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  • 251.
    Hegelund, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Empirical essays on unemployment and business cycles2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines business cycles in Sweden, and the patterns in and driving forces of short- and long-term movements in unemployment in a selection of high-income countries throughout the 20th century. While this has been studied numerous times before, this dissertation starts from the point of view that there is no consensus in social science on how to understand these phenomena. This study consists of an introductory chapter and four related but self-contained papers. One contribution of this thesis is the use of temporal disaggregation methods to estimate more detailed time series on gross domestic product (GDP) and unemployment. New quarterly estimates of GDP are then used, with the help of the Bry-Boschan algorithm, to reconstruct the Swedish business cycle in the period 1913–2014. This identifies a number of new patterns not visible in the annual data. A second contribution is different analyses of the extent to which unemployment can be explained by macroeconomic indicators such as GDP growth, capital formation and productivity. Different methods, such as band spectrum regression and wavelet analysis, are used to capture longer-term effects. Numerous results are presented that indicate that macroeconomic performance, notably capital formation, can have medium- to long-term effects on unemployment. This is in line with theoretical models on equilibrium unemployment that take account of the possibility of persistence in the return to long-run equilibrium, or models that comprise more than one unemployment equilibria. While this is not unknown in previous research, it contradicts several highly influential versions of equilibrium unemployment models, as well as a great body of research on the subject. These contributions have several important implications for future research. Historical chronologies should take account of the possibility that data of higher or lower frequency may lead to important differences in results. Empirical and theoretical research on labor markets should continue to investigate more deeply the possibility that unanticipated short-term events can have long-term effects on labor market outcomes.

  • 252.
    Hegelund, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Testing Okun's law on different frequencies: Reconstructing monthly unemployment and GDP for Sweden 1913–2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis on the relation between unemployment and GDP, famously observed by Okun (1962). Three versions of the law is estimated, using monthly, quarterly, annual and 5-year observations for Sweden 1913–2014: the difference version (unemployment change and real GDP growth), the dynamic version with lags, and the gap version (unemployment and GDP deviations from trends). I find a robust, statistically significant, negative relation between real GDP growth and unemployment, as well as deviation from trends, but with heterogeneous results over frequencies. The difference and dynamic version of Okun's law indicate that an increase of 1 percent annual or 5-year real GDP growth coincides with a 0.1 to 0.19 percentage point decrease in the unemployment rate. Results for monthly and quarterly data are close to zero. A one percent positive deviation of GDP growth from the trend corresponds with a negative deviation for unemployment from the trend with 0.03, 0.03 and 0.09 percentage point for monthly, quarterly and annual data, respectively. Rolling regressions using 13 years of data per sub sample indicate that the correlation between GDP and unemployment is robust for annual data during most of the time period, and not statistically significant for most periods using monthly and quarterly data. The monthly data on unemployment and GDP used for the analysis is estimated through temporal disaggregation of quarterly GDP and annual unemployment.

  • 253.
    Hegelund, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Taalbi, Josef
    What determines unemployment in the long run? Band spectrum regression on ten countries 1913-2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise in unemployment since the 1980s has been predominantly understood as driven by short-term shocks and rigid labor market institutions (Blanchard and Wolfers, 2000; Layard et al., 2005), while others have pointed to 'jobless growth' and job matching (Pissarides, 2000). While most studies focus on short-run explanations, this paper presents an analysis of the long-run determinants of unemployment. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cross-country study has investigated the long-run relationship between unemployment and macroeconomic performance over a time period that stretches before the 1960s. To address this issue, we use wavelet analysis to decompose time series covering ten countries 1913-2016, into short-, medium-, and long-run variations, and band spectrum regressions on the relation between unemployment, GDP, investment, interest rate and productivity. This methodology has several advantages compared to standard econometrical methods and other tools for decomposition. Through estimations of cross-country regression models, we find strong indications that unemployment correlates negatively with the long-run components of investment. About 17 percent of overall variations and 29 percent of long-run variations in unemployment are explained by long-run variations in capital formation. In structural break models on each of the ten countries we find that capital formation explains between 43 percent and 84 percent of variations in unemployment. For most countries, long-run shifts in capital formation are associated with long-run shifts in unemployment in the opposite direction. Our analysis hence suggests the importance of understanding aggregate demand and capital formation if we wish to understand long-term labor market outcomes.

  • 254. Helland, Leonardo Figueroa
    et al.
    Borg, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    The Lure of State Failure A Critique of State Failure Discourse in World Politics2014In: Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, ISSN 1369-801X, E-ISSN 1469-929X, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 877-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article critiques state failure discourses from a poststructural and postcolonial perspective. We argue that these discourses are wedded to Euro-Western notions of the state and that, therefore, they fail to articulate other modes of political community to which we seek to open world political theory. First, we deconstruct prevalent state failure discourses to unearth the problematic character of their underlying commitments to a Eurocentric state. Second, we engage the way such discourses are deployed in the Failed States Index. Third, we propose an alternative account of why the Western model of the state has failed, explaining how the (neo)colonialist insistence on the propagation on this model enables the proliferation of violence conventionally attributed to state failure. Finally, we seek to open the notion of state failure to alternative forms of community obscured by the reification of the Western model of statecraft as the universal mode of political life.

  • 255.
    Hellemeier, Clemens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Traces of Globalisation in Stockholm between 1870 and 1930?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 256.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    1950-talet och den fulla sysselsättningens etablering: en konstruerad realitet2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    1950-talet betraktas som genombrottet för den fulla sysselsättningens politik. Det här utkastetsyftar till att något visa när och hur uttrycket kom till på 1940-talet och varför det blev viktigt,de skiftande innebörderna i det och hur konstruktionen av det samverkade med denekonomiska utvecklingen på 50-talet. Någon uttömmande studie är det inte frågan om, utandet rör sig enbart om olika mindre nedslag. I centrum står hur begreppet införlivades i svenskekonomisk politik genom det socialdemokratiska efterkrigsprogrammet ochfackföreningsrörelsens program för full sysselsättning, den så kallade Rehn-Meidnermodellen. Vissa jämförelser görs med hur det har kommit att användas på 1990- och2000-talen. Full sysselsättning sammanfaller tidsmässigt med tillkomsten av Bretton-Woodssystemet 1944. De är samma andas barn. 1971 bröt Bretton-Woods ihop sedan USAbeslutat släppa guldets koppling till dollarn. Kort efter följde 1970-talets oljekriser ochfullsysselsättningspolitiken som den utformades på 1950-och 1960-talen kom då attundergrävas. Men icke desto mindre kom begreppet att leva kvar och används idag som envision för arbetsmarknadspolitiken. Ett delsyfte med konferenspappret är att utgöra en del avkontexten till forskningsprojektet Aktivitetsrapporten som empirisk källa till arbetslösassökbeteende.

  • 257.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Aktivitetsrapporten som källa till arbetslösas arbetssökande2017In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 44-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 1 september 2013 infördes aktivitetsrapporten. Den är en standardiserad webbenkät i vilken en arbetssökande inskriven vid Arbetsförmedlingen varje månad ska dokumentera vad hen har gjort för att bryta sin arbetslöshet under föregående månad. Syftet med denna artikel är undersöka utifrån dess konstruktion hur den kan bidra till förståelsen för arbetslösas arbetssökande. Särskild vikt har lagts vid aktiviteterna antalet sökta jobb och antalet intervjuer.

  • 258.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Den nya arbetsmarknadspolitiken: en kort tentativ doktrinhistorik bakgrund2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta konferenspapper syftar till att presentera bakgrunden till ett av de viktigare inslagen i den nyaarbetsmarknadspolitik som infördes i Sverige under 1990-talet. I centrum står den så kallade sökteorin(job search theory), alltså hur arbetslösa gör för att bryta en uppkommen arbetslöshet. Sökteorinintroducerades visserligen i svenska ekonomisk-politiska debatten redan på 1970-talet men det varförst på 1990-talet den fick ett stort inflytande på arbetsmarknadspolitiken. Doktrinhistoriskt verkaremellertid sökteorin tämligen outforskad inom svensk ekonom-historisk forskning. Motivet bakomdetta konferenspapper är sålunda göra ett första försök att ge några drag i sökteorins historia.Sökteorin som presenterades i den svenska debatten i början av 1970-talet hämtades ur en omprövningav den amerikanska arbetsmarknadspolitiken. Konferenspappret behandlar mycket kort ochöversiktligt hur sökteorin utvecklades bland ekonomer och praktiker i USA på 1960-talet. Blandekonomerna diskuterades i vilken utsträckning ekonomiska incitament spelade för de arbetslösassökbeteende. Vad som åsyftades var vad vi idag kallar reservationslönen och dess roll försökaktiviteten. Den andra ansatsen utgick ifrån ett socialpsykologiskt perspektiv där snarare graden avmotivation avgjorde den arbetslöses sökaktivitet. I första hand är det debatten bland amerikanskaekonomer och praktiker och sökteorin som tas upp men också något om hur dessa nya idéer togs emoti Sverige.

  • 259.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University.
    Ekonomisk meteorologi och Kommersiella Meddelanden - en deskriptiv studie om tillkomsten av Sveriges första konjunkturbevakande tidskrift2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten beskrivs tillkomsten av en allmän statlig konjunkturöversikt, publicerad som en sektion i periodikan Kommersiella Meddelanden från och med 1914

  • 260.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Erik Palmstierna: föregångare till Wigforss2012In: Personhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0031-5699, Vol. 108, no 2, p. 133-143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Från arbetsstatistik till konjunkturöversikt: arbetarfrågan och etablerandet av en statlig konjunkturbevakning i Sverige 1893-19142011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the emergence and establishment of an early public monitoring system of the Swedish economy prior to the First World War. The study relies on a careful examination of the source materials with the view to map why and how the monitoring of the Swedish economy emerged, who demanded it, how the public supervision of the economy was organised and administrated and the results of the efforts. The common driving force was an increasing political interest in Sweden and elsewhere over the labour issue towards the end of the nineteenth century. In fact, the establishment of the monitoring system of the Swedish economy was largely the result of a broader international statistical respons to the labour question by the end of that century. The emergence of a public monitoring of the economy was driven by a general need for measuring the effect of industrialisation on the labour market, especially the growing problems with episodes of involuntary unemployment in the industrialised countries towards the end of the century.

    The thesis is divided in two parts with a total of ten chapters. It is written within a traditional narrative structure, that is, the beginning, the middle and the end. The first part examines the emergence of the surveillance of the labour market and consists of three chapters according to the narrative structure covering the period 1893-1913. The second part consists of three chapters that investigate the establishment of a monthly economic survey of the Swedish economy between 1910 and 1914, structured in the same way as the part one. The establishment of this early public monitoring of the Swedish economy should be regarded as a forerunner of the National Institute of Economic Research (Konjunkturinstitutet) 1937.

  • 262.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Isidor Flodström, SCB och tillkomsten av serien Statistiska meddelanden 19122007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beskriver tillkomsten av serien Statistiska meddelanden 1899-1912. Statistiska meddelanden gavs ut första gången av SCB 1912. Konferenspappret är ett bidrag till den ekonomiska statistikens historia i Sverige.

  • 263.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Kristallkulan och den ekonomiska politiken: Koordineringen av den ekonomiska politiken och behovet av en statlig institution för konjunkturanalyser 1908–19372016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 4, p. 595-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rational planning of public works and a counter cyclical economic policy contributed to the building of a Swedish public monitoring system of the economy during the first three decades of the twentieth century.

    The starting point in the development of this monitoring system was the proposal for an economic barometer on a French model in 1910 and the endpoint was the establishment of the National Institute of Economic Research (NIER) in 1937. Both the barometer and the NIER shared a common purpose to inform the public and the business community of the current economic situation, and above all, to work as tool for the government to control and regulate the trajectories of business cycles. The analysis of a vast amount of documentation presented in this essay provides new insights into the development of economic policy in Sweden during this period of time and contributes to our understanding of the emergence of Keynesian economic policy during the interwar period.

    There was an attempt to meet the demand for a counter-cyclical economic policy in 1910 with the suggestion for a public economic barometer and the creation of a permanent institution assisting the government in mitigating unemployment. The purpose was to prevent unemployment by calculating the turning points in the business cycle and thereby to facilitate a counter-cyclical economic policy. Parliament rejected the proposal referring to the difficulty to determine the turning points and to its own ability to determine the proper time to starting and redistribute planned public works. However, in 1914 Parliament made a concession by replacing the economic barometer with a series of economic indicators intended for the public and the business world.

    During the first world war the question lay dormant. However, signs of raising unemployment in some sectors of the economy in early 1920 resulted in a bill submitted to Parliament suggesting the establishment of a permanent body with the aim to increase the mobility of labour. References were made to the debate in Parliament prior to 1914, but the bill was not adopted. Instead, Parliament decided to submit the question to the parliamentary Committee of Social Insurance for further examination.

    Although the economic depression in 1921 and 1922 in fact lead to an increased public albeit descriptive statistical surveillance of the Swedish economy it was not until 1925 that the sudden signs of backlash and increasing unemployment convinced the government that the labour market was in need of greater examination. This resulted in the appointment in 1927 ofa new parliamentary committee, the Commission of Unemployment.

    The sources show that from the outset of its work the commission considered the question of improved economic statistics and of counter-cyclical policy as important means to prevent long-time unemployment. Some of these documents also contain references to the pre-1914 proposal for an economic barometer.

    The advent of the economic depression in the beginning of 1930 gave an impetus to the idea of establishing a permanent institute to assist and guide the government in formulating its economic policy against unemployment. Between 1932 and 1934 the outline of an economic information office was worked out mainly within the Commission of Unemployment. Its report was published in 1935 with a draft proposal for a national economic information office. The sources indicate that the planning of the new institution was carried through in conjunction with the Ministry of Finance as a part of launching the new economic policy against unemployment. In 1937 Parliament decided to establish a national institute of economic research (NIER).

  • 264.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Projektet Aktivitetsrapporten som empirisk källa till arbetslösassökbeteende: tillkomsthistoria och några preliminära result2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här konferenspappret bygger på ett av IFAU finansierat projekt om aktivitetsrapportensom empirisk källa till arbetslösas sökbeteende och behandlar främst bakgrunden tillaktivitetsrapporten. Den historiska bakgrunden visar att aktivitetsrapporten är en följd av enförändrad arbetsmarknadspolitik sedan början av 1990-talet med ökade krav på den arbetslöseatt mer aktivt söka jobb och ett samtidigt ökat behov av kontroll av att den arbetslöseverkligen är aktiv på arbetsmarknaden. Det individuella ansvaret hos den enskilde att bryta sinarbetslöshet står i centrum i den nya arbetsmarknadspolitiken. Det instrument statsmaktenanvänder sig av är en mer restriktiv arbetslöshetsförsäkring med ett ifrågasättande av det äldremen rigidare sanktionssystemet.Aktivitetsrapporten infördes den 1 september 2013 av Arbetsförmedlingen efter en skrivelseav regeringen. I den ska en arbetssökande arbetslös inskriven vid Arbetsförmedlingen varjemånad redovisa vad han eller hon har gjort för att bryta sin arbetslöshet, med utgångspunkt ien mellan den arbetssökande och Arbetsförmedlingen upprättad individuell handlingsplan.Införandet av aktivitetsrapporten utgjorde en del i ett förändringsarbete av denarbetsmarknadspolitiska verksamheten som alliansregeringen genomförde 2012 ochinnefattade en skärpning av lagen om arbetslöshetsförsäkring. Syftet med projektet är attundersöka dels den historiska bakgrunden till aktivitetsrapporten, dels i vilken utsträckningaktivitetsrapporten kan bidra till en ökad kunskap om arbetslösas sökbeteende. Vilkamöjligheter finns att genom aktivitetsrapporten förstå de arbetssökandes sökbeteende ochvilka begränsningar finns? I projektet ingår en empirisk jämförelse mellan aktivitetsrapportenoch Arbetsförmedlingens egen Sökandeundersökning samt en enkät ställd till ett antalarbetssökande som aktivitetsrapporterar i syfte att undersöka vad de har gjort för att bryta sinarbetslöshet. Dataunderlagen till projektet leverades under hösten 2014 och början av 2015.

  • 265.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Stockholms arbetsmarknad genom Stockholms dagblad mellan åren 1825 och 19002016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 266.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Tobias Davidsson: Understödets rationalitet2017In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 2, p. 329-332Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Vad kan en enskild forskares arkiv berätta om ekonomisk-historia vid Stockholms universitet?2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här konferenspappret presenterar ett pågående projekt som syftar till att inventera och tillgängliggöra för forskningen en enskild forskares omfattande arkiv- och boksamlingen inom ämnena ekonomisk-historia och nationalekonomi från slutet av 1960-talet till i princip dags dato. Samlingen består totalt av cirka 300 hyllmeter, varav boksamlingen utgör mer än hälften. Arbetet görs i samråd med forskarens familj och finansieras av Tore Browalds och Hedelius stiftelse vid Handelsbanken.

    På grund av samlingens omfattning är det här konferenspappret avgränsat till i första hand det arkivmaterial som rör ämnet ekonomisk historia vid Stockholms universitet. Tids- och rumsligt är det i första hand perioden mellan åren 1963 och 1982 som presenteras. Valet av år 1963 hänger samman med att hen det året hade påbörjade sin forskarutbildning nationalekonomi och ekonomisk historia i USA och som avslutades 1969 med en Ph D vid Northwestern University, Evanston Illinois. Källorna antyder att RH rekryterades till ekonom-historiska institutionen vid Stockholms universitet, oklart hur, 1969 eller början av 1970 av dåvarande professorn Rolf Adamson.

    Syftet med det här konferenspappret är att peka på de olika vilka möjligheter arkiv- och boksamlingen har vad gäller ämnet ekonomisk-historiskas utveckling vid Stockholms universitet under de nämnda åren samt något om dess relation till nationalekonomi. Samlingen är spännande då delar av den kom till under period då ämnet ekonomisk-historia stod inför en stor omvandling och dess utveckling mot ett visst mål var oklart. Den kan sålunda bidra till frågan om vad ekonomisk-historia antas skulle vara för ämne under 1970-talet samt dess gränser gentemot inte minst nationalekonomi.

  • 268.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Attempting institutional change: Swedish apprenticeship, 1890-19172016In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 31-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden never got an apprentice law after apprenticeship was de-regulated in 1864. This has been attributed to unified opposition to legislation from industry employers and trade unions, with the craft employers as the only advocates. Analysing the pattern of agreement and disagreement in the political struggle over apprenticeship in the Swedish case in 1890–1917, it is clear that opposition was not that uniform, nor was the support from the craft employers that undivided. This article makes use of Kathleen Thelen’s model of institutional change in order to shed new light on the developments in Sweden. The model states that any apprentice law requires a coalition of two or more out of the state, the crafts and the metalworking industries – divided into employers and workers. Legislation, in turn, is a near requirement for the survival of strong apprenticeship. In this article the Swedish case will be discussed in relation to two of Thelen’s cases, Germany and Great Britain. In Germany an apprentice law was passed in 1897, while in Great Britain no modern apprentice law was ever passed. Similarities can be found between both of these cases and the Swedish case.

  • 269.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Lärlingsfrågan: Institutionell förändring, ekonomiska föreställningar och historiska begrepp i den svenska debatten om lärlingsutbildningen, 1890-19172020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The turn of the 20th century was a formative period of industrialisation and class formation, and a key period in the development of European systems of vocational education and training. At that time, apprenticeship training was frequently debated in Sweden, just as it was in many other parts of Europe. However, even though the apprentice question was seen as important enough to be repeatedly examined in public inquiries in the decades around 1900, Sweden did not get an apprenticeship law.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate why Sweden did not get an apprenticeship law in the period 1890–1917, with a focus on the debate about what, if anything, to do about apprentice training. Using language-oriented analysis, the thesis contributes new knowledge about the development of the Swedish system of vocational education and training. The studies are based on primary sources from multiple actors – from the craft employers’ organisations to public inquiries and consultation statements by industry employers, unions and parliament. However, the focus is on the craft employers, who were the main proponents of apprentice legislation.

    The first article analyses agreement and disagreement in political argumentation. Many of these arguments contain an economic aspect, and the second article investigates economic perceptions of apprentice training. The first and second article, in line with much of the existing literature, emphasises the impact of class conflicts and the growth of industry on the politics of apprenticeship. The third article therefore takes a closer look at how these structural changes are imprinted on the craft employers’ language in the debate on apprenticeship, by analysing historical concepts connected to yrke and fack (both of which can be roughly translated as vocation, occupation or trade, although fack is also a Swedish term for trade union), klass (class) and stånd (estate).

    The main findings highlight a previously overlooked level of support for the idea of apprenticeship legislation among both employers and unions, combined with strong disagreements concerning the content of the proposed legislation. It is clear that there was both a craft/industry divide and a worker/employer divide. The latter has in previous research been emphasised as detrimental to the prospects for apprenticeship legislation. In the Swedish case, this class conflict reduced the chances of such legislation, as the state was also either unwilling or unable to introduce an apprentice law without agreement between employers and workers. The first article outlines much of these findings, while the second and third articles, in exploring other aspects of the apprentice question, further reinforce and nuance the main results.

  • 270.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Mästare, idkare, arbetsgivare? Yrke, fack, klass och stånd i lärlingsfrågan i Sverige 1891-19132020Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skulle eller skulle inte Sverige få en lärlingslag? Det var den huvudsakliga frågan i en debatt som kallades för lärlingsfrågan, runt sekelskiftet 1900. Liknande debatter fördes ungefär samtidigt i andra europeiska länder. Flera av dessa länder fick också lärlingslagar. I Sverige blev det dock inte någon lärlingslag. Tidigare forskning har visat att samhällsomvandlingen – framför allt arbetares och arbetsgivares organisering och industrisektorns tillväxt – påverkade lärlingsfrågans utveckling. Denna artikel tar sig an dessa aspekter i de svenska hantverksarbetsgivarnas debatt om lärlingsfrågan, år 1891–1913, i ett begreppshistoriskt bidrag till svensk yrkesutbildningshistoria. En riksdagsdebatt och två statliga lagförslag utgör jämförelsepunkter. Syftet är att fördjupa förståelsen av hur debatten om lärlingsfrågan färgades av samhällsomvandlingen genom att analysera hantverksarbetsgivarnas begreppsbruk inom partsrelationernas semantiska fält via språkbruket kring (1) yrke, fack, klass och stånd, (2) den anställande och den anställda parten i ett arbetsavtal eller lärlingsavtal, (3) vilka grupper som hantverksarbetsgivarna anser sig tillhöra och vilka de inte anser sig tillhöra. I analysen ingår även hantverksarbetsgivarnas erfarenhetsrum och förväntanshorisont eller annorlunda uttryckt deras beskrivningar av dåtid, nutid och framtid. Resultatet visar att hantverksarbetsgivarna såg lärlingslagen som en lösning på konflikten med arbetarna. Tanken var antingen att återetablera en kunskapsbaserad yrkesgemenskap och/eller att lärlingsutbildningens uppfostrande element skulle leda till minskad antagonism. I dessa lösningar var yrkesbegreppet centralt. Partsrelationerna skilde sig också åt mellan hantverk och industri, vilket återspeglas i användning av begreppen mästare, idkare och arbetsgivare. Den begreppshistoriska analysen av partsrelationernas semantiska fält samt hantverksarbetsgivarnas erfarenhetsrum och förväntanshorisont placerar in lärlingsfrågan i en bredare samhällsomvandling under en omvälvande och formativ period.

  • 271.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Perceptions of the economics of apprenticeship in Sweden c. 19002019In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 12-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, apprentice training was frequently debated in Sweden, just as in many other parts of Europe. This study analyses the economic perceptions of apprenticeship in the Swedish debate. Economic theories of apprenticeship, from Becker's human capital concept to institutional theories, are used as a point of comparison. How the contemporary actors understood the economics of apprenticeship helps us understand the conditions of Swedish post-guild apprenticeship. The analysis reveals similarities between the contemporary description and the economic theories of on-the-job training, as well as historically specific aspects of the perceptions of the economics of apprenticeship. Both in the economic theories and in the turn-of-the-century debate, the problems plaguing apprenticeship tie in to the question of whether or not there was a sufficient level of training from a societal perspective, or if there was underinvestment. This, in turn, leads to the question of the need for state intervention to correct a potential market failure. At the time, the perceived problems of apprenticeship were used as justification for a proposed apprentice law, which was never passed, and limited state financial support for training that was instituted in 1917.

  • 272.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lundh Nilsson, Fay
    Yrkesutbildning:  2011In: Utbildningshistoria: en introduktion / [ed] Esbjörn Larsson, Johannes Westberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Hermansson, Kenth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    I persuadörernas verkstad. Marknadsföring i Sverige 1920-1965: En studie av ord och handling hos marknadens aktörer2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic assumption in the thesis is that the expansion of production and consumption in the Swedish society during the first half of the 20th century involved market as well as consumer activities of a new kind.

    The thesis explores the development and practice of marketing towards consumers as a main activity of actors in the market, how it was formulated in textbooks an trade journals and followed up in the activity of two Swedish companies (Barnängen and MEA, Militärekiperingsaktiebolaget). The focus is on the period 1920-1965.

    In the first part the main lines of the dissertation is drawn. The second part focus on texts on marketing and the main characteristics of the period is discussed. It covers the topics of marketing, distribution, advertising and selling on a general level. In two more detailed chapters, the topics of market analysis and the marketing problems and praxis in retailing is dealt with.

    The third part focus on the practice in the two companies. Market research from the company of Barnängen is examined with the focus on products, groups of consumers, which technique was used, how and if recommendations were followed up in product politics or advertising. The results showed a shift in the use of techniques and product politics towards more sophisticated instruments and a closer relation to a wider market.

    Retailers use of marketing practice is examined in the company of MEA (Militär Ekiperings Aktiebolaget). The result showed a shift in both use of advertising and advertised products over the period 1930-1960. It was also detected a shit in the relation to the market that went from customer relation to a more anonymous consumer market.

    The fourth part ties the normative and practical levels together. The consequences for the consumers are also taken in for discussion. It showed that in the overall perspective a change towards a wider consumer market took place.

  • 274.
    Hess, Cordelia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Link, ChristinaSarnowsky, Jürgen
    Schuldbücher und Rechnungen der Großschäffer und Lieger des Deutschen Ordens in Preussen: Bd 1, Großschäfferei Königsberg I (Ordensfoliant 141)2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Hesselgren, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Vi äro tusenden: arbets- och levnadsförhållanden inom svensk textilindustri med särskilt avseende på Gamlestadens fabrikers AB 1890-19351992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diss.

  • 276.
    Hilding, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Impact of Market Deregulation on Technological Change, Industrial Restructuring and Incidence of Child Labour in India’s Match Industry2011In: 5th Annual NIAS Council Conference: Political regimes, growth politics and conflict in Asia, Stockholm, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Hilding, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Sören Wibeck, Indiens historia2015In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 537-539Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Hilding, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Technology in a Controlled Economy: The Match Industry in India1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Hilding, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Trade and Economic Cooperation in South Asia in a Comparative Regional Perspective2016In: Development and Regional Cooperation in Central Asia and South Asia: Euro-Asian Perspectives / [ed] Henrik Berglund, Mondira Dutta, Per Hilding, New Delhi: Pentagon Press , 2016, p. 234-258Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Hilding, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Swain, Ranjula Bali
    Nationalekonomiska institutionen vid Uppsala universitet.
    Vidyasagar, R
    UNICEF Office for Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
    Impact of Technological Change on the Incidence of Child Labour in the Indian Match Industry2011Report (Other academic)
  • 281.
    Holm, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. The Riksdag Library, Stockholm.
    Trading in Viking-Period Scandinavia - a Business Only for a Few? The Jämtland Case2015In: Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, ISSN 1782-7183, E-ISSN 2030-9902, Vol. 11, p. 79-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the question of whether trading in rural areas in Scandinavia during the middle and late Viking period (c. 875‒1050/75) was largely in the hands of elite groups in the society, or if a trading system more open to popular participation prevailed. Jämtland, a region in inland Mid-Scandinavia, is investigated here and constitutes an example of an area with a seemingly open system. On the basis primarily of grave finds, the author shows that many people living in Jämtland participated in buying and selling goods (e.g. furs) to such an extent that they had obtained scales and weights as tools of trade and used weighed silver as a means of payment. This widespread usage of silver as payment had arisen in spite of Jämtland’s remoteness from the major Scandinavian trading centres of the time. Several geographical, cultural, social, and economic factors that might explain this development in Jämtland are discussed.

  • 282.
    Holmlund, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Arvejord och äktenskap på den uppländska landsbygden under 1800-talet2003In: Hans och hennes: genus och egendom i Sverige från vikingatid till nutid / [ed] Maria Ågren, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 2003, p. 241-266Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Holmlund, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    From formal to female property rights: gender and inheritance of landed property in Estuna, Sweden, 1810-18452008In: Gender regimes, citizen participation and rural restructuring / [ed] Ildikó Asztalos Morell, Bettina B. Bock, Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI , 2008, p. 239-260Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Holmlund, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Jord byter ägare: Jordöverföringar och social differentiering i Stora Tuna ca 1840-18201995In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, Vol. 30, p. 45-64Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Holmlund, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Jorden vi ärvde: Ägostruktur och arvsstrategier i Estuna 1800-19302004In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, no 46, p. 81-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Husz, Orsi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Klass, människovärde och pengar2008In: Arbetarhistoria, no 3-4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Class, human worth and money

    This article discusses class, economy and culture in a rather down-to-earth way. Empirically the study focuses on debates on household budgets and the growing anxieties of economical decline among the Swedish middle classes during the first half of the twentieth century. Class is conventionally defined by socio-economical or/and cultural criteria. The point of this paper is to analyse source material about the economical situation of (self-defined) middle class groups from a cultural perspective. Theoretically I address the question how people try to make the seemingly contradictory economic value and ideal values commeasurable in everyday practice. In other words I show by three historical examples how writings about financial issues can shed light on cultural and moral boundaries between classes and how the ambiguous concept of value/values can be used as an analytical tool in the study of class.

    My examples are from 1.) a book published 1907 discussing the ”wage regulation” in the household (Hemmens lönereglering by Elna Tenow). 2.) pieces of financial advice to private persons offered by the home economics experts of the Taxpayers’ Organisation from the 1920ies to the 1940ies and 3.) an extensive newspaper debate in1950 called ”Justice to the Middle Class”.

  • 287.
    Hård, Ursula
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    ResursCentra för kvinnor som samhällsentreprenörer och företagare inom regional utveckling och politik2017In: Genus och företagande, Stockholm: Svenska sällskapet för antropologi och geografi, , 2017, Vol. 136, p. 109-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet inleds med en djupgående historisk bakgrund och presentation av framväxten av verksamheten ResursCentra för kvinnor, från ett underifrån perspektiv med initiativ och strategier från olika kvinnogrupper med en början år 1988 till ett formellt inrättande av regering år 1994, samt verksamheten och dess drift fram till år 2016. Kortfattat syftar ResursCentra för kvinnor till att bredda och fördjupa demokratin och att arbeta för att kvinnor får sin del av de offentliga resurserna samt öka kvinnors inflytande och stärka deras ställning i samhället. 

    De som driver ResursCentra för kvinnor kan i många fall ses som samhällsentreprenörer, vilka inom forskningen ofta beskrivs som individer som besitter viktig kunskap, har goda kontakter och nätverk, och som genom social mobilisering arbetar för social utveckling och entreprenörskap, samt hjälper att skapa försörjning lokalt, samtidigt som de fungerar som en länk mellan olika nivåer och delar av samhället och olika organisationer. De i kapitlet intervjuade, likt flertalet andra som driver resurscentraverksamhet inte minst på lokal nivå, är inte bara samhällsentreprenörer utan också egenföretagare.

    Därmed fortsätter kapitlet med en belysning av erfarenheter från personer som har drivit och driver resursverksamheten med fokus på lokal nivå och då framförallt delar av Gävleborgs län, och kapitlet avslutas med en problematisering av relationen mellan att arbeta aktivt med regionala och lokala utvecklingsfrågor samt att parallellt inom olika branscher vara egenföretagare, och vad det kan innebära för möjligheter och problem tillika vilka effekterna kan bli för respektive verksamhet (resurscentra för kvinnor/eget företagande). Kan resurscentra för kvinnor ses som en försörjningsmöjlighet? Är det egna företaget en förutsättning för att kunna driva resurscentra för kvinnor?

  • 288.
    Hård, Ursula
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Tillmar, Malin
    Kvinnors företagande: arbetsmarknadsbeteende och organisatorisk lösning2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens Sverige lyfts ofta småföretag och entreprenörer fram. Företagandet diskuteras dock ofta separat från både arbetsmarknad och övriga näringslivet. Därmed negligeras att individer växlar mellan att vara sin egen och ha anställning, det vill säga att företagandet ofta är ett sätt för individen att navigera på arbetsmarknaden snarare än drivet av en stark önskan att vara sin egen. Inte heller uppmärksammas att små företag ofta startas och drivs som en direkt konsekvens av stora organisationers strategier - det vill säga företagandet är en organisatorisk lösning på en stor organisations problem, inte uttryck för en individs starka vilja att vara sin egen. I studien ges exempel på företagande av dessa slag. Det första exemplet bygger på Ursula Hårds studier av kvinnor som följt en starta-eget-kurs i en norrlandskommun och det andra på Malin Tillmars studier av företagande i anslutning till den offentliga sektorns omvandling. Det första fallet är ett exempel på företagande som arbetsmarknadsbeteende, det sistnämnda på företagande som organisatorisk lösning. Företagandet som skapat, och skapare av, genussystemet är tydligt i fallen och diskuteras i studien.

  • 289.
    Högberg, Staffan
    Stockholm University.
    Utrikeshandel och sjöfart på 1700-talet: stapelvaror i svensk export och import 1738-18081969Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 290. Höjer, Mattias
    et al.
    Gullberg, Anders
    Pettersson, Ronny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Backcasting images of the future city-Time and space for sustainable development in Stockholm2011In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 78, no 5, p. 819-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and discusses a backcasting study for Stockholm 2050. The focus is on developing images of a future where Stockholm citizens have sustainable energy use-here defined as a 60% reduction per capita over a 50-year period. The perspective is that of households, so all energy is allocated to individuals' activities rather than being discussed from a sector perspective. Six images of the future are developed by combining a space dimension (three versions of changes in urban structure) and a time dimension (two versions of people's life tempo). Added to this is technological development, so that the images of the future illustrate how combinations of planning, behavioural change and technological development could lead to sustainable energy use.

  • 291.
    Ivanovic, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    HIV/AIDS bekämpning i Sydafrika: global och nationell implementering-politik, praktik och utmaningar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    WHO (Världshälsoorganisationen) har utgivit ett nytt strategidokument för HIV/AIDS -bekämpning år 2011, som grundar sig i nationella rekommendationer på åtgärder. Globala riktlinjer ska på så vis minska HIV-smittan i världen och år 2015 år målet att inga nya HIV-smittor ska äga rum. Sydafrika är ett land med en brokig HIV-historia och ett av de länder som har störst smittbörda i världen. Syftet med uppsatsen är att analysera och problematisera WHO: s riktlinjer kring HIV/AIDS- bekämpning samt att undersöka om Sydafrika arbetar i enlighet med WHO:s rekommendationer för HIV/AIDS- bekämpning. Materialet utgörs av WHO:s strategidokument Global health sector strategy on HIV/AIDS 2011-2015 och dokument från Sydafrikanska hälsoministeriet såsom budget, policydokument, uppsatta hälsomål och annan hälsoplanering. Dokument från WHO Sydafrika (landsektionen) har också analyserats. Undersökningen har en teoretisk grund i postkolonial- och feministiskteori. Genom en innehållsanalytisk metod analyserades materialet och resulterade i tematiska ämnesrubriker. Idékritik användes för att ge undersökningen en djupare och mer komplex analys. Undersökningen visar att Sydafrika arbetar i enlighet med WHO: s riktlinjer och att Sydafrikas hälsoministerium har planering på att bygga ut sin sjukvård och har öronmärkt pengar för HIV-vård. Postkoloniala tendenser kunde också utrönas i strategidokumentet i form av rekommendationer som redan är befintliga i den del av världen vi kallar ”väst” och som WHO rekommenderar andra länder att implementera.

  • 292.
    Jacobsson, Eva
    Stockholm University.
    Till eget gagn - till andras nytta: en komparativ studie av allmännyttigt byggande i Stockholm fram till år 19402000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of three main parts. The first part describes the theoretical background and gives further details about the different approaches to the housing and construction markets that have been brought forward by various scholars. Five chapters examine three alternative strategies when it came to overcoming the problems of the free market. In this case, it is about the philanthropic and cooperative housing solutions and about the business owners' construction of company-owned housing for their employees. Two comparative chapters conclude this section. The first chapter examines the social structure in various company-owned housing complexes, and cooperatives in Stockholm. An answer of the question on how to proceed was Belizeved to lie in a thorough reform of the housing market. Whereas the earlier chapters deal with the question of reducing the problems through the creation of a different type of housing construction, a municipal construction project where the profit-motives are lessened, the focus now changes. There arose an explicit desire to create other market rules. At the same time, influential politicians sought to develop a large-scale cooperative housing initiative with popular support. The last chapter describes the initial phase of this era, during the 1930s.

    Key words: the counter-cyclic theory, rent-driven construction, cost-steered construction, freedom-of-choice paradox, boom economies, depression, joint-stock housing companies, directive measures, cooperative-housing-society movement, SKB, HSB, the limited patriarchal system, the modern insurance model, the board and lodgings system, old age insurance, birth control, democratic pride, educational program, directive or general measures, the modern housing question, "cheap-housing politics".

  • 293.
    Jansson, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    From swords to sorrow: homicide and suicide in early modern Stockholm1998Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book deals with homicide and suicide in Stockholm in the period between the beginning of the seventeenth century and the mid-eighteenth century.

  • 294.
    Jansson, Jan-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Arbetsorganisationen vid Motala verkstad 1822-1843: den engelska tiden1990Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 295.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Värmlands landskap och odling under 1700- och 1800-talen: jord, skog och järn2015In: För den värmländska lanthushållningens väl. Landshövdingar, akademiker och hushållningssällskap i arbete för agrar modernisering 1790–1820 skildrat i samtida och nyskrivna texter / [ed] Olof Kåhrström, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, 2015, p. 18-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 296. Johansson, Tore
    et al.
    Pettersson, Ronny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Upplysning, arbete, samarbete: Lantbruksveckan 1911-20072013Book (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Jonsson, Gabriel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Oriental Languages.
    Shipbuilding in South Korea: a comparative study1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Jonsson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Numismatiska forskningsgruppen.
    A provisional survey of talers found in Sweden2007In: Magister monetae: Studies in honour of Jörgen Steen Jensen, Nationalmuseum, Köpenhamn , 2007, p. 207-214Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the period ca 1550-1700 talers constituted an international currency. More than 2,300 talers have been found in Sweden of which only 39 were struck in Sweden. German and Dutch talers together account for more than 80%. More than half of the material has been found in former Danish (Skåne, Halland and Blekinge) or Norwegian (Bohuslän) provincies.

  • 299.
    Jonsson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Myntfynd i Sverige2009In: Myntstudier, ISSN 1652-2303, no 2, p. 25-28Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Short summary of coin finds in Sweden 0-1800 AD (679.669 pcs) including distribution maps for the middle ages and the modern period

  • 300.
    Jonsson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Numismatiska forskningsgruppen.
    Nässkatten 1704 och järnhandeln under vikingatiden2008In: Myntstudier, ISSN 1652-2303, no 2, p. 17-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 1704 a Viking-Age hoard was found at Näs, Österåker par., Uppland, t.p.q. 1006. It contained an estimated 2,800 coins, mainly from Germany (c. 2,200?) and England (c. 500?), as well as the first known coins of Olof Skötkonung (c. 50). It is the largest Viking-Age hoard on the Swedish mainland within the contemporary borders. The site is located near to a Husaby and at the mouth of the Långhundra passage. It is suggested that the hoard can be connected with an administrative site where toll was collected. Goods transported along the Långhundra passage could have included iron for export.

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