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  • 251. Ulvestad, Bente
    et al.
    Randem, Britt Grethe
    Skare, Oivind
    Aalokken, Trond Mogens
    Myranek, Georg Karl
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lund, May Brit
    Lung function in asphalt pavers: a longitudinal study2017In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study longitudinal changes in lung function in asphalt pavers and a reference group of road maintenance workers, and to detect possible signs of lung disease by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Seventy-five asphalt pavers and 71 road maintenance workers were followed up with questionnaires and measurements of lung function. Not every worker was tested every year, but most of them had four or more measurement points. The 75 asphalt pavers were also invited to have HRCT scans of the lungs at the end of the follow-up period. Mean annual decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of the asphalt pavers was 58 and 35 ml, respectively. Adjusted for age at baseline, packyears of smoking and BMI, the asphalt pavers had a significant excess annual decline in FVC and FEV1 compared to the references. The screedmen, the most exposed group of the asphalt pavers, showed a significantly larger decline in FVC than the other asphalt pavers (P = 0.029). Fine intralobular fibrosis without evident cysts was identified with HRCT in three subjects (4 %). We conclude that our findings may indicate an excess annual decline in FVC and FEV1 related to exposure to asphalt fumes. The screedmen, who carry out their work behind and close to the paving machine, had the largest decline in lung function. The finding of adverse pulmonary effects in asphalt pavers calls for better technological solutions to prevent exposure.

  • 252. Vaag, Jonas
    et al.
    Saksvik, Per Öystein
    Milch, Vibeke
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bjerkeset, Ottar
    "Sound of well-being" revisited - choir singing and well-being among Norwegian municipal employees2014In: Journal of Applied Arts & Health, ISSN 2040-2457, E-ISSN 2040-2465, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent cross-sectional study investigating an organizational choir-singing intervention called ‘Sound of Well-being’ (SOW) indicated health and organizational benefits, and a gender-specific pattern of participation and outcomes. In this study we investigate participation and effects in a short version of SOW. A total of 1100 employees of a Norwegian municipality were invited to participate in SOW. At baseline, 472 (42.9 per cent) employees filled in a questionnaire concerning demographics, personality, health, engagement, commitment and psychosocial work environment. A total of 312 (66.1 per cent) of these completed the same survey one to three weeks after SOW was finished. We found that female gender and extroversion were linked to participation in SOW. Women reported significant changes in engagement, self-perceived health and control, while men reported changes in job demands. Overall, participants reported an increase, while non-participants reported decrease on aforementioned variables. In terms of participation and effects of SOW, findings differed between professions, personality types and gender. In order to provide desirable alternatives to a wider group of employees, future interventions should include a variety of both receptive and creative activities.

  • 253. van de Ven, Hardy A
    et al.
    Brouwer, Sandra
    Koolhaas, Wendy
    Goudswaard, Anneke
    de Looze, Michiel P
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Almansa, Josue
    Bültmann, Ute
    van der Klink, Jac J. L.
    Associations between shift schedule characteristics with sleep, need for recovery, health and performance measures for regular (semi-)continuous 3-shift systems.2016In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 56, p. 203-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this cross-sectional study associations were examined between eight shift schedule characteristics with shift-specific sleep complaints and need for recovery and generic health and performance measures. It was hypothesized that shift schedule characteristics meeting ergonomic recommendations are associated with better sleep, need for recovery, health and performance. Questionnaire data were collected from 491 shift workers of 18 companies with 9 regular (semi)-continuous shift schedules. The shift schedule characteristics were analyzed separately and combined using multilevel linear regression models. The hypothesis was largely not confirmed. Relatively few associations were found, of which the majority was in the direction as expected. In particular early starts of morning shifts and many consecutive shifts seem to be avoided. The healthy worker effect, limited variation between included schedules and the cross-sectional design might explain the paucity of significant results.

  • 254. Vandenberg, Laura N.
    et al.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Beronius, Anna
    Beausoleil, Claire
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Sweden.
    Bero, Lisa A.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Boyer, C. Scott
    Cooper, Glinda S.
    Cotgreave, Ian
    Gee, David
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Guyton, Kathryn Z.
    Hass, Ulla
    Heindel, Jerrold J.
    Jobling, Susan
    Kidd, Karen A.
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Macleod, Malcolm R.
    Martin, Olwenn V.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Scheringer, Martin
    Thayer, Kristina A.
    Toppari, Jorma
    Whaley, Paul
    Woodruff, Tracey J.
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    A proposed framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of endocrine disrupting chemicals2016In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 15, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The issue of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is receiving wide attention from both the scientific and regulatory communities. Recent analyses of the EDC literature have been criticized for failing to use transparent and objective approaches to draw conclusions about the strength of evidence linking EDC exposures to adverse health or environmental outcomes. Systematic review methodologies are ideal for addressing this issue as they provide transparent and consistent approaches to study selection and evaluation. Objective methods are needed for integrating the multiple streams of evidence (epidemiology, wildlife, laboratory animal, in vitro, and in silico data) that are relevant in assessing EDCs.

    Methods: We have developed a framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of EDC studies. The framework was designed for use with the International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and World Health Organization (WHO) definition of an EDC, which requires appraisal of evidence regarding 1) association between exposure and an adverse effect, 2) association between exposure and endocrine disrupting activity, and 3) a plausible link between the adverse effect and the endocrine disrupting activity.

    Results: Building from existing methodologies for evaluating and synthesizing evidence, the SYRINA framework includes seven steps: 1) Formulate the problem; 2) Develop the review protocol; 3) Identify relevant evidence; 4) Evaluate evidence from individual studies; 5) Summarize and evaluate each stream of evidence; 6) Integrate evidence across all streams; 7) Draw conclusions, make recommendations, and evaluate uncertainties. The proposed method is tailored to the IPCS/WHO definition of an EDC but offers flexibility for use in the context of other definitions of EDCs.

    Conclusions: When using the SYRINA framework, the overall objective is to provide the evidence base needed to support decision making, including any action to avoid/minimise potential adverse effects of exposures. This framework allows for the evaluation and synthesis of evidence from multiple evidence streams. Finally, a decision regarding regulatory action is not only dependent on the strength of evidence, but also the consequences of action/inaction, e.g. limited or weak evidence may be sufficient to justify action if consequences are serious or irreversible.

  • 255. Vasconcelos, S.
    et al.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Skene, D. J.
    Fischer, Frida M.
    Marqueze, E.
    Moreno, Claudia
    Satisfaction with work schedules is a contributing factor to reported sleep disturbances2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 256. Vedaa, Øystein
    et al.
    Harris, Anette
    Bjorvatn, Bjørn
    Waage, Siri
    Sivertsen, Børge
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Swansea University, UK.
    Pallesen, Ståle
    Systematic review of the relationship between quick returns in rotating shift work and health-related outcomes2016In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 1-14Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic literature search was carried out to investigate the relationship between quick returns (i.e. 11.0 hours or less between two consecutive shifts) and outcome measures of health, sleep, functional ability and work-life balance. A total of 22 studies published in 21 articles were included. Three types of quick returns were differentiated (from evening to morning/day, night to evening, morning/day to night shifts) where sleep duration and sleepiness appeared to be differently affected depending on which shifts the quick returns occurred between. There were some indications of detrimental effects of quick returns on proximate problems (e.g. sleep, sleepiness and fatigue), although the evidence of associations with more chronic outcome measures (physical and mental health and work-life balance) was inconclusive. Practitioner Summary: Modern societies are dependent on people working shifts. This study systematically reviews literature on the consequences of quick returns (11.0 hours or less between two shifts). Quick returns have detrimental effects on acute health problems. However, the evidence regarding effects on chronic health is inconclusive.

  • 257. Virtanen, Marianna
    et al.
    Jokela, Markus
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lallukka, Tea
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Batty, G. David
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Dragano, Nico
    Erbel, Raimund
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Lahelma, Eero
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Rahkonen, Ossi
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Schupp, Jürgen
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Wagner, Gert G.
    Wang, Jian Li
    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 239-250Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms.

    Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies.

    Results We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working >= 55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I-2 = 45.1%, P=0.004). A strong association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small.

    Conclusions This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.

  • 258. Virtanen, Marianna
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Batty, G. David
    Jokela, Markus
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Casini, Annalisa
    Clays, Els
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Dragano, Nico
    Elovainio, Marko
    Erbel, Raimund
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Hamer, Mark
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Kittel, France
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Koskinen, Aki
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pahkin, Krista
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Toppinen-Tanner, Salla
    Väänänen, Ari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Slopen, Natalie
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Perceived job insecurity as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis2013In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 347, article id f4746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To determine the association between self reported job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease.

    Design A meta-analysis combining individual level data from a collaborative consortium and published studies identified by a systematic review.

    Data sources We obtained individual level data from 13 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. Four published prospective cohort studies were identified by searches of Medline (to August 2012) and Embase databases (to October 2012), supplemented by manual searches.

    Review methods Prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for clinically verified incident coronary heart disease by the level of self reported job insecurity. Two independent reviewers extracted published data. Summary estimates of association were obtained using random effects models.

    Results The literature search yielded four cohort studies. Together with 13 cohort studies with individual participant data, the meta-analysis comprised up to 174 438 participants with a mean follow-up of 9.7 years and 1892 incident cases of coronary heart disease. Age adjusted relative risk of high versus low job insecurity was 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.59). The relative risk of job insecurity adjusted for sociodemographic and risk factors was 1.19 (1.00 to 1.42). There was no evidence of significant differences in this association by sex, age (<50 v >= 50 years), national unemployment rate, welfare regime, or job insecurity measure.

    Conclusions The modest association between perceived job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease is partly attributable to poorer socioeconomic circumstances and less favourable risk factor profiles among people with job insecurity.

  • 259.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hasson, Henna
    Effects of worksite health interventions involving reduced work hours and physical exercise on sickness absence costs2012In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 538-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the effects of physical exercise during work hours (PE) and reduced work hours (RWH) on direct and indirect costs associated with sickness absence (SA). Methods: Sickness absence and related costs at six workplaces, matched and randomized to three conditions (PE, RWH, and referents), were retrieved from company records and/or estimated using salary conversion methods or value-added equations on the basis of interview data. Results: Although SA days decreased in all conditions (PE, 11.4%; RWH, 4.9%; referents, 15.9%), costs were reduced in the PE (22.2%) and RWH (4.9%) conditions but not among referents (10.2% increase). Conclusions: Worksite health interventions may generate savings in SA costs. Costs may not be linear to changes in SA days. Combing the friction method with indirect cost estimates on the basis of value-added productivity may help illuminate both direct and indirect SA costs.

  • 260.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hasson, Henna
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Measuring Self-Rated Productivity Factor Structure and Variance Component Analysis of the Health and Work Questionnaire2014In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 1302-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To test the factor structure and variance components of the productivity subscales of the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ). Methods: A total of 272 individuals from one company answered the HWQ scale, including three dimensions (efficiency, quality, and quantity) that the respondent rated from three perspectives: their own, their supervisor's, and their coworkers'. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed, and common and unique variance components evaluated. Results: A common factor explained 81% of the variance (reliability 0.95). All dimensions and rater perspectives contributed with unique variance. The final model provided a perfect fit to the data. Conclusions: Efficiency, quality, and quantity and three rater perspectives are valid parts of the self-rated productivity measurement model, but with a large common factor. Thus, the HWQ can be analyzed either as one factor or by extracting the unique variance for each subdimension.

  • 261.
    Watling, Christopher N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Armstrong, Kerry A.
    Smith, Simon S.
    Wilson, Adrian
    The on-road experiences and awareness of sleepiness in a sample of Australian highway drivers: A roadside driver sleepiness study2016In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Driver sleepiness contributes substantially to road crash incidents. Simulator and on-road studies clearly reveal an impairing effect from sleepiness on driving ability. However, the degree to which drivers appreciate the dangerousness of driving while sleepy is somewhat unclear. This study sought to determine drivers' on-road experiences of sleepiness, their prior sleep habits, and personal awareness of the signs of sleepiness. Methods: Participants were a random selection of 92 drivers traveling on a major highway in the state of Queensland, Australia, who were stopped by police as part of routine drink driving operations. Participants completed a brief questionnaire that included demographic information, sleepy driving experiences (signs of sleepiness and on-road experiences of sleepiness), and prior sleep habits. A modified version of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) was used to assess subjective sleepiness in the 15 min prior to being stopped by police. Results: Participants' ratings of subjective sleepiness were quite low, with 90% reporting being alert to extremely alert on the KSS. Participants were reasonably aware of the signs of sleepiness, with many signs of sleepiness associated with on-road experiences of sleepiness. Additionally, the number of hours spent driving was positively correlated with the drivers' level of sleep debt. Conclusions: The results suggest that participants had moderate experiences of driving while sleepy and many were aware of the signs of sleepiness. The relationship between driving long distances and increased sleep debt is a concern for road safety. Increased education regarding the dangers of sleepy driving seems warranted.

  • 262. Westberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Andersson, Eva
    Persson, Bodil
    Andersson, Lennart
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Karlsson, Cathe
    Sjögren, Bengt
    Inflammatory markers and exposure to airborne particles among workers in a Swedish pulp and paper mill2016In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 813-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the relationship between exposure to airborne particles in a pulp and paper mill and markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood. Personal sampling of inhalable dust was performed for 72 subjects working in a Swedish pulp and paper mill. Stationary measurements were used to study concentrations of total dust, respirable dust, PM10 and PM2.5, the particle surface area and the particle number concentrations. Markers of inflammation, interleukins (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and fibrinogen and markers of coagulation factor VIII, von Willebrand, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and D-dimer were measured in plasma or serum. Sampling was performed on the last day of the work free period of 5 days, before and after the shift the first day of work and after the shifts the second and third day. In a mixed model analysis, the relationship between particulate exposures and inflammatory markers was determined. Sex, age, smoking, and BMI were included as covariates. The average 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) air concentration levels of inhalable dust were 0.30 mg/m(3), range 0.005-3.3 mg/m(3). The proxies for average 8-h TWAs of respirable dust were 0.045 mg/m(3). Significant and consistent positive relations were found between several exposure metrics (PM 10, total and inhalable dust) and CRP, SAA and fibrinogen taken post-shift, suggesting a dose-effect relationship. This study supports a relationship between occupational particle exposure and established inflammatory markers, which may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  • 263.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umeå.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umeå.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umeå.
    Parental academic involvement in adolescence, academic achievement over the life course and allostatic load in middle age: a prospective population-based cohort study.2013In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 508-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Parental involvement in their children's studies, particularly in terms of academic socialisation, has been shown to predict academic achievement, and is thus a candidate modifiable factor influencing life course socioeconomic circumstances. Socioeconomic disadvantage is thought to impact on health over the life course partly by allostatic load, that is, cumulative biological risk. We sought to elucidate the role of parental involvement at age 16 on the life course development of allostatic load. METHODS: In a population-based cohort (365 women and 352 men, 67% of the eligible participants), we examined the association between parental involvement in their offspring's studies, measured by teacher and pupil ratings at age 16 and an allostatic load index summarising 12 physiological risk markers at age 43. Mediation through life course academic and occupational achievement was assessed by entering school grades, adult educational achievement and socioeconomic position at age 43 in a linear regression analysis in a stepwise manner and testing for mediation. RESULTS: Parental interest in their offspring's studies during the last year of compulsory school-rather than the parent's social class or availability of practical academic support-was found to predict adult allostatic load (β=-0.12, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.05). Further adjustments indicated that academic achievement over the life course mediated a large part of the effect of parental interest on allostatic load. CONCLUSIONS: Parental interest in their offspring's studies may have protective effects by decreasing the likelihood of a chain of risk involving low academic achievement, low socioeconomic position and high accumulated physiological stress.

  • 264. Wikström, Sverre
    et al.
    Lindh, Christian H.
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Early pregnancy serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances and risk of preeclampsia in Swedish women2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 9179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity. Emerging research shows an association with environmental exposures. The present aim was to investigate associations between early pregnancy serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and preeclampsia. Within the Swedish SELMA study, eight PFAS were measured at median 10 gestational weeks and cases of preeclampsia were postnatally identified from registers. Associations between individual PFAS and preeclampsia were assessed, adjusting for parity, age, weight and smoking. Out of 1,773 women in the study group, 64 ( 3.6%), developed preeclampsia. A doubling of PFOS and PFNA exposure, corresponding to an inter-quartile increase, was associated with an increased risk for preeclampsia of about 38-53% respectively. Serum PFOS within the highest quartile was associated with an odds ratio of 2.68 ( CI 95%: 1.17-6.12), equal to the increased risk associated with nulliparity, when compared to exposure in the first quartile. The same associations were identified, although with higher risk estimates, in analyses restricted to nulliparous women. For other PFAS, there were no associations. In conclusion and consistent with limited previous research only on PFOS, increasing serum levels of PFOS and PFNA during early pregnancy were associated with a clinically relevant risk of preeclampsia, adjusting for established confounders.

  • 265.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Jan Kochanowski University, Poland.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lundegård, Iann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Enghag, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Haglund, Karin
    Arvanitis, Leena
    Schenk, Linda
    Educating about radiation risks in high schools: towards improved public understanding of the complexity of low-dose radiation health effects2019In: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, ISSN 0301-634X, E-ISSN 1432-2099, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The levels of stochastic health effects following exposure to low doses of ionising radiation are not well known. A consequence of the uncertainty is that any radiation exposure is met with deep concernboth by the public and by scientists who disagree about how the partly conflicting results from low-dose studies should be interpreted. The concern is not limited to ionising radiation but is inherent to other areas of modern technologies such as biotechnology or electromagnetic fields. The everyday presence of advanced technologies confronts people with the necessity to take decisions and there is an ongoing debate regarding both the nature and magnitude of potential risks and how education efforts may empower peoples ' decision-making. In the field of radiation research there are different opinions regarding the optimal education methods, spanning from the idea that peoples' fears will be eliminated by introducing dose thresholds below which the risk is assumed to be zero, to suggestions of concentrating research efforts in an attempt to eliminate all uncertainties regarding the effects of low doses. The aim of this paper was to present our approach which is based on developing an education program at the secondary school level where students learn to understand the role of science in society. Teaching about radiation risk as a socio-scientific issue is not based on presenting facts but on showing risks in a broader perspective aiming at developing students' competency in making decisions based on informed assessment. We hope to stimulate and encourage other researchers to pursue similar approaches.

  • 266.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Childhood General Mental Ability and Midlife Psychosocial Work Characteristics as Related to Mental Distress, Neck/Shoulder Pain and Self-rated Health in Working Women and Men2011In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 439-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood General Mental Ability and Midlife Psychosocial Work Characteristics as Related to Mental Distress, Neck/Shoulder Pain and Self-rated Health in Working Women and Men: Cornelia WULFF, et al. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden Psychosocial work characteristics including high demands, lack of control and poor social support have consistently been linked to poor health as has poor general mental ability (GMA). However, less is known about the relationships between stable individual factors such as GMA, psychosocial work characteristics and health. Objective: The present study investigated how childhood mental ability and psychosocial work characteristics relate to health in terms of mental distress, neck/shoulder pain (NSP) and self-rated health (SRH). Methods: Data on childhood GMA, occupational level, self-reports of demands, control and social support and health (mental distress, NSP and SRH) in midlife came from working women (n=271) and men (n=291) included in a Swedish school cohort. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for occupational level, were used to examine associations between childhood GMA, self-reports of high demands, low control and poor social support and the three health indicators. Taking into consideration the gendered labor market and variations in health patterns between women and men, gender specific analyses were performed. Results: There were no significant associations between childhood GMA and health indicators. Further, there were no significant interactions between GMA and psychosocial work factors. As regards the strength of the associations between GMA, psychosocial work factors and health, no consistent differences emerged between women and men. Conclusions: In a cohort of healthy and working middle-aged women and men, self-reports of current psychosocial work characteristics seem to be more strongly linked to health, than are stable childhood factors such as GMA.

  • 267.
    Åhlin, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Rhythm of the job stress blues: Psychosocial working conditions and depression in working life and across retirement2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A work environment characterized by poor psychosocial working conditions may lead to stress and mental health problems such as depression, a common and burdensome public health problem with significant consequences for individuals and for society at large. A number of psychosocial working characteristics have been found to be associated with increased depressive symptoms or clinical depression. This thesis aims to further examine how certain psychosocial working conditions predict depressive symptoms over time, in working life and across retirement. This was done by using several repeated measures from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) in 2006–2018.

    In study I, we investigated how long-term patterns of exposure to job demands and job control were associated with major depressive symptoms. Those with high strain (high demands, low control) and active (high demands, high control) jobs were more likely to have subsequent major depressive symptoms compared to those with low strain jobs (low demands, high control). However, after adjusting for baseline depressive symptoms and various demographic factors, the associations did not remain statistically significant.

    In study II, we assessed how job demands, job control and workplace social support were related to long-term development of depressive symptoms. A perception of high job demands and low social support predicted higher or increasing depressive symptom trajectories. In addition, negative changes in job demands, job control and social support were associated with increased symptoms, indicating that the onset of poor working conditions could negatively impact depressive symptoms.

    In study III, we investigated simultaneous and lagged bidirectional associations between job demands, job control, balance between demands and control, social support, procedural justice, effort, reward, balance between efforts and rewards, and depressive symptoms, while controlling for individual time-stable characteristics. There were associations between all work stressors and depressive symptoms when measured simultaneously, except for job control. However, only efforts, were prospectively associated with depressive symptoms measured later.

    In study IV, we examined how the same psychosocial working characteristics as in study III were associated with the development of depressive symptoms across retirement. Generally, depressive symptoms appeared to decrease across retirement. Job demands, job strain, social support, rewards, effort-reward imbalance and procedural justice, but to a lesser extent job control and efforts, were associated with a more negative and positive course of depressive symptoms across retirement. Especially, depressive symptoms decreased in relation to retirement for a small group with previously high exposure to work stress.

    In conclusion, this thesis indicates that particularly perceptions of high job demands, low workplace social support and high work effort predict subsequent higher levels of depressive symptoms, and/or influence the course of symptoms both in working life and past retirement. In addition, changes in these types of conditions seemed to influence the course of depressive symptoms. Especially, the relief from previous exposure to work stress at retirement seemed to have a clear positive impact on depressive symptoms. These results contribute to strengthen the evidence of causality between these types of work stressors and depressive symptoms.

  • 268.
    Åhlin, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    LaMontagne, Anthony
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Are there bidirectional relationships between psychosocial work characteristics and depressive symptoms? A fixed effects analysis of Swedish national panel survey data2019In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 76, no 7, p. 455-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Psychosocial work characteristics have been prospectively associated with depressive symptoms. However, methodological limitations have raised questions regarding causality. It is also unclear to what extent depressive symptoms affect the experience of the psychosocial work environment. We examined contemporaneous (measured simultaneously) and lagged bidirectional relationships between psychosocial work characteristics and depressive symptoms, simultaneously controlling for time-stable individual characteristics.

    Methods We included 3947 subjects in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), with self-reported job demands, control, social support, work efforts, rewards, procedural justice and depressive symptoms in four waves 2010–2016. We applied dynamic panel models with fixed effects, using structural equation modelling, adjusting for all time-stable individual characteristics such as personality and pre-employment factors.

    Results Higher levels of job demands, job demands in relation to control, work efforts and efforts in relation to rewards were contemporaneously associated with more depressive symptoms (standardised β: 0.18–0.25, p<0.001), while higher levels of workplace social support, rewards at work and procedural justice were associated with less depressive symptoms (β: −0.18, p<0.001, β: –0.16, p<0.001 and β: −0.09, p<0.01, respectively). In contrast, only work efforts predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms 2 years later (β:0.05, p<0.05). No other lagged associations were foundin any direction.

    Conclusions After controlling for all time-invariant confounding, our results suggest that psychosocial work characteristics predominantly affect depressive symptoms immediately or with only a short time lag. Furthermore, we found no evidence of reverse causation. This indicates short-term causal associations, although the temporal precedence of psychosocial work characteristics remains uncertain.

  • 269.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Shift Work - Sleepiness and Sleep in Transport2019In: Sleep Medicine Clinics, ISSN 1556-407X, E-ISSN 1556-4088, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 413-421Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving a vehicle during a night shift increases the accident risk and incidents of falling asleep at the wheel. Individuals having worked a night shift (in any type of occupation) run a similar risk when commuting home from a night shift. Early starts of driving may increase risk. Detailed field studies of sleepiness indicate high levels of sleepiness during late night driving. The mechanism includes exposure to the circadian trough of alertness during work and sleep loss. High levels of sleepiness and sleep loss associated with night and early morning work define the diagnosis of shift work disorder.

  • 270.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Discacciati, Andrea
    Habel, Henrike
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Psychosocial work demands and physical workload decrease with ageing in blue-collar and white-collar workers: a prospective study based on the SLOSH cohort2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e030918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Psychosocial work demands and physical workload are important causes of ill health. The dramatic demographic changes in society make it important to understand if such factors change with ageing, but this is presently not known. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether psychosocial work demands and physical workload change across 8years of ageing, whether occupational groups show different trajectories of change and if such trajectories are reflected in sleep or fatigue. Methods A cohort of 5377 participants (mean age: 47.611.6 (SD) years, 43.2% males, 40.2% blue-collar workers) was measured through self-report in five biannual waves across 8 years. Mixed model regression analyses was used to investigate change across ageing. Results Psychosocial work demands decreased significantly across 8 years (Coeff: -0.016 +/- 0.001), with the strongest decrease in the high white-collar group (Coeff=-0.031 +/- 0.003) and the oldest group. Physical workload also decreased significantly (Coeff=-0.032 +/- 0.002), particularly in the blue-collar group (Coeff=-0.050 +/- 0.004) and in the oldest group. Fatigue decreased, and sleep problems increased with ageing, but with similar slopes in the occupational groups. All effect sizes were small, but extrapolation suggests substantial decreases across a working life career. Conclusions The decrease in psychosocial work demands and physical workload suggests that the burden of work becomes somewhat lighter over 8 years. The mechanism could be 'pure' ageing and/or increased experience or related factors. The gradual improvement in the work situation should be considered in the discussion of the place of older individuals in the labour market, and of a suitable age for retirement. The results also mean that prospective studies of work and health need to consider the improvement in working life with ageing.

  • 271.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sleep, Work, and Occupational Stress2012In: The Oxford Handbook of Sleep and Sleep disorders / [ed] Charles M. Morin, Colin Espie, New York: Oxford University Press , 2012, p. 248-265Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 272.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Säkerhet, arbetstider och trötthet2013In: Patientsäkerhet: teori och praktik / [ed] Synnöve Ödegård, Stockholm: Liber, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    What work schedule characteristics constitute a problem to the individual? A representative study of Swedish shift workers2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 59, p. 320-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate which detailed characteristics of shift schedules that are seen as problems to those exposed. A representative national sample of non-day workers (N = 2031) in Sweden was asked whether they had each of a number of particular work schedule characteristics and, if yes, to what extent this constituted a "big problem in life". It was also inquired whether the individual's work schedules had negative consequences for fatigue, sleep and social life. The characteristic with the highest percentage reporting a big problem was "short notice (<1 month) of a new work schedule" (30.5%), <11 h off between shifts (27.8%), and split duty (>1.5 h break at mid-shift, 27.2%). Overtime (>10 h/week), night work, morning work, day/night shifts showed lower prevalences of being a "big problem". Women indicated more problems in general. Short notice was mainly related to negative social effects, while <11 h off between shifts was related to disturbed sleep, fatigue and social difficulties. It was concluded that schedules involving unpredictable working hours (short notice), short daily rest between shifts, and split duty shifts constitute big problems. The results challenge current views of what aspects of shift work need improvement, and negative social consequences seem more important than those related to health.

  • 274.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Petersén, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Axelsson, John
    Sleep Polysomnography and Reported Stress across 6 Weeks2014In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 36-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the common notion that stress impairs sleep there is little published data showing that sleep (polysomnography [PSG]) is impaired across several sleep episodes in individuals who complain of daily stress during the same period. The present paper aimed at investigating such a connection. 33 subjects had 3 sleeps recorded with PSG at home across 6 weeks and kept a sleep/wake diary each day, including 3-hourly ratings of stress (scale 1-9). The stress ratings and the conventional PSG parameters were averaged across time. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictors of stress were Stage 1 sleep (beta=0.49), latency to Stage 1 sleep (0.47) (adjusted for anxiety and age). Other sleep continuity variables had significant correlations with stress (reversed) but did not enter the multiple regression analysis. The correlation between stress before the start of the study and PSG data was not significant. It was concluded that moderately increased stress over a longer period of time is related to moderate signs of disturbed sleep during that period. This may be of importance when considering stress as a work environment problem.

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