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  • 251.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Regeringsformen ur ett könsperspektiv: En övergripande genomgång2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten Regeringsformen ur ett Könsperspektiv utgör redovisningen av ett uppdrag som lämnats av Grundlagsutredningen. I rapporten analyseras regeringsformen bl.a. mot bakgrund av begrepp som formell och reell jämställdhet samt könsneutrala respektive könsspecifika formuleringar. I rapporten behandlas särskilt frågor om valsystemets utformning, folkomröstningar samt utnämningsmakten från ett könsperspektiv.

  • 252.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vägen till Varannan damernas: Om kvinnorepresentation, kvotering och kandidaturval i svensk politik 1970-20022006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to analyse women’s political representation in the Swedish parliament 1970-2002, a period during which the share of women parliamentarians increased from 14 to 45 percent, and to assess changes in party rules and party norms in terms of regulative and discursive continuity and change. Inspired by Carol Lee Bacchi’s “What’s the Problem? Approach,” with its focus on the construction of political problems rather than “the problem” as such, this dissertation studies how Swedish political parties have formulated the problem of women’s exclusion from parliamentary politics, what causes of women’s under representation they have identified and what solutions they have proposed. The dissertation also studies how party rules to increase the number of women have been implemented in the 2002 nomination process.

    The dissertation is based on party documents from the period 1970-2002, a national survey to all nomination committees in the parliamentary election in 2002 and 70 interviews with nomination committee members for three political parties in two electoral constituencies.

    The analysis shows how both party rules and party norms regarding women’s political representation have changed over time. The analysis also shows that the framing of women’s representation changed over time: from an optimistic view of historical development, gender equality as ‘equal opportunity’ and harmony between the sexes to a critical view on historical development and gender equality as ‘equality of results’. The analysis of the nomination process shows that gender is still a key issue in the composition of party lists but that the number of women on party lists in some parties is dependent on women gatekeepers on the nomination committees. It also shows that the ordering of the list is highly dependent on the candidate list from the previous election and that this order of succession also covers non-winnable seats.

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  • 253.
    Freidenvall, Lenita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sawer, Marian
    Gender Budgeting: Australian innovation and Nordic delivery2021In: Nordic Edge: Policy Possibilities for Australia / [ed] Andrew Scott; Rod Campbell, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press , 2021Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 254.
    Funke, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Att göra reklam för reklamen: Reklambranschens opinionsbildning 1965-19772004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 255.
    Furendal, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Appearances of Ēthos in Political Thought: The Dimension of Practical Reason by Sophia Hatzisavvidou2017In: Political Studies Review, ISSN 1478-9299, E-ISSN 1478-9302, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 604-605Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Furendal, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Artificiell intelligens, likriktningsproblemet och politisk filosofi – en översikt2022In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, E-ISSN 2002-3383, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 1-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tekniska framsteg inom Artificiell Intelligens (AI) väcker en rad frågor av moralisk och politisk karaktär kring hur AI-system bör användas, och hur de kan påverka våra samhällen och sociala relationer. Denna artikel ger en överblick över några centrala frågor inom det framväxande fält som kallas AI-etik, utifrån fyra nyligen utgivna böcker. Inom AI-etik har särskilt fokus ofta riktats mot det så kallade likriktningsproblemet: hur vi ska få en AI att frambringa ett utfall som ligger i linje med vad vi vill. I detta unga fält kan emellertid politisk-filosofiska bidrag tillhandahålla en bredare och mer nyanserad analysapparat kring AI-etiska frågor, vilket i sin tur kan leda till teoretiska framsteg.

  • 257.
    Furendal, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Defining the duty to contribute: Against the market solution2019In: European Journal of Political Theory, ISSN 1474-8851, E-ISSN 1741-2730, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 469-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If there is a duty of justice to contribute to society, which asks individuals to produce a specific amount of goods and services that can be redistributed, we need a decision-procedure to know when we have done our part. This paper analyses and critically assesses the commonly suggested decision-procedure of relying on market prices to measure the value of one’s contribution. It is usually assumed that a high salary indicates that one’s talents are put to good use, but this presupposes both that market prices of labour are correct reflections of supply and demand, and that market prices are correct reflections of social value. I criticise both assumptions and argue that the social value of a contribution cannot simply be a function of its market value, but is also influenced by the principles of justice that support the duty to contribute. Further, the market solution is incapable of valuing contributions that lack market prices, like non-marketised care labour. The market solution thus fails as a decision-procedure under other than special circumstances. This does not mean, however, that we need to give up the idea of a duty to contribute.

  • 258.
    Furendal, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Do Your Bit, Claim Your Share: Justice, Ethos, and the Individual Duty to Contribute2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary political philosophy primarily conceives of justice as a virtue of major social institutions. Yet, much advocacy of justice is increasingly focused on how well particular individuals live up to its demands, and proceeds by calling out and criticising their unjust behaviour. The institutional focus renders political philosophy unable to inform and evaluate such attempts to change, not legal frameworks, but rather the principles that people find acceptable and act on in their daily lives. To address this shortcoming, this dissertation provides a political philosophical analysis of what justice requires of individuals, and why. It does so by developing and defending an account of contributive justice, which answers the inquiry’s guiding questions of who should contribute to justice and why, as well as what a contribution is, and how individual duties of justice should be enforced. The arguments provided support the conclusion that achieving a just society is not simply a question of designing and complying with the right kind of institutions, but that we all have a pro tanto duty to contribute in our day-to-day lives towards the furthering of a just society, and that relying on informal and decentralised social sanctions is the best way to promote adherence to this duty.

    The duty to contribute defended in this dissertation differs from existing policies that make access to welfare state services conditional on individuals’ willingness to work or study. It also differs from prominent existing philosophical defences of similar positions, centred around the ideas of equality, reciprocity, and fairly sharing burdens. Critically analysing these accounts, the dissertation shows that, although each account can justify a duty to contribute, their specific answers to the guiding questions are ultimately unsatisfactory. For instance, they are unable to explain both why it is unjust to opt out from doing your bit of the labour necessary to meet the demands of justice, and why individuals who cannot contribute should nevertheless be able to claim the share that they are due.

    These shortcomings can be avoided, however, by combining concerns about equality, reciprocity, and fairly sharing burdens into a hybrid account. This generates a two-part pro tanto duty to contribute whereby, firstly, everyone has a duty to contribute towards making sure that everyone receives what they are due as a matter of justice. If and when this level is reached, everyone then has an obligation to benefit others, conditional upon them benefitting from the work of others. While it is unjust to refuse to contribute in the first way, the hybrid account leaves room for people to reject additional benefits and thereby absolve themselves from having to contribute further. Furthermore, the pro tanto nature of this duty means that it could be outweighed by other morally important considerations. Although demanding, it will hence not crowd out all personal pursuits.

    The dissertation also suggests that adherence to this duty should be enforced not through state action, but rather by individuals responding to and upholding a system of social sanctions. Contrasting this so-called ethos of justice with similar systems of social control, such as peer-to-peer online monitoring and sanctioning, and the Social Credit System currently being implemented in China, arguably shows that the informal and decentralised nature of the ethos allows it to avoid the potentially freedom-curtailing effects of the similar systems.

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  • 259.
    Furendal, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Liberté, égalité, efficacité: en politisk-teoretisk studie av incitament och deras betydelse för frihet, jämlikhet och effektivitet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 260.
    Furendal, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Rescuing Justice from Indifference: Equality, Pareto, and Cohen's Ethos2018In: Social Theory and Practice, ISSN 0037-802X, E-ISSN 2154-123X, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 485-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    G. A. Cohen has argued that egalitarian justice proscribes equality-upsetting economic incentives, but that individuals nevertheless are required to make a sufficiently large productive contribution to society. This article argues, however, that Cohen’s claim that justice is insensitive to Pareto concerns and simply is equality, undermines such a duty. In fact, Cohen cannot say that justice prefers a distribution where everyone is equally well off to one where everyone is equally badly off. Individuals hence cannot have a duty of justice to use their talents at a more productive level. This indifference risks removing Cohen’s egalitarianism’s appeal as an alternative to the Rawlsian position it challenges. Several ways of avoiding this problem are proposed and evaluated. Ultimately, it is argued that such a duty to contribute must instead be based on a concern for both equality and human flourishing. The ethos Cohen defends must hence be made pluralist, and encourage a commitment to both principles.

  • 261.
    Furendal, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tying Ourselves to the Mast, or Acting for the Sake of Justice? Ethos, Individual Duties, and Social Sanctions2022In: Journal of social philosophy, ISSN 0047-2786, E-ISSN 1467-9833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many contemporary political movements focus more on changing the values and principles that people act on in their daily lives rather than institutions and legal frameworks. Political-philosophical theories of justice, however, often focus more on the Rawlsian “basic structure” than the “ethos” of a just society, and rarely discuss how individuals may be encouraged to act in accordance with principles of justice. This article attempts to redress this, and draws on moral, social and political philosophy to argue that an ethos exists in a group or society either i) when its members internalize and act from a particular principle, or ii) when its members uphold a decentralized system of informal social sanctions that increases their compliance with a particular principle. 

  • 262.
    Furendal, Markus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    O'Neill, Martin
    Work, Justice, and Collective Capital Institutions: Revisiting Rudolf Meidner and the Case for Wage‐Earner Funds2022In: Journal of Applied Philosophy, ISSN 0264-3758, E-ISSN 1468-5930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article makes the case for a specific variety of what we call Collective Capital Institutions (CCIs), by returning to the idea of Wage-Earner Funds (WEFs) – a 1970s Swedish policy proposal designed gradually to shift ownership and control over parts of the economy to democratically controlled institutions. We identify two attractive rationales in favour of such a scheme and argue that both can fruitfully be transposed to the current worldwide economic situation. The egalitarian rationale is that WEFs could help in the pursuit of equality by giving a wider set of people a stake in collectively owned companies and a right to their profits. The democratic rationale is that WEFs redistribute not only these profits, but also the power over economic decisions made within companies. We then contrast such schemes for collective capital ownership with the similar but much more privatised proposals set out in, for instance, John Rawls's idea of a ‘property-owning democracy’. We argue that CCIs ultimately are more likely to contribute to the development of the ‘sense of justice’ within society that is needed for a stable just society. We conclude that CCIs deserve a great deal more exploration in academic and political discussions of egalitarian economic systems.

  • 263.
    Fällman, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Oriental Languages.
    Dialog med uigurer: oväntade kinesiska perspektiv på Xinjiang2009In: Internationella Studier, ISSN 0020-952X, no 1, p. 116-120Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Gailan, Mohammad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies, Middle Eastern Studies.
    Independence or Autonomy? The Kurdish dilemma: A case study of the Kurdish leadership’s changing political objectives And attitude on the issue of independence in Iraq2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 265. Ganesan, N
    et al.
    Amer, Ramses
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Oriental Languages.
    Conclusion2010In: International Relations in Southeast Asia: Between Bilateralism and Multilateralism / [ed] N Ganesan and Ramses Amer, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies , 2010, 1, p. 313-337Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 266.
    Gauffin, Karl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lyytinern, Eveliina
    Working for Integration: – A Comparative Analysis of Policies Impacting Labour Market Access among Young Immigrants and Refugees in the Nordic Countries2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a comparative analysis of policies affecting the labour market participation of young refugees in the Nordic countries.

    Background statistics, secondary literature, policy evaluations and legal documents from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are used to generate an overview of Nordic policies affecting employment in the immigrant population. Four policy areas are analysed:a) the right to work, b) integration through labour, c) youth guarantee and d) financial support.

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  • 267.
    Gavelin, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola.
    The Terms of Involvement: A study of attempts to reform civil society's role in public decision making in Sweden​2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the better part of a century, a distinguishing feature of the Swedish democratic model has been the close relationship between organised interests and public decision makers. Yet the first decade of the twenty-first century saw a number of attempts to reform Swedish civil society’s role in decision making, purportedly to make involvement activities more inclusive, reciprocal, flexible and consequential. The aim of this thesis is to describe and understand the motivations behind and the meaning of these reform attempts. Using an interpretive research design, and drawing on constructivist institutionalist perspectives on organisational change, the study asks questions about what has driven the attempted reform, how affected actors have interpreted its meaning and consequences, and how its framing and outcomes have been affected by the fact that it was devised and implemented both in traditional organisations and in networks consisting of local and national actors from civil society and the public sector. The thesis constitutes a contribution to the constructivist institutionalist literature concerned with the micro-foundations of organisational behaviour and to the governance research literature, to which it contributes empirical insights about how governance reforms have been interpreted and rationalised in Sweden.

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  • 268. Gibler, Douglas M.
    et al.
    Miller, Steven V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The Militarized Interstate Confrontation Dataset, 1816-20142024In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 68, no 2-3, p. 562-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use this article to introduce the Militarized Interstate Confrontation (MIC) dataset, 1816-2014—a new dataset for international conflict with a host of innovative features. The MIC data corrects thousands of errors in existing interstate conflict data and provides fatality ranges for all conflicts, with meaningful fatality estimates and no missing fatality values. Thus, the MIC data fixes missing data problems that have precluded researchers from analyzing escalation and related issues because of the lack of integrated conflict and war data. We also identify and distribute separate datasets for state-versus-citizen actions that are protest-dependent. These are attacks on shipping, fishing boats, and rebels, which were previously included in the data because the sovereign of those private citizens protested. We discuss our systematic search for new conflict cases and the 108 new conflicts we found, and we provide analyses and summaries that demonstrate the usefulness of our MIC data. Finally, we use our new data to create the first ever dataset of truly dyadic, directed dyad-year data, with highest actions and fatalities that vary appropriately within conflicts by both year and dyad. We believe these datasets will be useful for a host of studies but especially those interested in how conflicts evolve over time.

  • 269. Gibler, Douglas M.
    et al.
    Miller, Steven V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The Militarized Interstate Events (MIE) dataset, 1816–20142023In: Conflict Management and Peace Science, ISSN 0738-8942, E-ISSN 1549-9219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use this article to introduce the Militarized Interstate Events (MIE) dataset, a new dataset for international conflict with a host of innovative features. The MIE data offers dyadic, event-level information for all militarized interstate confrontations from 1816 to 2014, including major wars as well as all threats, displays, and uses of force between two or more states. The data come with major innovations, including dyadic fatality estimates at the event level and recorded events for general conflicts alongside the battles of the wars of the last two centuries. We discuss how to use these conflict data and provide a replication that demonstrates the dataset's usefulness. 

  • 270.
    Glover, Nikolas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Urban Lundberg & Mattias Tydén (red.), Sverigebilder: det nationellas betydelser i politik och vardag. 2010In: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 130, no 1, p. 175-177Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 271.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Change and stability in foreign policy: the problems and possibilities of détente1988Book (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Democracy and Foreign Policy: The Case of Sweden1986Book (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Det internationella systemet: En teori och dess begränsningar.1977Book (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    International Norms and War Between States: Three Studies in International Politics1971Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Is My Enemy's Enemy My Friend's Friend?: From Bipolarity to Ambiguity in Great Power Relations.1979Book (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Politikens internationalisering1999Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Statsvetenskapligt lexikon1997Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Stormaktspolitik och kulturklimat.1981Book (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The logic of internationalism: coercion and accommodation1994Book (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Övernationella idéer: Eu som ideologiskt projekt2003Book (Other academic)
  • 281.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Allan, Pierre
    The End of the cold war: evaluating theories of international relations1995Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gilland, Karin
    Nationality versus Europeanisation: the national view of the nation in four EU countries2001Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Robertson, Alexa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    International Opinion, International Politics and Democracy: a framework of analysis1990Report (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Robertson, Alexa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Strategies for Peace: The Political Parties, Churches and Activists in West Germany, Great Britain and Sweden1988Report (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Goldmann, Kjell
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sjöstedt, Gunnar
    Power, capabilities, interdependence: problems in the study of international influence.1979Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 286.
    Gonzalez, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Interpreting the taking vs. creating power dichotomy: A case study of the Argentinean labour movement CTA and the Constituyente Social2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study of the alternative labour union organization Central de Trabajadores de la Argentina (CTA) in Argentina and the most recent project under process striving for system change, named the Constituyente Social. The case under study is used to illustrate the perception of power in relation to aspirations for societal change among the left in Latin America. The overall struggle of the CTA and the Constituyente Social is to create a more just society based on a deepening of democracy, more participatory in character. Two understandings of power are presented, on the one hand is the taking power concept, inherited from the political struggles where the belief is that power needs to be taken from the elite in order to succeed with structural change in society. On the other hand is the creating power perception, best exemplified with the Zapatista movement in Mexico. There is no conquering of power in this view, but a creation and strengthening of power among the masses. The theoretical chapter presents a view that unites these two perceptions, arguing for the need to intersect the vertical (power taking) and the horizontal (power creating) struggles. The Constituyente Social is analyzed in relation to this intersection, providing concrete examples of where the two power perceptions are utilized, sometimes simultaneously. The overall conclusion is that the dichotomization usually done between the two understandings of power is incomplete and may even damage the struggle for societal change.

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  • 287.
    Gottardis, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Reason and Utopia: Reconsidering the Concept of Emancipation in Critical Theory2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What does emancipation mean today? In political theory, the idea of emancipation has typically been understood as a process of rationalization involving the promotion of human rights or the historical overcoming of capitalism. However, in contemporary social criticism the earlier antagonism between liberalism and Marxism has largely been replaced by the conflict between Enlightenment thinking and Enlightenment critique. The tension between Enlightenment philosophy and Enlightenment skepticism can be taken as emblematic of the two main tendencies within contemporary critical thought. However, a similar ambivalence can be found in the classical critical theory of the so-called Frankfurt School. Given that we have to distinguish between two types of critical theoretical thought, is it even possible to answer the question about emancipation in an unambiguous way? The overall aim of this study is to examine the meaning of emancipation in contemporary critical thought. More specifically, the principal aim is to demonstrate that Jürgen Habermas’s critical theory can be understood as an attempt to overcome the opposition between the early and the late Frankfurt School in order subsequently to evaluate this attempt and thereby judge whether Habermas’s approach can serve as a key for combining the concepts of emancipation corresponding to these two types of critique. My main objection to Habermas’s reformulation of critical theory is that it is characterized by a lack of emancipatory potential and a lack of critical force. In trying to pave the way for an alternative approach, my strategy for accommodating the tensions between the two models of critical theory is to show that emancipation can be viewed as a process involving three disparate yet interconnected stages: an initial break in the continuity of history; a collective political struggle in order to realize the utopian vision thereby opened up; and, a possible understanding among the participants in a discourse.

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  • 288.
    Graetsch, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    A Holistic Understanding of Domestic Democratic Peace2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the notion of domestic democratic peace will be examined by using a holistic understanding of internal conflicts. Domestic democratic peace has most commonly been studied by using quantitative methods. This study will be qualitative using an abductive approach when understanding why mature democracies are more stable than other types of regimes. The holistic understanding of internal conflicts used in this study is based on the concepts of relative deprivation, instrumentalisation of politics and politicisation of identity. Burton’s sources of conflict are used to show how relative deprivation can be experienced. The questions to be answered in this essay are as follow:

    • How can the proposed holistic understanding explain why mature democracies are more stable than newly established democracies and autocratic states?
    • In what ways do mature democracies decrease experience of relative deprivation and thereby safeguarding Burton’s sources of conflict?
    • In what ways do mature democracies cater to a more peaceful process of politicisation of identity and instrumentalisation of politics?
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  • 289.
    Gröjer, Anette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Den utvärdera(n)de staten: Utvärderingens institutionalisering på den högre utbildningens område2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years evaluation has become a very important element in the public administration. The Swedish state administration to a significant extent both evaluates and is evaluated. This means that the evaluating state is at the same time the evaluated state. In this dissertation the institutionalization of evaluation is studied in a field within which this development has been particularly lively and interesting, namely the field of higher education. The dissertation focuses on evaluation activity that has been carried out in conjunction with central public authorities within higher education: the Office of the Chancellor of the Universities and Colleges in Sweden, the National Swedish Board of Universities and Colleges, and the Office of the University Chancellor, and encompasses the period 1964-1995.

    A newly revived research tradition within political science – historical institutionalism – is used as a perspective and a methodology. Since the application of this tradition has not yet been fully tested, another purpose is to examine the practical utility of this analytical tool and the kind of knowledge that it produces. The dissertation thereby combines the fields of education policy, evaluation research and institutional theory.

    The beginning of the institution has been dated to the end of the 1960s and beginning of the 1970s. In the dissertation the forces behind the initiation of the institution are taken up. Events and developments in the field that have influenced the further development of the institution have been identified and analyzed. Developments reveal that the institution has been stable during the entire period of time under study, despite some changes.

    The use of historical institutionalism as a perspective and methodology has proven satisfactory on a general level. However, special solutions have been required as problems and ambiguities have arisen. The dissertation concludes with reflections on the practical utility of historical institutionalism in political science research.

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  • 290.
    Grönroos (fd. Johansson), Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Pension Reform in Continental Europe: A comparative study of pension reform in Germany and France during the years ofausterity 1990-2010.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As demographic and economic contexts have shifted, the need for pension systems to reform has increased. Often, however, these systems have proved difficult to change – especially in continental Europe. Despite this, Germany, by many considered particularly reform resistant, succeeded in reforming its pension system; while France, with its strong executive power, has not. As research has yet to find a consensus on what factors makes welfare retrenchment possible, this field requires more attention. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to analyse the developments of the German and French pension systems, from 1990-2010, and to unearth what factors made successful reform possible in Germany while it failed in France. Using a comparative case study, all major pension reforms in the two countries during the time period, are analysed from four institutionalist perspectives. The results point to three main factors explaining Germany’s successful reform. Firstly, the shock brought on by the reunification of East and West Germany forced politicians to act. France on the other hand, experienced no such shock. Secondly, the subduing of the unions removed the main veto player against reform. In contrast, the French unions, whose political power lies in their ability to call for manifestations and shift public opinion, could not be outflanked. Lastly, the new liberal ideas that permeated German politics around the turn of the century provided a locus for change that was lacking in France. These results suggest the importance of external pressure, veto players and ideational factors to major welfare reform.

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    Pension Reform in Continental Europe
  • 291.
    Gullberg, Anders
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Hösgkolan och Kommittén för stockholmsforskning.
    Lilja, SvenStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Makten i stadshuset: Stockholms lokalpolitik under 1900-talet.2008Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur ser den moderna stockholmspolitikens historia ut? Vilka partier har varit i majoritet och vilka frågor har visat sig vara av särskilt intresse för huvudstaden? Boken innehåller ett flertal bidrag som behandlar viktiga teman i stockholms politiska samtidshistoria. Antologin innehåller bidrag om val, väljare och partier, om miljödimensionen i stockholmspolitiken, om Stockholms finansborgarråd, om nykterhetspolitiken på 1950-talet och om stadens politiska geografi. Frågor ställs om hur kulturmiljön hanterats av politiker och tjänstemän, om kvinnornas plats i politiken och om utlokaliseringen av statliga företag - frågor som fortfarande är aktuella och som knyter ihop 1900-talets politiska historia med makten i stadshuset idag.

  • 292. Gupta, Joyeeta
    et al.
    Chen, Yang
    Armstrong McKay, David I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Exeter, UK; Georesilience Analytics, UK.
    Fezzigna, Paola
    Gentile, Giuliana
    Karg, Aljoscha
    van Vliet, Luc
    Lade, Steven J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Future Earth Secretariat, Sweden; Australian National University, Australia.
    Jacobson, Lisa
    Applying earth system justice to phase out fossil fuels: learning from the injustice of adopting 1.5 °C over 1 °C2024In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement has seen the adoption of a 1.5° to 2 °C climate target, based on the belief that climate change becomes ‘dangerous’ above this level. Since then, the scientific community and the countries most affected by global warming have reiterated that the maximum limit to be reached should be 1.5 °C. This paper goes one step further by questioning the reasoning behind the adoption of these targets, arguing that the fossil fuel-dependent political context in which they were adopted has undermined justice concerns. We highlight the political influence of the fossil fuels industry within target-setting negotiations, analyzing the evolution of climate targets and fossil fuel lobbying. We then harness published scientific evidence and the Earth System Justice framework to analyze the impacts of the 1.5 °C target, and the injustices that have so far been implicitly deemed acceptable. We argue that 1 °C would have been a far more just target and was undermined by vested interests and status quo maintenance. Finally, we propose just supply-side policies to ensure an adequate placement of responsibility on the fossil fuel industry. This way we (a) identify political influences and scientific blind spots that have and could continue to hinder climate action, (b) reveal how these influences delayed more ambitious climate objectives, contributing to the adoption of an unjust climate target, and (c) promote a focus on supply-side measures and polluting industries in order to break free from the impasse in the energy transition and foster more just outcomes.

  • 293.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. the Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Identity Change, Anxiety and Creativity: How 19th Century Japan Sought to Leave Asia and Become Part of the West2022In: Uluslararasi Iliskiler/ International Relations, ISSN 1304-7310, Vol. 19, no 73, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identity change is an important phenomenon in international politics. It can radically alter how states orient themself and act internationally. But how does identity change occur? For some, it is merely an epiphenomenal result of changes in the international distribution of power. Others highlight domestic factors, while still others see it as occurring through a social process of interaction with other states. There are also explanations that combine these and other factors. While existing accounts have pushed the debate on identity change forward, this article suggests that incorporating anxiety into our understanding of identity change would help us better understand two important aspects of it: how an existing identity comes to be doubted and how a new one becomes thinkable and eventually accepted. Drawing on the work of psychologist Rollo May, this article explores the link between identity change, anxiety and creativity. The argument is illustrated through reference to 19th century Japan. For much of its history, Japan was part of the Sino-centric order and looked up to China as a “teacher in the ways of civilization”. However, in the 19th century, Japan radically redefined its identity in relation to China, and Asia more broadly, and rejected the Sino-centric world view as it sought to become a “civilized” state similar to the Western countries.

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  • 294.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Narratives and Bilateral Relations: Rethinking the "History Issue" in Sino-Japanese Relations2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of the thesis is to present a framework that makes possible an understanding of bilateral relations that challenges mainstream International Relations (IR) approaches through a study of the “history issue” in Sino-Japanese relations. A secondary aim is to provide an alternative understanding of this issue. Discussions of the issue are often highly influenced by the objectivism, rationalism, state-centrism and agent-centrism common in mainstream IR theory. This has several consequences, primarily that the focus is chiefly on behaviour and that equal emphasis is rarely put on both contexts. In order to address these consequences, the question of what kinds of narrative, as expressed in museum exhibitions about war in both countries, can be found and which ones dominate is addressed using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The narratives, which contain the stories “we” tell about “our” past, are important components in and instantiate the abstract images that are identities, through which people make sense of the world.

    The context-sensitive analysis confirms the constructivist assumption that narratives matter by demonstrating that political actors strongly believe narratives shape people’s minds and act accordingly. It also shows that different narratives are present in both countries. It is suggested that the narratives are closely linked to domestic identity politics. Nonetheless, the depiction of self and other in these has consequences for bilateral relations. This has several implications, for example, that changes in the behaviour of leaders, while they may have a positive impact on relations, are insufficient as solutions to the problems. This has consequences for approaches preoccupied with behaviour. The study contributes to constructivist IR through a close textual analysis of narrative structure that illustrates the significance of labelling and categorizing in identity construction that is easily missed by less fine-grained analyses.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 295.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Mälksoo, Maria
    Memory-Political Deterrence: Shielding Collective Memory and Ontological Security through Dissuasion 2024In: International Studies Quarterly, ISSN 0020-8833, E-ISSN 1468-2478, Vol. 68, no 1, article id sqae006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally used within the context of hard military power in interstate relations, the concept of deterrence has been progressively extended to non-state actors and new issue areas. While scholarship on the social aspects of deterrence has expanded our understanding of this core international security practice, the focus of existing research has largely remained on physical security. This article argues that there is a phenomenon in international politics that can be called memory-political deterrence. Memory-political deterrence refers to the ways in which states seek to dissuade other political actors from taking actions that threaten the collective memory narratives that underpin the ontological security of the deterring actor. Memory-political deterrence works, for example, through political rhetoric, declarations, diplomatic insults, commemorative practices, and punitive memory laws. We illustrate the article’s arguments through empirical examples from Russia’s and China’s recent memory-political deterrence efforts toward Ukraine and Japan, respectively. In doing so, we elucidate the ways in which memory politics is intertwined with geopolitics, underpinning wider world-ordering aspirations.

  • 296.
    Gustafsson, Maria-Therese
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Schilling-Vacaflor, Almut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Osnabrück University, Germany.
    Lenschow, Andrea
    Foreign corporate accountability: The contested institutionalization of mandatory due diligence in France and Germany2023In: Regulation and Governance, ISSN 1748-5983, E-ISSN 1748-5991, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 891-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent past, European states have adopted mandatory due diligence (MDD) laws for holding companies accountable for the environmental and human rights impacts of their supply chains. The institutionalization of the international due diligence norm into domestic legislation has, however, been highly contested. Our contribution analyzes the discursive struggles about the meaning of due diligence that have accompanied the institutionalization of MDD in Germany and France. Based on document analysis and legal analysis of laws and law proposals, we identify a state-centric, a market-based, and a polycentric-governance discourse. These discourses are based on fundamentally different understandings of how the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights should be translated into hard law. By outlining these discourses and comparing the related policy preferences, we contribute with a better understanding of different ways in which MDD is institutionalized, with important consequences for the possibilities to enhance corporate accountability in global supply chains. 

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  • 297. Gustavsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Tallberg, JonasStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Internationella relationer2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Neighbourhood Survey 2020: Design and Realisation2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the design and realisation of the Neighbourhood Survey 2020, within the research program “The Neighbourhood Revisited: Spatial polarization and social cohesion in contemporary Sweden”, directed by Bo Malmberg at the Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University. The program, in which the survey is one of the main information sources, is funded by the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences (Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, RJ), grant registration number M18-0214:1. 

    The overarching aim of the survey was to provide the program’s research team with recent tailor-made data, to enable empirical investigations of how spatial polarization may lead to a society that is increasingly divergent in terms of attitudes, values and lifestyles. To this end, the survey was based on a stratified sample of individuals (age 18–80) in 10 different types of residential areas in Sweden. This predefined geographic demarcation of the sample—in the report referred to as the ‘neighbourhood clusters’— stems from an empirically grounded classification developed earlier in the research program. The survey was administered by Statistics Sweden, and 4,784 residents completed the survey (either online or on paper), corresponding to a total response rate of 24 per cent. 

    This report details the background of the survey, as an integrated and integral part of the overall research program. Methodological details concerning the neighbourhood clusters are also provided, whereby the linkage between identified clusters and the sampling frame is elaborated. Furthermore, the construction of the questionnaire is described, along with the actual implementation of the survey. Importantly, the quality of the data obtained is also assessed in terms of measurements, coverage, and non-response.

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  • 299. Haavio-Mannila, Elina
    et al.
    Dahlerup, DrudeStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.Eduards, MaudStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.Gudmundsdottir, Esther
    Det uferdige demokratiet: kvinner i nordisk politikk1983Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 300. Haavio-Mannila, Elina
    et al.
    Dahlerup, DrudeStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.Eduards, MaudStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.Gudmundsdottir, Esther
    Unfinished democracy: women in Nordic politics1985Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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