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  • 201.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Dickinson, Hugh J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Nuss, E.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Pelassa, V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Piron, F.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign on PKS 2005-489 in a high state2011Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 533, s. A110-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 was the target of a multi-wavelength campaign with simultaneous observations in the TeV gamma-ray (H.E.S.S.), GeV gamma-ray (Fermi/LAT), X-ray (RXTE, Swift), UV (Swift) and optical (ATOM, Swift) bands. This campaign was carried out during a high flux state in the synchrotron regime. The flux in the optical and X-ray bands reached the level of the historical maxima. The hard GeV spectrum observed with Fermi/LAT connects well to the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) spectrum measured with H.E.S.S. with a peak energy between similar to 5 and 500 GeV. Compared to observations with contemporaneous coverage in the VHE and X-ray bands in 2004, the X-ray flux was similar to 50 times higher during the 2009 campaign while the TeV gamma-ray flux shows marginal variation over the years. The spectral energy distribution during this multi-wavelength campaign was fit by a one zone synchrotron self-Compton model with a well determined cutoff in X-rays. The parameters of a one zone SSC model are inconsistent with variability time scales. The variability behaviour over years with the large changes in synchrotron emission and small changes in the inverse Compton emission does not warrant an interpretation within a one-zone SSC model despite an apparently satisfying fit to the broadband data in 2009.

  • 202.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Dickinson, Hugh J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    LONG-TERM TeV AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GAMMA- RAY BINARY HESS J0632+0572014Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 780, nr 2, s. 168-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    HESS J0632+057 is the only gamma-ray binary known so far whose position in the sky allows observations with ground-based observatories in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Here we report on long-term observations of HESS J0632+057 conducted with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System and High Energy Stereoscopic System Cherenkov telescopes and the X-ray satellite Swift, spanning a time range from 2004 to 2012 and covering most of the system's orbit. The very-high-energy (VHE) emission is found to be variable and is correlated with that at X-ray energies. An orbital period of 315(-4)(+6) days is derived from the X-ray data set, which is compatible with previous results, P = (321 +/- 5) days. The VHE light curve shows a distinct maximum at orbital phases close to 0.3, or about 100 days after periastron passage, which coincides with the periodic enhancement of the X-ray emission. Furthermore, the analysis of the TeV data shows for the first time a statistically significant (> 6.5 sigma) detection at orbital phases 0.6-0.9. The obtained gamma-ray and X-ray light curves and the correlation of the source emission at these two energy bands are discussed in the context of the recent ephemeris obtained for the system. Our results are compared to those reported for other gamma-ray binaries.

  • 203.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Dickinson, Hugh J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Ripken, Joachim
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Introducing the CTA concept2013Ingår i: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 43, s. 3-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  • 204.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Dickinson, Hugh J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ripken, Joachim
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    THE 2010 VERY HIGH ENERGY gamma-RAY FLARE AND 10 YEARS OF MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF M 872012Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 746, nr 2, s. 151-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The giant radio galaxy M 87 with its proximity (16 Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3-6) x 10(9) M-circle dot) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of supermassive black holes. M 87 has been established as a VHE gamma-ray emitter since 2006. The VHE gamma-ray emission displays strong variability on timescales as short as a day. In this paper, results from a joint VHE monitoring campaign on M 87 by the MAGIC and VERITAS instruments in 2010 are reported. During the campaign, a flare at VHE was detected triggering further observations at VHE (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (Chandra), and radio (43 GHz Very Long Baseline Array, VLBA). The excellent sampling of the VHE gamma-ray light curve enables one to derive a precise temporal characterization of the flare: the single, isolated flare is well described by a two-sided exponential function with significantly different flux rise and decay times of tau(rise)(d) = (1.69 +/- 0.30) days and tau(decay)(d) = (0.611 +/- 0.080) days, respectively. While the overall variability pattern of the 2010 flare appears somewhat different from that of previous VHE flares in 2005 and 2008, they share very similar timescales (similar to day), peak fluxes (Phi(>0.35 TeV) similar or equal to (1-3) x 10(-11) photons cm(-2) s(-1)), and VHE spectra. VLBA radio observations of 43 GHz of the inner jet regions indicate no enhanced flux in 2010 in contrast to observations in 2008, where an increase of the radio flux of the innermost core regions coincided with a VHE flare. On the other hand, Chandra X-ray observations taken similar to 3 days after the peak of the VHE gamma-ray emission reveal an enhanced flux from the core (flux increased by factor similar to 2; variability timescale <2 days). The long-term (2001-2010) multi-wavelength (MWL) light curve of M 87, spanning from radio to VHE and including data from Hubble Space Telescope, Liverpool Telescope, Very Large Array, and European VLBI Network, is used to further investigate the origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission. No unique, common MWL signature of the three VHE flares has been identified. In the outer kiloparsec jet region, in particular in HST-1, no enhanced MWL activity was detected in 2008 and 2010, disfavoring it as the origin of the VHE flares during these years. Shortly after two of the three flares (2008 and 2010), the X-ray core was observed to be at a higher flux level than its characteristic range (determined from more than 60 monitoring observations: 2002-2009). In 2005, the strong flux dominance of HST-1 could have suppressed the detection of such a feature. Published models for VHE gamma-ray emission from M 87 are reviewed in the light of the new data.

  • 205.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mayer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Constraints on particle acceleration in SS433/W50 from MAGIC and HESS observations2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The large jet kinetic power and non-thermal processes occurring in the microquasar SS 433 make this source a good candidate for a very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitter. Gamma-ray fluxes above the sensitivity limits of current Cherenkov telescopes have been predicted for both the central X-ray binary system and the interaction regions of SS 433 jets with the surrounding W50 nebula. Non-thermal emission at lower energies has been previously reported, indicating that efficient particle acceleration is taking place in the system.

    Aims. We explore the capability of SS 433 to emit VHE gamma rays during periods in which the expected flux attenuation due to periodic eclipses (P-orb similar to 13.1 days) and precession of the circumstellar disk (P-pre similar to 162 days) periodically covering the central binary system is expected to be at its minimum. The eastern and western SS 433/W50 interaction regions are also examined using the whole data set available. We aim to constrain some theoretical models previously developed for this system with our observations.

    Methods. We made use of dedicated observations from the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov telescopes (MAGIC) and High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of SS 433 taken from 2006 to 2011. These observation were combined for the first time and accounted for a total effective observation time of 16.5 h, which were scheduled considering the expected phases of minimum absorption of the putative VHE emission. Gamma-ray attenuation does not affect the jet/medium interaction regions. In this case, the analysis of a larger data set amounting to similar to 40-80 h, depending on the region, was employed.

    Results. No evidence of VHE gamma-ray emission either from the central binary system or from the eastern/western interaction regions was found. Upper limits were computed for the combined data set. Differential fluxes from the central system are found to be less than or similar to 10(-12)-10(-13) TeV-1 cm(-2) s(-1) in an energy interval ranging from similar to few x 100 GeV to similar to few TeV. Integral flux limits down to similar to 10(-12)-10(-13) ph cm(-2) s(-1) and similar to 10(-13)-10(-14) ph cm(-2) s(-1) are obtained at 300 and 800 GeV, respectively. Our results are used to place constraints on the particle acceleration fraction at the inner jet regions and on the physics of the jet/medium interactions.

    Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the fraction of the jet kinetic power that is transferred to relativistic protons must be relatively small in SS 433, q(p) <= 2.5 x 10(-5), to explain the lack of TeV and neutrino emission from the central system. At the SS 433/W50 interface, the presence of magnetic fields greater than or similar to 10 mu G is derived assuming a synchrotron origin for the observed X-ray emission. This also implies the presence of high-energy electrons with E-e up to 50 TeV, preventing an efficient production of gamma-ray fluxes in these interaction regions.

  • 206.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    A polarized fast radio burst at low Galactic latitude2017Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, nr 4, s. 4465-4482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150215, with the Parkes radio telescope on 2015 February 15. The burst was detected in real time with a dispersion measure (DM) of 1105.6 +/- 0.8 pc cm(-3), a pulse duration of 2.8(-0.5)(+1.2) ms, and a measured peak flux density assuming that the burst was at beam centre of 0.7(-0.1)(+0.2) Jy. The FRB originated at a Galactic longitude and latitude of 24.66 degrees, 5.28 degrees and 25 degrees away from the Galactic Center. The burst was found to be 43 +/- 5 per cent linearly polarized with a rotation measure (RM) in the range -9 < RM < 12 rad m(-2) (95 per cent confidence level), consistent with zero. The burst was followed up with 11 telescopes to search for radio, optical, X-ray, gamma-ray and neutrino emission. Neither transient nor variable emission was found to be associated with the burst and no repeat pulses have been observed in 17.25 h of observing. The sightline to the burst is close to the Galactic plane and the observed physical properties of FRB 150215 demonstrate the existence of sight lines of anomalously low RM for a given electron column density. The Galactic RM foreground may approach a null value due to magnetic field reversals along the line of sight, a decreased total electron column density from the Milky Way, or some combination of these effects. A lower Galactic DM contribution might explain why this burst was detectable whereas previous searches at low latitude have had lower detection rates than those out of the plane.

  • 207.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Characterizing the gamma-ray long-term variability of PKS2155 304 with HESS and Fermi-LAT2017Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 598, artikel-id A39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying the temporal variability of BL Lac objects at the highest energies provides unique insights into the extreme physical processes occurring in relativistic jets and in the vicinity of super-massive black holes. To this end, the long-term variability of the BL Lac object PKS 2155 304 is analyzed in the high (HE, 100MeV < E < 300 GeV) and very high energy (VHE, E > 200 GeV) gamma-ray domain. Over the course of similar to 9 yr of H. E. S. S. observations the VHE light curve in the quiescent state is consistent with a log-normal behavior. The VHE variability in this state is well described by flicker noise (power-spectral-density index beta(VHE) = 1 .10(+ 0 : 10) (0 : 13)) on timescales larger than one day. An analysis of similar to 5.5 yr of HE Fermi-LAT data gives consistent results (beta(HE) = 1 : 20(+ 0 : 21) (0 : 23), on timescales larger than 10 days) compatible with the VHE findings. The HE and VHE power spectral densities show a scale invariance across the probed time ranges. A direct linear correlation between the VHE and HE fluxes could neither be excluded nor firmly established. These long-term-variability properties are discussed and compared to the red noise behavior (beta similar to 2) seen on shorter timescales during VHE-flaring states. The difference in power spectral noise behavior at VHE energies during quiescent and flaring states provides evidence that these states are influenced by different physical processes, while the compatibility of the HE and VHE long-term results is suggestive of a common physical link as it might be introduced by an underlying jet-disk connection.

  • 208.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    First limits on the very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission of a fast radio burst HESS observations of FRB 1504182017Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 597, artikel-id A115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Following the detection of the fast radio burst FRB150418 by the SUPERB project at the Parkes radio telescope, we aim to search for very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission. Methods. Follow-up observations in the very-high energy gamma-ray domain were obtained with the H.E.S.S. imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope system within 14.5 h of the radio burst. Results. The obtained 1.4 h of gamma-ray observations are presented and discussed. At the 99% C.L. we obtained an integral upper limit on the gamma-ray flux of Phi(gamma)(E > 350 GeV) < 1.33 x 10(-8) m(-2) s(-1). Differential flux upper limits as function of the photon energy were derived and used to constrain the intrinsic high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418. Conclusions. No hints for high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418 were found. Taking absorption on the extragalactic background light into account and assuming a distance of z = 0 : 492 based on radio and optical counterpart studies and consistent with the FRB dispersion, we constrain the gamma-ray luminosity at 1 TeV to L < 5 : 1 x 10(47) erg/s at 99% C.L.

  • 209.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Measurement of the EBL spectral energy distribution using the VHE gamma-ray spectra of HESS blazars2017Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 606, artikel-id A59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Very high-energy gamma rays (VHE, E greater than or similar to 100 GeV) propagating over cosmological distances can interact with the low-energy photons of the extragalactic background light (EBL) and produce electron-positron pairs. The transparency of the Universe to VHE gamma rays is then directly related to the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the EBL. The observation of features in the VHE energy spectra of extragalactic sources allows the EBL to be measured, which otherwise is very difficult. An EBL model-independent measurement of the EBL SED with the H.E.S.S. array of Cherenkov telescopes is presented. It was obtained by extracting the EBL absorption signal from the reanalysis of high-quality spectra of blazars. From H.E.S.S. data alone the EBL signature is detected at a significance of 9.5 sigma, and the intensity of the EBL obtained in different spectral bands is presented together with the associated gamma-ray horizon.

  • 210.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    TeV Gamma-Ray Observations of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 with HESS2017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 850, nr 2, artikel-id L22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from the binary neutron star merger GW170817 with the H.E.S.S. Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes. The observations presented here have been obtained starting only 5.3 hr after GW170817. The H.E.S.S. target selection identified regions of high probability to find a counterpart of the gravitational-wave event. The first of these regions contained the counterpart SSS17a that has been identified in the optical range several hours after our observations. We can therefore present the first data obtained by a ground-based pointing instrument on this object. A subsequent monitoring campaign with the H.E.S.S. telescopes extended over several days, covering timescales from 0.22 to 5.2 days and energy ranges between 270 GeV to 8.55 TeV. No significant gamma-ray emission has been found. The derived upper limits on the very-high-energy gamma-ray flux for the first time constrain non-thermal, high-energy emission following the merger of a confirmed binary neutron star system.

  • 211.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    A search for new supernova remnant shells in the Galactic plane with HESS2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A search for new supernova remnants (SNRs) has been conducted using TeV gamma-ray data from the H.E.S.S. Galactic plane survey. As an identification criterion, shell morphologies that are characteristic for known resolved TeV SNRs have been used. Three new SNR candidates were identified in the H.E.S.S. data set with this method. Extensive multiwavelength searches for counterparts were conducted. A radio SNR candidate has been identified to be a counterpart to HESS J1534-571. The TeV source is therefore classified as a SNR. For the other two sources, HESS J1614-518 and HESS J1912 + 101, no identifying counterparts have been found, thus they remain SNR candidates for the time being. TeV-emitting SNRs are key objects in the context of identifying the accelerators of Galactic cosmic rays. The TeV emission of the relativistic particles in the new sources is examined in view of possible leptonic and hadronic emission scenarios, taking the current multiwavelength knowledge into account.

  • 212.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Characterising the VHE diffuse emission in the central 200 parsecs of our Galaxy with HESS2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffuse very high-energy (VHE; > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission observed in the central 200 pc of the Milky Way by H.E.S.S. was found to follow dense matter distribution in the central molecular zone (CMZ) up to a longitudinal distance of about 130 pc to the Galactic centre (GC), where the flux rapidly decreases. This was initially interpreted as the result of a burst-like injection of energetic particles 104 yr ago, but a recent more sensitive H.E.S.S. analysis revealed that the cosmic-ray (CR) density profile drops with the distance to the centre, making data compatible with a steady cosmic PeVatron at the GC. In this paper, we extend this analysis to obtain, for the first time, a detailed characterisation of the correlation with matter and to search for additional features and individual gamma-ray sources in the inner 200 pc. Taking advantage of 250 h of H.E.S.S. data and improved analysis techniques, we perform a detailed morphology study of the diffuse VHE emission observed from the GC ridge and reconstruct its total spectrum. To test the various contributions to the total gamma-ray emission, we used an iterative 2D maximum-likelihood approach that allows us to build a phenomenological model of the emission by summing a number of different spatial components. We show that the emission correlated with dense matter covers the full CMZ and that its flux is about half the total diffuse emission flux. We also detect some emission at higher latitude that is likely produced by hadronic collisions of CRs in less dense regions of the GC interstellar medium. We detect an additional emission component centred on the GC and extending over about 15 pc that is consistent with the existence of a strong CR density gradient and confirms the presence of a CR accelerator at the very centre of our Galaxy. We show that the spectrum of full ridge diffuse emission is compatible with that previously derived from the central regions, suggesting that a single population of particles fills the entire CMZ. Finally, we report the discovery of a VHE gamma-ray source near the GC radio arc and argue that it is produced by the pulsar wind nebula candidate G0.13-0.11.

  • 213.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Deeper HESS observations of Vela Junior (RX J0852.0-4622): Morphology studies and resolved spectroscopy2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. We study gamma-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) RXJ0852.0-4622 to better characterize its spectral properties and its distribution over the SNR.

    Methods. The analysis of an extended High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) data set at very high energies (E > 100 GeV) permits detailed studies, as well as spatially resolved spectroscopy, of the morphology and spectrum of the whole RXJ0852.0-4622 region. The H.E.S.S. data are combined with archival data from other wavebands and interpreted in the framework of leptonic and hadronic models. The joint Fermi-LAT-H.E.S.S. spectrum allows the direct determination of the spectral characteristics of the parent particle population in leptonic and hadronic scenarios using only GeV-TeV data.

    Results. An updated analysis of the H.E.S.S. data shows that the spectrum of the entire SNR connects smoothly to the high-energy spectrum measured by Fermi-LAT. The increased data set makes it possible to demonstrate that the H.E.S.S. spectrum deviates significantly from a power law and is well described by both a curved power law and a power law with an exponential cutoff at an energy of E-cut = (6.7 +/- 1.2(stat) +/- 1.2(syst)) TeV. The joint Fermi-LAT-H.E.S.S. spectrum allows the unambiguous identification of the spectral shape as a power law with an exponential cutoff. No significant evidence is found for a variation of the spectral parameters across the SNR, suggesting similar conditions of particle acceleration across the remnant. A simple modeling using one particle population to model the SNR emission demonstrates that both leptonic and hadronic emission scenarios remain plausible. It is also shown that at least a part of the shell emission is likely due to the presence of a pulsar wind nebula around PSR J0855-4644.

  • 214.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    HESS discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission from PKS 0625-3542018Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 476, nr 3, s. 4187-4198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PKS 0625-354 (z = 0.055) was observed with the four High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) telescopes in 2012 during 5.5 h. The source was detected above an energy threshold of 200 GeV at a significance level of 6.1 sigma. No significant variability is found in these observations. The source is well described with a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 2.84 +/- 0.50(stat) +/- 0.10(syst) and normalization (at E-0 = 1.0 TeV) N-0(E-0)=(0.58 +/- 0.22(stat) +/- 0.12(syst)) x 10(-12) TeV-1 cm(-2) s(-1). Multiwavelength data collected with Fermi-LAT, Swift-XRT, Swift-UVOT, ATOM and WISE are also analysed. Significant variability is observed only in the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray and Swift-XRT X-ray energy bands. Having a good multiwavelength coverage from radio to very high energy, we performed a broad-band modelling from two types of emission scenarios. The results from a one zone lepto-hadronic and a multizone leptonic models are compared and discussed. On the grounds of energetics, our analysis favours a leptonic multizone model. Models associated to the X-ray variability constraint support previous results, suggesting a BL Lac nature of PKS 0625-354 with, however, a large-scale jet structure typical of a radio galaxy.

  • 215.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    HESS observations of RX J1713.7-3946 with improved angular and spectral resolution: Evidence for gamma-ray emission extending beyond the X-ray emitting shell2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Supernova remnants exhibit shock fronts (shells) that can accelerate charged particles up to very high energies. In the past decade, measurements of a handful of shell-type supernova remnants in very high-energy gamma rays have provided unique insights into the acceleration process. Among those objects, RX J1713.7-3946 (also known as G347.3-0.5) has the largest surface brightness, allowing us in the past to perform the most comprehensive study of morphology and spatially resolved spectra of any such very high-energy gamma-ray source. Here we present extensive new H.E.S.S. measurements of RX J1713.7-3946, almost doubling the observation time compared to our previous publication. Combined with new improved analysis tools, the previous sensitivity is more than doubled. The H.E.S.S. angular resolution of 0.048 degrees (0.036 degrees above 2 TeV) is unprecedented in gamma-ray astronomy and probes physical scales of 0.8 (0.6) parsec at the remnant's location. The new H. E. S. S. image of RX J1713.7-3946 allows us to reveal clear morphological di ff erences between X-rays and gamma rays. In particular, for the outer edge of the brightest shell region, we find the first ever indication for particles in the process of leaving the acceleration shock region. By studying the broadband energy spectrum, we furthermore extract properties of the parent particle populations, providing new input to the discussion of the leptonic or hadronic nature of the gamma-ray emission mechanism.

  • 216.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    The population of TeV pulsar wind nebulae in the HESS Galactic Plane Survey2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The nine-year H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey (HGPS) has yielded the most uniform observation scan of the inner Milky Way in the TeV gamma-ray band to date. The sky maps and source catalogue of the HGPS allow for a systematic study of the population of TeV pulsar wind nebulae found throughout the last decade. To investigate the nature and evolution of pulsar wind nebulae, for the first time we also present several upper limits for regions around pulsars without a detected TeV wind nebula. Our data exhibit a correlation of TeV surface brightness with pulsar spindown power (E) over dot. This seems to be caused both by an increase of extension with decreasing (E) over dot, and hence with time, compatible with a power law R-PWN((E) over dot) similar to(E) over dot(0.65 +/- 0.20), and by a mild decrease of TeV gamma-ray luminosity with decreasing (E) over dot, compatible with L-1 (10 TeV) similar to (E) over dot(0.59 +/- 0.21). We also find that the off sets of pulsars with respect to the wind nebula centre with ages around 10 kyr are frequently larger than can be plausibly explained by pulsar proper motion and could be due to an asymmetric environment. In the present data, it seems that a large pulsar off set is correlated with a high apparent TeV efficiency L1- 10 TeV / (E) over dot. In addition to 14 HGPS sources considered firmly identified pulsar wind nebulae and 5 additional pulsar wind nebulae taken from literature, we find 10 HGPS sources that are likely TeV pulsar wind nebula candidates. Using a model that subsumes the present common understanding of the very high-energy radiative evolution of pulsar wind nebulae, we find that the trends and variations of the TeV observables and limits can be reproduced to a good level, drawing a consistent picture of present-day TeV data and theory.

  • 217.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    The supernova remnant W49B as seen with HESS and Fermi-LAT2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The supernova remnant (SNR) W49B originated from a core-collapse supernova that occurred between one and four thousand years ago, and subsequently evolved into a mixed-morphology remnant, which is interacting with molecular clouds (MC). Gamma-ray observations of SNR-MC associations are a powerful tool to constrain the origin of Galactic cosmic rays, as they can probe the acceleration of hadrons through their interaction with the surrounding medium and subsequent emission of non-thermal photons. We report the detection of a gamma-ray source coincident with W49B at very high energies (VHE; E > 100 GeV) with the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescopes together with a study of the source with five years of Fermi-LAT high-energy gamma-ray (0.06-300 GeV) data. The smoothly connected, combined source spectrum, measured from 60 MeV to multi-TeV energies, shows two significant spectral breaks at 304 +/- 20 MeV and 8.4(-2.5)(+2.5) GeV; the latter is constrained by the joint fit from the two instruments. The detected spectral features are similar to those observed in several other SNR-MC associations and are found to be indicative of gamma-ray emission produced through neutral-pion decay.

  • 218.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Population study of Galactic supernova remnants at very high gamma-ray energies with HESS2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) are considered prime candidates for the acceleration of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) up to the knee of the CR spectrum at E approximate to 3 x 10(15) eV. Our MilkyWay galaxy hosts more than 350 SNRs discovered at radio wavelengths and at high energies, of which 220 fall into the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey (HGPS) region. Of those, only 50 SNRs are coincident with a H.E.S.S source and in 8 cases the very high-energy (VHE) emission is firmly identified as an SNR. The H.E.S.S. GPS provides us with a legacy for SNR population study in VHE gamma-rays and we use this rich data set to extract VHE flux upper limits from all undetected SNRs. Overall, the derived flux upper limits are not in contradiction with the canonical CR paradigm. Assuming this paradigm holds true, we can constrain typical ambient density values around shell-type SNRs to n <= 7 cm(-3) and electron-to-proton energy fractions above 10 TeV to epsilon(ep) <= 5 x 10(-3). Furthermore, comparisons of VHE with radio luminosities in non-interacting SNRs reveal a behaviour that is in agreement with the theory of magnetic field amplification at shell-type SNRs.

  • 219.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Search for gamma-Ray Line Signals from Dark Matter Annihilations in the Inner Galactic Halo from 10 Years of Observations with HESS2018Ingår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 120, nr 20, artikel-id 201101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectral lines are among the most powerful signatures for dark matter (DM) annihilation searches in very-high-energy gamma rays. The central region of the Milky Way halo is one of the most promising targets given its large amount of DM and proximity to Earth. We report on a search for a monoenergetic spectral line from self-annihilations of DM particles in the energy range from 300 GeV to 70 TeV using a two-dimensional maximum likelihood method taking advantage of both the spectral and spatial features of the signal versus background. The analysis makes use of Galactic center observations accumulated over ten years (2004-2014) with the H.E.S.S. array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. No significant gamma-ray excess above the background is found. We derive upper limits on the annihilation cross section (sigma v) for monoenergetic DM lines at the level of 4 x 10(-28) cm(3) s(-1) at 1 TeV, assuming an Einasto DM profile for the Milky Way halo. For a DM mass of 1 TeV, they improve over the previous ones by a factor of 6. The present constraints are the strongest obtained so far for DM particles in the mass range 300 GeV-70 TeV. Ground-based gamma-ray observations have reached sufficient sensitivity to explore relevant velocity-averaged cross sections for DM annihilation into two gamma-ray photons at the level expected from the thermal relic density for TeV DM particles.

  • 220.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Systematic search for very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Runaway stars form bow shocks by ploughing through the interstellar medium at supersonic speeds and are promising sources of non-thermal emission of photons. One of these objects has been found to emit non-thermal radiation in the radio band. This triggered the development of theoretical models predicting non-thermal photons from radio up to very-high-energy (VHE, E >= 0.1 TeV) gamma rays. Subsequently, one bow shock was also detected in X-ray observations. However, the data did not allow discrimination between a hot thermal and a non-thermal origin. Further observations of different candidates at X-ray energies showed no evidence for emission at the position of the bow shocks either. A systematic search in the Fermi-LAT energy regime resulted in flux upper limits for 27 candidates listed in the E-BOSS catalogue.

    Aims. Here we perform the first systematic search for VHE gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars.

    Methods. Using all available archival H.E.S.S. data we search for very-high-energy gamma-ray emission at the positions of bow shock candidates listed in the second E-BOSS catalogue release. Out of the 73 bow shock candidates in this catalogue, 32 have been observed with H.E.S.S.

    Results. None of the observed 32 bow shock candidates in this population study show significant emission in the H.E.S.S. energy range. Therefore, flux upper limits are calculated in five energy bins and the fraction of the kinetic wind power that is converted into VHE gamma rays is constrained.

    Conclusions. Emission from stellar bow shocks is not detected in the energy range between 0.14 and 18 TeV. The resulting upper limits constrain the level of VHE gamma-ray emission from these objects down to 0.1-1% of the kinetic wind energy.

  • 221.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    The gamma-ray spectrum of the core of Centaurus A as observed with HESS and Fermi-LAT2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 619, artikel-id A71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Centaurus A (Cen A) is the nearest radio galaxy discovered as a very-high-energy (VHE; 100 GeV-100 TeV) gamma-ray source by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). It is a faint VHE gamma-ray emitter, though its VHE flux exceeds both the extrapolation from early Fermi-LAT observations as well as expectations from a (misaligned) single-zone synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) description. The latter satisfactorily reproduces the emission from Cen A at lower energies up to a few GeV. New observations with H.E.S.S., comparable in exposure time to those previously reported, were performed and eight years of Fermi-LAT data were accumulated to clarify the spectral characteristics of the gamma-ray emission from the core of Cen A. The results allow us for the first time to achieve the goal of constructing a representative, contemporaneous gamma-ray core spectrum of Cen A over almost five orders of magnitude in energy. Advanced analysis methods, including the template fitting method, allow detection in the VHE range of the core with a statistical significance of 12 sigma on the basis of 213 hours of total exposure time. The spectrum in the energy range of 250 GeV-6 TeV is compatible with a power-law function with a photon index Gamma = 2.52 +/- 0.13(stat) +/- 0.20(sys). An updated Fermi-LAT analysis provides evidence for spectral hardening by Delta Gamma similar or equal to 0.4 +/- 0.1 at gamma-ray energies above 2.8(-0.6)(+1.0) GeV at a level of 4.0 sigma. The fact that the spectrum hardens at GeV energies and extends into the VHE regime disfavour a single-zone SSC interpretation for the overall spectral energy distribution (SED) of the core and is suggestive of a new gamma-ray emitting component connecting the high-energy emission above the break energy to the one observed at VHE energies. The absence of significant variability at both GeV and TeV energies does not yet allow disentanglement of the physical nature of this component, though a jet-related origin is possible and a simple two-zone SED model fit is provided to this end.

  • 222.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    The HESS Galactic plane survey2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of the most comprehensive survey of the Galactic plane in very high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays, including a public release of Galactic sky maps, a catalog of VHE sources, and the discovery of 16 new sources of VHE gamma-rays. The High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) Galactic plane survey (HGPS) was a decade-long observation program carried out by the H.E.S.S. I array of Cherenkov telescopes in Namibia from 2004 to 2013. The observations amount to nearly 2700 h of quality-selected data, covering the Galactic plane at longitudes from l = 250 degrees to 65 degrees and latitudes vertical bar b vertical bar <= 3 degrees. In addition to the unprecedented spatial coverage, the HGPS also features a relatively high angular resolution (0.08 degrees approximate to 5 arcmin mean point spread function 68% containment radius), sensitivity (less than or similar to 1.5% Crab flux for point-like sources), and energy range (0.2-100 TeV). We constructed a catalog of VHE gamma-ray sources from the HGPS data set with a systematic procedure for both source detection and characterization of morphology and spectrum. We present this likelihood-based method in detail, including the introduction of a model component to account for unresolved, large-scale emission along the Galactic plane. In total, the resulting HGPS catalog contains 78 VHE sources, of which 14 are not reanalyzed here, for example, due to their complex morphology, namely shell-like sources and the Galactic center region. Where possible, we provide a firm identification of the VHE source or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. We also studied the characteristics of the VHE sources with source parameter distributions. 16 new sources were previously unknown or unpublished, and we individually discuss their identifications or possible associations. We firmly identified 31 sources as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), supernova remnants (SNRs), composite SNRs, or gamma-ray binaries. Among the 47 sources not yet identified, most of them (36) have possible associations with cataloged objects, notably PWNe and energetic pulsars that could power VHE PWNe.

  • 223.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Gamma-ray blazar spectra with HESS II mono analysis: The case of PKS2155-304 and PG1553+1132017Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 600, artikel-id A89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The addition of a 28 m Cherenkov telescope (CT5) to the H.E.S.S. array extended the experiment's sensitivity to lower energies. The lowest energy threshold is obtained using monoscopic analysis of data taken with CT5, providing access to gamma-ray energies below 100 GeV for small zenith angle observations. Such an extension of the instrument's energy range is particularly beneficial for studies of active galactic nuclei with soft spectra, as expected for those at a redshift >= 0.5. The high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects PKS 2155-304 (z = 0.116) and PG 1553 + 113 (0.43 < z < 0.58) are among the brightest objects in the gamma-ray sky, both showing clear signatures of gamma-ray absorption at E > 100 GeV interpreted as being due to interactions with the extragalactic background light (EBL). Aims. The aims of this work are twofold: to demonstrate the monoscopic analysis of CT5 data with a low energy threshold, and to obtain accurate measurements of the spectral energy distributions (SED) of PKS 2155-304 and PG 1553 + 113 near their SED peaks at energies approximate to 100 GeV. Methods. Multiple observational campaigns of PKS 2155 304 and PG 1553 + 113 were conducted during 2013 and 2014 using the full H.E.S.S. II instrument (CT1-5). A monoscopic analysis of the data taken with the new CT5 telescope was developed along with an investigation into the systematic uncertainties on the spectral parameters which are derived from this analysis. Results. Using the data from CT5, the energy spectra of PKS 2155 304 and PG 1553 + 113 were reconstructed down to conservative threshold energies of 80 GeV for PKS 2155 304, which transits near zenith, and 110 GeV for the more northern PG 1553 + 113. The measured spectra, well fitted in both cases by a log-parabola spectral model ( with a 5.0 similar to statistical preference for non-zero curvature for PKS 2155 304 and 4.5 sigma for PG 1553+113), were found consistent with spectra derived from contemporaneous Fermi-LAT data, indicating a sharp break in the observed spectra of both sources at E approximate to 100 GeV. When corrected for EBL absorption, the intrinsic H.E.S.S. II mono and Fermi-LAT spectrum of PKS 2155 304 was found to show significant curvature. For PG 1553+113, however, no significant detection of curvature in the intrinsic spectrum could be found within statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  • 224.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Reimer, Olaf
    Indirect dark matter searches in gamma and cosmic rays2017Ingår i: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 224-231Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dark matter candidates such as weakly interacting massive particles are predicted to annihilate or decay into Standard Model particles, leaving behind distinctive signatures in gamma rays, neutrinos, positrons, antiprotons, or even antinuclei. Indirect dark matter searches, and in particular those based on gamma-ray observations and cosmic-ray measurements, could detect such signatures. Here we review the strengths and limitations of this approach and look into the future of indirect dark matter searches.

  • 225.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ripken, Joachim
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Yang, Zhaoyu
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    INSIGHTS INTO THE HIGH-ENERGY gamma-RAY EMISSION OF MARKARIAN 501 FROM EXTENSIVE MULTIFREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS IN THE FERMI ERA2011Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 727, nr 2, s. 129-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the gamma-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) gamma-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 +/- 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 +/- 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 +/- 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15-August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a size less than or similar to 0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (similar or equal to 10(44) erg s(-1)) constitutes only a small fraction (similar to 10(-3)) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form is consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of the energy dissipation within the dominant emission zone of Mrk 501 is due to relativistic, proton-mediated shocks. We find that the ultrarelativistic electrons and mildly relativistic protons within the blazar zone, if comparable in number, are in approximate energy equipartition, with their energy dominating the jet magnetic field energy by about two orders of magnitude.

  • 226.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ripken, Joachim
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Yang, Zhaoyu
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE FLARING GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR 3C 66A IN 2008 OCTOBER2011Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 726, nr 1, artikel-id 43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The BL Lacertae object 3C 66A was detected in a flaring state by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and VERITAS in 2008 October. In addition to these gamma-ray observations, F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, PAIRITEL, MDM, ATOM, Swift, and Chandra provided radio to X-ray coverage. The available light curves show variability and, in particular, correlated flares are observed in the optical and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray band. The resulting spectral energy distribution can be well fitted using standard leptonic models with and without an external radiation field for inverse Compton scattering. It is found, however, that only the model with an external radiation field can accommodate the intra-night variability observed at optical wavelengths.

  • 227.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sellerholm, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Constraints on cosmological dark matter annihilation from the Fermi-LAT isotropic diffuse gamma-ray measurement2010Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, nr 4, s. 014-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The first published Fermi large area telescope (Fermi-LAT) measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission is in good agreement with a single power law, and is not showing any signature of a dominant contribution from dark matter sources in the energy range from 20 to 100 GeV. We use the absolute size and spectral shape of this measured flux to derive cross section limits on three types of generic dark matter candidates: annihilat- ing into quarks, charged leptons and monochromatic photons. Predicted gamma-ray fluxes from annihilating dark matter are strongly aected by the underlying distribution of dark matter, and by using different available results of matter structure formation we assess these uncertainties. We also quantify how the dark matter constraints depend on the assumed conventional backgrounds and on the Universe’s transparency to high-energy gamma-rays. In reasonable background and dark matter structure scenarios (but not in all scenarios we consider) it is possible to exclude models proposed to explain the excess of electrons and positrons measured by the Fermi-LAT and PAMELA experiments. Derived limits also start to probe cross sections expected from thermally produced relics (e.g. in minimal supersym- metry models) annihilating predominantly into quarks. For the monochromatic gamma-ray signature, the current measurement constrains only dark matter scenarios with very strong signals.

  • 228.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Yang, Zhaoyu
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MARKARIAN 421: THE MISSING PIECE OF ITS SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION2011Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 736, nr 2, s. 131-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the gamma-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) gamma-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index Gamma = 1.78 +/- 0.02 and average photon flux F(>0.3 GeV) = (7.23 +/- 0.16) x 10(-8) ph cm(-2) s(-1). Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor similar to 3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in gamma-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  • 229.
    Cuoco, Alessandro
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). University of Aarhus, Denmark.
    Sellerholm, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hannestad, S.
    Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background from dark matter with Fermi LAT: a closer look2011Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 414, nr 3, s. 2040-2054Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform a detailed study of the sensitivity to the anisotropies related to dark matter (DM) annihilation in the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi LAT). For the first time, we take into account the effects of the Galactic foregrounds and use a realistic representation of the Fermi LAT. We implement an analysis pipeline which simulates Fermi LAT data sets starting from model maps of the Galactic foregrounds, the Fermi-resolved point sources, the extragalactic diffuse emission and the signal from DM annihilation. The effects of the detector are taken into account by convolving the model maps with the Fermi LAT instrumental response. We then use the angular power spectrum to characterize the anisotropy properties of the simulated data and to study the sensitivity to DM. We consider DM anisotropies of extragalactic origin and of Galactic origin (which can be generated through annihilation in the MilkyWay substructures) as opposed to a background of anisotropies generated by sources of astrophysical origin, blazars for example. We find that with statistics from 5 yr of observation, Fermi is sensitive to a DM contribution at the level of 1-10 per cent of the measured IGRB depending on the DM mass m. and annihilation mode. In terms of the thermally averaged cross-section <sigma(A)v >, this corresponds to similar to 10(-25) cm(3) s(-1), i. e. slightly above the typical expectations for a thermal relic, for low values of the DM mass m(x) less than or similar to 100 GeV. The anisotropy method for DM searches has a sensitivity comparable to the usual methods based only on the energy spectrum and thus constitutes an independent and complementary piece of information in the DM puzzle.

  • 230. De Angelis, A.
    et al.
    Tatischeff, V.
    Grenier, I. A.
    McEnery, J.
    Mallamaci, M.
    Tavani, M.
    Oberlack, U.
    Hanlon, L.
    Walter, R.
    Argan, A.
    Von Ballmoos, P.
    Bulgarelli, A.
    Bykov, A.
    Hernanz, M.
    Kanbach, G.
    Kuvvetli, I.
    Pearce, M.
    Zdziarski, A.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ghisellini, G.
    Harding, A.
    Isern, J.
    Leising, M.
    Longo, F.
    Madejski, G.
    Martinez, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Paredes, J. M.
    Pohl, M.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Aboudan, A.
    Ackermann, M.
    Addazi, A.
    Ajello, M.
    Albertus, C.
    Alvarez, J. M.
    Ambrosi, G.
    Anton, S.
    Antonelli, L. A.
    Babic, A.
    Baibussinov, B.
    Balbom, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Balman, S.
    Bambi, C.
    Barres de Almeida, U.
    Barrio, J. A.
    Bartels, R.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bednarek, W.
    Bernard, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bernasconi, T.
    Bertucci, B.
    Biland, A.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Boettcher, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bosch-Ramon, V.
    Bottacini, E.
    Bozhilov, V.
    Bretz, T.
    Branchesi, M.
    Brdar, V.
    Bringmann, T.
    Brogna, A.
    Jorgensen, C. Budtz
    Busetto, G.
    Buson, S.
    Busso, M.
    Caccianiga, A.
    Camera, S.
    Campana, R.
    Caraveo, P.
    Cardillo, M.
    Carlson, P.
    Celestin, S.
    Cermeno, M.
    Chen, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Churazov, E.
    Ciprini, S.
    Coc, A.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Coleiro, A.
    Collmar, W.
    Coppi, P.
    Curado da Silva, R.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    De Lotto, B.
    de Martino, D.
    De Rosa, A.
    Del Santo, M.
    Delgado, L.
    Diehl, R.
    Dietrich, S.
    Dolgov, A. D.
    Dominguez, A.
    Prester, D. Dominis
    Donnarumma, I.
    Dorner, D.
    Doro, M.
    Dutra, M.
    Elsaesser, D.
    Fabrizio, M.
    Fernandez-Barral, A.
    Fioretti, V.
    Foffano, L.
    Formato, V.
    Fornengo, N.
    Foschini, L.
    Franceschini, A.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Funk, S.
    Fuschino, F.
    Gaggero, D.
    Galanti, G.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrz, R.
    Giammaria, P.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Ghirlanda, G.
    Godinovic, N.
    Gouiffes, C.
    Grove, J. E.
    Hamadache, C.
    Hartmann, D. H.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hryczuk, A.
    Jean, P.
    Johnson, T.
    Jose, J.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kiener, J.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kolem, M.
    Kopp, J.
    Kozhuharov, V.
    Labanti, C.
    Lalkovski, S.
    Laurent, P.
    Limousin, O.
    Linares, M.
    Lindfors, E.
    Lindner, M.
    Liu, J.
    Lombardi, S.
    Loparco, F.
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Lopez Moya, M.
    Lott, B.
    Lubrano, P.
    Malyshev, D.
    Mankuzhiyil, N.
    Mannheim, K.
    Marcha, M. J.
    Marciano, A.
    Marcote, B.
    Mariotti, M.
    Marisaldi, M.
    McBreen, S.
    Mereghetti, S.
    Merle, A.
    Mignani, R.
    Minervini, G.
    Moiseev, A.
    Morselli, A.
    Moura, F.
    Nakazawa, K.
    Nava, L.
    Nieto, D.
    Orienti, M.
    Orio, M.
    Orlando, E.
    Orleanski, P.
    Paiano, S.
    Paoletti, R.
    Papitto, A.
    Pasquato, M.
    Patricelli, B.
    Perez-Garcia, M. A.
    Persic, M.
    Piano, G.
    Pichel, A.
    Pimenta, M.
    Pittori, C.
    Porter, T.
    Poutanen, J.
    Prandini, E.
    Prantzos, N.
    Produit, N.
    Profumo, S.
    Queiroz, F. S.
    Raino, S.
    Raklev, A.
    Regis, M.
    Reichardt, I.
    Rephaeli, Y.
    Rico, J.
    Rodejohann, W.
    Fernandez, G. Rodriguez
    Roncadelli, M.
    Roso, L.
    Rovero, A.
    Ruffini, R.
    Sala, G.
    Sanchez-Conde, M. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Parkinson, P. Saz
    Sbarrato, T.
    Shearer, A.
    Shellard, R.
    Short, K.
    Siegert, T.
    Siqueira, C.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stamerra, A.
    Starrfield, S.
    Strong, A.
    Strumke, I.
    Tavecchio, F.
    Taverna, R.
    Terzic, T.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibolla, O.
    Torres, D. F.
    Turolla, R.
    Ulyanov, A.
    Ursi, A.
    Vacchi, A.
    Van den Abeele, J.
    Vankova-Kirilovai, G.
    Venter, C.
    Verrecchia, F.
    Vincent, P.
    Wang, X.
    Weniger, C.
    Wu, X.
    Zaharijas, G.
    Zampieri, L.
    Zane, S.
    Zimmer, S.
    Zoglauer, A.
    Science with e-ASTROGAM A space mission for MeV-GeV gamma-ray astrophysics2018Ingår i: Journal of high energy astrophysics, ISSN 2214-4048, Vol. 19, s. 1-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    e-ASTROGAM ('enhanced ASTROGAM') is a breakthrough Observatory space mission, with a detector composed by a Silicon tracker, a calorimeter, and an anticoincidence system, dedicated to the study of the non-thermal Universe in the photon energy range from 0.3 MeV to 3 GeV - the lower energy limit can be pushed to energies as low as 150 keV for the tracker, and to 30 keV for calorimetric detection. The mission is based on an advanced space-proven detector technology, with unprecedented sensitivity, angular and energy resolution, combined with polarimetric capability. Thanks to its performance in the MeV-GeV domain, substantially improving its predecessors, e-ASTROGAM will open a new window on the non-thermal Universe, making pioneering observations of the most powerful Galactic and extragalactic sources, elucidating the nature of their relativistic outflows and their effects on the surroundings. With a line sensitivity in the MeV energy range one to two orders of magnitude better than previous generation instruments, e-ASTROGAM will determine the origin of key isotopes fundamental for the understanding of supernova explosion and the chemical evolution of our Galaxy. The mission will provide unique data of significant interest to a broad astronomical community, complementary to powerful observatories such as LIGO-Virgo-GEO600-KAGRA, SKA, ALMA, E-ELT, TMT, LSST, JWST, Athena, CTA, IceCube, KM3NeT, and LISA.

  • 231.
    Dickinson, Hugh
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Handling systematic uncertainties and combined source analyses for Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes2013Ingår i: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 41, s. 17-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to an increasing availability of statistically rich observational data sets, the performance and applicability of traditional Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope analyses in the regime of systematically dominated measurement uncertainties is examined. In particular, the effect of systematic uncertainties affecting the relative normalisation of fiducial ON and OFF-source sampling regions - often denoted as alpha - is investigated using combined source analysis as a representative example case. The traditional summation of accumulated ON and OFF-source event counts is found to perform sub-optimally in the studied contexts and requires careful calibration to correct for unexpected and potentially misleading statistical behaviour. More specifically, failure to recognise and correct for erroneous estimates of alpha is found to produce substantial overestimates of the combined population significance which worsen with increasing target multiplicity. An alternative joint likelihood technique is introduced, which is designed to treat systematic uncertainties in a uniform and statistically robust manner. This alternate method is shown to yield dramatically enhanced performance and reliability with respect to the more traditional approach.

  • 232. Doro, M.
    et al.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Sanchez-Conde, M. A.
    Barrio, J. A.
    Birsin, E.
    Bolmont, J.
    Brun, P.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Connell, S. H.
    Contreras, J. L.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Fornasa, M.
    Gaug, M.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gonzalez-Munoz, A.
    Hassan, T.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Mazini, R.
    Mirabal, N.
    Moralejo, A.
    Moulin, E.
    Nieto, D.
    Ripken, Joachim
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sandaker, H.
    Schwanke, U.
    Spengler, G.
    Stamerra, A.
    Viana, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Dark matter and fundamental physics with the Cherenkov Telescope Array2013Ingår i: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 43, s. 189-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a project for a next-generation observatory for very high energy (GeV-TeV) ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, currently in its design phase, and foreseen to be operative a few years from now. Several tens of telescopes of 2-3 different sizes, distributed over a large area, will allow for a sensitivity about a factor 10 better than current instruments such as H.E.S.S, MAGIC and VERITAS, an energy coverage from a few tens of GeV to several tens of TeV, and a field of view of up to 10 degrees. In the following study, we investigate the prospects for CIA to study several science questions that can profoundly influence our current knowledge of fundamental physics. Based on conservative assumptions for the performance of the different CTA telescope configurations currently under discussion, we employ a Monte Carlo based approach to evaluate the prospects for detection and characterisation of new physics with the array. First, we discuss cm prospects for cold dark matter searches, following different observational strategies: in dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, which are virtually void of astrophysical background and have a relatively well known dark matter density; in the region close to the Galactic Centre, where the dark matter density is expected to be large while the astrophysical background due to the Galactic Centre can be excluded; and in clusters of galaxies, where the intrinsic flux may be boosted significantly by the large number of halo substructures. The possible search for spatial signatures, facilitated by the larger field of view of CIA, is also discussed. Next we consider searches for axion-like particles which, besides being possible candidates for dark matter may also explain the unexpectedly low absorption by extragalactic background light of gamma-rays from very distant blazars. We establish the axion mass range CIA could probe through observation of long-lasting flares in distant sources. Simulated light-curves of flaring sources are also used to determine the sensitivity to violations of Lorentz invariance by detection of the possible delay between the arrival times of photons at different energies. Finally, we mention searches for other exotic physics with CTA.

  • 233.
    Geilhufe, R. Matthias
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    Olsthoorn, Bart
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    Ferella, Alfredo D.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Koski, Timo
    Kahlhoefer, Felix
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Balatsky, Alexander V.
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). University of Connecticut, USA; Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA.
    Materials Informatics for Dark Matter Detection2018Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 12, nr 11, artikel-id 1800293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dark Matter particles are commonly assumed to be weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with a mass in the GeV to TeV range. However, recent interest has shifted toward lighter WIMPs, which are more difficult to probe experimentally. A detection of sub-GeV WIMPs will require the use of small gap materials in sensors. Using recent estimates of the WIMP mass, we identify the relevant target space toward small gap materials (100 to 10 meV). Dirac Materials, a class of small- or zero-gap materials, emerge as natural candidates for sensors for Dark Matter detection. We propose the use of informatics tools to rapidly assay materials band structures to search for small gap semiconductors and semimetals, rather than focusing on a few preselected compounds. As a specific example of the proposed strategy, we use the organic materials database () to identify organic candidates for sensors: the narrow band gap semiconductors BNQ-TTF and DEBTTT with gaps of 40 and 38 meV, and the Dirac-line semimetal (BEDT-TTF)center dot Br which exhibits a tiny gap of approximate to 50 meV when spin-orbit coupling is included. We outline a novel and powerful approach to search for dark matter detection sensor materials by means of a rapid assay of materials using informatics tools.

  • 234. Lister, M. L.
    et al.
    Aller, M.
    Aller, H.
    Hovatta, T.
    Kellermann, K. I.
    Kovalev, Y. Y.
    Meyer, E. T.
    Pushkarev, A. B.
    Ros, E.
    Ackermann, M.
    Antolini, E.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Boeck, M.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chang, C. S.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Cutini, S.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Finke, J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Horan, D.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Kadler, M.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Nishino, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Raino, S.
    Readhead, A.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Richards, J. L.
    Ritz, S.
    Sadrozinski, H. F-W
    Sgro, C.
    Shaw, M. S.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Troja, E.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    gamma-RAY AND PARSEC-SCALE JET PROPERTIES OF A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF BLAZARS FROM THE MOJAVE PROGRAM2011Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 742, nr 1, s. 27-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray and 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array radio properties of a joint gamma-ay and radio-selected sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) obtained during the first 11 months of the Fermi mission (2008 August 4-2009 July 5). Our sample contains the brightest 173 AGNs in these bands above declination -30 degrees during this period, and thus probes the full range of gamma-ray loudness (gamma-ray to radio band luminosity ratio) in the bright blazar population. The latter quantity spans at least 4 orders of magnitude, reflecting a wide range of spectral energy distribution (SED) parameters in the bright blazar population. The BL Lac objects, however, display a linear correlation of increasing gamma-ray loudness with synchrotron SED peak frequency, suggesting a universal SED shape for objects of this class. The synchrotron self-Compton model is favored for the gamma-ray emission in these BL Lac objects over external seed photon models, since the latter predict a dependence of Compton dominance on Doppler factor that would destroy any observed synchrotron SED-peak-gamma-ray-loudness correlation. The high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are distinguished by lower than average radio core brightness temperatures, and none display large radio modulation indices or high linear core polarization levels. No equivalent trends are seen for the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in our sample. Given the association of such properties with relativistic beaming, we suggest that the HSP BL Lac objects have generally lower Doppler factors than the lower-synchrotron peaked BL Lac objects or FSRQs in our sample.

  • 235. Lundberg, J.
    et al.
    Conrad, J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Rolke, W.
    Lopez, A.
    Limits, discovery and cut optimization for a Poisson process with uncertainty in background and signal efficiency: TRolke 2.02010Ingår i: Computer Physics Communications, ISSN 0010-4655, E-ISSN 1879-2944, Vol. 181, nr 3, s. 683-686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A C++ class was written for the calculation of frequentist confidence intervals using the profile likelihood method. Seven combinations of Binomial, Gaussian, Poissonian and Binomial uncertainties are implemented. The package provides routines for the calculation of upper and lower limits, sensitivity and related properties. It also supports hypothesis tests which take uncertainties into account. It can be used in compiled C++ code, in Python or interactively via the ROOT analysis framework.

  • 236. Martinez, Gregory D.
    et al.
    McKay, James
    Farmer, Ben
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Scott, Pat
    Roebber, Elinore
    Putze, Antje
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Comparison of statistical sampling methods with ScannerBit, the GAMBIT scanning module2017Ingår i: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 77, nr 11, artikel-id 761Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce ScannerBit, the statistics and sampling module of the public, open-source global fitting framework GAMBIT. ScannerBit provides a standardised interface to different sampling algorithms, enabling the use and comparison of multiple computational methods for inferring profile likelihoods, Bayesian posteriors, and other statistical quantities. The current version offers random, grid, raster, nested sampling, differential evolution, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and ensemble Monte Carlo samplers. We also announce the release of a new standalone differential evolution sampler, Diver, and describe its design, usage and interface to ScannerBit. We subject Diver and three other samplers (the nested sampler MultiNest, the MCMC GreAT, and the native ScannerBit implementation of the ensemble Monte Carlo algorithm T-Walk) to a battery of statistical tests. For this we use a realistic physical likelihood function, based on the scalar singlet model of dark matter. We examine the performance of each sampler as a function of its adjustable settings, and the dimensionality of the sampling problem. We evaluate performance on four metrics: optimality of the best fit found, completeness in exploring the best-fit region, number of likelihood evaluations, and total runtime. For Bayesian posterior estimation at high resolution, T-Walk provides the most accurate and timely mapping of the full parameter space. For profile likelihood analysis in less than about ten dimensions, we find that Diver and MultiNest score similarly in terms of best fit and speed, outperforming GreAT and T-Walk; in ten or more dimensions, Diver substantially outperforms the other three samplers on all metrics.

  • 237.
    Meyer, Manuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sensitivity of the Chrenkov Telescope Array to the detection of axion-llike particles at high gamma-ray opacieties2014Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, nr 12, s. 016-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensions of the Standard Model of particles commonly predict the existence of axion(-like) particles (ALPs) that could be detected through their coupling to photons in external magnetic fields. This coupling could lead to modifications of gamma-ray spectra from extragalactic sources. Above a certain energy, the gamma-ray flux should be exponentially damped due to the interaction with photons of background radiations fields. ALPs, on the other hand, propagate unimpeded over cosmological distances and a reconversion into gamma-rays could lead to an additional component in the spectra. Here, we present the sensitivity of the proposed Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to detect this spectral hardening. Using the full instrumental response functions of CTA, a combined likelihood analysis of four gamma-ray sources shows that a significant detection of the ALP signal is possible for couplings g(a gamma) greater than or similar to 2 x 10(-11) GeV-1 and ALP masses m(a) less than or similar to 100 neV. We discuss the dependency of these values on different model assumptions and magnetic-field scenarios and identify the best observation strategy to search for an ALP induced boost of the gamma-ray flux.

  • 238.
    Meyer, Manuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Dickinson, Hugh
    SENSITIVITY OF THE CHERENKOV TELESCOPE ARRAY TO THE DETECTION OF INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELDS2016Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 827, nr 2, artikel-id 147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Very high energy (VHE; energy E greater than or similar to 100 GeV) gamma-rays originating from extragalactic sources undergo pair production with low-energy photons of background radiation fields. These pairs can inverse-Compton-scatter background photons, initiating an electromagnetic cascade. The spatial and temporal structure of this secondary gamma-ray signal is altered as the e(+)e(-) pairs are deflected in an intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). We investigate how VHE observations with the future Cherenkov Telescope Array, with its high angular resolution and broad energy range, can potentially probe the IGMF. We identify promising sources and simulate gamma-ray spectra over a wide range of values of the IGMF strength and coherence length using the publicly available ELMAG Monte. Carlo code. Combining simulated observations in a joint likelihood approach, we find that current limits on the IGMF can be significantly improved. The projected sensitivity depends strongly on the time a source has been gamma-ray active and on the emitted maximum gamma-ray energy.

  • 239.
    Meyer, Manuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Giannotti, M.
    Mirizzi, A.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sanchez-Conde, Miguel A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Fermi Large Area Telescope as a Galactic Supernovae Axionscope2017Ingår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 118, nr 1, artikel-id 011103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Galactic core-collapse supernova (SN), axionlike particles (ALPs) could be emitted via the Primakoff process and eventually convert into gamma rays in the magnetic field of the Milky Way. From a data-driven sensitivity estimate, we find that, for a SN exploding in our Galaxy, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) would be able to explore the photon-ALP coupling down to g(a gamma) similar or equal to 2 x 10(-13) GeV-1 for an ALP mass m(a) less than or similar to 10(-9) eV. These values are out of reach of next generation laboratory experiments. In this event, the Fermi LAT would probe large regions of the ALP parameter space invoked to explain the anomalous transparency of the Universe to gamma rays, stellar cooling anomalies, and cold dark matter. If no gamma-ray emission were to be detected, Fermi-LAT observations would improve current bounds derived from SN 1987A by more than 1 order of magnitude.

  • 240.
    Meyer, Manuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Montanino, Daniele
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    On detecting oscillations of gamma rays into axion-like particles in turbulent and coherent magnetic fields2014Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, nr 9, s. 003-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background radiation fields pervade the Universe, and above a certain energy any gamma-ray flux emitted by an extragalactic source should be attenuated due to e(+)e(-) pair production. The opacity could be alleviated if photons oscillated into hypothetical axion-like particles (ALPs) in ambient magnetic fields, leading to a gamma-ray excess especially at high optical depths that could be detected with imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Here, we introduce a method to search for such a signal in gamma-ray data and to estimate sensitivities for future observations. Different magnetic fields close to the gamma-ray source are taken into account in which photons can convert into ALPs that then propagate unimpeded over cosmological distances until they re-convert in the magnetic field of the Milky Way. Specifically, we consider the coherent field at parsec scales in a blazar jet as well as the turbulent field inside a galaxy cluster. For the latter, we explicitly derive the transversal components of a magnetic field with gaussian turbulence which are responsible for the photonALP mixing. To illustrate the method, we apply it to a mock TACT array with characteristics similar to the Cherekov Telescope Array and investigate the dependence of the sensitivity to detect a gamma-ray excess on the magnetic-field parameters.

  • 241. Nolan, P. L.
    et al.
    Abdo, A. A.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Allafort, A.
    Antolini, E.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Belfiore, A.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bignami, G. F.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Bonnell, J.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bottacini, E.
    Bouvier, A.
    Brandt, T. J.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Campana, R.
    Canadas, B.
    Cannon, A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Ceccanti, M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, Oe
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Chipaux, R.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Corbet, R.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    Davis, D. S.
    de Angelis, A.
    DeCesar, M. E.
    DeKlotz, M.
    De Luca, A.
    den Hartog, P. R.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Digel, S. W.
    Do Couto E Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Enoto, T.
    Escande, L.
    Fabiani, D.
    Falletti, L.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Frailis, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hill, A. B.
    Horan, D.
    Hou, X.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Iafrate, G.
    Itoh, R.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. E.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Katsuta, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kocevski, D.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Landriu, D.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lionetto, A. M.
    Garde, Maja Llena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Marelli, M.
    Massaro, E.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Minuti, M.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Mongelli, M.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Nymark, T.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Pinchera, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Rousseau, R.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. -W
    Salvetti, D.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Sbarra, C.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Sgro, C.
    Shaw, M. S.
    Shrader, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stephens, T. E.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tinebra, F.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Etten, A.
    Van Klaveren, B.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wallace, E.
    Wang, P.
    Werner, M.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, D. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wood, M.
    Yang, Zhaoyu
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG2012Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, ISSN 0067-0049, E-ISSN 1538-4365, Vol. 199, nr 2, s. 31-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the second catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely gamma-ray-producing source classes.

  • 242. Pletsch, H. J.
    et al.
    Guillemot, L.
    Fehrmann, H.
    Allen, B.
    Kramer, M.
    Aulbert, C.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    de Angelis, A.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bottacini, E.
    Brandt, T. J.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, Oe
    Charles, E.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Digel, S. W.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grove, J. E.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    den Hartog, P. R.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hill, A. B.
    Hou, X.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Jackson, M. S.
    Jogler, T.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Massaro, F.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Nemmen, R.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    de Palma, F.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ray, P. S.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Romani, R. W.
    Romoli, C.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Schulz, A.
    Sgro, C.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Troja, E.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wood, M.
    Yang, Zhaoyu
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zimmer, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Binary Millisecond Pulsar Discovery via Gamma-Ray Pulsations2012Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 338, nr 6112, s. 1314-1317Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Millisecond pulsars, old neutron stars spun up by accreting matter from a companion star, can reach high rotation rates of hundreds of revolutions per second. Until now, all such recycled rotation-powered pulsars have been detected by their spin-modulated radio emission. In a computing-intensive blind search of gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (with partial constraints from optical data), we detected a 2.5-millisecond pulsar, PSR J1311-3430. This unambiguously explains a formerly unidentified gamma-ray source that had been a decade-long enigma, confirming previous conjectures. The pulsar is in a circular orbit with an orbital period of only 93 minutes, the shortest of any spin-powered pulsar binary ever found.

  • 243. Preece, R.
    et al.
    Burgess, J. Michael
    von Kienlin, A.
    Bhat, P. N.
    Briggs, M. S.
    Byrne, D.
    Chaplin, V.
    Cleveland, W.
    Collazzi, A. C.
    Connaughton, V.
    Diekmann, A.
    Fitzpatrick, G.
    Foley, S.
    Gibby, M.
    Giles, M.
    Goldstein, A.
    Greiner, J.
    Gruber, D.
    Jenke, P.
    Kippen, R. M.
    Kouveliotou, C.
    McBreen, S.
    Meegan, C.
    Paciesas, W. S.
    Pelassa, V.
    Tierney, D.
    van der Horst, A. J.
    Wilson-Hodge, C.
    Xiong, S.
    Younes, G.
    Yu, H. -F
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Baldini, L.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Bonamente, E.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Desiante, R.
    Digel, S. W.
    Di Venere, L.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Godfrey, G.
    Granot, J.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Jogler, T.
    Joannesson, G.
    Kawano, T.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kocevski, D.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Larsson, J.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Latronico, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, E.
    Morselli, A.
    Murgia, S.
    Nemmen, R.
    Nuss, E.
    Nymark, T.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Ritz, S.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sartori, A.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schulz, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Werner, M.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Zhu, S.
    The First Pulse of the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A: A Test Lab for Synchrotron Shocks2014Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, nr 6166, s. 51-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A is one of the most energetic GRBs ever observed. The initial pulse up to 2.5 seconds is possibly the brightest well-isolated pulse observed to date. A fine time resolution spectral analysis shows power-law decays of the peak energy from the onset of the pulse, consistent with models of internal synchrotron shock pulses. However, a strongly correlated power-law behavior is observed between the luminosity and the spectral peak energy that is inconsistent with curvature effects arising in the relativistic outflow. It is difficult for any of the existing models to account for all of the observed spectral and temporal behaviors simultaneously.

  • 244.
    Ripken, Joachim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Scott, Pat
    Implications for constrained supersymmetry of combined HESS observations of dwarf galaxies, the Galactic halo and the Galactic Centre2011Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, nr 11, s. 4-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to place limits on dark matter (DM) properties using gamma-ray observations, previous analyses have often assumed a very simple parametrisation of the gamma-ray annihilation yield; typically, it has been assumed that annihilation proceeds through a single channel only. In realistic DM models, annihilation may occur into many different final states, making this quite a rough ansatz. With additional processes like virtual internal bremsstrahlung and final state radiation, this ansatz becomes even more incorrect, and the need for scans of explicit model parameter spaces becomes clear. Here we present scans of the parameter space of the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM), considering gamma-ray spectra from three dwarf galaxies, the Galactic Centre region and the broader Galactic halo, as obtained with the High-Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). We present a series of likelihood scans combining the H.E.S.S. data with other experimental results. We show that including combined observations of the Sagittarius. Carina and Sculptor dwarf galaxies strongly disfavour the coannihilation region of the CMSSM and models with large annihilation cross-sections. Without the Sagittarius dwarf, which admittedly has a rather uncertain dark matter profile, the results are similar, but weaker. The Galactic Centre search is complicated by a strong (unknown) gamma-ray source, and we see no significant effect on the CMSSM parameter space when assuming a realistic Galactic Centre DM density profile.

  • 245.
    Ripken, Joachim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Cuoco, Alessandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). University of Turin, Italy; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy.
    Zechlin, Hannes-S
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Horns, Dieter
    The sensitivity of Cherenkov telescopes to dark matter and astrophysical anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background2014Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, nr 1, artikel-id 049Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the capability of present (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, VERITAS) and planned (CTA) ground-based Cherenkov telescope systems for detecting angular anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background is investigated. Following up on a study of the impact of instrumental characteristics (effective area, field of view, angular resolution, and background rejection efficiency), the first part examines the influence of different observational strategies, i.e. whether a single deep observation or a splitting over multiple shallow fields is preferred. In the second part, the sensitivity to anisotropies generated by self-annihilating dark matter is studied for different common dark matter models. We find that a relative contribution of similar to 10% from dark matter annihilation to the extra-galactic diffuse gamma-ray background can be detected with planned configurations of CIA. In terms of the thermally-averaged self-annihilation cross section, the sensitivity of CTA corresponds to values below the thermal freeze-out expectation <sigma v > = 3 x 10(-26) cm(3) s(-1) for dark matter particles lighter than similar to 200 GeV. We stress the importance of constraining anisotropies from unresolved astrophysical sources with currently operating instruments already, as a novel and complementary method for investigating the properties of TeV sources.

  • 246.
    Scott, P.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Edsjö, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Bergström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Farnier, C.
    Akrami, Yashar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Direct constraints on minimal supersymmetry from Fermi-LAT observations of the dwarf galaxy Segue 12010Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, nr 1, s. 31-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dwarf galaxy Segue 1 is one of the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter. Here we examine what constraints 9 months of Fermi-LAT gamma-ray observations of Segue 1 place upon the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM), with the lightest neutralino as the dark matter particle. We use nested sampling to explore the CMSSM parameter space, simultaneously fitting other relevant constraints from accelerator bounds, the relic density, electroweak precision observables, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and B-physics. We include spectral and spatial fits to the Fermi observations, a full treatment of the instrumental response and its related uncertainty, and detailed background models. We also perform an extrapolation to 5 years of observations, assuming no signal is observed from Segue 1 in that time. Results marginally disfavour models with low neutralino masses and high annihilation cross-sections. Virtually all of these models are however already disfavoured by existing experimental or relic density constraints.

  • 247. Simola, U.
    et al.
    Pelssers, Bart
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Barge, Derek
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Corander, J.
    Machine learning accelerated likelihood-free event reconstruction in dark matter direct detection2019Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, artikel-id P03004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconstructing the position of an interaction for any dual-phase time projection chamber (TPC) with the best precision is key to directly detecting Dark Matter. Using the likelihood-free framework, a newalgorithm to reconstruct the 2-D (x; y) position and the size of the charge signal (e) of an interaction is presented. The algorithm uses the secondary scintillation light distribution (S2) obtained by simulating events using a waveform generator. To deal with the computational effort required by the likelihood-free approach, we employ the Bayesian Optimization for LikelihoodFree Inference (BOLFI) algorithm. Together with BOLFI, prior distributions for the parameters of interest (x; y; e) and highly informative discrepancy measures to performthe analyses are introduced. We evaluate the quality of the proposed algorithm by a comparison against the currently existing alternative methods using a large-scale simulation study. BOLFI provides a natural probabilistic uncertainty measure for the reconstruction and it improved the accuracy of the reconstruction over the next best algorithm by up to 15% when focusing on events at large radii (R > 30 cm, the outer 37% of the detector). In addition, BOLFI provides the smallest uncertainties among all the tested methods.

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