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  • 251.
    Skånes, Helle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Glimskär, Anders
    Institutionen för ekologi, SLU Uppsala.
    Allard, Anna
    Institutionen för Skoglig Resurshushållning .
    Visual interpretation of key properties in vegetation structur from Lidar data: potential importance for physical, ecological and socio-economic monitoring2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses early findings from one of several projects within a recently launched research program devoted to environmental mapping and monitoring with airborne laser and digital images (EMMA) financed by the Swedish EPA. Policy makers and land managers along with the global community increasingly demand hard figures regarding the state and trends of biodiversity and habitat qualities of importance to nature conservation and international environmental quality goals. Although remote sensing and GIS based methods have greatly improved, there is still a lack of spatially detailed and consistent habitat data to meet these requirements. Key vegetation qualities are often hidden from visual and automatic classification in high resolution remote sensing imagery since they are typically covered by trees. Laser beams can partly penetrate through the canopy and the data derived from the reflected pulses will add crucial detail and consistency in vegetation mapping. The aim of the project is to visually explore LiDAR data focusing on habitats within agricultural and alpine environments for enhanced vegetation classification and registration of habitat qualities and structures. Initially a number of key variables (vertical and horizontal structure, influence of land use, and site conditions) have been explored through visual interpretation of two time sets of high resolution 3D laser point data (density>5 points/m²) and derivates processed to enhance objects of interest. The initial results from a wooded pasture indicate that key properties, such as ditches, field and shrub layer characteristics and distribution, fallen trees and various man made remnants are in fact detectable. The use of laser-generated high-quality bare earth models is crucial to distinguish the field layer and low shrubs from boulders and uneven ground surface. These bare earth models will as they become widely available enhance all types of habitat modeling and landscape analysis.

  • 252.
    Skånes, Helle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Glimskär, Anders
    Institutionen för ekologi, SLU Uppsala.
    Allard, Anna
    Institutionen för Skoglig Resurshushållning .
    Visuell tolkning av vegetationens strukturer och kvaliteter i laserskannade data2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Presentation av initiala resultat från projektets första år där nyckelegenskaper i vegetationens vertikala och horisontella struktur har formulerats och utforskats i laserskannade punktdata. Syftet är att utforska möjligheterna till visuell tolkning av nyckelgenskaper i vegetation enligt EU:s habitatdirektiv i laserdata och att undersöka i vilken utsträckning olika vegetationstyper kan skiljas genom enkla bearbetningar av laserpunktmolnet. Målet på sikt är att undersöka hur kombinationen av automatiserad och visuell tolkning av laserdata kan förbättra naturvårdsrelaterade bedömningar och automatiska vegetationsklassificeringar. Fokus ligger på habitat inom alpina miljöer, odlingslandskap och kustzonen.

  • 253. Soy-Massoni, Emma
    et al.
    Bieling, Claudia
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), Spain.
    Varga, Diego
    Saez, Marc
    Pinto, Josep
    Societal benefits from agricultural landscapes in Girona, Catalonia2016In: Outlook on Agriculture, ISSN 0030-7270, E-ISSN 2043-6866, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 100-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking into account the perceptions of locals as well as visitors to La Plana de l'Emporda, a region in Girona (Spain) undergoing an agricultural intensification process, this study attempts to explore the linkages between agricultural landscapes and human well-being by performing open, single-question interviews with 241 respondents. The results show a high perception of cultural ecosystem services as benefits from agricultural landscapes, although differences across respondent groups and across a rural-urban gradient suggest important trade-offs. Our results demonstrate that potential conflicts in the study area might emerge between a rural view on agricultural landscapes and a more production-oriented landscape appreciation. We consider it relevant to take into account potential social conflicts due to the new social composition in Mediterranean rural areas where different perceptions regarding the delivery of ecosystem services coexist.

  • 254.
    Spijkers, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. James Cook University, Australia.
    Morrison, Tiffany H.
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Osborne, Matthew
    Watson, James
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Marine fisheries and future ocean conflict2018In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 798-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict over marine fishery resources is a growing security concern. Experts expect that global changes in our climate, food systems and oceans may spark or exacerbate resource conflicts. An initial scan of 803 relevant papers and subsequent intensive review of 31 fisheries conflict studies, focused on subnational and international conflicts, suggests that four substantial scientific gaps need addressing to improve our understanding of the nature and drivers of fisheries conflict. First, fisheries conflict and levels of conflict intensity are not precisely defined. Second, complex adaptive systems thinking is underutilized but has the potential to produce more realistic causal models of fishery conflict. Third, comparative large-scale data and suitably integrative methodologies are lacking, underscoring the need for a standardized and comparable database of fisheries conflict cases to aid extrapolation beyond single case-studies. Fourth, there is room for a more widespread application of higher order concepts and associated terminology. Importantly, the four gaps highlight the homogenized nature of current methodological and theoretical approaches to understanding fishery conflict, which potentially presents us with an oversimplified understanding of these conflicts. A more nuanced understanding of the complex and dynamic nature of fishery conflict and its causes is not only scientifically critical, but increasingly relevant for policymakers and practitioners in this turbulent world.

  • 255. Stoll, Joshua S.
    et al.
    Fuller, Emma
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Uneven adaptive capacity among fishers in a sea of change2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0178266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishers worldwide operate in an environment of uncertainty and constant change. Their ability to manage risk associated with such uncertainty and subsequently adapt to change is largely a function of individual circumstances, including their access to different fisheries. However, explicit attention to the heterogeneity of fishers' connections to fisheries at the level of the individual has been largely ignored. We illustrate the ubiquitous nature of these connections by constructing a typology of commercial fishers in the state of Maine based on the different fisheries that fishers rely on to sustain their livelihoods and find that there are over 600 combinations. We evaluate the adaptive potential of each strategy, using a set of attributes identified by fisheries experts in the state, and find that only 12% of fishers can be classified as being well positioned to adapt in the face of changing socioeconomic and ecological conditions. Sensitivity to the uneven and heterogeneous capacity of fishers to manage risk and adapt to change is critical to devising effective management strategies that broadly support fishers. This will require greater attention to the social-ecological connectivity of fishers across different jurisdictions.

  • 256. Strandberg, E.
    et al.
    Felleki, M.
    Fikse, W. F.
    Franzén, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Mulder, H. A.
    Rönnegård, L
    Urioste, J. I.
    Windig, J. J.
    Statistical tools to select for robustness and milk quality2013In: Advances in Animal Biosciences, ISSN 2040-4700, E-ISSN 2040-4719, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 606-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was part of the EU RobustMilk project. In this work package, we have focused on two aspects of robustness, micro- and macro-environmental sensitivity and applied these to somatic cell count (SCC), one aspect of milk quality. We showed that it is possible to combine both categorical and continuous descriptions of the environment in one analysis of genotype by environment interaction. We also developed a method to estimate genetic variation in residual variance and applied it to both simulated and a large field data set of dairy cattle. We showed that it is possible to estimate genetic variation in both micro- and macro-environmental sensitivity in the same data, but that there is a need for good data structure. In a dairy cattle example, this would mean at least 100 bulls with at least 100 daughters each. We also developed methods for improved genetic evaluation of SCC. We estimated genetic variance for some alternative SCC traits, both in an experimental herd data and in field data. Most of them were highly correlated with subclinical mastitis (>0.9) and clinical mastitis (0.7 to 0.8), and were also highly correlated with each other. We studied whether the fact that animals in different herds are differentially exposed to mastitis pathogens could be a reason for the low heritabilities for mastitis, but did not find strong evidence for that. We also created a new model to estimate breeding values not only for the probability of getting mastitis but also for recovering from it. In a progeny-testing situation, this approach resulted in accuracies of 0.75 and 0.4 for these two traits, respectively, which means that it is possible to also select for cows that recover more quickly if they get mastitis.

  • 257.
    Stutz, Rebecca S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Pedersen, Simen
    Teräväinen, Malin
    Kjellander, Petter
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Verschuur, Louisan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bergvall, Ulrika A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Efficient application of a browsing repellent: Can associational effects within and between plants be exploited?2019In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 253-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Browsing can reduce forest productivity, particularly when the apical shoots of trees are damaged. Repellents are used widely to reduce browsing, but application is costly. To improve efficiency, it may be possible to take advantage of associational plant refuge effects, requiring repellents to be applied only to some trees or parts of trees, or reapplied less frequently. Using captive moose (Alces alces) and constructed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), we tested for potential refuges by applying a commercial repellent (HaTe2) to all, alternate or none of the apical shoots, or all of the previous-year apical shoots. We also tested for potential refuges under field conditions, applying the repellent to all, alternate or none of the apical pine shoots in forest stands. Captive moose (two individuals in a 2.1-ha enclosure, similar to 95 individuals km(-2)) browsed 100% of trees, but were significantly less likely to browse apical shoots treated with repellent. Associational refuge was ineffective both within and between trees. In the field (0.84 moose km(-2)), only 1.3% of trees sustained browsing damage. Applying the repellent to the apical shoots of pines had no direct repellent effect nor any within-plant associational effects. Trees with treated apical shoots provided some protection for untreated neighbouring trees, but this was not biologically meaningful given the low percentage of trees browsed overall. Here, a simple captive experiment was not predictive of the browsing response observed in the field, demonstrating the need to test repellent application strategies in situ.

  • 258.
    Sverdrup, Harald
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Belyazid, Salim
    Koca, Deniz
    Kemiteknik LTH/Lund University.
    Jönsson-Belyazid, Ulrika
    Schlyter, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Stjernquist, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Miljömål i fjällandskapet: En syntes av problemställningar knutna till förvaltningen av en begränsad resurs2010Report (Other academic)
  • 259.
    Söderman, Sten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Energiskog: Resultat, slutsatser och förslag från det svenska energiskogsprogrammet1985Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 260. Tacon, Albert G. J.
    et al.
    Metian, Marc
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fish Matters: Importance of Aquatic Foods in Human Nutrition and Global Food Supply2013In: Reviews in fisheries science, ISSN 1064-1262, E-ISSN 1547-6553, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 22-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where nearly 30% of humanity is suffering from malnutrition and over 70% of the planet is covered with water, aquatic foods represent an essential component of the global food basket to improve the nutrition, health, and well being of all peoples. It is not by chance that Japan, the country with one of the world's highest reported life expectancies and lowest incidences of obesity and deaths from heart related illnesses, is also one of the world's top consumers of captured and farmed aquatic animal food products and aquatic plants. According to the FAO, in 2009, total captured and farmed aquatic animal food products accounted for 16.6% of the global population's intake of animal protein, providing more than three billion people with almost 20% of their average per capita intake of animal protein, and 4.3 billion people with at least 15% of such protein. This article reviews the nutritional composition of different farmed and captured aquatic food products and compares these with conventional terrestrial meat products. In addition to the superior nutritional profile and benefits of aquatic animal food products, small-sized marine pelagic fish play an important role in the nutrition of the poor as an affordable and much needed source of high quality animal protein and essential amino acids, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. As one of the best aquatic animal foods from a nutritional perspective, the direct consumption of small pelagic fish should be encouraged and promoted, as apposed to the continued targeted use of these species for reduction into fishmeal and fish oil for use in animal feeds.

  • 261. Tam, Jamie C.
    et al.
    Link, Jason S.
    Rossberg, Axel G.
    Rogers, Stuart I.
    Levin, Philip S.
    Rochet, Marie-Joelle
    Bundy, Alida
    Belgrano, Andrea
    Libralato, Simone
    Tomczak, Maciej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    van de Wolfshaar, Karen
    Pranovi, Fabio
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Large, Scott I.
    Niquil, Nathalie
    Greenstreet, Simon P. R.
    Druon, Jean-Noel
    Lesutiene, Jurate
    Johansen, Marie
    Preciado, Izaskun
    Patricio, Joana
    Palialexis, Andreas
    Tett, Paul
    Johansen, Geir O.
    Houle, Jennifer
    Rindorf, Anna
    Towards ecosystem-based management: identifying operational food-web indicators for marine ecosystems2017In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 74, no 7, p. 2040-2052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern approaches to Ecosystem-Based Management and sustainable use of marine resources must account for the myriad of pressures (interspecies, human and environmental) affecting marine ecosystems. The network of feeding interactions between co-existing species and populations (food webs) are an important aspect of all marine ecosystems and biodiversity. Here we describe and discuss a process to evaluate the selection of operational food-web indicators for use in evaluating marine ecosystem status. This process brought together experts in food-web ecology, marine ecology, and resource management, to identify available indicators that can be used to inform marine management. Standard evaluation criteria (availability and quality of data, conceptual basis, communicability, relevancy to management) were implemented to identify practical food-web indicators ready for operational use and indicators that hold promise for future use in policy and management. The major attributes of the final suite of operational food-web indicators were structure and functioning. Indicators that represent resilience of the marine ecosystem were less developed. Over 60 potential food-web indicators were evaluated and the final selection of operational food-web indicators includes: the primary production required to sustain a fishery, the productivity of seabirds (or charismatic megafauna), zooplankton indicators, primary productivity, integrated trophic indicators, and the biomass of trophic guilds. More efforts should be made to develop thresholds-based reference points for achieving Good Environmental Status. There is also a need for international collaborations to develop indicators that will facilitate management in marine ecosystems used by multiple countries.

  • 262.
    Tano, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Eggertsen, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wikström, Sofia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Buriyo, A. S.
    Hailing, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tropical seaweed beds are important habitats for mobile invertebrate epifauna2016In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 183, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine macrophyte habitats in temperate regions provide productive habitats for numerous organisms, with their abundant and diverse invertebrate epifaunal assemblages constituting important linkages between benthic primary production and higher trophic levels. While it is commonly also recognized that certain vegetated habitats in the tropics, such as seagrass meadows, can harbour diverse epifaunal assemblages and may constitute important feeding grounds to fish, little is known about the epifaunal assemblages associated with tropical seaweed beds. We investigated the abundance, biomass and taxon richness of the mobile epifaunal community (>= 1 mm) of tropical East African seaweed beds, as well as the abundance of invertivorous fishes, and compared it with that of closely situated seagrass meadows, to establish the ecological role of seaweed beds as habitat for epifauna as well as potential feeding grounds for fish. The results showed that seaweed beds had a higher abundance of mobile epifauna (mean SD: 10,600 +/- 6000 vs 3700 +/- 2800 per m(2)) than seagrass meadows, as well as a higher invertebrate biomass (35.9 +/- 46.8 vs 1.9 +/- 2.1 g per m(2)) and taxon richness (32.7 +/- 11.8 vs 19.1 +/- 6.3 taxa per sample), despite having a lower macrophyte biomass. Additionally, the high abundance of invertivorous fishes found in seaweed beds indicates that they act as important feeding grounds to several fish species in the region.

  • 263. Thao, Thi
    et al.
    Gentsch, Norman
    Mikutta, Robert
    Sauheitl, Leopold
    Shibistova, Olga
    Wild, Birgit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Schnecker, Jörg
    Bárta, Jiri
    Čapek, Petr
    Gittel, Antje
    Lashchinskiy, Nikolay
    Urich, Tim
    Šantrůčková, Hana
    Richter, Andreas
    Guggenberger, Georg
    Fate of carbohydrates and lignin in north-east Siberian permafrost soils2018In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 116, p. 311-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost soils preserve huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) prone to decomposition under changing climatic conditions. However, knowledge on the composition of soil organic matter (OM) and its transformation and vulnerability to decomposition in these soils is scarce. We determined neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols, released by trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and CuO oxidation, respectively, within plants and soil density fractions from the active layer and the upper permafrost layer at three different tundra types (shrubby grass, shrubby tussock, shrubby lichen) in the Northeast Siberian Arctic. The heavy fraction (HF; > 1.6 g mL(-1)) was characterized by a larger enrichment of microbial sugars (hexoses vs. pentoses) and more pronotmced lignin degradation (acids vs. aldehydes) as compared to the light fraction (LF; < 1.6 g mL(-1)), showing the transformation from plant residue-dominated particulate OM to a largely microbial imprint in mineral-associated OM. In contrast to temperate and tropical soils, total neutral sugar contents and galactose plus mannose to arabinose plus xylose ratios (GM/AX) decreased in the HE with soil depth, which may indicate a process of effective recycling of microbial biomass rather than utilizing old plant materials. At the same dine, lignin-derived phenols increased and the degree of oxidative decomposition of lignin decreased with soil depth, suggesting a selective preservation of lignin presumably due to anaerobiosis. As large parts of the plant-derived pentoses are incorporated in lignocelluloses and thereby protected against rapid decomposition, this might also explain the relative enrichment of pentoses with soil depth. Hence, our results show a relatively large contribution of plant derived OM, particularly in the buried topsoil and subsoil, which is stabilized by the current soil environmental conditions but may become available to decomposers if permafrost degradation promotes soil drainage and improves the soil oxygen supply.

  • 264. Thoya, Pascal
    et al.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Effects of assets and weather on small-scale coastal fishers' access to space, catches and profits2019In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 212, p. 146-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishers' spatial behavior affects their incomes, livelihoods and ecological sustainability and is affected by establishment of protected areas, and the impacts of changing climate and weather patterns. An understanding of fishers' spatial behavior is essential for evaluating catch trends or estimating per area yeilds. Location choice by fishers has largely been understood through foraging models and empirical studies in large scale, developed country fisheries. This paper uses participatory mapping, logbooks and remotely sensed weather (wind speed) data to explore the influence of weather and capital on the spatial behavior and success of coastal Kenyan smallscale fishers. We test generalized foraging models of fisher behavior. A reef crest separates available fishing grounds in the study area between two distinct areas of dissimilar fish catches. Over half of the fishing trips accessed grounds outside the reef, particularly in the calmer northeast monsoon season. Trips across the reef were more successful both in terms of catch and value per fisher and price per kg. Access across the reef was determined primarily by season but was also affected by metier and daily wind speeds. Amongst a sample of nonmotorised trips, crossing the reef was the most important variable for predicting Value Per Unit Effort (VPUE). Other things equal, more productive grounds ought to attract more effort, but access to the fishing grounds beyond the reef is constrained by fishers' access to capital, fluctuations in weather and the interaction between these variables. Fishers with low levels of capital are more affected by daily weather that limits access to the more profitable fishing grounds. Fishers with more capital are able to access more productive grounds more freely, but at the expense of extra compensation for the capital needed. Thus while gross returns to offshore trips exceed similar returns for nearshore trips, net returns are likely to be more equal. In our study a stark exception to the pattern of higher returns from more capitalised gear is the relatively high VPUE achieved by spear fishers, making the assumption of free movement of labour between gears not valid. The study also adds a temporal complexity to this picture by showing the likelihood of accessing grounds beyond the reef crest varies temporally by season.

  • 265.
    Tillberg, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Årstider – valda prosaimpressioner av Elena Guro i urval och översättning av Margareta Tillberg1994In: Park: ett idéprojekt om innerstadsparkernas framtida betydelse, användning och utformning / [ed] Leif Brodersen, Stockholm: Byggförlaget , 1994, p. 73-77Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 266. Ulmanen, Johanna
    et al.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Wallgren, Oskar
    Climate Adaptation in Swedish Forestry: Exploring the Debate and Policy Process, 1990-20122015In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 708-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how climate change adaptation concerns were integrated into the Swedish forestry debate and policy process during the period of 1990-2012, and draws lessons on barriers and opportunities identified in this process. Using a framework focusing on advocacy coalitions, we analyze how the adaptation debate in the forestry sector evolved over the period; who the main advocates for and against adaptation were; and which main arguments and processes affected the debate and policy. The results show that academics advocating climate change adaptation, aided by outside influences, such as political pressure for adaptation responses and the negative impacts of the 2005 storm Gudrun, contributed to an increased general awareness and understanding of adaptation issues amongst forestry stakeholders. Nonetheless, the strong dominance of actors arguing for increased forest production and the limited number and relatively poor organization of adaptation advocates have acted as barriers to mainstreaming adaptation concerns into forestry policy and practice. The dominant coalitions and their values have also determined the direction of debate and policy. The main conclusions for policymakers aiming to further this integration process are the importance of stimulating adaptation coalitions and the value of creating arenas for multiple stakeholder learning about adaptation.

  • 267. Urioste, Jorge
    et al.
    Franzén, Jessica
    Strandberg, Erling
    Windig, Johannes Jacob
    Genetic relationships among mastitis and alternative somatic cell count traits in the first 3 lactations of Swedish Holsteins2012In: Journal of Dairy Science, ISSN 0022-0302, E-ISSN 1525-3198, Vol. 95, no 6, p. 3428-3434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to estimate heritabilities of, and genetic correlations among, clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and alternative somatic cell count (SCC) traits in the first 3 lactations of Swedish Holstein cows, and to estimate genetic correlations for the alternative traits across lactations. Data from cows having their first calving between 2002 and 2009 were used. The alternative SCC traits were based on information on CM and monthly test-day (TD) records of SCC traits of 178,613, 116,079, and 64,474 lactations in first, second, or third parity, respectively. Sires had an average of 230, 165, or 124 daughters in the data (parities 1, 2, or 3, respectively). Subclinical mastitis was defined as the number of periods with an SCC >150,000 cell/mL and without a treatment for CM. Average TD SCC between 5 and 150 d was used as a reference trait. The alternative SCC traits analyzed were 1) presence of at least 1 TD SCC between 41,000 and 80,000 cell/mL (TD41-80), 2) at least 1 TD SCC >500,000 cells/mL, 3) standard deviation of log SCC over the lactation, 4) number of infection peaks, and 5) average days diseased per peak. The same variables in different parities were treated as distinct traits. The statistical model considered the effects of herd-year, year, month, age at calving, animal, and residual. Heritability estimates were 0.07 to 0.08 for CM, 0.12 to 0.17 for SCM, and 0.14 for SCC150. For the alternative traits, heritability estimates were 0.12 to 0.17 for standard deviation of log SCC, TD SCC >500,000 cells/mL, and average days diseased per peak, and 0.06 to 0.10 for TD41-80 and number of infection peaks. Genetic correlations between CM with SCM were 0.62 to 0.74, and correlations for these traits with the alternative SCC traits were positive and very high (0.67 to 0.82 for CM, and 0.94 to 0.99 for SCM). Trait TD41-80 was the only alternative trait that showed negative, favorable, genetic correlations with CM (-0.22 to -0.50) and SCM (-0.48 to -0.85) because it is associated with healthy cows. Genetic correlations among the alternative traits in all 3 parities were high (0.93 to 0.99, 0.92 to 0.98, and 0.78 to 0.99, respectively). The only exception was TD41-80, which showed moderate to strong negative correlations with the rest of the traits. Genetic correlations of the same trait across parities were in general positive and very high (0.83 to 0.99). In conclusion, these alternative SCC traits could be used in practical breeding programs aiming to improve udder health in dairy cattle.

  • 268.
    Van Holt, Tracy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Putz, Francis Edward
    Perpetuating the myth of the return of native forests2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 5, article id e1601768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vina et al. imply that native forests account for China's marked increase in tree cover and that tree plantations play a minimal role. All 71 tweets linked to the article reinforce the idea that China's native forests are returning, whereas a review of theirmethodology indicates that it is not likely accurate. Referring news articles (n = 19) were dominated by terms associated with native forests, whereas tree plantations were rarely mentioned.

  • 269. Voss, Rudi
    et al.
    Quaas, Martin F.
    Stoeven, Max T.
    Schmidt, Jörn O.
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Möllmann, Christian
    Ecological-Economic Fisheries Management Advice—Quantification of Potential Benefits for the Case of the Eastern Baltic COD Fishery2017In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 4, article id 209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishing is a social and economic activity, and consequently socio-economic considerations are important for resource management. While this is acknowledged in the theory of Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) and its sector-specific development Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management (EBFM), currently applied fishery management objectives often ignore economic considerations. Year-to-year management, however, implicitly responds to short-term economic interests, and consequently, regularly resorts to tactical short-term rather than strategic long-term decisions. The aim of this article is to introduce a new way of estimating management advice referred to as an “ecologically-constrained Maximum Economic Yield” (eMEY) strategy, which takes into account ecological criteria as well as short- to medium-term economic costs. We further illustrate what net cost reductions per year are possible applying the eMEY strategy compared with the existing way of setting total allowable catches (TACs). The eMEY approach aims at maximizing the economic benefits for the fishery as well as society (consumers), while safeguarding precautionary stock sizes. Using an age-structured optimization model parameterized for the Eastern Baltic cod case study, we find that application of eMEY advice results in more stability in catch advice. Quantification and visualization of the costs of deviating from eMEY advice offers a transparent basis for evaluating decision-making outcomes. The costs of overfishing are mainly borne by the commercial fishery, while fishing less than optimal is particularly costly for the processing industry and consumers. To foster the uptake of our eMEY approach in current advice given by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the EU fishery management system, we suggest an easy-to-implement scheme of providing integrated advice, also accounting for economic considerations.

  • 270.
    Vulturius, Gregor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Overcoming social barriers to learning and engagement with climate change adaptation: experiences with Swedish forestry stakeholders2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 217-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to significantly affect forestry in the coming decades. Thus, it is important to raise awareness of climate-related risks – and opportunities – among forest stakeholders, and engage them in adaptation. However, many social barriers have been shown to hinder adaptation, including perceptions of climate change as irrelevant or not urgent, underestimates of adaptive capacity and lack of trust in climate science. This study looks into how science-based learning experiences can help overcome social barriers to adaptation, and how learning in itself may be hindered by those barriers. The study examines the role of learning in engagement with climate change adaptation with the help of the theory of transformative learning. Our analysis is based on follow-up interviews conducted with 24 Swedish forestry stakeholders who had participated in a series of focus group discussions about climate change impacts and adaptation measures. We find that many stakeholders struggled to form an opinion based on what they perceived as uncertain and contested scientific knowledge. The study concludes that engagement with climate change adaptation can be increased if the scientific knowledge addresses the needs, objectives and aspirations of stakeholders and relates to their previous experiences with climate change and extreme weather events.

  • 271. Wade, Thierno Ibrahima
    et al.
    Ndiaye, Ousmane
    Mauclaire, Margaux
    Mbaye, Babacar
    Sagna, Maurice
    Guisse, Aliou
    Goffner, Deborah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Faculté de Médecine Secteur Nord, France.
    Biodiversity field trials to inform reforestation and natural resource management strategies along the African Great Green Wall in Senegal2018In: New forests, ISSN 0169-4286, E-ISSN 1573-5095, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 341-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest restoration is carried out with varying objectives in mind, one of which is biodiversity conservation. The present study examines the extent by which tree biodiversity could potentially be maximized in the context of the pan-African Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative (GGW). Towards this end, ten indigenous tree species were selected for study in the Ferlo region in Northern Senegal based on previous ethnobotanical studies in the zone. The species included Acacia senegal, Acacia nilotica, Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana, Acacia seyal, Adansonia digitata, Balanites aegyptiaca, Dalbergia melanoxylon, Sclerocarya birrea, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritiana. Germination experiments were first performed in the laboratory on seed lots from Senegal, Burkina Faso, Kenya, and South Africa prior to in situ sapling production in the nursery in Northern Senegal situated along the GGW. A split plot field design was employed and the effects of seed provenance (two per species) and the addition of organic fertilizer at the timing of planting were determined. Over the course of the 2 year experimental period, the newly planted trees, in addition to the naturally regenerating woody vegetation and herbaceous grasses were monitored in the fenced-in experimental field plot. Of the ten species, only B. aegyptiaca, A. tortilis subsp. raddiana, and S. birrea exhibited moderate survival rates. The effects of provenance and fertilizer addition were sporadic and species-dependent. Natural regeneration of woody species was abundant albeit characterized by low biodiversity whereas herbaceous grass species showed extensive biodiversity, especially under tree canopies as compared to open areas.

  • 272.
    Waldén, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Facing the future for grassland restoration – What about the farmers?2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 227, p. 305-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the 2010 Aichi Convention for Biological Diversity, the European Union has a goal to restore 15% of degraded ecosystems and their services by the year 2020 (target 2, Europe 2020). This includes restoration of semi-natural grasslands (SNGs). Management of both intact and restored SNGs is dependent on people's willingness to manage them. Due to low profitability, management abandonment still occurs all over Europe, which highlights the need to raise farmers' and landowners' perspectives. In this study, we combined survey data and in-depth interviews with farmers/landowners managing previously restored SNGs, to understand how they perceive the restoration process, the outcome and future management. Survey and interview data were analysed in relation to biodiversity and Agri-environmental payments data from the restored sites. Almost all respondents considered the restoration successful and the re-inventoried restored SNGs also showed an increase in plant diversity. Nevertheless, 10% of the restored SNGs were abandoned again post-restoration and 40% of the respondents were unsure if they would continue the management in the future. Abandoned management may cause a negative trend in terms of decreased biological, cultural and aesthetic values, in the local community, as well as for the society in general. Most respondents explained a strong dependency on Agri-environmental payments, both as a restoration incentive and for post-restoration management. Also non-financial support from authorities in form of feedback and advice was requested, as well as support from the local community and society as a whole. Future management in a longer time perspective was strongly coupled to the farm economy, i.e. received Agri-environmental payments at farm-level and profit from selling agricultural products, and whether the farmers had successors. We conclude that both social and ecological factors, here farm economy, authority support and proper management, must be in place for long-term success of grassland restoration.

  • 273.
    Wallner-Hahn, Sieglind
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Molander, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gallardo, Gloria
    Villasante, Sebastian
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Destructive gear use in a tropical fishery: Institutional factors influencing the willingness-and capacity to change2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 72, p. 199-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to empirically assess institutional aspects shaping fishers' behavior leading to unsustainable resource use, by using the example of destructive drag-net fishing in Zanzibar, Tanzania. A broad institutional approach was used to specifically assess institutional factors influencing the fishers' reasons for the current use of destructive drag-nets as well as their willingness- and economic capacity to change to less destructive gears. Different regulative, normative, cultural-cognitive and economic factors (tradition, group-belonging, social acceptance, common practice, identity of drag-net users and weak economic capacity) were identified as critical elements influencing the current use of destructive gears, as well as obstructing changes to other gears. Hence, the importance of addressing all of these factors, matching to the different contexts, rather than focusing on fast-moving regulative measures, is emphasized to increase chances of management success. More promising approaches would be resource allocations to more sustainable fishing gears, well-managed gear exchange programs, as well as alterations of slow-moving normative and cultural factors, e.g. awareness raising on the advantages of more sustainable fishing gears, their traditional and cultural values, information on the actual income they generate, as well as education and an exchange of traditional knowledge on how to use them.

  • 274. Wasof, Safaa
    et al.
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    Hattab, Tarek
    Jamoneau, Aurélien
    Gallet-Moron, Emilie
    Ampoorter, Evy
    Saguez, Robert
    Bennsadek, Lamine
    Bertrand, Romain
    Valdès, Alicia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Jules Verne University of Picardie, France.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Dominance of individual plant species is more important than diversity in explaining plant biomass in the forest understorey2018In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 521-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: How does plant community diversity influence variation in plant biomass? There are two competing hypotheses: the biomass ratio' hypothesis, where biomass is influenced by the abundance and traits of the most dominant species, and the diversity' hypothesis, where the diversity of organisms influences biomass through mechanisms such as niche complementarity. However, no studies have tested which one of these two hypotheses better explains the variation in plant biomass in the forest understorey.

    Location: Temperate deciduous forests in northern France.

    Methods: For the forest understorey, we assessed species diversity and biomass as well as soil and light conditions in 133 forest plots of 100m(2) each. Using mixed-effect models and after controlling for potential confounding factors, we tested the biomass ratio' hypothesis by relating the relative abundance of the most dominant species across our study sites and the CWM of plant traits (leaf area and plant height) to biomass. The diversity' hypothesis was tested by relating biomass to various measures of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity.

    Results: Biomass of the forest understorey was mainly related to the relative abundance and the trait values of the most dominant species, supporting the biomass ratio' hypothesis. In contrast to the diversity' hypothesis, functional diversity indices had a negative impact on biomass. We found no contribution of taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity indices.

    Conclusion: The abundance and traits of the most dominant species matter more than taxonomic, functional or phylogenetic diversity of the forest understorey in explaining its biomass. Thus, there is a need for experiments that aim to fully understand keystone species' responses to on-going changing biotic and abiotic conditions and to predict their effects on ecosystem functioning and processes.

  • 275.
    Westerberg, Lars-Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hagberg, Emilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Geomorphology and pedology of the Engaruka archaeological environment, Tanzania, and the effects of the 1997-1998 El Nino flash-flood2018In: Catena (Cremlingen. Print), ISSN 0341-8162, E-ISSN 1872-6887, Vol. 163, p. 244-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyse geomorphic, pedologic and hydrologic processes of relevance to archaeological research on the pre-colonial irrigation system at Engaruka, Tanzania. Although archaeological studies have been carried out in Engaruka for several decades; geophysical processes have not been in focus, despite having the potential to contribute to the understanding of both the ancient irrigation system and the current land use in Engaruka. Geomorphology and pedology were explored through field surveys and mapping using air photos and satellite images. The effects of the flash-flood during the 1997-1998 El Nino were mapped and quantified in the field. Maximum flash-flood discharge in Engaruka River was estimated using Marming's Equation. The geomorphic study revealed that Engaruka is an environment where high-magnitude processes (debris flows, flash-floods, rock slides) dominate landform development. Low-magnitude processes (sheet-wash, wind erosion), transfer fine-textured sediment to low terrain, causing successive coarsening of soil texture in fields of the ancient irrigation system. Andisol occurrence in the dry environment is associated with current irrigation, indicating incremental improvement of arable land resulting from human land use. Andisols appear transient; discontinuation of irrigation has caused a reversion to Entisols, as water retention and structure deteriorate upon drying. A flash-flood during the 1997-1998 El Nino caused destruction of parts of the archaeological remains, with severe impact on current land use and settlements. Approximately 80 ha (4%) of the total area of the ancient remains were covered by debris flow deposits and alluvium, or scoured by new drainage lines of the water courses. The denudation caused by the single flash-flood is estimated to 9 mm in the catchment of Engaruka River. Manning's Equation yielded a least possible maximum discharge in Engaruka River, in the order of 270 m(3)/s, some 600-700 times higher than normal, dry season discharge.

  • 276.
    Westling, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Leino, Matti W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nilsen, Asgeir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wennström, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Öström, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Crop and Livestock Diversity Cultivating Gastronomic Potential, Illustrated by Sensory Profiles of Landraces2019In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 84, no 5, p. 1162-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landraces, that is, crop and livestock not improved by formal breeding, are scarce in the industrialized world and are mainly maintained ex situ for breeding purposes. The natural biodiversity of these landraces may contribute to securing food production that can adapt to a changing climate, crop pathogens, diseases, and other agricultural challenges. In addition, landraces might also possess unique quality traits. Our aim is to take the idea of crop and livestock diversity further by connecting flavor differences of different landraces and varieties, with gastronomic applications. Do landraces provide a creative possibility of using distinct sensory characteristics to create new dishes and food products and/or to optimize recipes by finding the right variety for existing dishes and food products? This study suggests that apple, pea, pear, and poultry landraces, apart from being valuable in terms of biodiversity in sustainable food systems, also possess unique and distinct gastronomic potential. For example, citrus odors in apples, nutty taste in gray peas, astringent taste in pears, and high odor intensity of stable in poultry is of culinary relevance when working with apple juice, plant-based alternatives to meat, poached pears, and roasted rooster, respectively. To fully explore, and take advantage of, the gastronomic potential landraces possess, additional studies are needed in order to find suitable cooking methods and development of recipes. Practical Application Seeking to increase market interest for landraces, highlighting gastronomic values could stimulate higher demand and, in turn, contribute to larger and more resilient populations preserved in situ. Specifically, the paper is of use to (I) crop and livestock producers and food companies who wish to provide products with greater sensory variation, (II) individuals, companies, and organizations with the aim to increase landrace demand and/or preservation, and (III) breeders and genetic engineers managing genetic traits of landraces and other varieties.

  • 277. White, Theresa L.
    et al.
    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Zucco, Gesualdo M.
    Prescott, John
    Thought for food: Cognitive influences on chemosensory perceptions and preferences2020In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 79, article id 103776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensory and consumer research often focuses more on bottom-up than top-down influences on consumers' perception and acceptance of foods. Yet, cognitive processes create and transform incoming sensory information originating from separate senses, including olfaction, gustation, and somatosensation, into the perception of flavour. The present paper discusses five cognitive processes that affect human chemosensory perception and responses to food flavours: Attention, language, memory, learning, and metacognition. It is argued that each of these processes are important in shaping interactions with food via the chemical senses. Attention moderates perception through its distribution across the environment, fine-tuning it for particular stimuli. Interactions among smells, tastes, and textures are acquired through learning, as are hedonic properties. Language affects food acceptability and preference, as does the memory of prior experiences with a food, even when they are not at a conscious level of processing. Metacognitive knowledge of personal capabilities indirectly influences the results of sensory evaluations. Future sensory and consumer research should take into account the significant role that these cognitive factors play in processing incoming chemosensory information.

  • 278. Wickström, Håkan
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Niklas B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Institute of Freshwater Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Traceability of stocked eels - the Swedish approach2014In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stocking of eels is one of the management measures in the eel regulation (EC No 1100/2007) to recover the stock. The Swedish Eel Management Plan doubles the numbers stocked to 2.5 million eels per year. Whether stocked eels contribute to the spawning stock or not has been questioned: stocked eels might not migrate as successful as wild recruited eels. The EIFAAC/ICES Working Group on Eel (2011) recommended that all stocked eel should be marked and thereby separable from wild eel in subsequent sampling'. Since 2009, eels stocked in Sweden have been bathed in a strontium (Sr) solution, which gives a detectable mark in their otoliths. So far, 5.5 million eels have been marked in Sweden; Finland imports eels for stocking via Sweden, and these 0.6 million eels were marked by two Sr rings. We present results on marking success and recapture rates and also from marking with alizarin complexone and PIT tags in combination with Sr. If all eels stocked in the Baltic are marked, their contribution to the spawning run can be estimated. Using different combinations of marks in different regions, the relative contribution from separate stocking programmes can be evaluated. To increase the set of suitable marks, barium was tested as an additional tracer.

  • 279.
    Widgren, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Towards a historical geography of intensive farming in eastern Africa2004In: Islands of intensive agriculture in Eastern Africa: Past and present / [ed] Mats Widgren & John Sutton, Oxford: James Currey Publishers, 2004Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 280.
    Widgren, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Sutton, John E.G.
    Islands of intensive agriculture in Eastern Africa: past & present2004Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Islands of intensive agriculture are areas of local cultivation surrounded by low-density livestock herders or extensive cultivators. Along the line of the East Africa Rift Valley, and in the highlands on either side, communities of considerable historical depth have developed highly specialized agricultural regimes, employing such labor-intensive devices as furrow irrigation, hillside terracing, and stall-feeding of cattle.

    This collection continues the advance in the understanding of African agricultural practices through the combination of geographical, ethnographic, and archaeological research, concentrating on actual fields, farming strategies, and cultivation techniques.

  • 281.
    Wild, Birgit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Li, Jian
    Pihlblad, Johanna
    Bengtson, Per
    Rütting, Tobias
    Decoupling of priming and microbial N mining during a short-term soil incubation2019In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 129, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability depend on the breakdown of soil polymers such as lignin, chitin, and protein that represent the major fraction of soil C and N but are too large for immediate uptake by plants and microorganisms. Microorganisms may adjust the production of enzymes targeting different polymers to optimize the balance between C and N availability and demand, and for instance increase the depolymerization of N-rich compounds when C availability is high and N availability low (microbial N mining). Such a mechanism could mitigate plant N limitation but also lie behind a stimulation of soil respiration frequently observed in the vicinity of plant roots (priming effect). We here compared the effect of increased C and N availability on the depolymerization of native bulk soil organic matter (SOM), and of C-13-enriched lignin, chitin, and protein added to the same soil in two complementary ten day microcosm incubation experiments. A significant reduction of chitin depolymerization (described by the recovery of chitin-derived C in the sum of dissolved organic, microbial and respired C) upon N addition indicated that chitin was degraded to serve as a microbial N source under low-N conditions and replaced in the presence of an immediately available alternative. Protein and lignin depolymerization in contrast were not affected by N addition. Carbon addition enhanced microbial N demand and SOM decomposition rates, but significantly reduced lignin, chitin, and protein depolymerization. Our findings contrast the hypothesis of increased microbial N mining as a key driver behind the priming effect and rather suggest that C addition promoted the mobilization of other soil C pools that replaced lignin, chitin, and protein as microbial C sources, for instance by releasing soil compounds from mineral bonds. We conclude that SOM decomposition is interactively controlled by multiple mechanisms including the balance between C vs N availability. Disentangling these controls will be crucial for understanding C and N cycling on an ecosystem scale.

  • 282. Winsa, Marie
    et al.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Marini, Lorenzo
    Ockinger, Erik
    Recovery of plant diversity in restored semi-natural pastures depends on adjacent land use2015In: Applied Vegetation Science, ISSN 1402-2001, E-ISSN 1654-109X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 413-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions - Does restoration success of formerly abandoned semi-natural pastures depend on adjacent land use? Is species richness higher in restored pastures adjacent to an intact semi-natural pasture than in restored pastures adjacent to arable land? Does community similarity between a restored and an adjacent intact pasture decrease with distance from the border between the two pastures? Do differences in species richness and community similarity decrease over time?

    Location - Agricultural landscapes in south-central Sweden.

    Methods - The plant community in previously abandoned but now restored semi-natural pastures was surveyed along a distance gradient from the border between the restored pastures and adjacent fields towards the centre of the pastures. The restored pastures were located adjacent to either a crop field (N=8) or a continuously grazed pasture (N=6), and differed in time since restoration (1-13yr).

    Results - The total species richness was higher in pastures adjoining continuously grazed pastures compared to crop fields. Richness of both total and specialist species increased with time since restoration. Irrespective of adjacent land use, richness of specialist species decreased with increasing distance from the edge, an effect that became weaker with increasing time since restoration. The similarity in species composition compared to that in adjacent continuously grazed pasture also decreased towards the centre of the restored pasture.

    Conclusions - Our results suggest that restoration of biodiversity in semi-natural pastures benefits from adjacent pastures that can act as source habitats. The most likely mechanism is step-wise short-distance dispersal, but also other processes, such as more long-distance dispersal, seed bank dynamics and historical legacies are probably involved. To best succeed in habitat restoration in fragmented landscapes, the spatial location of source populations must be considered.

  • 283.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Att bruka men inte äga: arrende och annan nyttjanderätt till mark i svenskt jordbruk från medeltid till idag2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Jansson, Johanna
    Arnberg, Wolter
    Moström, Jerker
    Nielsen, Michael
    Fjärranalys i kulturmiljövårdens tjänst2007Report (Other academic)
  • 285. Zhang, Quan
    et al.
    Phillips, Richard P.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Scott, Russell L.
    Oishi, A. Christopher
    Finzi, Adrien
    Daly, Edoardo
    Vargas, Rodrigo
    Novick, Kimberly A.
    Changes in photosynthesis and soil moisture drive the seasonal soil respiration-temperature hysteresis relationship2018In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 259, p. 184-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In nearly all large-scale terrestrial ecosystem models, soil respiration is represented as a function of soil temperature. However, the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature is highly variable across sites and there is often a pronounced hysteresis in the soil respiration-temperature relationship over the course of the growing season. This phenomenon indicates the importance of biophysical factors beyond just temperature in controlling soil respiration. To identify the potential mechanisms of the seasonal soil respiration-temperature hysteresis, we developed a set of numerical models to demonstrate how photosynthesis, soil moisture, and soil temperature, alone and in combination, affect the hysteresis relationship. Then, we used a variant of the model informed by observations of soil respiration, soil temperature, photosynthesis, and soil moisture from multiple mesic and semi-arid ecosystems to quantify the frequency of hysteresis and identify its potential controls. We show that the hysteresis can result from the seasonal cycle of photosynthesis (which supplies carbon to rhizosphere respiration), and soil moisture (which limits heterotrophic respiration when too low or too high). Using field observations of soil respiration, we found evidence of seasonal hysteresis in 9 out of 15 site-years across 8 diverse biomes. Specifically, clockwise hysteresis occurred when photosynthesis preceded seasonal soil temperature and counterclockwise hysteresis occurred when photosynthesis lagged soil temperature. We found that across all sites, much of the respiration-temperature lag was explained by the decoupling of photosynthesis and temperature, highlighting the importance of recently assimilated carbon to soil respiration. An analysis of observations from 129 FLUXNET sites revealed that time lags between gross primary productivity (a proxy for canopy photosynthesis) and soil temperature were common phenomena, which would tend to drive counterclockwise hysteresis at low-latitude sites and clockwise hysteresis at high-latitude sites. Collectively, our results show that incorporating photosynthesis and soil moisture in the standard exponential soil respiration-temperature model (i.e., Q(10) model) improves the explanatory power of models at local scales.

  • 286. Zhou, Fang
    et al.
    Sultanbawa, Yasmina
    Feng, Huan
    Wang, Yong-Lei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Meng, Qingtao
    Wang, Yue
    Zhang, Zhigiang
    Zhang, Run
    A New Red-Emitting Fluorescence Probe for Rapid and Effective Visualization of Bisulfite in Food Samples and Live Animals2019In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 67, no 15, p. 4375-4383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of new methods for rapid and effective detection of bisulfite (HSO3-) in food samples and imaging of HSO3- intake in animals is of significant importance due to the key roles of HSO3- in food quality assurance and community health. In this work, a new responsive fluorescence probe, EQC, is reported for the quantitative detection of HSO3- in food samples and visualization of HSO3- intake in animals. Upon addition of HSO3-, the UV-vis absorption and red emission of EQC were significantly decreased within 120 s. The changes in absorption and emission spectra of EQC were rationalized by theoretical computations. The proposed reaction mechanism of EQC with HSO3- was confirmed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and spectroscopic titration measurements. EQC has the advantages of high sensitivity, selectivity (a detection limit of 18.1 nM), and fast response toward HSO3-, which enable rapid and effective HSO3- detection in buffer solution. The practical applications of EQC were demonstrated by the detection of HSO3- in food samples and the imaging of HSO3- intake in live animals.

  • 287.
    Åberg, Amanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Rice yields under water-saving irrigation management: A meta-analysis2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water scarcity combined with an increasing world population is creating pressure to develop new methods for producing food using less water. Rice is a staple crop with a very high water demand. This study examined the success in maintaining yields under water-saving irrigation management, including alternate wetting and drying (AWD). A meta-analysis was conducted examining yields under various types of water-saving irrigation compared to control plots kept under continuous flooding. The results indicated that yields can indeed be maintained under AWD as long as the field water level during the dry cycles is not allowed to drop below -15 cm, or the soil water potential is not allowed to drop below -10 kPa. Yields can likewise be maintained using irrigation intervals of 2 days, but the variability increases. Midseason drainage was not found to affect yield, though non-flooded conditions when maintained throughout most of the crop season appeared to be detrimental to yields. Increasingly negative effects on yields were found when increasing the severity of AWD or the length of the drainage periods. Potential benefits and drawbacks of water-saving irrigation management with regards to greenhouse gas emissions, soil quality and nutrient losses were discussed to highlight the complexity of the challenges of saving water in rice production. 

  • 288.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nevonen, Nea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Veem, Katarina
    Tinkering with a tanker-slow evolution of a Swedish ecosystem approach2017In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 443-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecosystem approach is a salient policy paradigm originating from a scientific understanding of the reality of complex ecosystem dynamics. In this article, we investigate how Swedish national marine policies and practice between 2002 and 2015 have changed towards an ecosystem approach. Government documents, the scientific literature, institutional changes, changes in legislation, pilot projects, and changes in science and public opinion were reviewed and combined with information from expert interviews. We found that changes in policy and practice have slowly stimulated the development of an ecosystem approach, but that limited political leadership, challenges of coordination, different agency cultures, and limited learning appears to be key barriers for further and more substantial change. We compare and contrast the Swedish national process of change with other documented experiences of implementing an ecosystem approach and find that several countries struggle with similar challenges. Substantial work still remains in Sweden and we provide suggestions for how to stimulate further and more substantial change at the national level.

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