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  • 251.
    Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Kylander, CatharinaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.Dufberg, MatsStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    PERILUS XIII: Papers from the Fifth National Phonetics Conference held in Stockholm, May 29-31, 19911991Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 252.
    Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Traunmüller, HartmutStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    PERILUS V: Experiments in Speech Processes, Fall 1986 - Spring 19871987Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 253. Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Williams, Karen
    Fonetik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Does babbling sound native? Listener responses to vocalizations produced by Swedish and American 12- and 18-month-olds.2003In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 17-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 254. Engström, Elisabet
    et al.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lyxell, Björn
    Uhlén, Inger
    Computer-assisted reading intervention for children with sensorineural hearing loss using hearing aids: Effects on auditory event-related potentials for and mismatch negativity2019In: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 117, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The primary aim was to investigate whether computer-assisted reading intervention somehow can affect event-related potentials (ERP) and mismatch negativity (MMN) in hearing impaired (HI) children with hearing aids (HAs) and normal hearing (NH) children.

    Methods: The study included 15 HI children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) using bilateral HAs and 14 NH children as a reference group; all children between the ages of 5 and 8. A multi-feature MMN-paradigm, Optimum-1, with a standard stimulus alternating with 5 different deviants was used. ERPs were recorded pre and post intervention, i.e. one month of repeatedly computer-assisted training (GraphoGame). MMN was calculated from the average ERP of each deviant minus standard. Data were based on samples within a specific time interval, 80-224 ms, and repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze possible interactions.

    Results: There was a significant difference between groups before training, though, the mean obligatory responses or MMN was not statistically significantly different before versus after training, neither among the NH nor the HI children. Further, the HI children did generally achieve lower levels in GraphoGame compared to the NH children. Altogether, our findings indicate differences between the groups and that training may affect the neurophysiological processing in the brain, gaining the HI children. Both MMN and positive mismatch response (pMMR) were seen among both the HA and NH children, irrespective to deviant type. Individually, changes of the MMN and pMMR after training seem unpredictable.

    Conclusion: There are statistically significant differences in both the obligatory responses in ERP and the MMNs between the NH and HI groups before the computer-assisted training. Though, these differences disappear after the intervention. This suggests possible training effects regarding the central auditory processing among the HI children.

  • 255.
    Ericsdotter, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Articulatory-Acoustic Relationships in Swedish Vowel Sounds2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of a classical method for predicting vocal tract cross-sectional areas from cross-distances, to be implemented in speaker-specific articulatory modelling. The data forming the basis of the evaluation were magnetic resonance images from the vocal tract combined with simultaneous audio and video recordings. These data were collected from one female and one male speaker. The speech materials consisted of extended articulation of each of the nine Swedish long vowels together with two short allophonic qualities. The data acquisition and processing involved, among other things, the development of a method for dental integration in the MR image, and a refined sound recording technique required for the particular experimental conditions. Articulatory measurements were made of cross-distances and cross-sectional areas from the speakers’ larynx, pharynx, oral cavity and lip section, together with estimations on the vocal tract termination points. Acoustic and auditory analyses were made of the sound recordings, including an evaluation of the influence of the noise from the MR machine on the vowel productions. Cross-distance to cross-sectional area conversion rules were established from the articulatory measurements. The evaluation of these rules involved quantitative as well as qualitative dimensions. The articulatory evaluation gave rise to a vowel-dependent extension of the method under investigation, allowing more geometrical freedom for articulatory configurations along the vocal tract. The extended method proved to be more successful in predicting cross-sectional areas, particularly in the velar region. The acoustic evaluation, based on area functions derived from the proposed rules, did however not show significant differences in formant patterns between the classical and the extended method. This was interpreted as evidence for the classic method having higher acoustic than physiological validity on the present materials. For application and extrapolation in articulatory modelling, it is however possible that the extended method will perform better in articulation and acoustics, given its physiologically more fine-tuned foundation. Research funded by the NIH (R01 DC02014) and Stockholm University (SU 617-0230-01).

  • 256.
    Ericsdotter, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Detail in Vowel Area Functions2007In: Proceedings of the XVIth ICPhS, Saarbrücken, 6-10 August 2007, 2007, p. 513-516Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some results and a small follow-up investigation from an MRI study of vowels [3], in which classical distance-to-area equations [5] were evaluated for implementation in sagittal view articulatory modelling. It was shown that an articulatorily more detailed application of the conversion rules improved the accuracy of the predicted areas, but that this increased realism failed to improve acoustic performance, if midline derivation and vocal tract termination points were kept the same. These results are discussed in relation to articulatory modelling in linguistic research. Work funded by the NIH (R01DC02014) and Stockholm University (SU617023001).

  • 257.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Syllable prominence: An experimental study2015In: Lingue e linguaggio, ISSN 1720-9331, Vol. XIV, no 1, p. 43-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many studies of word stress (or lexical stress) in different languages. One problem if one wants to compare the acoustics of word stress in different languages is that the studies are often made in such a way that the results are not immediately comparable. One goal of the project described here is to develop a framework for analysing the acoustics of word stress that can be applied in the same way to any language. A second goal is to examine the perception of syllable prominence as a cue to lexical stress perception. The acoustic properties are obviously a factor to be considered, but we have reasons to believe, based on results from a previous experiment (Eriksson et al. 2002), that the native language of the listener may also influence perceived prominence and thus lexical stress perception. The languages included in the study so far are Brazilian Portuguese, English, Estonian, French, German, Italian and Swedish. At present only the Swedish material has been analysed using the complete set of recordings. In this paper I will therefore only give a full presentation of the Swedish result. Results based on subsets of the data from the other languages (usually 10 speakers) will be referred to as “preliminary results”. Some of these results have been presented in more detail in conference proceedings (see references).

  • 258.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Arantes, Pablo
    São Carlos Federal University, Brazil.
    Temporal stability of long-term measures of fundamental frequency2014In: / [ed] Campbell, Gibbon, and Hirst (eds), Dublin, Ireland, 2014, p. 1149-1152Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 259.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bertinetto, Pier Marco
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Nodari, Rosalba
    Lenoci, Giovanna
    The Acoustics of Lexical Stress in Italian as a Function of Stress Level and Speaking Style2016In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2016 / [ed] Nelson Morgan, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2016, p. 1059-1063Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is part of a series of studies, describing the acoustics of lexical stress in a way that should be applicable to any language. The present database of recordings includes Brazilian Portuguese, English, Estonian, German, French, Italian and Swedish. The acoustic parameters examined are F0-level, F0- variation, Duration, and Spectral Emphasis. Values for these parameters, computed for all vowels (a little over 24000 vowels for Italian), are the data upon which the analyses are based. All parameters are examined with respect to their correlation with Stress (primary, secondary, unstressed) and speaking Style (wordlist reading, phrase reading, spontaneous speech) and Sex of the speaker (female, male). For Italian Duration was found to be the dominant factor by a wide margin, in agreement with previous studies. Spectral Emphasis was the second most important factor. Spectral Emphasis has not been studied previously for Italian but intensity, a related parameter, has been shown to correlate with stress. F0-level was also significantly correlated but not to the same degree. Speaker Sex turned out as significant in many comparisons. The differences were, however, mainly a function of the degree to which a given parameter was used, not how it was used to signal lexical stress contrasts. 

  • 260.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Grabe, Esther
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Perception of syllable prominence by listeners with and without competence in the tested language2002In: Proceedings of the Speech Prosody 2002 Conference, 2002, p. 275-278Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In an experiment reported previously, subjects rated perceived syllable prominence in a Swedish utterance produced by ten speakers at various levels of vocal effort. The analysis showed that about half of the variance could be accounted for by acoustic factors. Slightly more than half could be accounted for by linguistic factors. Here, we report two additional ex-periments. In the first, we attempted to eliminate the linguistic factors by repeating the Swedish listening experiment with English listeners who had no knowledge of Swedish. In the second, we investigated the prominence pattern Swedish sub-jects expect by presenting the utterance only in written form. The results from these subjects and from the Swedish listeners were very similar but for two of the syllables where the promi-nence pattern did not coincide with the expectations of the readers. Swedish and English listeners perceived the promi-nence of the syllables to be almost identical in most cases, but where there was a conflict between expected and produced prominence, the Swedish listeners appeared to be influenced by their expectations. There was also a difference in the weights the Swedish and English listeners attached to different acoustic cues in the listening experiments.

  • 261.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The acoustics of word stress in English as a function of stress level and speaking style2015In: 16th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2015): Speech Beyond Speech Towards a Better Understanding of the Most Important Biosignal, 2015, p. 41-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of lexical stress in English is part of a series of studies, the goal of which is to describe the acoustics of lexical stress for a number of typologically different languages. When fully developed the methodology should be applicable to any language. The database of recordings so far includes Brazilian Portuguese, English (U.K.), Estonian, German, French, Italian and Swedish. The acoustic parameters examined are f0-level, f0-variation, Duration, and Spectral Emphasis. Values for these parameters, computed for all vowels, are the data upon which the analyses are based. All parameters are tested with respect to their correlation with stress level (primary, secondary, unstressed) and speaking style (wordlist reading, phrase reading, spontaneous speech). For the English data, the most robust results concerning stress level are found for Duration and Spectral Emphasis. f0-level is also significantly correlated but not quite to the same degree. The acoustic effect of phonological secondary stress was significantly different from primary stress only for Duration. In the statistical tests, speaker sex turned out as significant in most cases. Detailed examination showed, however, that the difference was mainly in the degree to which a given parameter was used, not how it was used to signal lexical stress contrasts. 

  • 262.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Charlatanry in forensic speech science: A problem to be taken seriously2007In: International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law: (formerly Forensic Linguistics: ISSN 1350-1771), ISSN 1748-8885, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 169-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lie detector which can reveal lie and deception in some automatic and perfectly reliable way is an old idea we have often met with in science fiction books and comic strips. This is all very well. It is when machines claimed to be lie detectors appear in the context of criminal investigations or security applications that we need to be concerned. In the present paper we will describe two types of ‘deception’ or ‘stress detectors’ (euphemisms to refer to what quite clearly are known as ‘lie detectors’). Both types of detection are claimed to be based on voice analysis but we found no scientific evidence to support the manufacturers’ claims. Indeed, our review of scientific studies will show that these machines perform at chance level when tested for reliability. Given such results and the absence of scientific support for the underlying principles it is justified to view the use of these machines as charlatanry and we argue that there are serious ethical and security reasons to demand that responsible authorities and institutions should not get involved in such practices.

  • 263.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Thunberg, Gunilla C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Syllable prominence: A matter of vocal effort, phonetic distinctness and top-down processing2001In: Proceedings of EuroSpeech-2001, 2001, p. 399-402Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this experiment, subjects had to rate the "prominence" of each of the syllables of 20 versions of the same utterance produced by men, women and children at various levels of vocal effort. The ratings were correlated with measurements of the SPL of the fundamental, spectral emphasis, vowel duration, F0max and F0 rise from the previous syllable. Together with ratings of the perceived vocal effort at which the utterances had been produced, these measurements were used to obtain the possible contributions of vocal effort, prosodic distinctness, and vowel duration to the perceived prominence. Together, these accounted for half of the variance. This was compared with the possible contribution of the linguistic structure of the utterance, which accounted for slightly more of the variance. The predictions of a model based on this analysis came closer to the mean than the average subject.

  • 264.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Perception of vocal effort and distance from the speaker on the basis of vowel utterances.2002In: Percept Psychophys, ISSN 0031-5117, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 131-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sound pressure level of vowels reflects several non-linguistic and linguistic factors: distance from the speaker, vocal effort, and vowel quality. Increased vocal effort also involves an emphasis of higher frequency components and increases in F0 and F1. This should allow listeners to distinguish it from decreased distance, which does not have these additional effects. It is shown that listeners succeed in doing so on the basis of single vowels if phonated, but not if whispered. The results agree with a theory according to which listeners demodulate speech signals and evaluate the properties of the carrier signal, which reflects most of the para- and extra-linguistic information, apart from those of its linguistic modulation. It is observed that listeners allow for between-vowel variation, but tend to substantially underestimate changes in both kinds of distance.

  • 265.
    Eriksson, Freya
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Fasta uttryck i svenskt barnriktat tal2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fasta uttryck definieras i den här studien som ordsekvenser som helt eller delvis finns lagrade i det mentala lexikonet, vilket både innefattar idiom och mer flexibla uttryck där vissa enheter kan bytas ut mot andra. Användningen av fasta uttryck i vuxenriktat tal har undersökts mycket, och är något som förekommer ofta. När det gäller fasta uttryck i barnriktat tal har det föreslagits att det är en hjälp för språkutvecklingen, i och med att barnen får ramar att sätta in nya ord i, samtidigt som det precis som hos vuxna tros underlätta processandet av språket. I den här studien undersöks användningen av fasta uttryck i svenskt barnriktat tal under det första levnadsåret och vid 24 månaders ålder hos 10 förälder-barndyader. Syftet är att utröna både hur användningen ser ut gällande kvantitet och kvalitet och om det finns ett samband mellan användningen av fasta uttryck och barnens produktiva ordförråd vid 30 månaders ålder. Resultaten visade en stor variation i hur många fasta uttryck som användes, men fördelningen mellan de olika kategorierna var snarlik hos föräldrarna. Gällande ett eventuellt samband mellan användningen av fasta uttryck och barnens språkutveckling hittades inga signifikanta resultat.

  • 266.
    Eriksson, Freya
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Gesture-speech combinations in child language: Form, function, and how they relate to language acquisition2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates children's production of gesture-speech combinations and how they relate to language acquisition. 16 children were observed at seven age points (0;9, 1;0, 1;3, 1;6, 1;9, 2;0 and 3;0), and their gesture-speech combinations were classified into the categories complementary, supplementary and discourse combinations. The results show that the production of gesture-speech combinations over time follows different patterns in children with high, average and low productive vocabulary. Furthermore, the amount of gesture-speech combinations produced at four age points predicted productive vocabulary at the age of 2;6, and the amount produced at the age of 1;6 predicted sentence complexity at 3;0. The use of complementary gesture-speech combinations at three age points was also linked to productive vocabulary. The age of onset of supplementary gesture-speech combinations predicted sentence complexity at 3;0, while the age of onset of discourse gesture-speech combinations predicted productive vocabulary at 2;6. The results support previous research suggesting that complementary and supplementary gesture-speech combinations play an important role in child language acquisition. Additionally, the results of the present study suggest that discourse gesture-speech combinations are also connected with language development.

  • 267.
    Eriksson, Freya
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Joint attention and language acquisition: A longitudinal study of joint attention in parent-child interaction2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Joint attention (JA) is the ability to coordinate attention between a conversation partner and an outside object, while being aware of the other’s attention. This study investigates JA in 14 parent-child dyads at the ages 0;9, 1;0, 1;3, 1;6, 1;9 and 2;0, and aims to examine how the initiation of JA develops with age, as well as the relationship between JA and later vocabulary size and syntactic level. The strategies for initiating JA were recorded for both parents and children, and the total amount of JA, as well as child-initiated JA, was calculated for each age point. The results show that children with a higher language level, calculated as a composite score of vocabulary at 4;0 and syntactic level at 3;0, spent on average more time in JA than children with a lower language level. In line with previous research, the present study found a positive relationship between JA and vocabulary. Furthermore, the results suggest a relationship between JA and syntactic development. Especially the amount of child-initiated JA was related to both vocabulary size at the age of 4;0 and syntactic level at the age of 3;0, which indicates the importance of this type of interaction for language acquisition.

  • 268. Evans, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Roque, Lila San
    The grammar of engagement I: framework and initial exemplification2018In: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1866-9808, E-ISSN 1866-9859, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 110-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human language offers rich ways to track, compare, and engage the attentional and epistemic states of interlocutors. While this task is central to everyday communication, our knowledge of the cross-linguistic grammatical means that target such intersubjective coordination has remained basic. In two serialised papers, we introduce the term 'engagement' to refer to grammaticalised means for encoding the relative mental directedness of speaker and addressee towards an entity or state of affairs, and describe examples of engagement systems from around the world. Engagement systems express the speaker's assumptions about the degree to which their attention or knowledge is shared (or not shared) by the addressee. Engagement categories can operate at the level of entities in the here-and-now (deixis), in the unfolding discourse (definiteness vs indefiniteness), entire event-depicting propositions (through markers with clausal scope), and even metapropositions (potentially scoping over evidential values). In this first paper, we introduce engagement and situate it with respect to existing work on intersubjectivity in language. We then explore the key role of deixis in coordinating attention and expressing engagement, moving through increasingly intercognitive deictic systems from those that focus on the the location of the speaker, to those that encode the attentional state of the addressee.

  • 269. Evans, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Roque, Lila San
    The grammar of engagement II: typology and diachrony2018In: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1866-9808, E-ISSN 1866-9859, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 141-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engagement systems encode the relative accessibility of an entity or state of affairs to the speaker and addressee, and are thus underpinned by our social cognitive capacities. In our first foray into engagement (Part 1), we focused on specialised semantic contrasts as found in entity-level deictic systems, tailored to the primal scenario for establishing joint attention. This second paper broadens out to an exploration of engagement at the level of events and even metapropositions, and comments on how such systems may evolve. The languages Andoke and Kogi demonstrate what a canonical system of engagement with clausal scope looks like, symmetrically assigning 'knowing' and 'unknowing' values to speaker and addressee. Engagement is also found cross-cutting other epistemic categories such as evidentiality, for example where a complex assessment of relative speaker and addressee awareness concerns the source of information rather than the proposition itself. Data from the language Abui reveal that one way in which engagement systems can develop is by upscoping demonstratives, which normally denote entities, to apply at the level of events. We conclude by stressing the need for studies that focus on what difference it makes, in terms of communicative behaviour, for intersubjective coordination to be managed by engagement systems as opposed to other, non-grammaticalised means.

  • 270. Eyben, Florian
    et al.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Sweden.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    Schuller, Björn W.
    Emotion in the singing voice—a deeper look at acoustic features in the light of automatic classification2015In: EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing, ISSN 1687-4714, E-ISSN 1687-4722, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the automatic recognition of emotions in the singing voice and study the worth and role of a variety of relevant acoustic parameters. The data set contains phrases and vocalises sung by eight renowned professional opera singers in ten different emotions and a neutral state. The states are mapped to ternary arousal and valence labels. We propose a small set of relevant acoustic features basing on our previous findings on the same data and compare it with a large-scale state-of-the-art feature set for paralinguistics recognition, the baseline feature set of the Interspeech 2013 Computational Paralinguistics ChallengE (ComParE). A feature importance analysis with respect to classification accuracy and correlation of features with the targets is provided in the paper. Results show that the classification performance with both feature sets is similar for arousal, while the ComParE set is superior for valence. Intra singer feature ranking criteria further improve the classification accuracy in a leave-one-singer-out cross validation significantly.

  • 271.
    F. Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    When a Dog is a Cat and How it Changes Your Pupil Size: Pupil Dilation in Response to Information Mismatch2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017 / [ed] Francisco Lacerda, David House, Mattias Heldner, Joakim Gustafson, Sofia Strömbergsson, Marcin Włodarczak, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 674-678Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we investigate pupil dilation as a measure of lexical retrieval. We captured pupil size changes in reaction to a match or a mismatch between a picture and an auditorily presented word in 120 trials presented to ten native speakers of Swedish. In each trial a picture was displayed for six seconds, and 2.5 seconds into the trial the word was played through loudspeakers. The picture and the word were matching in half of the trials, and all stimuli were common high-frequency monosyllabic Swedish words. The difference in pupil diameter trajectories across the two conditions was analyzed with Functional Data Analysis. In line with the expectations, the results indicate greater dilation in the mismatch condition starting from around 800 ms after the stimulus onset. Given that similar processes were observed in brain imaging studies, pupil dilation measurements seem to provide an appropriate tool to reveal lexical retrieval. The results suggest that pupillometry could be a viable alternative to existing methods in the field of speech and language processing, for instance across different ages and clinical groups.

  • 272.
    Fagius, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Gullmer, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Rasmusson, Linnea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Predicting the consequences of own vocalizations in infancy2007Report (Other academic)
  • 273. Fahey, Richard P
    et al.
    Diehl, Randy L
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Perception of back vowels: effects of varying F1 - F0 Bark distance.1996In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 99, no 4 Pt 1, p. 2350-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a study of vowel height perception using front vowels, Hoemeke and Diehl [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 661 - 674 (1994)] found that F1 - F0 distance was the best predictor of perceived vowel height for the phonological distinction [+/-high], while for two other vowel height distinctions F1 alone was the best predictor. Further, the [+/-high] identification function was defined by a sharp boundary located at 3 to 3.5 Bark F1-F0 distance. One hypothesis offered was that F1 - F0 distance had cue value for the [+/-high] distinction because of an underlying quantal region on the F1 - F0 distance dimension. However, the results are also predicted if it is supposed that F1 - F0 distance is a cue for vowel height only for pure height distinctions. The present study further tested these possibilities, using back vowels. The results allowed us to reject both as general explanations of vowel height perception. However, the results were consistent with a third possible explanation, namely, that phonetic quality is determined by the tonotopic distances between any adjacent spectral peaks (e.g., F3 - F2, F2 - F1, and F1 - F0), with greater perceptual weight accorded to smaller distances.

  • 274.
    Fallkvist, Anneli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Bokstaveringar i svenskt teckenspråk: Bokstaverade lånord och deras ordklasstillhörighet i svenska2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokstaveringar i teckenspråk är lån från skrivna språk, vilka skapas genom användande av ett handalfabet, där varje bokstav representeras av en specifik handform. Det svenska handalfabetet skapades av Pär Aron Borg i början av 1800-talet och sedan dess har det varit möjligt att låna ord från det svenska skriftspråket. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka typer av lån, i form av bokstaveringar, som görs från skriven svenska till svenskt teckenspråk och från vilka ordklasser inom det svenska språket dessa lån härstammar. Det material som används i studien kommer från Svensk teckenspråkskorpus, vilket den 5 november 2012 innehöll totalt 1 975 förekomster och 304 olika typer av bokstaveringar. De bokstaveringar som analyseras inom ramen för denna uppsats är sådana som förekommer mer än två gånger i korpusmaterialet. Analysresultatet jämförs sedan med liknande forskning inom främst amerikanskt teckenspråk. Sammantaget visar resultaten från studien att de bokstaverade lånen härstammar från nästintill samtliga ordklasser inom det svenska språket, men att majoriteten, ca 63 % av samtliga bokstaveringar, härstammar från ordklassen substantiv inklusive underkategorin egennamn. Detta stämmer väl överens med forskning inom amerikanskt teckenspråk. Utöver substantiven har interjektionerna, som bland annat innehåller bokstaveringen JA@b, vars funktion främst tycks vara en uppbackningssignal, ha flest förekomster med ca 40 % av det sammantagna materialet.

  • 275.
    Forssén Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wlodarzcak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The surprised pupil: New perspectives in semantic processing research2016In: ISSBD 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the research on semantic processing and brain activity, the N400-paradigm has been long known to reflect a reaction to unexpected events, for instance the incongruence between visual and verbal information when subjects are presented with a picture and a mismatching word. In the present study, we investigate whether an N400-like reaction to unexpected events can be captured with pupillometry. While earlier research has firmly established a connection between changes in pupil diameter and arousal, the findings have not been so far extended to the domain of semantic processing. Consequently, we measured pupil size change in reaction to a match or a mismatch between a picture and an auditorily presented word. We presented 120 trials to ten native speakers of Swedish. In each trial a picture was displayed for six seconds, and 2.5 seconds into the trial the word was played through loudspeakers. The picture and the word were matching in half of the trials, and all stimuli were common high-frequency monosyllabic Swedish words. For the analysis, the baseline pupil size at the sound playback onset was compared against the maximum pupil size in the following time window of 3.5 seconds. The results show a statistically significant difference (t(746)=-2.8, p < 0.01) between the conditions. In line with the hypothesis, the pupil was observed to dilate more in the incongruent condition (on average by 0.03 mm). While the results are preliminary, they suggest that pupillometry could be a viable alternative to existing methods in the field of language processing, for instance across different ages and clinical groups. In the future, we intend to validate the results on a larger sample of participants as well as expand the analysis with a view to locating temporal regions of greatest differences between the conditions. In the future, we intend to validate the results on a larger sample of participants as well as expand the analysis with a functional analysis accounting for temporal changes in the data. This will allow locating temporal regions of greatest differences between the conditions.

  • 276.
    Fougstedt, Mileydi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    SKORR: möjliga orsaker till fenomenet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats avser att kartlägga förekomsten av skorr i det spansktalande Karibien. Dorsala realiseringar av fonemet /r/, dvs skorr är ett fenomen som inte är belagt i europeisk spanska. Hur kommer det sig? Jag har försökt utröna de möjliga orsakerna till varför bakre /r/ förekommer i spanskan i den karibiska övärlden trots att det inte förekommer i standardspanska. Uppsatsen har visst fokus på Kuba, men berör också Puerto Rico och Dominikanska Republiken. Syftet har varit att försöka hitta en geografisk korrelation mellan olika språk och etniska grupper samt förekomsten av skorr i karibisk spanska. Resultaten är inte enhetliga. På Puerto Rico verkar skorr ha spritts sedan 1980-talet. På Kuba har fenomenet fått mer uppmärksamhet sedan 1970-talet. Beträffande Dominikanska Republiken var underlaget bristfälligt och det gick inte att dra säkra slutsatser. Enligt befintlig litteratur har fonemet /r/ i Karibien åtminstone sju dorsala realiseringar fördelade som följer: [n],[R],[ʁ],[x],[χ],[h]och [ɣ], varav de sista sex här betraktas som instanser av skorr. Ibland förekommer skorr i hela områden och ibland fläckvis. Ibland korrelerar skorr med någon av hypoteserna, och ibland inte alls. Resultaten är inte entydiga, men i stort korrelerar skorr med det faktum att den spanska övärlden har haft stora bosättningar av franska och fransk-kreoltalare, de enda grannar som konsekvent har skorr i sitt foneminventarium.  Ingen annanstans i Spanskamerika har skorr belagts.

  • 277.
    Frankenberg, Sofia J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lenz Taguchi, Hillevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Bodén, Linnea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Kjällander, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Palmer, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Tonér, Signe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Bidirectional collaborations in an intervention randomized controlled trial performed in the Swedish early childhood education context2019In: Journal of Cognition and Development, ISSN 1524-8372, E-ISSN 1532-7647, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 182-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of developmental science, there is a general agreement of the need to work together across academic disciplinary boundaries in order to advance the understandings of how to optimize child development and learning. However, experience also shows that such collaborations may be challenging. This paper reports on the experiences of bidirectional collaboration between researchers in a multidisciplinary research team and between researchers and stakeholders, in the first randomized controlled trial in Swedish preschool. The objective of the trial was to investigate the effects of two pedagogical learning strategies evaluating language, communication, attention, executive functions and early math. The interdisciplinary team includes researchers from early childhood education, linguistics, developmental psychology and cognitive neuro science. Educational researchers and theorists within the field of early childhood education in Sweden have during the last two decades mainly undertaken small-scale qualitative praxis-oriented and participative research. There is a widespread skepticism with regards to some of the core principles in controlled intervention methodologies, including a strong resistance towards individual testing of children. Consequently unanticipated disagreements and conflicts arose within the research team, as RCT methodology requires the measurement of effects pre and post the intervention. The aim of this article is to discuss the conditions for bidirectional collaboration both between researchers and stakeholders and between researchers in the research team. The findings illustrate strategies and negotiations that emerged in order to address ontological and epistemological controversies and disagreements. These include (a) the negotiation of research ethics, (b) making divergences visible and learning from each other, (c) using a multi-epistemological and methodological approach as a complement to the RCT design and (d) the negotiation of research problems that are shared between educators and researchers.

  • 278.
    Franzén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vokalkvalitet och duration hos diftonger i benadiri och nordsomaliska2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Descriptions of the Somali dialects include a variation in vowel quality and duration, between southern Somali (Benadiri) and northern Somali. Native speakers of Somali confirm noted variations and describe a possessive ending eey in Benadiri, different from the northern Somali equivalent ay.

    This survey aimed to investigate if, and how, vowel quality and duration vary in the diphthong ay in southern Somali and northern Somali. This study was limited to measuring vowel quality and duration of the possessive ending -ay. Values of F1 and F2 in the initial phase of the diphthong, as well as the duration, were measured in pronunciations, which native speakers have labeled as northern or southern respectively.

    The measured differences in vowel quality were in line with the expectations. Mean values of F1 and F2 were lower/higher in all measuring groups for the pronunciations labeled as southern, than for those labeled as northern. It was noted, however, that the distance between the diphthongs in northern and southern Somali, was significantly larger in the word aabahay than in hooyaday. The reason for this should be investigated further, focusing on contextual differences. The expected difference in duration between the southern and northern pronunciations could not be found. 

  • 279.
    Frid, Johan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Ericsdotter, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Education in Languages and Language Development, Language Learning Resource Centre.
    Engstrand, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Fridell, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet.
    r-ljuden i svenskan2010In: Språken i Sverige, Stockholm: Norstedts kartor , 2010, p. 66-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 280. Friedlaender, Jonathan S
    et al.
    Hunley, Keith
    University of New Mexico.
    Dunn, Michael
    Radboud University; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Terrill, Angela
    Radboud University.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Friedlaender, Françoise
    Linguistics More Robust Than Genetics: (Letter to the editors)2009Other (Refereed)
  • 281.
    Fuster Sansalvador, Carles
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Germanic languages: A micro-typological study on negation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, typological classifications have been done in a macro-typological perspective; that is,they have been based on balanced world-wide samples of languages, which often avoid includingclosely related languages, since these are supposed to act alike with respect to their typologicalfeatures and structures. However, attention has recently been drawn to the idea that even closelyrelated languages, as well as dialects within languages, may differ on their typological features. Theintention of this thesis is to give an overview of and study how the Germanic languages differ fromeach other in regards to their negative word orders and negation strategies. Mainly their negativeadverbs (English equivalent not), but also their negative indefinite quantifiers, are analyzed in mainclauses, subordinate clauses, and (negative) imperative structures. The focus lies on the standardlanguage varieties, but some of their non-standard varieties are included, in order to be able to give amore detailed description of the variation within the family. The expected result that the ratherhomogeneous described area of the Germanic languages will turn out to be much more complex, withrespect to negation aspects, is confirmed. The results show that the standard language varieties behavedifferently than the non-standard ones, which are less "rare" cross-linguistically. In addition, the nonstandardNorth-Germanic varieties show that multiple negation occurs in the North-Germanic branch,which is traditionally claimed to not occur.

  • 282.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Are discourse markers related to age and educational background? A comparative account between two sign languagesIn: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a pilot investigation of two discourse markers, namely PALM-UP and SAME, in French Belgian Sign Language and Catalan Sign Language. The two discourse markers are studied from a cross-linguistic and a cross-generational perspective using two comparable samples of argumentative productions. The analysis shows that the two discourse markers are highly polyfunctional. Although they have language-specific functions, most of these functions are shared between the two languages. Furthermore, the use of the two discourse markers is idiosyncratic in both sign language datasets. In the small-scale pilot study described in this article, factors such as age or level of education do not seem to influence the usage of the two discourse markers in question.

  • 283.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Describing buoys from the perspective of discourse markers: a cross-genre study in French Belgian Sign Language (LSFB)2019In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 2, no 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a description of the distribution of buoys across genres and of their possible functions as discourse markers in French Belgian Sign Language (LSFB). We selected a sample of dialogic genres—argumentative, explanatory, narrative and metalinguistic—produced by different signers from the LSFB Corpus. In our dataset, buoys are unequally distributed across genres, and list and fragment buoys are the most frequent. Apart from a pointer and a point buoy, only some list buoys have discourse-marking functions, including enumeration, alternative and addition. On the basis of the distribution of all types of buoys, the narrative dialogic genre is the most different as compared to the other three genres. It is characterised by a lower frequency of list buoys and a higher frequency of fragment buoys. When focusing on discourse-marking buoys, the explanatory genre attracts the higher number of tokens, which we relate to the higher degree of preparation as compared to the other genres.

  • 284.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Discourse markers, where are you? Investigating the relationship between their functions and their position in French Belgian Sign Language conversations2019In: Sign Language Studies, ISSN 0302-1475, E-ISSN 1533-6263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the position of two discourse markers, namely PALM-UP and SAME, and the existence of a possible functional paradigm in French Belgian Sign Language. The position is investigated at three different levels: the clause, the basic discourse unit and the turn. The positions in which PALM-UP can appear in the basic discourse unit and the turn are more varied than the positions in which SAME can be found. Most functions of the two discourse markers predominantly appear in a particular position, whereas other functions have a great deal of variation. Most subjective meanings (i.e., related to the signer) expressed by the two discourse markers appear in left peripheral positions, but intersubjective meanings (i.e., related to the addressee) are not restricted to right peripheral positions. The two discourse markers in this position will predominantly occur with a directed gaze towards the addressee, but those in the left periphery occur with either an addressed or a non-addressed eye gaze.

  • 285.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    What can discourse markers tell us about genres and vice versa? A corpus-driven study of French Belgian Sign Language (LSFB)2019In: Lidil, ISSN 1146-6480, E-ISSN 1960-6052, Vol. 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the use of three discourse markers – namely list buoys, PALM-UP and SAME – across genres in French Belgian Sign Language. Our sample contains argumentative, explanatory, metalinguistic and narrative dialogues produced by six signers. We present a functional description of the three discourse markers and their distribution across genres. PALM-UP and SAME are highly polyfunctional, whereas list buoys express fewer functions in the dataset. In our sample, there are few differences in frequency of use of the three discourse markers and their functions across genres.

  • 286.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    When the meaning of SAME is not restricted to likeness: A preliminary study from the perspective of discourse relational devices in two sign languages2019In: Discours - Revue de linguistique, psycholinguistique et informatique, ISSN 1963-1723, E-ISSN 1963-1723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of a discourse relational device, namely same, in French Belgian Sign Language and Catalan Sign Language. Three aspects of same are examined including its distribution across genres, its functional description and its position in discourse. Two comparable samples were extracted from the reference corpora of these two sign languages. An annotation protocol and a segmentation model designed for the study of discourse relational devices in the spoken modality were used with the necessary adaptations to the signed modality. The results show a different distribution of same across genres in each sign language and several possible positions. Although same is polyfunctional in the two datasets, the most frequent function in the French Belgian Sign Language dataset (i.e., addition) is not found in the Catalan Sign Language dataset. This finding indicates that equivalent discourse relational devices in the signed modality also have language-specific functions as their counterparts in the spoken modality do.

  • 287.
    Gardin, Emily
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wikstedt, Emilia
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Markelius, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Renner, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Consonant inventory of Swedish speaking 24-month-olds: A cross-sectional study2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 123-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-sectional study examines the consonant inventory of Swedish speaking twenty-four-month olds. The results are compared with English speaking children at the same age. 15 audio files recorded from 13 children were transcribed using independent analysis. Individual inventories where constructed for both word-initial and word-final consonants for each subject. The results are to a high degree consistent with the findings in the study compared. Anterior consonants are more frequent in the subject’s inventories than posterior ones in both initial and final word position. Word initial voiced plosives are more common in the inventories than voiceless with the reverse situation i.e. voiceless plosives are more frequent than voiced in word final position.

  • 288. Gast, Volker
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The areal factor in lexical typology: Some evidence from lexical databases2018In: Aspects of linguistic variation / [ed] Daniël Van Olmen, Tanja Mortelmans, Frank Brisard, Walter de Gruyter, 2018, p. 43-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study aims to explore how much information about areal patterns of colexification we can gain from lexical databases, such as CLICS and ASJP. We adopt a bottom-up (rather than hypothesis-driven) approach, identifying areal patterns in three steps: (i) determine spatial autocorrelations in the data, (ii) identify clusters as candidates for convergence areas and (iii) test the clusters resulting from the second step controlling for genealogical relatedness. Moreover, we identify a (genealogical) diversity index for each cluster. This approach yields promising results, which we regard as a proof of concept, but we also point out some drawbacks of the use of major lexical databases.

  • 289.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att skapa ett språk i en kontext2008In: Psyke og Logos: Tema: Spädbarnspsykologi, ISSN 0107-1211, Vol. 2, no 29, p. 557-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utan en språklig infrastruktur av relativt stabil natur blir det svårt för ett barn att finna tolkningsbara mönster i de verbala och ickeverbala stimuli det möter. Sådana stabila mönster verkar emellertid finnas i föräldrarnas språkliga agerande, vilket beskrivs och illustreras i artikeln. Huvudsaklig fokus är dock att lyfta fram och diskutera den hittills mindre uppmärksammade aspekten av barnets eget agerande för att tillägna sig de språkliga ramar och normer som utgör basen för samvaro. Ett agerande där de genom bl.a. blickbeteende och direkta frågor vidmakthåller föräldrarnas scaffoldingramar, samt själva laborerar med fraser och beteenden som de tillägnat sig genom interaktion med föräldrarna. I artikeln introduceras även begrepp som avser att benämna två kvalitativt olika former av beteenden som återfinns hos barn mellan 1 och 5 år: oinskränkt vs normkänsligt beteende. Utifrån den ständiga växelverkan mellan föräldrarnas reaktioner och responser och barnets tolkning av desamma argumenteras för att barnet guidas mot att välja en utvecklingsprocess där den ena formen av språkligt och ickespråkligt beteende ersätts av den andra.

  • 290.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att uttrycka känslor språkligt - hinder och möjligheter2011In: VAKKI Symposium XXX: Språk och känslor / [ed] Niina Nissilä,Nestori Siponkoski, Vasa: Vasa universitet , 2011, p. 10-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although language and emotion has received an increasing interest during the last decades we still lack a definition of what this language consist of. In the paper it is argued that one major reason for this state of affairs relates to the fact that language and emotion reside on different poles of the dichotomies body/mind, nature/culture, etc. Thus, researchers from different camps have addressed the issue from oppositional vantage points while at the same time attempting to answer the same questions. As an alternative this paper argues that to define emotive language we need to study the actual crossing point between language and emotion, i.e. the language used together with nonverbal and vocal expressions of emotion. Drawing on a video-recorded material of interaction between children and their parents, three categories of emotive language are illustrated: autonomous, accompanying and descriptive utterances. In the paper the internal relation between these categories is discussed as well as their position vis-á-vis prior research.

  • 291.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Children's development of facework practices - An emotional endeavor2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, no 13, p. 3099-3110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the origin and development of facework practices in young children by focusing on two kinds of practices in child–parent interaction: (1) situations in which a child’s verbal and nonverbal emotive expressions indicate a need to save face; and (2) situations in which a child uses various strategies in order to save face. Through illustrations from a longitudinal material of child–adult interaction it is argued that emotive reactions constitute the base for face awareness in children. This awareness in time turns to child facework practices, a process aided and shaped by the interactional routines with parents. The central aim of the article is to highlight these two aspects of facework, one internal, emotional and related to face; the other external and interactional. As a second aim the article will enforce that the way we analyze interaction must be transparent in that it can be understood, reviewed and contested by others.

  • 292.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Conventions for annotation and transcription of the MINT-project: Modulating child language acquisition through parent-child interaction, MAW:2011.0072018Report (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    From shrieks to "Stupid poo": emotive language in a developmental perspective2018In: Text & Talk, ISSN 1860-7330, E-ISSN 1860-7349, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 137-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight and describe the forms of verbal emotive utterances that appeared in a longitudinal corpus of 11 Swedish children interacting with parents, siblings and friends. The children were in the ages 0;9 to 5;10 and were recorded four to six times during a two-year period. The verbal emotive expressions of the material are divided into the categories Descriptive versus Accompanying utterances. Descriptive utterances are emotive mainly from semantic conventions, whereas Accompanying utterances are emotive due to prosodic and contextual traits. The categories are illustrated and related to conventions, language development and cognitive growth. By classifying and labeling verbal expressions as emotive in different ways, it is argued that we can gain a better understanding of how language is used when intertwined with emotions, but also that we access a way to compare and investigate emotive language in a more thorough manner.

  • 294.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Gestures and gestures in child language development2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The underlying question in most work on gestures is how the relation between gesture and speech should be understood. This is also the fundamental question in this presentation, where focus is on children’s gestures in relation to language development and socialization.

    Gesture studies on adult interaction tend to divide gestural movements into various kinds depending on their assumed relation to spoken language. The group of gestures which have received most attention in the scientific world is the so called “co-speech gestures”, i.e. hand- and arm movements that occur simultaneously with speech and that are integrated temporally and semantically with the verbal utterance (Kendon, 1981, 2004; McNeill, 1992, 2005).

    In child language studies, the term co-speech gestures is not used as frequently, although the gestures actually described tend to be within that domain, e.g. the deictic pointing gesture co-occurring with “there” (Tomasello et al.,2007; Rowe et al.,2008). Other child gestures receiving attention are the more pragmatically oriented “grab/reach gesture” or emblematic gestures like “nodding”, “waving goodbye”, etc. (e.g., Bates et al., 1975). Although humans remain children for quite some time the majority of child-gesture studies end when the children reach the vocabulary spurt (around the second birthday). A likely reason is that the questions posed relate to the transition from pre-language to language and the role played by gestural behavior in this developmental interval.

    The presentation builds on a study taking the child gestures one step further by allowing the gesture definition to be wider (including in this term movements of the whole body), and the age span studied to go beyond the first two years. The material is longitudinal and consists of child-child and child-adult interaction between the ages 1 to 6. There are 11 children in the study, belonging to five families and they were recorded in their homes regularly during 2 ½ years. The data (in all 22 h) where transcribed and annotated using the ELAN software. The annotations of gestural behavior were categorized according to age of the child, interactional partner (child/adult), setting, activity/semantic theme, and concurrent speech/vocalizations.

    In the presentation, main focus will be on two groups of gestural behavior in particular: co-speech gestures and co-activity speech. Whereas the former is an established term (se above), the latter is the term I have been using to describe speech-gesture combinations where the vocalizations seem to be redundant or at least second in priority, for example the utterances made while going through the motions of ritualized and mainly gestural play (e.g., “pat-a-cake”, “peek-a-boo”, “hide-and-seek”). The differences between these two classes of gestural behavior will be illustrated, described, and related to language development, cognitive growth, and socialization patterns. Ending the talk the fundamental question of speech-gesture relation will be addressed and a developmental path including the described gestural forms will be sketched out.

  • 295.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Imitation vs association in child-adult and child-child interaction2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of imitation in language development is debated and unclear (e.g., Meltzoff, 2011; Heyes, 2001; Paulus, 2012) in part because of the difficulty to define imitation. Is it when A copies an act or an utterance from B within a specific time frame, or is it when the goal of B is captured and executed by A, regardless of the means to reach the goal? Further, must A be aware that s/he imitated B, or should low-level cognitive mechanisms be regarded as imitation as well?

    The aim of the present study was to identify and describe imitative behaviors in young children as they appear in a longitudinal material of child-child and child-adult interaction. “Imitation” was defined as: any verbal/vocal/nonverbal act that i) occurs after an identical such act; ii) semantically and/or pragmatically repeats an earlier verbal/vocal/nonverbal act. An example of the first kind would be a child, A, clapping his hands against his head hollering “hallo” and another nearby child, B, starts doing the same while watching A. The second kind could be illustrated with a child, C, saying to another mother than his own “mommy there is no need to talk, you can just go straight away” to which his own mother says “I recognize that comment, that’s what I say to grandma”. While the first example appears to be a direct, situated, practice where instant imitation is taking place, the second is a sequence where a more or less formulaic verbalization is copied from some previous occasion/s and delivered in a situation where it appears to fit, an associated imitation.

    In the talk, different imitative behavioral will be illustrated and related to instant vs associated contextual aspects. It will be argued that both behaviors build on common mechanisms of learning (Schöner, 2009; Smith & Katz, 1996), that they appear in parallel throughout the ages studied (see below), but that they differ in cognitive – although not necessarily social – complexity, as well as in their part in language development and socialization routines.

    Data consists of 22 hours of video recordings of 5 Swedish families with in all 11 children. The children are in the ages 0;9 to 5;10 years old and were recorded during a period of 2 ½ years. The recordings were done in a home environment together with siblings and parents.

  • 296.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Mamma!2010In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, Vol. December, no 6, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 297.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nods, headshakeas and the perception of multimodal constructions in child language2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within gesture studies, gesture and speech is often conceived of as a single communicative system. This means that human production of gestures are temporally and semantically synchronized with the concurrent verbal phrase, or vice versa. These multimodal clusters are described as constructions where the modalities add different but interrelated content to a common semantic whole, an Utterance (e.g. Goldin-Meadow, 2009, 2011; Kendon, 2004; Murillo & Belinchón, 2012). While this appears to be true for a large amount of gesture types – in particular those who fall under the heading Co-speech Gestures (i.e. gesture that by definition co-occur with a spoken utterance) – there are other gestures that are less explored as to their relation to speech and multimodal meaning. Among these other gestures we find emblems, a vaguely defined group of gestures that are often claimed to carry a semantic meaning on their own, regardless of (optional) concurrent verbalizations (McNeill, 1992). The present study investigated two emblematic gesture forms – nods and headshakes – and their appearance and use in a longitudinal, naturalistic material of child-child and child-adult interaction. The data consists of 11 Swedish children in the ages 0;9 to 5;10 years of age, recorded during a period of 2 ½ years as they interacted with siblings, parents, and friends in their home environment. In all, 22 hours of video recordings were transcribed and analyzed. From the data we could conclude two main factors: i) even emblems appear to be largely speech dependent for their interpretation; and ii) nods and headshakes appear to follow different developmental trajectories and behave rather differently throughout the ages studied. These findings will be discussed in relation to language development in general and to the perceptive system of humans in particular.

  • 298.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Socialization of verbal and nonverbal emotive expressions in young children2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject matter of this dissertation is children’s use and development of emotive expressions. While prior studies have either focused on facial expressions of emotions or on emotions in the social mechanisms of in situ interactions, this thesis opts to merge two traditions by applying an interactional approach to the interpretation of child–child and child–adult encounters. This approach is further supplemented with an interpretational frame stemming from studies on child development, sociology and psychology.

    In order to depict the multi-leveled process of socialization, a number of sub-areas are investigated such as the emotive expressions per se; how and when these expressions are used in interaction with parents and siblings; the kinds of responses the children get after using an emotive expression; parental acts (verbal or nonverbal) that bear on children’s conduct and their choice of such expressions. Finally, the relation between nonverbal displays and language as expressive means for emotions is analyzed from a developmental perspective.

    The data consists of video-recordings of five sibling groups in the ages between 1 ½ and 5 ½ who were followed for 2 ½ years in their home environment. In all, 19 recordings (15 h) were transcribed and analyzed.

    The results from the study lead to several different taxonomies previously not discussed in the pertinent literature: (i) the nonverbal, vocal and verbal emotive expressions used by children; (ii) the different means these expressions were put to in child–parent encounters; (iii) the ways relations to siblings can be seen as creating and shaping certain emotive processes. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that parental responses are of vital importance for the outcome of specific child expressions. As parents reprimand, comfort, praise and mediate in their interaction with their children, they create paths later used by the child as she practices and acquires her own expressive means for handling emotions in interactional contexts. Finally, a developmental frame of language and nonverbal acts is elaborated and suggested as a tool for discovering the paths of linguistic and emotional socialization.

  • 299.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Språkprojektet i Farsta/Fagersjö1998In: Samverkan för barn och ungdom: en antologi om konsten att bedriva projekt / [ed] Ulf Hammare, Stockholm: Resursförvaltningen skola och socialtjänst, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten , 1998, p. 72-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 300.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The relation between modalities in spoken language acquisition: Preliminary results from the Swedish MINT-project2016Conference paper (Other academic)
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