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  • 251.
    Strömberg, Dag
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Roll-Pettersson, Lise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Awasthi, Smita
    Monitoring indices of happiness in children with autism: Effects of a naturalistic parent-implemented play-based shaping intervention2022In: 10th European Association for Behaviour Analysis Conference, Tampere, 15-18 June 2022, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that indices of happiness (IOH) can provide useful information regarding the social validity of behavioural interventions. One way to measure happiness might be to simply ask the participants how they are feeling. However, when focusing on populations lacking the skills to effectively communicate their internal emotional states, such as young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), indices other than verbal self-reports are necessary. Monitoring observable behaviours likely correlated with states of happiness can be one method. In this study, IOH were measured in two young children diagnosed with ASD, in a naturalistic parent-implemented play-based shaping intervention to improve eye contact. IOH were measured in three different social play activities per child. The parents were trained and supervised via telehealth. IOH were individualized and operationally defined for each child, based upon parent responses to a pre-intervention questionnaire, and monitored via video recordings. Interobserver agreement was 92% (range 88-100%). The results, as measured by the observed pre and post intervention IOH, as well as parents' self-reports, indicate a high degree of social validity. This study was a collaboration between Stockholm University and Behavior Momentum India, conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • 252. Sundin, Eva C.
    et al.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boëtius, Siv Boalt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Supervisor trainees' and their supervisors' perceptions of attainment of knowledge and skills: An empirical evaluation of a psychotherapy supervisor training programme2008In: British Journal of Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0144-6657, E-ISSN 2044-8260, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 381-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the success of a 2-year, part-time training programme for psychotherapy supervisors. A second aim was to examine factors that might contribute to perceived knowledge and skills attainment during the training course.

    Design: This is a naturalistic, longitudinal study where several measures are used to examine group process and outcome.

    Methods: Supervisor trainees' (N=21) and their facilitators' (N=6) ratings of learning (knowledge and skills), relations to the supervisor and supervision group, usage of the group, and supervisor style were completed at three time points.

    Results: The findings suggested that both trainees and their supervisors perceived that the trainees attained a substantial amount of knowledge and skills during the course. In accordance with the literature and expectations, the regression analysis suggested a strong negative association between a strong focus on group processes in the initial and middle phases of the training and perceived knowledge and skills attainment in the final phase of the training. The expected, positive role of relations among trainees in the supervision group in the first half of the training and perceived knowledge and skills attainment in the final part of the training was obtained, whilst the hypothesized significance of the relationship between trainee and supervisor did not receive support.

    Conclusions: The supervisory course seemed to provide a training that allowed trainees to attain knowledge and skills that are necessary for psychotherapy supervisors. The results of this pilot study also emphasize the need of more research on learning in the context of group supervision in psychotherapy.

  • 253. Sundström, Christopher
    et al.
    Gajecki, Mikael
    Johansson, Magnus
    Blankers, Matthijs
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Stenlund-Gens, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Guided and Unguided Internet-Based Treatment for Problematic Alcohol Use - A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 7, article id e0157817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The Internet has increasingly been studied as mode of delivery for interventions targeting problematic alcohol use. Most interventions have been fully automated, but some research suggests that adding counselor guidance may improve alcohol consumption outcomes. Methods An eight-module Internet-based self-help program based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was tested among Internet help-seekers. Eighty participants with problematic alcohol use according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; scores of >= 6 for women and >= 8 for men) were recruited online from an open access website and randomized into three different groups. All groups were offered the same self-help program, but participants in two of the three groups received Internet-based counselor guidance in addition to the self-help program. One of the guidance groups was given a choice between guidance via asynchronous text messages or synchronous text-based chat, while the other guidance group received counselor guidance via asynchronous text messages only. Results In the choice group, 65% (13 of 20 participants) chose guidance via asynchronous text messages. At the 10-week post-treatment follow-up, an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that participants in the two guidance groups (choice and messages) reported significantly lower past week alcohol consumption compared to the group without guidance; 10.8 (SD = 12.1) versus 22.6 (SD = 18.4); p = 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.77. Participants in both guidance groups reported significantly lower scores on the AUDIT at follow-up compared to the group without guidance, with a mean score of 14.4 (SD = 5.2) versus 18.2 (SD = 5.9); p = 0.003; Cohen's d = 0.68. A higher proportion of participants in the guidance groups said that they would recommend the program compared to the group without guidance (81% for choice; 93% for messages versus 47% for self-help). Conclusion Self-help programs for problematic alcohol use can be more effective in reducing alcohol consumption over a 10-week period when counselor guidance is added.

  • 254.
    Sunnhed, Rikard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy for insomnia disorder: efficacy, moderators and mediators2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia disorder is the second most prevalent mental disorder and the most prevalent sleep disorder. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) is considered the treatment of choice with well-documented effects. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of patients fail to respond, and an even larger proportion fail to remit from the condition. In addition, very little is known about the effects of CBT-I's separate components or about what moderates and mediates their effect. Gaining knowledge about components, predictors, and mediators could be one route for optimizing and tailoring CBT-I and ultimately enhancing outcomes.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to advance our theoretical and clinical knowledge about CBT-I by exploring Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Behavior Therapy's (BT) comparative efficacy and their potential moderators and mediators.

    To pursue the study aims, one large randomized controlled trial was performed that involved 219 individuals with insomnia disorder randomized to CT, BT, or a waitlist control group. Study 1 examined CT and BT's comparative efficacy against a waitlist control on a broad range of outcomes. Study 2 examined theoretically derived constructs from both therapy models, and insomnia-associated correlates as potential predictors and moderators of outcome for the two therapies. Study 3 examined theoretically driven process variables from the cognitive model as mediators of outcome in both CT and BT.

    Study I showed that both therapies outperformed the waitlist and turned out as comparably effective treatments on the majority of outcomes. BT was associated with significantly more adverse events, whereas CT received significantly more minutes of telephone support.

    Study II showed that early morning waketime and bedtime variability moderated the effect of both CT and BT. Those experiencing lower early morning waketime and bedtime variability achieved greater insomnia severity reductions in CT. In contrast, those experiencing greater early morning waketime and bedtime variability achieved larger insomnia severity reductions in BT. The findings also showed that greater insomnia severity, waketime after sleep onset, and lower sleep efficiency at baseline predicted greater insomnia severity at posttreatment.

    Study III provided evidence that reductions in dysfunctional beliefs and monitoring for sleep during treatment acted as drivers of the reduction in insomnia severity in CT. The results also indicated that reductions in safety behaviors and dysfunctional beliefs mediated reductions in insomnia severity in BT, although not as clear as the drivers of change for CT since they were also reciprocally predicted by reductions in insomnia severity.

    Study I indicate that CT and BT achieve similar effects and that both therapies are effective as standalone therapies for insomnia disorder. Study II provided evidence that the two therapies in CBT-I can depend on different patient characteristics at baseline to be effective. The results from study II thus suggest that the therapies in CBT-I could be tailored based on patient's characteristics before treatment to optimize outcomes. Study III provided support for the role of cognitive processes as important routes to remediate insomnia and underscore the value of assessing and targeting dysfunctional beliefs, monitoring, and safety behaviors to achieve reductions in insomnia severity and emphasize the importance of these concepts in understanding insomnia.

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    Cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy for insomnia disorder: efficacy, moderators and mediators
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  • 255.
    Sunnhed, Rikard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindner, Philip
    Harvey, Allison
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    Mediators of cognitive therapy and behavior therapy for insomnia disorder: a test of the processes in the cognitive modelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine if the processes in the cognitive model mediate cognitive therapy (CT) and behavior therapy (BT) for insomnia.

    Method: Individuals diagnosed insomnia disorder (n=219) were randomized to telephone supported internet-delivered cognitive therapy (n=72), behavior therapy (n=73), or a waitlist (n=74). Cognitive processes (worry, dysfunctional beliefs, monitoring and safety behaviors) proposed to maintain insomnia and treatment outcome (insomnia severity; ISI) were assessed biweekly. Criteria for evaluating mediators were assessed via parallel process growth modeling and cross-lagged panel models.

    Results: Parallel process growth modeling showed that dysfunctional beliefs, monitoring and safety behaviors significantly mediated the effects of both CT and BT. Cross-lagged panel models confirmed that dysfunctional beliefs and monitoring, which approached significance, drove the change for CT. In BT, however, prior changes in ISI predicted later changes in worry and monitoring, and reciprocal influences among processes and outcomes were observed for dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviors. The effect of safety behavior on outcome was significantly larger for BT compared to CT.

    Conclusion: Together, the findings support the role of dysfunctional beliefs and monitoring as processes of change in CT, and safety behaviors as a specific mediator in BT. Limited evidence was provided for worry as a mediator. These findings have relevance for the conceptualizations of insomnia, future research, and clinical management.

  • 256.
    Sunnhed, Rikard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Harvey, Allison
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    Predictors and moderators of cognitive therapy and behavior therapy for insomnia disorderManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Little is known on what pretreatment patient characteristics the outcome of Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Behavioral Therapy (BT) for insomnia disorder depends on. Identifying for whom treatment is most useful is an essential step toward treatment optimization and personalized care. Therefore, the purpose with this investigation was to examine both theory-driven constructs and insomnia-associated clinical variables as potential predictors and moderators of outcome in CT and BT.

    Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-four participants diagnosed with insomnia disorder were randomized to 10 weekly internet-delivered modules of CT or BT with 15 minutes of telephone support per week. General clinical predictors and theory-driven moderators (cognitive and behavioral processes), assessed in a former RCT, were analyzed using multiple linear regression with insomnia severity as the outcome.

    Results: Bedtime variability and early morning waketime interacted with treatment and indicated that lower bedtime variability and early morning waketime were associated with a higher effect for CT, whereas the opposite was true for BT. Waketime after sleep onset, insomnia severity index, and sleep efficiency emerged as predictors that indicated prognostic value of treatment outcome.

    Conclusions: Five constructs provided predictive values in the outcome of cognitive therapy and behavior therapy. The moderator findings are in line with the theoretical models of CT and BT and may have implications for future research and clinical practice of CBT-I, should they be replicated. Clinically, this could implicate the ability to match therapy to patient features in order to optimize outcomes.

  • 257.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The time saving bias and related human judgmental shortcomings2011In: Perspectives on thinking, judging and decision making / [ed] W. Brun,, G. Keren, G. Kirkeböen, & H. Montgomery, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2011, p. 120-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, people tend to overestimate the time that can be saved by speeding up from a high speed and underestimate the time that can be saved by increasing a slow speed. This was called the time-saving bias by Svenson (2008). The bias was first found in a car driving context. However, corresponding biases can be found in solutions of other problems with the same normative mathematical function but in different contexts, such as, fuel saving, resource saving, health care and industrial planning decisions. In the traffic domain, the time saving bias can be linked to judgments of other variables related to driving speed and to speed perception. To exemplify, biases in speed and average speed judgments can be predicted by inferences from the time-saving bias. The chapter ends with a brief discussion of the applied applications of this research and possible psychological processes generating the the time-saving bias.

  • 258.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Decision Research, USA.
    Borg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On the human inability to process inverse variables in intuitive judgments: different cognitive processes leading to the time loss bias2020In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 344-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time loss bias describes overestimation of time lost after speed decreases from high speeds and underestimations after decreases from low driving speeds. Participants judged the speed decrease from one speed (e.g. 130 km/h) that would give the same time loss as a decrease from another speed (e.g. from 40 to 30 km/h). We carried out descriptive spectral analyses of distributions of judgments for each problem. Each distribution peak was associated with a judgment rule. The first study found two different judgment processes both leading to the time loss bias: a Difference process rule used for 20% and a Ratio rule used for 31% of the judgments. The correct rule applied to 10% of the judgments. The second study added verbal protocols. The results showed that the Ratio rule was most common (41%) followed by the Difference (12%) and correct (8%) rules. Verbal reports supported these results.

  • 259.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Decision Research, Oregon, USA.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Gonzalez, Nichel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Braking from different speeds: Judgments of collision speed if a car does not stop in time2012In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 45, p. 487-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of speed limits is to keep driving speed low enough for drivers to be able to pay attention to relevant information and timely execute maneuvers so that the car can be driven in a safe way and stopped in time. If a driver violates a speed limit or drives too fast she or he will not be able to stop as quickly as from a slower speed. We asked participants to imagine that they themselves had driven a car outside a school at a speed of 30 km/h when a child suddenly had rushed into the street. From this speed it was possible to stop the car just in front of the child after braking as quickly and forcefully as possible. We then asked the participants to imagine that they drove the same street at a higher speed of 50 km/h and the child appeared at the same place as before. At what speed would the car hit the child after braking in the same way as before? This kind of problems were presented in three studies and the results showed that the judged speeds of collision were always underestimated in different hypothetical driving context scenarios by judges differing in numerical skills. This indicates an overly optimistic view on the possibilities to reduce speed quickly if the driving speed is too fast, which is an important component of attitudes towards speed limits, their legitimacy and recommended driving speeds. Further implications of the results were discussed last.

  • 260.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Slovic, Paul
    Mertz, C. K.
    Fuglestad, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of main actor, outcome and affect on biased braking speedjudgments2012In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 235-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjects who judged speed in a driving scenario overestimated how fast they could decelerate when speeding comparedto when keeping within the speed limit (Svenson, 2009). The purpose of the present studies were to replicatestudies conducted in Europe with subjects in the U.S., to study the influence of speed unit (kph vs. mph), affectivereactions to outcome (collision) and identity of main actor (driver) on braking speed judgments. The results replicatedthe European findings and the outcome affective factor (passing a line/killing a child) and the actor factor (subject/driverin general) had significant effects on judgments of braking speed. The results were related to psychological theory andapplied implications were discussed.

  • 261.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Decision Research, USA.
    Isohanni, Freja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Salo, Ilkka
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Airborne SARS-CoV2 virus exposure, interpersonal distance, face mask and perceived risk of infection2024In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 2285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants judged the risk of an infection during a face to face conversation at different interpersonal distances from a SARS-CoV-2 infected person who wore a face mask or not, and in the same questionnaire answered questions about Corona related issues. Keeping a distance to an infected person serves as a protective measure against an infection. When an infected person moves closer, risk of infection increases. Participants were aware of this fact, but underestimated the rate at which the risk of infection increases when getting closer to an infected person, e.g., from 1.5 to 0.5 m (perceived risk increase = 3.33 times higher, objective = 9.00 times higher). This is alarming because it means that people can take risks of infection that they are not aware of or want to take, when they approach another possibly virus infected person. Correspondingly, when an infected person moves away the speed of risk decrease was underestimated, meaning that people are not aware of how much safer they will be if they move away from an infected person. The perceived risk reducing effects of a face mask were approximately correct. Judgments of infection risk at different interpersonal distances (with or without a mask) were unrelated to how often a person used a mask, avoided others or canceled meetings during the COVID-19 pandemic. Greater worry in general and in particular over COVID-19, correlated positively with more protective behavior during the pandemic, but not with judgments of infection risk at different interpersonal distances. Participants with higher scores on a cognitive numeracy test judged mask efficiency more correctly, and women were more worried and risk avoiding than men. The results have implications for understanding behavior in a pandemic, and are relevant for risk communications about the steep increase in risk when approaching a person who may be infected with an airborne virus.

  • 262.
    Szychowska, Malina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Eklund, Rasmus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Effects of sound pressure level and visual perceptual load on the auditory mismatch negativity2017In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 640, p. 37-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory change detection has been studied extensively with mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential. Because it is unresolved if the duration MMN depends on sound pressure level (SPL), we studied effects of different SPLs (56, 66, and 76 dB) on the duration MMN. Further, previous research suggests that the MMN is reduced by a concurrent visual task. Because a recent behavioral study found that high visual perceptual load strongly reduced detection sensitivity to irrelevant sounds, we studied if the duration MMN is reduced by load, and if this reduction is stronger at low SPLs. Although a duration MMN was observed for all SPLs, the MMN was apparently not moderated strongly by SPL, perceptual load, or their interaction, because all 95% CIs overlapped zero. In a contrast analysis of the MMN (across loads) between the 56-dB and 76-dB groups, evidence (BF = 0.31) favored the null hypothesis that duration MMN is unaffected by a 20-dB increase in SPL. Similarly, evidence (BF = 0.19) favored the null hypothesis that effects of perceptual load on the duration MMN do not change with a 20-dB increase in SPL. However, evidence (BF = 3.12) favored the alternative hypothesis that the effect of perceptual load in the present study resembled the overall effect in a recent meta-analysis. When the present findings were combined with the meta-analysis, the effect of load (low minus high) was −0.43 μV, 95% CI [−0.64, −0.22] suggesting that the duration MMN decreases with load. These findings provide support for a sensitive monitoring system of the auditory environment.

  • 263.
    Szychowska, Malina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Visual load does not decrease the auditory steady‐state response to 40‐Hz amplitude‐modulated tones2020In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 57, no 12, article id e13689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The auditory pathway consists of multiple recurrent loops of afferent and efferent connections that extend from the cochlea up to the prefrontal cortex. The early-filter theory proposes that these loops allow topdown filtering of early and middle latency auditory responses. Furthermore, the adaptive filtering model suggests that filtering of irrelevant auditory stimuli should start lower in the pathway during more demanding tasks. If so, the 40-Hz auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) to irrelevant sounds should be affected by top-down crossmodal attention to a visual task, and effects should vary with the load of the visual task. Because few studies have examined this possibility, we conducted two preregistered studies that manipulated visual load (Study 1: N = 43, Study 2: N = 45). Study 1 used two levels (low and high), and Study 2 used four levels (no, low, high, and very high). Subjects were asked to ignore a 500-Hz taskirrelevant tone that was amplitude-modulated to evoke 40-Hz ASSRs. Results from Bayesian analyses provided moderate to extreme support for no effect of load (or of task) on ASSRs. Results also supported no interaction with time (i.e., over blocks, over minutes, or with changes in ASSRs that were synchronized with the onset of the visual stimuli). Further, results provided moderate support for no correlation between effects of load and working memory capacity. Because the present findings support the robustness of ASSRs against manipulations of crossmodal attention, they are not consistent with the adaptive filtering model.

  • 264.
    Szychowska, Malina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Visual load effects on the auditory steady state responses to 20-, 40-, and 80-Hz amplitude-modulated tones2021In: Physiology & Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, Vol. 228, article id 113240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ignoring background sounds while focusing on a visual task is a necessary ability in everyday life. If attentional resources are shared between modalities, processing of task-irrelevant auditory information should become attenuated when attentional capacity is exhausted by visual demands. According to earlyfilter theory, top-down attenuation of auditory responses is possible at various stages of the auditory pathway through multiple recurrent loops. Furthermore, the adaptive filtering model of selective attention suggests that filtering occurs early when concurrent visual tasks are demanding (e.g., high load) and late when tasks are easy (e.g., low load). This study examined effects of visual load on auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) to determine where in the auditory pathway the filtering occurs. Subjects performed a visual task with three levels of load (no, low, and high) while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The auditory stimuli were 500-Hz tones amplitude-modulated at 20 Hz, 40 Hz, or 80 Hz to target different processing stages of the auditory pathway. Results from bayesian analyses suggest that ASSRs are unaffected by visual load. These findings also suggest that attentional resources are modality specific and that the attentional filter of auditory processing does not vary with visual task demands.

  • 265. Takahashi, Masaya
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Otsuka, Yasumasa
    Nakata, Akinori
    Kaida, Kosuke Kaida
    Haratani, Takashi
    Fukasawa, Kenji
    Relative Influences of Sickness Absence and Presence on Job Stress Factors, Chronic Fatigue, and Sleep Disturbances2007In: The XIII th European Concress of Work and Organizational Psychology, EAWOP, May 9-12 2007, Stockholm, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Being at work when sick has received wide attention because of its probable costs to both employees and employers. Limited data is available for the roles of sickness absence in the health effects of sickness presence. We examined job stress factors, chronic fatigue, sleep disturbances among factory workers while considering their status of both sickness absence and presence.

    Methods: A total of 211 employees (mean age 45 years; 193 men) working at a pulp and chemical factory completed and returned a questionnaire asking sickness absence and presence during the previous one year, job stress factors, chronic fatigue, sleep disturbances, and background information (response rate = 97%). Participants were divided into four groups according to whether or not they took sickness absence and/or sickness presence. We compared these four groups for the above dependent variables by analysis of covariance and a multiple logistic regression model to adjust for the possible effects of gender and age.

    Results: Workers reporting no sickness absence but presence (12% of the participants) showed the highest levels of quantitative workload, variance in workload, depressive symptoms, and chronic fatigue, and the lowest job satisfaction among the groups, though not significant compared to the sickness absence plus presence group (8%). No significant group differences were observed for the other factors of job stress or insomnia symptoms. But the no sickness absence but presence workers reported the greatest sleepiness at work.

    Conclusions: Going to work despite being sick may be associated with adverse stress reactions. Nevertheless, our findings favor the hypothesis that taking a sickness absence appropriately may have some effects to alleviate the presence-related reactions.

  • 266.
    Tall, Nina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Årbro, Teresia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sambandet mellan patienters eget arbete i internetformedlad KBT och behandlingsutfall2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsstöd finns för ett positivt samband mellan genomförandet avhemuppgifter och behandlingsutfall. Syftet med denna uppsats var attundersöka om det fanns ett samband mellan behandlingsutfallet i KBT-behandling och dels hur mycket tid patienter arbetat med behandlingen,dels hur stor del av behandlingen som patienterna genomfört. Genom ettfrågeformulär undersöktes vad patienterna själva ansåg gjorde det lättarerespektive svårare för dem att ta sig tid att arbeta med behandlingen.Totalt deltog 63 patienter från tre internetförmedlade behandlarstöddasjälvhjälpsbehandlingar, en för egentlig depression, en för paniksyndromsamt en för social fobi. Det fanns ett medelstarkt positivt samband mellantiden deltagarna ägnat åt att göra olika övningar och behandlingsutfall(r61=0,30, p=0,02) samt ett medelstarkt positivt samband mellanbehandlingsutfall och hur stor del av behandlingen som patienternagenomfört (r61=0,44, p=0,001). Som underlättande faktor angavs blandannat socialt stöd medan hög arbetsbelastning och familjeproblem ansågsgöra det svårare att ta sig tid.

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    tall.arbro.2011.internet.kbt.tid
  • 267. Talme, Laura
    et al.
    Roll-Pettersson, Lise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Karlsson, Peter
    von Rosen, Tatjana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Ett skolövergripande samverkansprojekt: Att skapa studiero och en trygg lärandemiljö2018In: Norsk Tidsskrift for Atferdsanalyse, ISSN 0809-781X, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolövergripande positivt beteendestöd (School Wide Positive Behavior Support, SWPBS) är en förebyggande insats med vetenskaplig grund som syftar till att skapa förutsättningar för trygg-het, studiero och trivsel i skolan. Syftet med den här studien är att utvärdera implementering av skolövergripande positivt beteendestöd i en skola i ett socialt utsatt område och att jämföra utfallet med en kontrollskola. I studien undersöks lärarnas upplevelse av skolans klimat, stress, tilltro till egen förmåga att undervisa samt tillfredsställelse i arbetet. Resultatet visar att personalen vid experimentskolan efter genomförande av SWPBS skattade högre vad gäller skolans klimat och tilltro till egen förmåga att undervisa. Inga skillnader fanns mellan skolorna vid förmätning. Vid eftermätningen skattade dock personalen på experimentskolan högre vad gäller skolklimat, tilltro till egen förmåga, arbetstillfredsställelse och lägre vad gäller arbetsrelaterad stress jämfört med kontrollskolan. Vidare fanns några positiva samband för experimentskolan mellan pedagogernas skattning av implementeringstrohet och interventionens sociala validitet. Vikten av samverkan mellan akademin och fältet samt studiens metodologiska begränsningar diskuteras. 

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  • 268.
    Theorell, Töres
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Janlert, Urban
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Job strain and depressive symptoms in men and women: a prospective study of the working population in Sweden2014In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several prospective studies have indicated increased risk of developing depressive symptoms in employees who report psychologically demanding and uncontrollable work (job strain). There are diverging findings regarding gender differences in this relationship. The aim was to analyse whether men and women differ with regard to the prospective relationship between adverse psychosocial work environment and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period.

    METHOD: The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health cohort based on representative recruitment of working men and women in Sweden was used. 2731 men and 3446 women had answered questions regarding work environment and mental health in 2008 and 2010. Psychological demands, decision authority, age and income as well as depressive symptoms in 2008 were used as predictors of depressive symptoms in 2010.

    RESULTS: Women reported less decision authority at work and their demand level developed more unfavourably than did men's-resulting in increased job strain gap between men and women from 2008 to 2010. The relationship between demand and decision authority (and job strain) on one hand and depressive symptoms on the other hand was not statistically different in men and women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, women reported higher levels of job strain than men. In Sweden, job strain was as strongly related to depressive symptoms among men as among women.

  • 269.
    Tunestad, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    The Therapeutization of Work: The Psychological Toolbox as Rationalization Device during the Third Industrial Revolution in Sweden2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of work in the Western welfare states has made use of psychological know-how since the early twentieth century, for instance by making the practices of ‘psychotechnics’ and ‘human relations’ a part of the production apparatus. The last decades, however, have seen the development of a new economy based on information and communication technologies and with a related shift in organizational ideals from large hierarchical structures to networks of self-governing units – a change sometimes labelled the third industrial revolution. This development has meant new possibilities for the deployment of psychological knowledge in organizational management.

    The present study takes as its geographical starting point the greater Stockholm area in Sweden. Through a variant of multi-sited fieldwork it investigates the distribution of psychological know-how in and through different institutions – such as school, work life, health care – by which the average ‘worker-citizen’ is supposed to acquire a ‘psychological toolbox’, thus becoming a kind of amateur psychologist or therapist, ready and able to take responsibility for his or her own productivity, well-being and health. The study depicts this ideal of psychological self-regulation: its discourse and practices, and how it emerged as a part of the technological and organizational developments of the third industrial revolution.

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    The Therapeutization of Work
  • 270.
    van der Poll, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholms universitet.
    Avslut, separation och anknytning i psykoterapi: Hur psykoterapeuter avslutar psykoterapier med klienter som har en otrygg anknytningsstil i sina nära relationer2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt psykoanalytisk teori kan ett avslut jämföras med en förlust. Givet att den psykoterapeutiska relationen kan betraktas som en anknytningsrelation kan avslutet i en psykoterapi och separationen från psykoterapeuten framkalla reaktioner som försvårar klienternas möjlighet att sörja förlusten och att lämna psykoterapeuten på ett tryggt sätt. Syftet med denna studie var att identifiera vad som kännetecknar avslutningsarbetet i psykoterapier med vuxna klienter som har en otrygg anknytningsstil. Intervjuer genomfördes med sju psykodynamiska psykoterapeuter. Öppna frågor ställdes om hur psykoterapeuterna gick tillväga när de avslutade psykoterapier med klienter som hade en hög grad av anknytningsångest eller en hög grad av anknytningsrelaterat undvikande. Med hjälp av tematisk analys identifierades nio teman som beskrev psykoterapeutiska tillvägagångssätt och avslutningsarbetets tänkbara terapeutiska syften. Resultatet bekräftade hypoteser som har framförts av andra forskare och kliniker då det visade att avslutet kunde iscensätta en defensiv relationell dynamik där klienterna antingen förminskade eller förstärkte sitt behov av psykoterapeuten. Psykoterapeuterna uppmärksammade icke-verbal kommunikation, såsom psykologiska försvar och överföringsreaktioner, i syfte att skänka klienterna en erfarenhet där de fick bearbeta en separation och medvetandegöra sitt relationella fungerande. Enligt objektrelationsteori och anknytningsteori kan de relationella processerna mellan klient-psykoterapeut förstås som iscensättningar av klienternas inre representationer av själv/andra. Känslorna bortom klienternas iscensättningar kan behöva medvetandegöras i den mån det är möjligt och tolererbart. Detta för att klient och psykoterapeut ska kunna ta farväl av varandra på ett uppriktigt och genuint sätt, men också för att underlätta internaliseringen av psykoterapeuten som ett gott inre objekt.

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  • 271.
    Van Holt, Tracy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Bernard, H. Russell
    Weller, Susan
    Townsend, Wendy
    Cronkleton, Peter
    Influence of the Expert Effect on Cultural Models2016In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined hunters' perceptions of fauna to see if expert hunters and other hunters perceive wildlife abundance similarly. We used cultural consensus analysis (CCA) to assess the knowledge of 25 hunters in the Bolivian Amazon about the abundance of 38 animals. CCA indicated highly shared beliefs among hunters concerning wildlife abundance (average agreement=.62). However, expert hunters (as judged by their reported successful hunts of rare species, having hunted recently, and consuming more game in their diet) perceived more animals as abundant than did non-experts, although they all shared the same model. Since the expert hunters did not always agree on which species was more abundant, they had low cultural knowledge scores in CCA results. These experts may be unwilling to curtail hunting efforts on key species that they perceive to be abundant.

  • 272.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland.
    Sallinen, Mikael
    Virkkala, Jussi
    Lindholm, Harri
    Hirvonen, Ari
    Hublin, Christer
    Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja
    Härmä, Mikko
    Physiological and autonomic stress responses after prolonged sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep in healthy young men2018In: Sleep and Biological Rhythms, ISSN 1446-9235, E-ISSN 1479-8425, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Sleep restriction is increasingly common and associated with the development of health problems. We investigated how the neuroendocrine stress systems respond to prolonged sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep in healthy young men.

    Methods

    After two baseline (BL) nights of 8 h time in bed (TIB), TIB was restricted to 4 h per night for five nights (sleep restriction, SR, n = 15), followed by three recovery nights (REC) of 8 h TIB, representing a busy workweek and a recovery weekend. The control group (n = 8) had 8 h TIB throughout the experiment. A variety of autonomic cardiovascular parameters, together with salivary neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cortisol levels, were assessed.

    Results

    In the control group, none of the parameters changed. In the experimental group, heart rate increased from 60 ± 1.8 beats per minute (bpm) at BL, to 63 ± 1.1 bpm after SR and further to 65 ± 1.8 bpm after REC. In addition, whole day low-frequency to-high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio of heart rate variability increased from 4.6 ± 0.4 at BL to 6.0 ± 0.6 after SR. Other parameters, including salivary NPY and cortisol levels, remained unaffected.

    Conclusions

    Increased heart rate and LF/HF power ratio are early signs of an increased sympathetic activity after prolonged sleep restriction. To reliably interpret the clinical significance of these early signs of physiological stress, a follow-up study would be needed to evaluate if the stress responses escalate and lead to more unfavourable reactions, such as elevated blood pressure and a subsequent elevated risk for cardiovascular health problems.

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  • 273.
    von Below, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    When psychotherapy does not help: ...and when it does: Lessons from young adults' experiences of psychoanalytic psychotherapy2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The process and outcome of psychoanalytic psychotherapy have been studied for a long time. However, the experiences of patients, particularly in therapies where goals were not met, have not yet been the target of extensive research. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy with young adults might face particular challenges. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the experiences of young adults in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, with a particular focus on differences between suboptimal therapies and therapies with generally good outcome. The setting was naturalistic, and perspectives of the patient, therapist and observer were combined. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Study I explored experiences of psychotherapy process and outcome among seven patients in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, who expressed dissatisfaction. Interviews at termination and 18 months later were analysed using grounded theory and compared to therapist experiences. Patients experienced abandonment with their problems in and after therapy, since therapy according to the patients lacked connections to daily life, as well as flexibility, activity and understanding from the therapist. Therapists presented a different picture of the same therapies, mainly focused on the difficulties of the patients. Study II analysed the experiences of 20 non-improved or deteriorated young adult psychotherapy patients at termination of therapy and 36 months later. Non-improvement and deterioration were calculated based on the reliable change index on self-rating scores. The grounded theory analysis of interviews established spinning one’s wheels as a core category. The relationship to the therapist was described as artificial, although at times helpful. Participants experienced their own activity in life and active components of therapy as helpful, but thought focus in therapy was too much on past experiences. Study III explored the experiences of 17 young adult patients, in psychoanalytic individual or group therapy, overcoming depression. The analysis of interviews from therapy termination and 18 months later indicated that finding an identity and a place in life were perceived as intertwined with symptom relief. Negative experiences included difficulties to change oneself, fear of change, and problems in therapy, such as too little activity on the therapist’s part.

    The results were discussed in relation to young adulthood, therapeutic alliance, mentalization, and attachment. The conclusion was expressed in a comprehensive process model of suboptimal therapy with young adults, with suggested ways to prevent such a development. The therapist’s meta-communication and correct assessment of the patient’s mentalization capacity from moment to moment are proposed as crucial. Regarding clinical implications, therapists of young adult patients need to establish meta-communication on therapy progress, as even experienced therapists might be unaware of dissatisfaction or deterioration. Meta-communication could be considered part of the treatment itself, as it may foster mentalization and good outcome. Further, the period of young adulthood entails decisions and developing an adult life, and therapists need to make room for this by active interventions.

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  • 274.
    Wall, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Scheck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eneroth, Mari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Work environment and harassment among primary health care physicians: Does ethnicity matter?2014In: International Conference on Physician Health: Milestones and transitions  - Maintaining the balance: Abstract brochure, 2014, p. 48-49Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Harassment and degrading experiences are frequently reported in the nursing workplace and is believed to be more common in highly demanding contexts (Fornés et al., 2011). Perceived discrimination based on race or sex could contribute to less engagement to work and more burnout (Volpone & Avery, 2013). Studies concluded among Canadian physician students showed that significantly more foreign-born students experienced harassment or discrimination on the basis of ethnicity or culture (Crutcher et al., 2011). In Sweden, 15 percent of the population is born abroad and integration is important to promote in the working life. There is uncovered ground among active physicians who experience harassment and unequal treatment in primary health care, why additional studies are needed. Method and participants: Participants in this cross-sectional study were primary health care physicians in central Sweden. The outcome variables were perceived harassment and unequal treatment at work, among general practitioners (N = 302). In the sample there were 64% females and 26% foreign-born. Results: Among male physicians, almost 14% of the foreign-born, compared to 3% of the native-born, reported being subject to harassment or mobbing during the last 6 months (21 = 3.983, p = .04). There was no such difference between female foreign-born and female native-born physicians. Nearly 27% of the foreign-born thought the basis for unequal treatment to be ethnicity compared to barely 9 % of the physicians born in Sweden, which is significantly less (21 = 10.008, p = .002). Among foreign-born, significantly more female than male physicians reported gender as reason for unequal treatment (21= 6.944, p < .01). There were no differences found among Swedish female and male physicians. Conclusions: There is evidence that foreign-born physicians working in primary health care in Sweden experience harassment and unequal treatment. Harassment and unequal treatment could affect physician health, and attention must be paid. The gender differences could also be a sign of gender inequality, which need to be examined more thoroughly.

  • 275.
    Warensjö, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Finns ett samband mellan kvarstående insomni efter avslutad KBT-behandling för depression och återfall vid uppföljningsmätningen?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer som drabbats av depression återfaller/återinsjuknar ofta en eller flera gånger i livet. Forskning har visat att b la demografiska faktorer, residualsymtom och insomni är prediktorer för återfall. Syftet med studien var därför att undersöka betydelsen av demografiska faktorer, residualsymtom och insomni för nivån av depression 6-12 månader efter avslutad behandling på en psykiatrisk specialistmottagning. Urvalet var alla patienter som diagnosticerats med depression eller recidiverande depression och genomgått KBT-terapi under perioden 2008 – september 2013, och som hade uppföljningsdata vid sex eller tolv-månader, vilket sammanlagt var 111 patienter. Beroendevariabel var resultat på formuläret Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Resultaten visade att patienter med residualsymtom inte försämrades signifikant mellan eftermätningen och uppföjningsmätningen, ett fynd som inte överensstämmer med forskning på området. Regressionsanalyser visade ingen signifikant påverkan av kön, ålder och utbildningsnivå på senare nivå av depression vid uppföljningsmätning. Däremot visade regressionsanalyser att sömnbesvär, mätt med formuläret Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), vid framför allt eftermätning hade ett samband med senare nivå av depression vid uppföljningsmätningen. Resultaten indikerade att kvarstående sömnbesvär då behandlingen avslutades predicerade senare nivå av depression. Slutsatsen är att ett tillägg av en sömnintervention för de patienter som har insomni då behandlingen avslutas kan minska sannolikheten för återfall i depression. Då många patienter saknade uppföljningsdata kunde inga säkra slutsatser dras.

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  • 276.
    Wasserman, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Belöningens inverkan på fastighetsmäklares upplevda motivation, prestation och lojalitet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Belöningssystem används flitigt i arbetslivet men forskningen kring dess effekter på anställda ha varit snål. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur ekonomisk belöning uppfattas av fastighetsmäklare samt vilken effekt det kan ha på deras motivation, prestation och lojalitet gentemot företaget. Sex stycken kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med fastighetsmäklare från olika lokalkontor i stockholmsområdet. Tematisk analys gjordes med teoretisk grund i Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) samt Self-Determination Theory (SDT). CET utgår ifrån att människor bedömer händelser utifrån en kontrollerande och en informerande aspekt medan SDT handlar om hur motivation kan vara mer eller mindre externt reglerad. Resultatet visar att ekonomisk belöning inte har någon avgörande påverkan på vare sig motivation, prestation eller lojalitet. Gemenskap med kollegor och trivsel på arbetsplatsen var istället de viktigaste faktorerna för hög motivation, prestation och lojalitet. Utifrån detta dras slutsatsen att känsla av samhörighet är viktigare än extern belöning.

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    Belöningens inverkan på fastighetsmäklares upplevda motivation, prestation och lojalitet
  • 277.
    Watling, Christopher N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Australia.
    Young drivers who continue to drive while sleepy: What are the associated sleep- and driving-related factors?2020In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 29, no 3, article id e12900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crashes due to sleepiness account for a substantial proportion of road crash incidents. The purpose of the current study was to examine several sleep-related factors and driving-related factors for their association with self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy. In total 257 young drivers aged 18-25 years completed an online survey that assessed factors such as sleep quality, sleep duration and consistency, excessive daytime sleepiness, experiences with sleepiness and their driving-related behaviours. The results demonstrate that being older, having a perceived ability to overcome sleepiness, committing more highway code violations and having experienced a sleep-related close call were positively associated with an increased likelihood of continuing to drive while sleepy. The obtained results highlight the acceptance of risky driving behaviours among some younger drivers. Younger drivers' risky driving behaviour is certainly a road safety concern given the impairment associated with sleepiness and their over-representation in road crash incidents.

  • 278.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intersubjektivität und therapeutische Technik: Was ist neu und was alt?2011In: Äußere und innere Realität: Theorie und Behandlungstechnik der Psychoanalyse im Wandel / [ed] Peter Diederichs, Jörg Frommer, Franz Wellendorf, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 2011, 1, p. 171-181Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [de]

    Behandlungs-Zimmer ohne Aussicht?

    Für die Behandlungstechnik ist nach dem Einfluss der realen Person des Psychoanalytikers auf den analytischen Prozess zu fragen. Im Zentrum dieses Buches steht daher das neue Paradigma in der Behandlungstechnik: die Relationale 
Psychoanalyse oder Intersubjektivität.

    Im Zentrum dieses Buches steht daher das neue Paradigma in der Behandlungstechnik:die Relationale Psychoanalyse oder Intersubjektivität.Zwanzig Jahre nach der Wiedervereinigung behandelt ein weiterer Schwerpunkt die spannende Frage der Auswirkungen »äußerer« politischer Systeme auf »innere« psychische Prozesse und Strukturen im Individuum.Der Band enthält Beiträge führender deutscher und internationaler Psychoanalytiker.

  • 279. Westerlund, Anna
    et al.
    Trolle Lagerros, Ylva
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Relationships Between Questionnaire Ratings of Sleep Quality and Polysomnography in Healthy Adults2016In: Behavioural Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1540-2002, E-ISSN 1540-2010, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 185-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine the association between polysomnographic sleep and subjective habitual sleep quality and restoration from sleep. Thirty-one normal sleepers completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire and multiple home polysomnography recordings (n = 2-5). Using linear regression, sleep quality and restoration were separately analyzed as functions of standard polysomnography parameters: sleep efficiency, total sleep time, sleep latency, stage 1 and 2 sleep, slow-wave sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, wake time after sleep onset, and awakenings (n), averaged across recordings. Stage 2 and slow-wave sleep predicted worse and better sleep quality, respectively. Also, slow-wave sleep predicted less subjective restoration, although adjustment for age attenuated this relation. Our findings lend some physiological validity to ratings of habitual sleep quality in normal sleepers. Data were less supportive of a physiological correlate of ratings of restoration from sleep.

  • 280.
    Wetterqvist, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motiverande samtal i interventioner med manliga förövare av våld i nära relationer  Motivational interviews in interventions with male offenders of intimate partner violence2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Seven professionals who worked with men sentenced for intimate partner violence in a psychosocial intervention project in Valencia were interviewed about motivational interviews. Motivational interviews can increase these clients' assumption of responsibility and motivation. The purpose of this study was to seek knowledge about the function of motivational interviews in an intervention with offenders. The method for the study was qualitative using a semi-structured interview. An inductive thematic analysis was used to code and analyze data. The analysis resulted in four themes: 1. Assume responsibility, 2. Motivation - a reason to change and to set a goal, 3. Strategies to motivate and 4. A bond. The respondents described the motivational interviews of use to bond with clients, to resolve their resistance and to deal with difficult feelings towards the clients. As professionals they considered that motivated clients had found a personal reason to change and had formulated a relevant goal.

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  • 281.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Andersson, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Gravenfors, Josef
    Neural electrophysiological correlates of detection and identification awareness2023In: Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1530-7026, E-ISSN 1531-135X, Vol. 23, p. 1303-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have conscious experiences of the events in their environment. Previous research from electroencephalography (EEG) has shown visual awareness negativity (VAN) at about 200 ms to be a neural correlate of consciousness (NCC). However, when considering VAN as an NCC, it is important to explore which particular experiences are associated with VAN. Recent research proposes that VAN is an NCC of lower-level experiences (detection) rather than higher-level experiences (identification). However, previous results are mixed and have several limitations. In the present study, the stimulus was a ring with a Gabor patch tilting either left or right. On each trial, subjects rated their awareness on a three-level perceptual awareness scale that captured both detection (something vs. nothing) and identification (identification vs. something). Separate staircases were used to adjust stimulus opacity to the detection threshold and the identification threshold. Bayesian linear mixed models provided extreme evidence (BF10 = 131) that VAN was stronger at the detection threshold than at the identification threshold. Mean VAN decreased from -2.12 microV [-2.86, -1.42] at detection to -0.46 microV [-0.79, -0.11] at identification. These results strongly support the claim that VAN is an NCC of lower-level experiences of seeing something rather than of higher-level experiences of specific properties of the stimuli. Thus, results are consistent with recurrent processing theory in that phenomenal visual consciousness is reflected by VAN. Further, results emphasize that it is important to consider the level of experience when searching for NCC.

  • 282. Wijk, Ingrid
    et al.
    Amsberg, Susanne
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Livheim, Fredrik
    Toft, Eva
    Anderbro, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Impact of an acceptance and commitment therapy programme on HbA1c, self-management and psychosocial factors in adults with type 1 diabetes and elevated HbA1c levels: a randomised controlled trial2023In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, no 12, p. e072061-, article id e072061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) programme, tailored for people living with type 1 diabetes, on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), self-management and psychosocial factors among individuals with HbA1c>60 mmol/mol compared with treatment as usual (TAU). Setting: An endocrinologic clinic in Sweden. Participants: In this randomised controlled trial, 81 individuals with type 1 diabetes, aged 18–70 years with HbA1c>60 mmol/mol, were randomly assigned to either an ACT group intervention or TAU. Exclusion criteria were: unable to speak Swedish, untreated or severe psychiatric disease, cortisone treatment, untreated thyroid disease and newly started insulin pump therapy. At the 2-year follow-up, HbA1c was measured in 26 individuals. Intervention: The ACT programme comprised seven 2-hour sessions held over 14 weeks and focused on acceptance of stressful thoughts and emotions, and to promote value-based committed action. Outcomes: The primary outcome was HbA1c, and the secondary outcomes were measures of depression, anxiety, general stress, fear of hypoglycaemia, diabetes distress, self-care activities, psychological flexibility (general and related to diabetes) and quality of life. The primary endpoint was HbA1c 2 years after the intervention programme. Linear mixed models were used to test for an interaction effect between measurement time and group. Results: Likelihood ratio test of nested models demonstrated no statistically significant interaction effect (χ2=0.49, p=0.485) between measurement time and group regarding HbA1c. However, a statistically significant interaction effect (likelihood ratio test χ2=12.63, p<0.001) was observed with improved scores on The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire in the intervention group after 1 and 2 years. Conclusions: No statistically significant difference was found between the groups regarding the primary outcome measure, HbA1c. However, the ACT programme showed a persistent beneficial impact on psychological flexibility in the intervention group. The dropout rate was higher than expected, which may indicate a challenge in this type of study. Trial registration number NCT02914496.

  • 283.
    Wikström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mobilt Testande: -en jämförelse av kognitiva testpoäng från mobil respektive icke-mobil enhet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökad användning av mobila enheter, samt organisationers önskan att effektivt testa och engagera arbetssökande driver utvecklingen av mobilanpassade test framåt. Forskning kring mobila enheters inverkan på testresultat är tvetydig med positiva och negativa utfall. Mobila enheter verkar ha negativ inverkan på testpoäng från kognitiva test. En effekt som kan bero på de begränsningar (mindre skärm, pekskärm) som mobila enheter har. Mått på kognitiva förmågor används ofta vid urval, om olika enheter ger upphov till differens i testpoäng behöver detta utredas. I en experimentell studie (N=51) undersöktes huruvida mobila enheter har negativ inverkan på resultat från kognitiva test. I upprepade mätningar genomförde deltagarna kognitiva test på mobil och icke-mobil enhet. Studien visar att mobila enheter inte har en negativ påverkan på testresultatet. Diskussionen behandlar möjliga förklaringar till resultat utifrån urval och testdesign, tar upp begränsningar i studien samt siar om MT framtid.

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  • 284. Yüce-Selvi, Ümran
    et al.
    Sümer, Nebi
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Låstad, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Individual Job Insecurity and Job Insecurity Climate: Construct Validation in a Turkish Context2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Job insecurity (JI), “the overall concern about the continued existence of the job in the future” is a worry and stress source for many employees. This concern may be related to the continued existence of the job itself (i.e., quantitative JI) or valued job features (i.e., qualitative JI). Both dimensions reflect a subjective perception involving a threat of loss in the future. A large number of studies have provided evidence for the detrimental effects of JI (in both forms) on various outcomes. Traditionally, JI has been defined as an individual phenomenon; however recent research indicates that it can also be shared and represent climate level perceptions. The limited number of studies having examined JI climate show that also “the shared concern about the continued existence of the job in an organization” may have negative outcomes. However, how JI climate is measured matters. While some previous studies have measured JI climate by aggregating individuals’ ratings of their individual JI to unit levels, there is also a recently developed measure to assess individuals’ ratings of JI climate at their workplace.

    The present study aims to investigate the measurement properties and construct validity of individual JI and JI climate, both with quantitative and qualitative dimensions, in a Turkish sample. The sample was composed of 245 employees (51% women, Mage = 34, age range: 19-59). Confirmatory factor analysis results showed that the proposed four-factor model (individual JI and JI climate, both with quantitative and qualitative dimensions) provided a good fit to data and outperformed rivalling models. In general, the Cronbach's alpha reliability estimates were above .70 (the exception being individual quantitative job insecurity, α=0.64). Comparisons of associations between the four JI dimensions and demographic variables provided some evidence for the discriminant validity of the proposed four-factor representation of individual JI and JI climate.

  • 285. Yüce-Selvi, Ümran
    et al.
    Sümer, Nebi
    Toker-Gültaş, Yonca
    Låstad, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Behavioral Reactions to Job Insecurity Climate Perceptions: Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect2023In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 9, article id 5732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past work has extensively documented that job insecurity predicts various work- and health-related outcomes. However, limited research has focused on the potential consequences of perceived job insecurity climate. Our objective was to investigate how the psychological climate about losing a job and valuable job features (quantitative and qualitative job insecurity climate, respectively) relate to employees’ exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect behaviors, and whether such climate perceptions explain additional variance in these behaviors over individual job insecurity. Data were collected through an online survey using a convenience sample of employees working in different organizations in Türkiye (N = 245). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that quantitative job insecurity climate was associated with higher levels of loyalty and neglect, while qualitative job insecurity climate was related to higher levels of exit and lower levels of loyalty. Importantly, job insecurity climate explained additional variance over individual job insecurity in exit and loyalty. Our findings underscore the importance of addressing job insecurity in a broader context regarding one’s situation and the psychological collective climate. This study contributes to addressing the knowledge gap concerning job insecurity climate, an emerging construct in the organizational behavior literature, and its incremental impact beyond individual job insecurity. The foremost implication is that organizations need to pay attention to the evolving climate perceptions about the future of jobs in the work environment, because such perceptions are related to critical employee behaviors.

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  • 286. Yüce-Selvi, Ümran
    et al.
    Toker, Yonca
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Låstad, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Effect of Shared Job Insecurity Perceptions on Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect Behaviours2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Job insecurity represents a source of worry and stress for many employees, and the detrimental effects of job insecurity on various outcomes have been shown by numerous studies (including meta-analyses). Traditionally, job insecurity has been considered as an individual-level phenomenon; however, recent findings provide evidence for the existence of a “shared concern about the continued existence of the job in an organization” (i.e., job insecurity climate). The limited number of studies focusing on the job insecurity climate construct provide insights about the construct distinctiveness between individual job insecurity and job insecurity climate, and indicate that job insecurity climate may have negative effects on work-related (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational commitment) and health-related outcomes (e.g., higher levels of work-family conflict and psychological distress).

    This study aims to contribute to the literature by examining the role of job insecurity climate for employees’ exit, voice, neglect, and loyalty behaviours, also by testing the predictive ability beyond individual job insecurity perceptions.

    The sample was composed of 245 employees in Turkey (51% women, Mage = 34, age range: 19-59). Multiple regression analysis results indicated that quantitative job insecurity climate (i.e., the perception of a shared concern about the continued existence of the job itself) predicted higher levels of exit, aggressive voice, loyalty, and neglect. Qualitative job insecurity climate (i.e., the perception of a shared concern about the continued existence of valued job features) predicted higher levels of exit and aggressive voice, and lower levels of loyalty. The results also provide evidence for the incremental validity of job insecurity climate perceptions above and beyond individual job insecurity in explaining employees’ exit, aggressive voice, and loyalty behaviours.

  • 287.
    Åberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Löfström, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av bildskapandets betydelse i en självhjälpsgrupp med fritt bildskapande och samtal: - En kvalitativ studie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Working with art therapy can be a way to enhance psychic health. However little is written about the experience of using art therapy in self-help groups. The present study intended to explore that. Respondents were five participants and the project leading art therapist with experiences from self-help groups containing free imaging and talk. Interviews were made and analysed through thematic analyses. Three themes emerged (Personal development, Imaging and Context), containing twelve categories (Agency/empowerment, Challenging yourself, Increased quality of life, Desire, Permissiveness/ unpretentiousness, Symbolic value of image, New tooles, Processing/ insights, Flow, Community with others, Culture in care and society and Importance of premises). The result indicates that the participants experienced an increase in health, self-efficacy and fellowship. Additional research is however needed to confirm possible connections between art therapy and increased health.

    Keywords: self-help groups, art therapy

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  • 288. Åhlén, Johan
    et al.
    Edberg, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Di Schiena, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergström, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive behavioural group therapy for emetophobia: an open study in a psychiatric setting2015In: Clinical Psychologist, ISSN 1328-4207, E-ISSN 1742-9552, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 96-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Emetophobia is a neglected area within clinical research. Only case studies have been performed examining treatment effectiveness. The present study aimed to examine the preliminary acceptability and effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy developed specifically for the treatment of emetophobia.

    Method: The present study design was a one-group pretest, post-test, follow-up design with a double pretest. Twenty-three patients, in three treatment groups, participated in the study. Four assessment time points were conducted (1) five weeks prior to treatment, (2) before the first treatment session, (3) after the final session and (4) 3 months after the final session. Participants completed the emetophobia questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Montgomery-angstrom sberg Depression Rating Scaleself assessment at all assessments.

    Results: After treatment, patients showed a significantly lower degree of emetophobic symptoms. About half of the patients were clinically significantly improved or recovered after treatment, and two thirds were improved or recovered at follow-up. Participation at sessions was high, and patients were satisfied with treatment.

    Conclusions: The results from this study, the largest trial yet for emetophobia, indicate that cognitive behavioural therapy may be an efficacious treatment for emetophobia. The study design involves several limitations, and further studies should include independent control groups, randomisation, and longer follow-up assessments.

  • 289.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    D'onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Effects of late-night short-sleep on in-home polysomnography: relation to adult age and sex2018In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27, no 4, article id e12626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bedtime is frequently delayed by many factors in life, and a homeostatic response to the delay may compensate partly for increased time awake and shortened sleep. Because sleep becomes shorter with age and women complain of disturbed sleep more often than men, age and sex differences in the homeostatic response to a delayed bedtime may modify the homeostatic response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of late-night short-sleep (3 h with awakening at about 07:00 hours) on in-home recorded sleep in men and women in two age groups (20-30 and 65-75 years). Results (N = 59) showed that late-night short-sleep was associated with an increase in percentage of N3 sleep and a decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, as well as decreases in several measures of sleep discontinuity and rapid eye movement density. Men showed a smaller decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep than women in response to late-night short-sleep, as did older individuals of both sexes compared with younger. Older men showed a weaker percentage of N3 sleep in response to late-night short-sleep than younger men. In general, men showed a greater percentage of rapid eye movement sleep and a lower percentage of N3 sleep than women, and older individuals showed a lower percentage of N3 sleep than younger. In particular, older men showed very low levels of percentage of N3 sleep. We conclude that older males show less of a homeostatic response to late-night short-sleep. This may be an indication of impaired capacity for recovery in older men. Future studies should investigate if this pattern can be linked to gender-associated differences in morbidity and mortality.

  • 290.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boethius, Siv
    Department of Education.
    Sundin, Eva
    Grupphandledning i psykoterapi inom ramen för utbildningar.2005In: Matrix, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 389-403Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport, som har fokus på grupphandledning i psykoterapiutbildning, ger en sammanfattande bild av resultat som erhållits genom ett samarbetsprojekt mellan ett flertal svenska universitet och universitetsrelaterade utbildningsenheter. Projektet bygger på studier av grupphandledning på tre olika utbildningsnivåer; grundläggande psykoterapiutbildning, psykoterapeutbildning och handledarutbildning. Olika teoretiska inriktningar är representerade. Grupperna har omfattat tre eller fyra handledda och en handledare. Kvantitativa och kvalitativa data har samlats in i början, mitten och slutet av respektive utbildning. De studier som presenteras här undersöker och belyser olika aspekter av grupphandledning som upplevelsen av handledning på olika utbildningsnivåer, skillnader och likheter mellan olika psykoterapeutiska inriktningar utifrån att handledningen sker i form av grupphandledning samt upplevelser av gruppklimat och betydelsen av handledarens förhållningssätt. Ett viktigt fynd är att både handledare och handledda betonar behovet av att grupprocesser och fenomen som har sina rötter i såväl samspelet gruppdeltagarna emellan som handledarens förhållningssätt och utbildningens ramar uppmärksammas mer i grupphandledning i psykoterapi.

  • 291.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Siv, Boalt Boëthius
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Grupphandledning inom psykoterapiutbildningar.2008In: Mellanrummet: Nordisk tidskrift för barn- och ungdomspsykoterapi, ISSN 1404-5559, E-ISSN 2000-8511, Vol. 19, p. 61-75Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna bli en bra terapeut behövs något mer än teoretiska kunskaper. En yrkesskicklighet behöver växa fram genom att teori integreras med tillämpning. Handledning på psykoterapeutisk behandling har en lång tradition som en av tre hörnpelare (teori, egenpsykoterapi och kliniskt arbete under handledning) inom psykoterapiutbildningar på olika nivåer. Tillgång till kontinuerlig handledning har dessutom visat sig fylla en viktig funktion för vidare utveckling och fördjupning för psykoterapeuter för att motverka stagnation och utbrändhet i yrkesrollen.

  • 292.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Klinisk psykologi.
    Siv, Boalt Boëthius
    Department of Education.
    Olsson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Organizational structure and framework.: A case study of Swedish training programs in psychotherapy.2008In: Organizational and Social Dynamics: An international Journal for the Integration of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives, ISSN 1474 2780, Vol. 8, no 22, p. 256-278Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to highlight the design and functioning of the organizational framework supporting psychotherapy supervision at psychotherapy training institutions at postgraduate level in Sweden. The study was based on data from course coordinators and supervisors, who are the two main categories of employees involved in these programs. Two questionnaires were constructed (Course Coordinator Questionnaire and Supervisor Questionnaire).

    Our results indicated that the organizational framework for different training institutions were fairly similar with regard to the perceived primary task, i.e. supervision goals and its overall framework. However, according to the course coordinators, there were certain differences with regard to the management of role distribution, group composition, information, routines, regularity and accessibility. Also, economic and geographical conditions had a substantial influence on the design and functioning of the framework. The supervisors stressed the importance of explicit organizational frames, clear information and routines for, e.g. evaluation, how to deal with conflicts and failing, and above all the need for a competent and flexible course coordinator. The collected information might be used for further discussion of a functional framework supporting psychotherapy supervision in a training context.

  • 293.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    One-Session Treatment: Principles and Procedures with Adults2012In: Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias / [ed] Thompson E. Davis III, Thomas H. Ollendick, & L.-G. Öst, Springer , 2012, 1, p. 59-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When I started research and clinical work with specific phobics in the mid 1970s, very little differentiation was made in the research literature between agoraphobia, social phobia, and specific phobia regarding the number of therapy sessions. Thus, I used eight 1-hour sessions in my early studies on specific phobias. After having worked with that format for about 5 years I started getting bored seeing the same patients week after week. I also began to question why behavior therapists should follow the same format as devised by psychodynamic short-term therapy (i.e. one session per week for 12–20 weeks).

  • 294.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Klinisk psykologi.
    The Claustrophobia Scale: A psychometric evaluation2007In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1053-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a psychometric evaluation of the Claustrophobia Scale (CS), consisting of one subscale for measuring anxiety (20 items, 0-4) and one for avoidance (18 items, 0-2). Participants were 87 claustrophobic patients and 200 normal controls randomly selected from the community. The results show that CS has excellent internal consistency, high test--retest reliability, concurrent and discriminant validity. The patients and controls differ significantly on the total scores of anxiety and avoidance, as well as on each individual item scores. The CS was also found to be sensitive to change after cognitive behavioral treatment. Preliminary factor analyses yielded two factors for each subscale; "Being in small enclosed spaces" and "Other people present", accounting for large proportions of the variance. The CS is useful both as a state, and as an outcome self-report measure of claustrophobia.

  • 295.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Training Therapists in One-Session Treatment and Assessing Their Competence2012In: Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias / [ed] Thompson E. Davis III, Thomas H. Ollendick, & L.-G. Öst, Springer , 2012, 1, p. 161-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no formalized training for therapists to do one-session treatment (OST), at least not any which has been empirically evaluated. However, a description follows of the way the training for people aspiring to become a protocol therapist in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), or just wanting to work clinically with OST, has been arranged. The major part of this chapter consists of a detailed description of the different items included in the competence rating scale, and explanations of why the respective competencies are important for carrying out OST successfully. This means that the training should focus on providing therapists with adequate skills in the areas covered by the rating scale.

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