observe that the strength of Ly alpha and the escape fraction appear unrelated to the galaxy metallicity. Regarding the reliability of Ly alpha as a SFR indicator, we show that the deviation of SFR(Ly alpha) from the true SFR (as traced by the UV continuum) is a function of the observed SFR(UV), which can be seen as the decrease in f(esc)(Ly alpha) with increasing UV luminosity. Moreover, we observe redshift dependence of this relationship, revealing the underlying evolution of f(esc)(Ly alpha) with redshift.

  • 226. Atwood, W. B.
    et al.
    Baldini, L.
    Bregeon, J.
    Bruel, P.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Granot, J.
    Longo, F.
    Omodei, N.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Sgro, C.
    Tinivella, M.
    Usher, T. L.
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    NEW FERMI-LAT EVENT RECONSTRUCTION REVEALS MORE HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA RAYS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS2013Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 774, nr 1, s. 76-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the experience gained during the four and a half years of the mission, the Fermi-LAT Collaboration has undertaken a comprehensive revision of the event-level analysis going under the name of Pass 8. Although it is not yet finalized, we can test the improvements in the new event reconstruction with the special case of the prompt phase of bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough that loose selection cuts are sufficient to identify gamma rays associated with the source. Using the new event reconstruction, we have re-analyzed 10 GRBs previously detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) for which an X-ray/optical follow-up was possible and found four new gamma rays with energies greater than 10 GeV in addition to the seven previously known. Among these four is a 27.4 GeV gamma ray from GRB 080916C, which has a redshift of 4.35, thus making it the gamma ray with the highest intrinsic energy (similar to 147 GeV) detected from a GRB. We present here the salient aspects of the new event reconstruction and discuss the scientific implications of these new high-energy gamma rays, such as constraining extragalactic background light models, Lorentz invariance violation tests, the prompt emission mechanism, and the bulk Lorentz factor of the emitting region.

  • 227.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Cool Discs, Hot Flows: The Varying Faces of Accreting Compact Objects2008Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 228.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Rapid X-ray Variability in Cygnus X-12008Ingår i: Cool Discs, Hot Flows: The Varying Faces of Accreting Compact Objects, 2008, s. 135-141Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 229.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Tracking the inner edge of the accretion disc in Cygnus X-12008Ingår i: 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 2008, s. E15-0020Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing the archival data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer, we have studied the power density spectra (PDS) of Cygnus X-1 from 1996 to 2003. Applying a model with few components we show good fits to the PDS between 0.01 Hz and 25 Hz, and are able to track their evolution through all spectral states of the source. We confirm the relation between characteristic frequencies previously seen in both neutron star and black-hole candidate systems, and show the changes in this relation during transitional and soft states of the source. Applying a model of relativistic precession to explain the frequency relation shows remarkable agreement with the hard state data, but cannot explain the behavior in the soft state without additional assumptions. This identification makes the PDS a sensitive probe of the inner radius of the accretion disc. Analyzing the components of the PDS we find evidence of at least two separate emission components. At longer ( 1 hour) timescales, we study Cygnus X-1 during periods of low flux in the hard state, and find changes in the hardness-flux correlation. We interpret our results as signs of the accretion disc being truncated far from the innermost stable orbit, with an inner disc radius greater than 50 gravitational radii, in agreement with our results from the PDS. Our findings are compared to estimates of the viscous timescale responsible for small scale variability in the system.

  • 230.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    X-ray variability in Galactic high-mass black hole binaries2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The stars of the night sky can to the naked eye appear to be steady and unchanging, apart from the twinkling created by air moving in the atmosphere. However, when viewed in X-rays, the sky is far from constant, with detectable changes occurring on very short timescales.

    Black hole X-ray binaries are strong sources of X-rays. These systems contain a star and a black hole in orbit around each other. As matter from the companion star is accreted by the black hole, large amounts of gravitational energy are released, giving rise to strong X-ray emission. The accretion flow close to a black hole is characterized by strong gravity, high-energy radiation and variability on timescales down to milliseconds. These systems allow us to probe physics under conditions we cannot recreate in a laboratory, and provide some of the strongest observational indications of the existence of black holes. Temporal analysis is a powerful diagnostic of the geometry and physical processes of this environment.

    The bulk of this thesis concerns studies of the rapid variability of perhaps the most well-known of all black hole binaries: Cygnus X-1. By tapping into the large amount of archival data available, a systematic study of the variability, in the form of the power spectrum, is conducted. The results show that timing studies can indeed give valuable information on the emission mechanisms and accretion geometry. Tying characteristic frequencies to effects predicted by general relativity directly gives information about the parameters of the compact object. Using these results, the past evolution of the binary system is studied.

    In addition, results from temporal analysis of the possible black hole binary Cygnus X-3 are presented. The study of X-ray variability covers timescales from years to seconds, and shows that while temporal analysis provides clues to this complex system, it does not provide immediate insight into the accretion geometry, or the nature of the compact object

  • 231.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Borgonovo, Luis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    The width of gamma-ray burst spectra2015Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 447, nr 4, s. 3150-3154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emission processes active in the highly relativistic jets of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remain unknown. In this paper, we propose a new measure to describe spectra: the width of the EFE spectrum, a quantity dependent only on finding a good fit to the data. We apply this to the full sample of GRBs observed by Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Compton Gamma-ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The results from the two instruments are fully consistent. We find that the median widths of spectra from long and short GRBs are significantly different (chance probability < 10(-6)). The width does not correlate with either duration or hardness, and this is thus a new, independent distinction between the two classes. Comparing the measured spectra with widths of spectra from fundamental emission processes - synchrotron and blackbody radiation - the results indicate that a large fraction of GRB spectra are too narrow to be explained by synchrotron radiation from a distribution of electron energies: for example, 78 per cent of long GRBs and 85 per cent of short GRBs are incompatible with the minimum width of standard slow cooling synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian distribution of electrons, with fast cooling spectra predicting even wider spectra. Photospheric emission can explain the spectra if mechanisms are invoked to give a spectrum much broader than a blackbody.

  • 232.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Borgonovo, Luis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Evolution of the 0.01-25 Hz power spectral components in Cygnus X-12005Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, Vol. 438, nr 3, s. 999-1012Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing the archival data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we study the power density spectra (PDS) of Cygnus X-1 from 1996 to 2003 in the frequency range of 0.01-25 Hz. Using a model consisting of one or two Lorentzians and/or an exponentially cut-off power-law, we are able to achieve a good fit to the PDS during the observations. With our model we are also able to track the evolution of the Lorentzian components through all spectral states of the source. We confirm the relation between characteristic frequencies seen both in black hole candidate and neutron star sources, and show the changes in this relation during the transitional and soft states of the source. The connection between the Lorentzian components is investigated by analyzing similarities and differences in their behavior. We find that the spectral state of the source can be uniquely determined from the parameters of these components. The parameter correlations can all be described by continuous functions, which differ between components. We discuss our results in the context of relativistic precession model for the accretion disk, and show a remarkable agreement between the model prediction and the data in the hard state. We estimate a value for the specific angular momentum of a_*=0.49 (-0.57) in the case of prograde (retrograde) rotation and an estimate for the inner radius of 22 to 50 (25 to 55) gravitational radii. Additional assumptions are required to explain the soft state data, and attempting to invoke rotational reversal for state transitions shows that it is insufficient to explain the differences between the hard and soft state data.

  • 233.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Borgonovo, Luis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Probing the temporal variability of Cygnus X-1 into the soft state2006Ingår i: Astronomy & Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, Vol. 452, nr 3, s. 975-984Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on results from previous studies of Cygnus X-1, we analyze Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data taken when the source was in the soft and transitional spectral states. We look at the power spectrum in the 0.01-50 Hz range, using a model consisting of a cut-off power-law and two Lorentzian components. We are able to constrain the relation between the characteristic frequencies of the Lorentzian components, and show that it is consistent with a power-law relation having the same index (1.2) as previously reported for the hard state, but shifted by a factor ˜2. Furthermore, it is shown that the change in the frequency relation seen during the transitions can be explained by invoking a shift of one Lorentzian component to a higher harmonic, and we explore the possible support for this interpretation in the other component parameters. With the improved soft state results we study the evolution of the fractional variance for each temporal component. This approach indicates that the two Lorentzian components are connected to each other, and unrelated to the power-law component in the power spectrum, pointing to at least two separate emission components.

  • 234.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Meurer, Christine
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    The Fermi/LAT Collaboration, et al
    The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Mission2009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 697, nr 2, s. 1071-1102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy γ-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3) measure spectra from 20 MeV to more than 50 GeV for several hundred sources, (4) localize point sources to 0.3-2 arcmin, (5) map and obtain spectra of extended sources such as SNRs, molecular clouds, and nearby galaxies, (6) measure the diffuse isotropic γ-ray background up to TeV energies, and (7) explore the discovery space for dark matter.

  • 235.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Done, Chris
    Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea
    An imperfect double: probing the physical origin of the low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation and its harmonic in black hole binaries2014Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 438, nr 1, s. 657-662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We extract the spectra of the strong low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and its harmonic during the rising phase of an outburst in the black hole binary XTE J1550-564. We compare these frequency-resolved spectra to the time-averaged spectrum and the spectrum of the rapid (<0.1 s) variability. The spectrum of the time-averaged emission can be described by a disc, a Compton upscattered tail and its reflection. The QPO spectrum is very similar to the spectrum of the most rapid variability, implying it arises in the innermost regions of the flow. It contains little detectable disc, and its Compton spectrum is generally harder and shows less reflection than in the time-averaged emission. The harmonic likewise contains little detectable disc component, but has a Compton spectrum which is systematically softer than the QPO, softer even than the Compton tail in the time-averaged emission. We interpret these results in the context of the truncated disc model, where the inner disc is replaced by a hot flow. The QPO can arise in this picture from vertical (Lense-Thirring) precession of the entire hot inner flow, and its harmonic can be produced by the angular dependence of Compton scattering within the hot flow. We extend these models to include stratification of the hot flow, so that it is softer (lower optical depth) at larger radii closer to the truncated disc, and harder (higher optical depth) in the innermost parts of the flow where the rapid variability is produced. The different optical depth with radius gives rise to different angular dependence of the Comptonized emission, weighting the fundamental to the inner parts of the hot flow, and the harmonic to the outer. This is the first model which can explain both the spectrum of the QPO, and its harmonic, in a self consistent geometry.

  • 236.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Engdegård, Olle
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Ryde, Felix
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Pearce, Mark
    Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Kiss, Mozsi
    Marini Bettolo, Cecilia
    Arimoto, M
    Björnsson, Claes-Ingvar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Carlson, P
    Fukazawa, Y
    Kamae, T
    Kanai, Y
    Kataoka, J
    Kawai, N
    Klamra, W
    Madejski, G
    Mizuno, T
    Ng, J
    Tajima, H
    Takahashi, T
    Tanaka, T
    Ueno, M
    Varner, G
    Yamamoto, K
    Measuring energy dependent polarization in soft γ-rays using Compton scattering in PoGOLite2007Ingår i: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 327-337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Linear polarization in X- and γ-rays is an important diagnostic of many astrophysical sources, foremost giving information about their geometry, magnetic fields, and radiation mechanisms. However, very few X-ray polarization measurements have been made, and then only mono-energetic detections, whilst several objects are assumed to have energy dependent polarization signatures. In this paper, we investigate whether detection of energy dependent polarization from cosmic sources is possible using the Compton technique, in particular with the proposed PoGOLite balloon-experiment, in the 25–100 keV range. We use Geant4 simulations of a PoGOLite model and input photon spectra based on Cygnus X-1 and accreting magnetic pulsars (100 mCrab). Effective observing times of 6 and 35 h were simulated, corresponding to a standard and a long duration flight, respectively. Both smooth and sharp energy variations of the polarization are investigated and compared to constant polarization signals using chi-square statistics. We can reject constant polarization, with energy, for the Cygnus X-1 spectrum (in the hard state), if the reflected component is assumed to be completely polarized, whereas the distinction cannot be made for weaker polarization. For the accreting pulsar, constant polarization can be rejected in the case of polarization in a narrow energy band with at least 50% polarization, and similarly for a negative step distribution from 30% to 0% polarization.

  • 237.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea
    Borgonovo, Luis
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Vanishing hardness-flux correlation in Cygnus X-1: signs of the disc moving out2008Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 490, nr 1, s. 253-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate observations of the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 with unusually high hardness and low flux. In particular, we study the characteristic frequencies seen in the PDS and the hardness-flux correlation within and between these observations.Methods. We analyse observations of Cyg X-1 during periods when the source reaches its highest hardness levels (1 for the 9–20 keV over 2–4 keV RXTE/PCA count ratios, corresponding to

    ). Using the relativistic precession model to interpret the PDS, we estimate a value for the inner radius of the accretion disc. We also study the hardness-flux correlation.Results. In the selected observations, the characteristic frequencies seen in the power spectrum are shifted to the lowest end of their frequency range. Within a single observation, the hardness-flux correlation is very weak, contrary to the negative correlation normally observed in the hard state. We suggest that this could be interpreted as the inner disc boundary being at large radii (50 ), thereby requiring more time to adjust to a changing accretion rate than allowed by a single RXTE observation, and compare our findings to estimates of the viscous time scale responsible for small scale variability in the system.

  • 238.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea
    Done, Chris
    Fast variability as a probe of the smallest regions around accreting black holes2013Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 431, nr 2, s. 1987-1994Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We extract the spectra of the fastest variability (above 10 Hz) from the black hole XTE J1550-564 during a transition from hard to soft state on the rise to outburst. We confirm previous results that the rapid variability contains no significant disc component despite this being strongly present in the total spectrum of the softer observations. We model ionized reflection significantly better than previous work, and show that this is also suppressed in the rapid variability spectrum compared to the total emission. This is consistent with the fast variability having its origin in a hot inner flow close to the black hole rather than in the accretion disc or in a corona above it. However, the rapid variability spectrum is not simply the same as the total Comptonized emission. It is always significantly harder, by an amount which increases as the spectrum softens during the outburst. This adds to evidence from time lags that the Comptonization region is inhomogeneous, with harder spectra produced closest to the black hole, the same region which produces the fastest variability.

  • 239.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea
    The aperiodic broad-band X-ray variability of Cygnus X-32009Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 394, nr 3, s. 1544-1550Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the soft X-ray variability of Cygnus X-3. By combining data from the All-Sky Monitor and Proportional Counter Array instruments on the RXTE satellite with EXOSAT/Medium Energy (ME) detector observations, we are able to analyse the power density spectrum (PDS) of the source from 10−9 to 0.1 Hz, thus covering time-scales from seconds to years. As the data on the longer time-scales are unevenly sampled, we combine traditional power spectral techniques with simulations to analyse the variability in this range. The PDS at higher frequencies (≳10−3 Hz) are for the first time compared for all states of this source. We find that it is for all states well described by a power law, with index ∼−2 in the soft states and a tendency for a less steep power law in the hard state. At longer time-scales, we study the effect of the state transitions on the PDS, and find that the variability below ∼10−7 Hz is dominated by the transitions. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the length of a high/soft-state episode and the time since the previous high/soft state. On intermediate time-scales, we find evidence for a break in the PDS at time-scales of the order of the orbital period. This may be interpreted as evidence for the existence of a tidal resonance in the accretion disc around the compact object, and constraining the mass ratio to M2/M1≲ 0.3.

  • 240.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Ryde, Felix
    Gamma-ray Bursts: Prospects for GLAST: Stockholm Symposium on GRBs2007Konferensmeddelanden, proceedings (Refereegranskat)
  • 241. Babkovskaia, Natalia
    et al.
    Haugen, N. E. L.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    A high-order public domain code for direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion2011Ingår i: Journal of Computational Physics, ISSN 0021-9991, E-ISSN 1090-2716, Vol. 230, nr 1, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-order scheme for direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion is discussed. Its implementation in the massively parallel and publicly available PENCIL CODE is validated with the focus on hydrogen combustion. This is the first open source DNS code with detailed chemistry available. An attempt has been made to present, for the first time, the full set of evolution and auxiliary equations required for a complete description of single phase non-isothermal fluid dynamics with detailed chemical reactions. Ignition delay times (0D) and laminar flame velocities (1D) are calculated and compared with results from the commercially available Chemkin code. The scheme is verified to be fifth order in space. Upon doubling the resolution, a 32-fold increase in the accuracy of the flame front is demonstrated. Finally, also turbulent and spherical flame front velocities are calculated and the implementation of the non-reflecting so-called Navier-Stokes Characteristic Boundary Condition is validated in all three directions.

  • 242. Bacchus, E.
    et al.
    Parry, I. R.
    Oppenheimer, R.
    Aguilar, J.
    Beichman, C.
    Brenner, D.
    Burruss, R.
    Cady, E.
    Luszcz-Cook, S.
    Crepp, J.
    Dekany, R.
    Gianninas, A.
    Hillenbrand, L.
    Kilic, M.
    King, D.
    Lockhart, T. G.
    Matthews, C. T.
    Nilsson, Ricky
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. American Museum of Natural History, USA; California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Pueyo, L.
    Rice, E. L.
    Roberts, L. C.
    Sivaramakrishnan, A.
    Soummer, R.
    Vasisht, G.
    Veicht, A.
    Zhai, C.
    Zimmerman, N. T.
    Project 1640 observations of the white dwarf HD 114174 B2017Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, nr 4, s. 4796-4805Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first near infrared spectrum of the faint white dwarf companion HD 114174 B, obtained with Project 1640. Our spectrum, covering the Y, J and H bands, combined with previous TaRgetting bENchmark-objects with Doppler Spectroscopy (TRENDS) photometry measurements, allows us to place further constraints on this companion. We suggest two possible scenarios; either this object is an old, low-mass, cool H atmosphere white dwarf with T-eff similar to 3800 K or a high-mass white dwarf with T-eff > 6000 K, potentially with an associated cool (T-eff similar to 700 K) brown dwarf or debris disc resulting in an infrared excess in the L' band. We also provide an additional astrometry point for 2014 June 12 and use the modelled companion mass combined with the radial velocity and direct imaging data to place constraints on the orbital parameters for this companion.

  • 243. Bagla, J. S.
    et al.
    Khandai, Nishikanta
    Datta, Kanan K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    H i as a probe of the large-scale structure in the post-reionization universe2010Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 407, nr 1, s. 567-580Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We model the distribution of neutral hydrogen (H i) in the post-reionization universe. This model uses gravity-only N-body simulations and an ansatz to assign H i to dark matter haloes that is consistent with observational constraints and theoretical models. We resolve the smallest haloes that are likely to host H i in the simulations; care is also taken to ensure that any errors due to the finite size of the simulation box are small. We then compute the smoothed one-point probability distribution function and the power spectrum of fluctuations in H i. This is compared with other predictions that have been made using different techniques. We highlight the significantly high bias for the H i distribution at small scales. This aspect has not been discussed before. We then discuss the prospects of the detection with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and the hypothetical MWA5000. The MWA5000 can detect visibility correlations at large angular scales at all redshifts in the post-reionization era. The GMRT can detect visibility correlations at lower redshifts; specifically there is a strong case for a survey at z similar or equal to 1.3. We also discuss prospects for direct detection of rare peaks in the H i distribution using the GMRT. We show that direct detection should be possible with an integration time that is comparable to, or even less than, the time required for a statistical detection. Specifically, it is possible to make a statistical detection of the H i distribution by measuring the visibility correlation and direct detection of rare peaks in the H i distribution at z similar or equal to 1.3 with the GMRT in less than 1000 h of observations.

  • 244. Bagley, Micaela B.
    et al.
    Scarlata, Claudia
    Henry, Alaina
    Rafelski, Marc
    Malkan, Matthew
    Teplitz, Harry
    Dai, Y. Sophia
    Baronchelli, Ivano
    Colbert, James
    Rutkowski, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Mehta, Vihang
    Dressler, Alan
    McCarthy, Patrick
    Bunker, Andrew
    Atek, Hakim
    Garel, Thibault
    Martin, Crystal L.
    Hathi, Nimish
    Siana, Brian
    A High Space Density of Luminous Ly alpha Emitters at z similar to 6.52017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 837, nr 1, artikel-id 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of a systematic search for Ly alpha emitters (LAEs) at 6 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 7.6 using the HST WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel (WISP) Survey. Our total volume over this redshift range is similar to 8 x 10(5) Mpc(3), comparable to many of the narrowband surveys despite their larger area coverage. We find two LAEs at z = 6.38 and 6.44 with line luminosities of L-Lya similar to 4.7 x 10(43) erg s(-1), putting them among the brightest LAEs discovered at these redshifts. Taking advantage of the broad spectral coverage of WISP, we are able to rule out almost all lower-redshift contaminants. The WISP LAEs have a high number density of 7.7 x 10(-6) Mpc (3). We argue that the LAEs reside in megaparsec-scale ionized bubbles that allow the Ly alpha photons to redshift out of resonance before encountering the neutral intergalactic medium. We discuss possible ionizing sources and conclude that the observed LAEs alone are not sufficient to ionize the bubbles.

  • 245. Bagoly, Zsolt
    et al.
    Horváth, István
    Balázs, L. G.
    Borgonovo, Luis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Mészáros, Attila
    Principal Component Analysis of Gamma-Ray Bursts' Spectra2005Ingår i: Nuovo Cimento C, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 295-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of dark bursts--i.e. that have no observed afterglows in X-ray, optical/NIR and radio ranges--is unclear yet. Different possibilities--instrumental biases, very high redshifts, extinction in the host galaxies--are discussed and shown to be important. On the other hand, the dark bursts should not form a new subgroup of long gamma-ray bursts themselves.

  • 246. Bagoly, Zsolt
    et al.
    Mészáros, Attila
    Balázs, L. G.
    Horváth, I.
    Klose, S.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Mészáros, Peter
    Ryde, Felix
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Tusnády, G.
    The Swift satellite and redshifts of long gamma-ray bursts2006Ingår i: Astronomy & Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, Vol. 453, nr 3, s. 797-800Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Until 6 October 2005 sixteen redshifts had been measured of long gamma-ray bursts discovered by the Swift satellite. Further 45 redshifts have been measured of the long gamma-ray bursts discovered by other satellites. Here we perform five statistical tests comparing the redshift distributions of these two samples assuming as the null hypothesis an identical distribution for the two samples. Three tests (Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) reject the null hypothesis at significance levels between 97.19 and 98.55%. Two different comparisons of the medians show extreme (99.78-99.99994)% significance levels of rejection. This means that the redshifts of the Swift sample and the redshifts of the non-Swift sample are distributed differently - in the Swift sample the redshifts are on average larger. This statistical result suggests that the long GRBs should on average be at the higher redshifts of the Swift sample.

  • 247. Balland, C.
    et al.
    Baumont, S.
    Basa, S.
    Mouchet, M.
    Howell, D. A.
    Astier, P.
    Carlberg, R. G.
    Conley, A.
    Fouchez, D.
    Guy, J.
    Hardin, D.
    Hook, I. M.
    Pain, R.
    Perrett, K.
    Pritchet, C. J.
    Regnault, N.
    Rich, J.
    Sullivan, M.
    Antilogus, P.
    Arsenijevic, V.
    Le Du, J.
    Fabbro, S.
    Lidman, Chris
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Mourao, A.
    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.
    Pecontal, E.
    Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.
    The ESO/VLT 3rd year Type Ia supernova data set from the supernova legacy survey2009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 507, nr 1, s. 85-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. We present 139 spectra of 124 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that were observed at the ESO/VLT during the first three years of the Canada-France-Hawa Telescope (CFHT) supernova legacy survey (SNLS). This homogeneous data set is used to test for redshift evolution of SN Ia spectra, and will be used in the SNLS 3rd year cosmological analyses. Methods. Spectra have been reduced and extracted with a dedicated pipeline that uses photometric information from deep CFHT legacy survey (CFHT-LS) reference images to trace, at sub-pixel accuracy, the position of the supernova on the spectrogram as a function of wavelength. It also separates the supernova and its host light in similar to 60% of cases. The identification of the supernova candidates is performed using a spectrophotometric SN Ia model. Results. A total of 124 SNe Ia, roughly 50% of the overall SNLS spectroscopic sample, have been identified using the ESO/VLT during the first three years of the survey. Their redshifts range from z = 0.149 to z = 1.031. The average redshift of the sample is z = 0.63 +/- 0.02. This constitutes the largest SN Ia spectral set to date in this redshift range. The spectra are presented along with their best-fit spectral SN Ia model and a host model where relevant. In the latter case, a host subtracted spectrum is also presented. We produce average spectra for pre-maximum, maximum and post-maximum epochs for both z < 0.5 and z >= 0.5 SNe Ia. We find that z < 0.5 spectra have deeper intermediate mass element absorptions than z = 0.5 spectra. The differences with redshift are consistent with the selection of brighter and bluer supernovae at higher redshift.

  • 248. Band, D. L.
    et al.
    Axelsson, M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Baldini, L.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Battelino, M.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Bogaert, G.
    Bonnell, J.
    Chiang, J.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Connaughton, V.
    Cutini, S.
    de Palma, F.
    Dingus, B. L.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Fishman, G.
    Galli, A.
    Gehrels, N.
    Giglietto, N.
    Granot, J.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Kamae, T.
    Komin, N.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Longo, F.
    Lubrano, P.
    Kippen, R. M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McGlynn, S.
    Moretti, E.
    Nakamori, T.
    Norris, J. P.
    Ohno, M.
    Olivo, M.
    Omodei, N.
    Pelassa, V.
    Piron, F.
    Preece, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Russell, J. J.
    Ryde, F.
    Saz Parkinson, P. M.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Sgrò, C.
    Shimokawabe, T.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Winer, B. L.
    Yamazaki, R.
    Prospects for GRB Science with the Fermi Large Area Telescope2009Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 701, nr 2, s. 1673-1694Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi mission will reveal the rich spectral and temporal gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomena in the >100 MeV band. The synergy with Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor detectors will link these observations to those in the well explored 10-1000 keV range; the addition of the >100 MeV band observations will resolve theoretical uncertainties about burst emission in both the prompt and afterglow phases. Trigger algorithms will be applied to the LAT data both onboard the spacecraft and on the ground. The sensitivity of these triggers will differ because of the available computing resources onboard and on the ground. Here we present the LAT's burst detection methodologies and the instrument's GRB capabilities.

  • 249. Banerjee, D. P. K.
    et al.
    Joshi, Vishal
    Evans, A.
    Srivastava, Mudit
    Ashok, N. M.
    Gehrz, R. D.
    Connelley, M. S.
    Geballe, T. R.
    Spyromilio, J.
    Rho, J.
    Roy, Rupak
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Early formation of carbon monoxide in the Centaurus A supernova SN 2016adj2018Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 481, nr 1, s. 806-818Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy of the NGC 5128 supernova SN 2016adj in the first two months following discovery. We report the detection of first-overtone carbon monoxide emission at similar to 58.2 d after discovery, one of the earliest detections of CO in an erupting supernova. We model the CO emission to derive the CO mass, temperature, and velocity, assuming both pure (CO)-C-12 and a composition that includes (CO)-C-13; the case for the latter is the isotopic analyses of meteoritic grains, which suggest that core-collapse supernovae can synthesize significant amounts of C-13. Our models show that, while the CO data are adequately explained by pure (CO)-C-12, they do not preclude the presence of (CO)-C-13, to a limit of C-12/C-13 > 3, the first constraint on the C-12/C-13 ratio determined from near-infrared observations. We estimate the reddening to the object, and the effective temperature from the energy distribution at outburst. We discuss whether the ejecta of SN 2016adj may be carbon-rich, what the infrared data tell us about the classification of this supernova, and what implications the early formation of CO in supernovae may have for CO formation in supernovae in general.

  • 250. Barbarino, C.
    et al.
    Dall'Ora, M.
    Botticella, M. T.
    Della Valle, M.
    Zampieri, L.
    Maund, J. R.
    Pumo, M. L.
    Jerkstrand, A.
    Benetti, S.
    Elias-Rosa, N.
    Fraser, M.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Hamuy, M.
    Inserra, C.
    Knapic, C.
    LaCluyze, A. P.
    Molinaro, M.
    Ochner, P.
    Pastorello, A.
    Pignata, G.
    Reichart, D. E.
    Ries, C.
    Riffeser, A.
    Schmidt, B.
    Schmidt, M.
    Smareglia, R.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Smith, K.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Sullivan, M.
    Tomasella, L.
    Turatto, M.
    Valenti, S.
    Yaron, O.
    Young, D.
    SN 2012ec: mass of the progenitor from PESSTO follow-up of the photospheric phase2015Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 448, nr 3, s. 2312-2331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of a photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of SN 2012ec, which exploded in the spiral galaxy NGC 1084, during the photospheric phase. The photometric light curve exhibits a plateau with luminosity L = 0.9 x 10(42) erg s(-1) and duration similar to 90 d, which is somewhat shorter than standard Type II-P supernovae (SNe). We estimate the nickel mass M(Ni-56) = 0.040 +/- 0.015 M-circle dot from the luminosity at the beginning of the radioactive tail of the light curve. The explosion parameters of SN 2012ec were estimated from the comparison of the bolometric light curve and the observed temperature and velocity evolution of the ejecta with predictions from hydrodynamical models. We derived an envelope mass of 12.6 M-circle dot, an initial progenitor radius of 1.6 x 10(13) cm and an explosion energy of 1.2 foe. These estimates agree with an independent study of the progenitor star identified in pre-explosion images, for which an initial mass of M = 14-22 M-circle dot was determined. We have applied the same analysis to two other Type II-P SNe (SNe 2012aw and 2012A), and carried out a comparison with the properties of SN 2012ec derived in this paper. We find a reasonable agreement between the masses of the progenitors obtained from pre-explosion images and masses derived from hydrodynamical models. We estimate the distance to SN 2012ec with the standardized candle method (SCM) and compare it with other estimates based on other primary and secondary indicators. SNe 2012A, 2012aw and 2012ec all follow the standard relations for the SCM for the use of Type II-P SNe as distance indicators.

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