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  • 251.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jakobsen, Vibeke
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Österbacka, Eva
    Dahl, Espen
    Early school leaving in Scandinavia: extent and labour market effects2015In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 253-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational tracks are organized. Denmark and Norway have dual vocational tracks, that is, they combine school-based education and workplace apprenticeships, whereas in Finland and Sweden they are primarily school based. We analyse administrative longitudinal data from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s in the four countries and find the highest vocational track dropout rates in Norway and the lowest in Finland. The results indicate that the relative labour market effect of dropping out from a vocational track is most detrimental in Norway. It is also in Norway that we find the greatest gender differences in this respect.

  • 252.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Egalitarian Paradise?2017In: The Routledge Handbook of Scandinavian Politics / [ed] Peter Nedergaard, Anders Wivel, Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Long-term consequences of being not in employment, education or training as a young adult. Stability and change in three Swedish birth cohorts2016In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 136-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we analyse the development of young adults not in education, employment or training (NEET) in three complete Swedish birth cohorts born in 1975, 1980 and 1985. We analyse the risk for future labour-market exclusion among NEETs, and how this risk varies between three birth cohorts who made the transition from school to work during periods characterised by different opportunity structures for young adults. Analyses using propensity score matching with repeated outcomes show that belonging to the NEET-group in early adulthood has an independent effect on the development of subsequent labour-market risk for both men and women. Moreover, this effect increases across the cohorts. The fact that the degree of labour-market attachment has clear and long-lasting implications indicates that the problems associated with being NEET cannot be reduced to a transient phase. Rather, it seems as though being NEET may be both a step on an already unfavourable life career and a triggering factor for social exclusion.

  • 254.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Pathways to Social Exclusion— A Life-Course Study2011In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 107-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses how living conditions during childhood and adolescence structure socio-economic circumstances in midlife. The data are drawn from a new longitudinal Swedish data set—the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study—in which we can follow 14,294 individuals from birth (1953) to the age of 48 (2001). The analysis proceeds in three steps. The first step establishes the link between precarious living conditions in childhood and midlife social exclusion. In the second step, structural equation modelling is used to depict the pathways by which this association is mediated. The analysis produces tentative evidence that the long-term effect of financial poverty primarily runs via educational failure, whereas the effect of other social problems in the family of origin runs via deviant behaviour. In the third step, we analyse whether or not children who were raised in poor families or in families with other social problems are more sensitive to new risk exposures as adults. This is tested by examining the effect of long-term unemployment during the economic crisis of the 1990s on social exclusion risks 7–9 years later.

  • 255.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Social exkludering i ett livsförloppsperspektiv2011In: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas och Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, 1, p. 143-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Ung och utanför2011In: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas och Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, 1, p. 163-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 257.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Unga som varken arbetar eller studerar - olika definitioners betydelse för omfattning, sammansättning och konsekvenser2013In: Unga som varken arbetar eller studerar: statistik, stöd och samverkan : slutbetänkande, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2013, , p. 15p. 331-346Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Marginalisering och uppväxtvillkor2008In: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, no 4, p. 21-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 259.
    Båvner, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Half full or half empty?: part-time work and well-being among Swedish women2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register Data2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a gap in school performance between native and immigrant pupils in Sweden.This article analyzes the role of age at immigration, which is believed to be an importantdeterminant of this gap, since it is inversely related to the time spent acquiring Swedenspecificskills before graduation. The analysis exploits within-family variation in a largeset of register data on immigrant siblings (and native children) graduating fromcompulsory school between 1988 and 2003. The estimated negative impact from shortduration of residence prior to graduation is significantly less than the one observed usinga standard cross-sectional approach which fails to net out family-fixed effects. Thecritical age at arrival is about 10. Above this age, there is a strong negative impact onperformance, where the sibling-difference estimates are 27-54 percent less negative thanthe cross-sectional ones. The results show both similarities and striking differencesbetween boys and girls and between children of different origin. Moreover, children withshort duration of residence perform significantly better in mathematics than in a range ofsubjects taken together. This demonstrates the importance of Sweden-specific skills.

  • 261.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register DataManuscript (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register Data2008In: Labour Economics, Vol. 15, p. 1366-1387Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Integration of Childhood Immigrants in the Short and in the Long Run: Swedish EvidenceManuscript (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Integration of Childhood Immigrants in the Short and Long Run - Swedish Evidence2009In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 387-409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 265.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    School Reform, Educational Achievement and Lifetime Income: Essays in Empirical Labor Economics2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Impact of School Choice on Pupil Achievement, Segregation and Costs: Swedish Evidence. This paper evaluates school choice at the compulsory school level. We estimate the impact of an increased enrolment in private schools on average achievement using within-municipality variation over time. We find positive effects, shown to be the sum of a (small) private school attendance effect and a competition effect. We also find effects on segregation and costs.

    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register Data. This paper analyzes the role of age at immigration for the school performance gap between native and immigrant pupils by exploiting within-family variation. The critical age is about nine, above which there is a strong negative impact on performance. The results are similar for boys and girls, but vary by region of origin. A comparison of sibling-difference and cross-sectional estimates reveals striking similarities.

    Integration of Childhood Immigrants in the Short and in the Long Run: Swedish Evidence. I study childhood immigrants at different stages in life in order to examine the role of age at immigration for educational and labor market outcomes. I find that childhood immigrants tend later to recover strongly in terms of educational achievement. Yet, the same individuals are on average found to be poorly integrated into the labor market.

    Life-Cycle Variations in the Association between Current and Lifetime Income: Replication and Extension for Sweden. We apply a generalized errors-in-variables model, recently developed by Steven Haider and Gary Solon, in order to produce estimates of the association between current and lifetime income. We find strong life-cycle patterns. This implies that the widespread use of current income as a proxy for lifetime income leads to inconsistent estimates even when the proxy is used as the dependent variable. We find country similarities, but gender and cohort differences.

  • 266.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    The Headmaster Ritual: The Importance of Management for School Outcomes2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 912-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the impact of individual principals on school outcomes by using panel data that allow us to track principals over time. We find that individual principals have a substantive impact on school policies, working conditions, and student outcomes. In particular, students who attend a school that has a one standard deviation better principal improve their achievement by between 0.05 and 0.1 standard deviations. Despite rich background information on principals, it is difficult to characterize successful management, suggesting that innate skills are central. We find that the scope for discretion is larger among voucher schools and in areas with school competition.

  • 267.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    20 år med förändringar i skolan: Vad har hänt med likvärdigheten?2011Report (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lika möjligheter?: familjebakgrund och skolprestationer 1988–20102012Report (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lotta ut platserna till friskolor2011In: Svenska DagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 270.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Parental choice, neighbourhood segregation or cream skimming? An analysis of school segregation after a generalized choice reform2016In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1155-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the evolution of school segregation in Sweden in the aftermath of the 1992 universal voucher reform, which spurred the establishment of new independent schools and introduced parental choice. We assess the relative importance of neighbourhood segregation, parental choice and the location of independent schools for school segregation. In particular, we exploit variation in school choice opportunities across municipalities and provide descriptive evidence that in regions where school choice has become more prevalent, school segregation between immigrants and natives, and between children of high/low educated parents, has increased more than in regions where choice is limited. This result also holds when we account for residential segregation and focus on excess segregation over and above the segregation that would occur if all pupils attended their assigned schools. We find that the increase in school segregation 15 years after the reform that can be attributed to choice is relatively small.

  • 271.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala university.
    Friskolereformens långsiktiga effekter på utbildningsresultat2012Report (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet.
    Independent Schools and Long-Run Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Sweden´s Large Scale Voucher Reform2013Report (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). CREAM, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Independent Schools and Long-Run Educational Outcomes: evidence from Sweden's Large Scale Voucher Reform2015In: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 82, no 327, p. 508-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate effects on educational outcomes from the expansion of the independent school sector in Sweden, which followed as a consequence of the radical 1992 voucher reform. Using variation in this expansion across municipalities, we find that an increase in the share of independent school students improves average short- and long-run outcomes, explained primarily by external effects (e.g. school competition). For most outcomes, we observe significant effects first a decade after the reform. By using regional level TIMSS data, we can reconcile our results with the negative national trend for Swedish students in international achievement tests.

  • 274.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    The Impact of School Choice on Pupil Achievement, Segregation and Costs: Swedish EvidenceManuscript (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Life-Cycle Variations in the Association Between Current and Lifetime Income: Country, Cohort and Gender Comparisons2005Report (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Life-Cycle Variations in the Association between Current and Lifetime Income: Replication and Extension for Sweden2006In: Journal of Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 879-896Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 277. Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Job Search Methods and Wages: Are Natives and Immigrants Different?2018In: Manchester School, ISSN 1463-6786, E-ISSN 1467-9957, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 219-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conduct a survey of newly hired workers in the Swedish labour market to analyse if there are differences between natives and immigrants in the choice of search intensity/methods and in the search method getting the job. We further investigate if the wage and other characteristics of the new job differ depending on the successful search method. We find that immigrants use all search methods more than natives, but they especially rely on informal search. Immigrants are more likely than natives to find a job using informal search through friends and relatives, and these jobs are associated with lower wages.

  • 278. Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz Abrar
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: Evidence from a field experiment2018In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 534-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signals living in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood.

    Design/methodology/approach - The authors conducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with an advertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either a bad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a job interview (the callback rate).

    Findings - The authors find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects. However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lower if they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, the authors find that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, and this is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect.

    Originality/value - Empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labor market outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant. The paper provides such evidence.

  • 279.
    Carroll, Eero
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Emergence and structuring of social insurance institutions: comparative studies on social policy and unemployment insurance1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Strengths and Limits of Generalizing Theory inAccounting for Comparative Welfare State Development: An IntroductoryEssay. This essay discusses some central theoretical, empirical and inferentialproblems in comparative welfare state research, and summates the results ofstudies pursued here. Frontiers for further research are indicated.The need for more institutionalist accounts of social policy is argued forwith special reference to the structural diversity of unemploymentinsurance programs at the beginning of the 1990s, as well as the challengesthis poses for standard economic theory on the work disincentives these programs supposedly entail. The need formore historicizing accounts is argued with focus upon ongoing processes ofsocial change concomitant to welfare state structuring, including trends inglobalization,civic protest, divisions among leftist parties, and ideology.

    Thresholds to the Welfare State: SocietalConcomitants of the First Laws on Social Insurance. The emergence of the welfare state is studied in relation to processes ofsocial change such as democratization, economic growth, and elites'strategic action to pacify labor movements, as well as to constitutionalfederalism.Qualitative analysis indicates that social insurance enactment rather tendsto follow the founding of labor parties than of trade unions, while usuallypreceding the more reactive foundation of confessional or ChristianDemocratic parties and trade unions. Conservative and liberal elitesdiffered in their motives for social policy activism, which were not limited to pacification of the working class.Multivariate analysis indicates that trade union consolidation slightlydecreases the likelihood of the very earliest social insurance enactmentsoccurring, while strongly elevating the likelihood of later legislation. Trade unions make the most difference forsocial insurance enactment under low growth conditions. Federalconstitutions are found to have delayed social insurance. Leadership ineconomic growth was not associated with legislative activism--if anything, a negative relationship is indicated by the data.

    Deadlock, Charge and Countercharge:Unemployment Insurance in Highly Industrialized Nations from 1930sDepression to 1990s Retrenchment. Cross-national trends in centralinstitutional aspects of unemployment insurance (including organization, coverageand replacement rates) are described for major periods of macroeconomicchange since the 1930s. In the long run, voluntary and corporatistinstitutional forms (directed to fund members and to core labor force groups respectively) make forhigher benefit rates but lower coverage. Comprehensive compulsoryinsurance, for most of those active on the labor market, provides lowerbenefits while tending towards full coverage among employees--income-tested programs yield lower minimum benefits.Such institutional constraints have limited income security inunemployment. Since the "oil shocks" in 1973, right-wing governments cut back programs more often thanexpanding them--there is otherwise no systematic political logic to changes in insurance extension, whichtend to generate conflict also within (rather than simply between) majorparty-political power blocs.

    Sheer Necessity or Strategic Opportunity?Temporality and Contingency in the Institutional Politics of UnemploymentInsurance. In this study, it is argued that the development of unemployment insurancemust be explained with reference to its institutional structure, as well asto nation-specific and historical context. Descriptive analyses indicatethat constitutional hindrancesto decisionmaking make little difference in themselves for programinclusivity, but may change the context where it evolves by limitingworking class mobilization. Multivariate analyses indicate that constitutional factors, strike activity, and party politics often bear a lesssystematic relation to insurance extension in the 1930s than in postwaryears, while partly the reverse is true of agrarian labour force structure.Stronger working class mobilization actually coincides with lower coverage if the impact of voluntaryinsurance institutions is not controlled for. Economic growth hasinconsistent effects on both coverage and replacement rates, depending onwhich other factors are controlled for. Replacement rates are lower under comprehensive or means-tested institutionalforms, but are not as well explained by macrosocial factors as is coverage.Christian Democratic party strength makes more difference for insuranceextension than does the strength ofworking class movements. Finally, strong "ratchetingeffects" of prior reforms uphold insurance extension,particularily coverage levels.

  • 280.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Economic Progress and Social Cohesion for Migrants from Turkey and their Descendents in Sweden: in Light of EU Accession and Potential Migration Processes from Turkey2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with an origin from Turkey are one of the largest ethnic minority groups in the EU. Against the backdrop of aging populations of the EU and the possible EU membership of Turkey, studying the current progress and challenges for this group is of interest. Using high quality register data from Statistics Sweden, this paper analyzes labor market and marriage market behavior of individuals with a background from Turkey both over time and over generations in comparison to their counterparts from the European Union as well as the Middle East. The analysis shows that especially the second generation from Turkey is characterized by progress in employment patterns over time and a declining gender gap. After controlling for human capital and demographic characteristics, as well as time trends, we find that second generation individuals from Turkey are more likely to be employed when compared to their counterparts from the New 10 EU member states, Bulgaria and Romania, as well as those from the Middle East. However, they are less likely to intermarry when compared to other groups. Further analysis indicate that individual characteristics are more important in explaining the observed gaps for the second generation when compared to the first generation.

  • 281.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Etniske Minoriteter: Hvad betyder valg af ægtefælle for beskæftigelsesmulighederne?2008In: Social Forskning, no 4, p. 10-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 282.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Household formation behavior: An analysis of relative education and exogamy for descendants of immigrants in Sweden2016In: Ethnicities, ISSN 1468-7968, E-ISSN 1741-2706, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 547-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The positive relationship between education and exogamy has been well established in the literature; however, we know less regarding the mechanisms behind this relationship as well as the heterogeneity of this relationship across groups and household types.(1) Thus, this paper analyzes different forms of household types for descendants focusing on the relationship between education and exogamy.(1) Focusing on the role of education both at the individual and at the group level contributes to our understanding of current and future trends regarding social and family structures in destination countries. High quality data at the individual level, from Statistics Sweden, for the whole population of interest are utilized. The overall results confirm the positive relationship between education and exogamy. However, not only education at the individual level but also at the group level is important. Furthermore, this relationship varies across the educational distribution, gender, as well as household type.

  • 283.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Labor and marriage market incorporation of individuals with an origin from Turkey in Sweden: A comparative perspective2014In: New Perspectives on Turkey, ISSN 0896-6346, E-ISSN 1305-3299, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 97-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the labor and marriage market incorporation of individuals originating from Turkey in comparison to other migrant groups in Sweden. Using high-quality register data from Statistics Sweden, the progress of and challenges facing this group are analyzed in comparison to their European and Middle Eastern counterparts, both over time and over generations. The descriptive results point to the economic progress of individuals from Turkey over time and over generations, especially in the case of native-born females. The results show that native-born individuals with an origin from Turkey are more likely to be employed as compared to their counterparts from the New 10 EU member states, Bulgaria and Romania, and the Middle East. However, those originating from Turkey are less likely to intermarry as compared to other groups. Further analyses indicate that individual characteristics are more important for native-born individuals, as compared to immigrants, in explaining the observed gaps in the labor market as well as the marriage market. However, the role of individual characteristics in explaining differences across groups varies by gender as well as by generation.

  • 284.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Parental Background and Union Formation Behavior of Native Born Individuals in Sweden with a Foreign Background2014In: Societies, ISSN 2075-4698, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 351-362Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nekby, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Rashid, Saman
    Assortative Mating by Ethnic Background and Education among Individuals with an Immigrant Background in Sweden2010In: Zeitschrift für Familienforschung, ISSN 1437-2940, E-ISSN 2196-2154, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 65-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the determinants of assortative mating by ethnicity and education for individuals with an immigrant background in Sweden, focusing on the role of individual, marriage market and parental characteristics. Results indicate that higher levels of host country specific human capital decrease the likelihood of ethnic endogamy and increase the likelihood of educational homogamy. Opportunity as measured by sex ratios and relative group size is found to be positively correlated to both types of assortative mating. Parental assortative mating (ethnic/educational), as a measure of group identity, is found to increase the likelihood of assortative mating. A comparison of marginal effects, by gender, suggests that the social boundaries defined by ethnicity and education in the marriage market are relatively more easily crossed by men with the accumulation of local and general human capital. Likewise, the influence of group identity appears to matter more for women when marriages are based on ethnicity but matter more for men when marriages are based on education. Key words: assortative mating, immigrant background, ethnicity, educational level, marriage market, parental characteristics, sex ratio, group size, gender

  • 286.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nielsen, H. S.
    Smith, N.
    The Effect of Marriage on Education of Immigrants: Evidence from a Policy Reform Restricting Marriage Migration2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 457-486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ensamkommande barn i Sverige2015Report (Other academic)
  • 288.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hur går det för de ensamkommande flyktingbarnen?2015In: Dagens samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511, no 31 augustiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ankomst i låg ålder samt att bo i Stockholms län är två faktorer som ökar ensamkommandes etablering på arbetsmarknaden. Tuffast är tillvaron för ensamkommande flickor.

  • 289.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hur har de ensamkommande barnen det i Sverige?2016In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 290.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mapping Experiences and Research about Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Sweden and Other Countries2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many unaccompanied children have applied for asylum during the last few years, especially in 2015. These children face special challenges and risk being exploited due to their age and legal status. In this paper we survey research and otherwise documented experiences regarding this group of children. The main focus is on Sweden, the European country that has received most unaccompanied children but we also report on the experiences of other Nordic countries, a list of other EU member states, as well as USA and Turkey. We also try to summarize the main lessons for a policy to assist these children to integrate in the countries they have arrived to.

  • 291.
    Celikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The unaccompanied refugee minors and the Swedish labour market2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    More unaccompanied refugee children arrive to and get a residence permit in Sweden than in any other country in Europe. The number of children who arrives is increasing fast. The Swedish experiences are therefore of great interest also for other countries. In this paper we study the labour market situation in terms of employment and income for those who have arrived as unaccompanied minors and have been registered in Sweden. We compare them with those who also arrived as minors from the same countries but who have arrived together with their parents. After controlling for demographic and migration related variables we find that young adults who arrived as unaccompanied refugee children are more likely to be employed than those children who arrived accompanied from the same countries. Another result is that labour market participation is much lower for females than for males. We also compare the labour market situation of these children with that for those who were born in Sweden and are of the same age.

  • 292.
    Celikaksoy, Emine Aycan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A wage premium or penalty: An analysis of endogamous marriage effects among the children of immigrants?2007In: Nationaløkonomisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0028-0453, Vol. 145, no 3, p. 288-311Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 293. Chen, Yung-Ping
    et al.
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Tull, Andrea
    Potential Labor Supply and Flexible Work Options for All Workers: An Exploratory Essay2009In: European Papers on the New Welfare: the counter-ageing society, ISSN 19708947, no 11, p. 49-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 294. Collewet, Marion
    et al.
    Sauerman, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Maastricht University, The Netherlands; Center for Corporate Performance (CCP), Denmark; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Germany.
    Working hours and productivity2017In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 47, p. 96-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. We find that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a call increases, meaning that agents become less productive. This result suggests that fatigue can play an important role, even in jobs with mostly part-time workers.

  • 295. Collewet, Marion
    et al.
    Sauermann, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Working Hours and Productivity2017Other (Other academic)
  • 296. Collewet, Marion
    et al.
    Sauermann, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). The IZA Institute of Labor Economics, Germany; Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Working Hours and Productivity2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily informationon working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variationin the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due tocentral scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. Wefind that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a callincreases, meaning that agents become less productive. This result suggests that fatiguecan play an important role, even in jobs with mostly part-time workers.

  • 297. Cooke, Lynn Prince
    et al.
    Erola, Jani
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hewitt, Belinda
    Jolovaara, Marika
    Kan, Man-Yee
    Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde
    Mencarini, Letizia
    Mignot, Jean-Francois
    Mortelmans, Dimitri
    Poortman, Anne-Rigt
    Schmitt, Christian
    Trappe, Heike
    Labor and Love: Wives' Employment and Divorce Risk in its Socio-Political Context2013In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 482-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We theorize how social policy affects marital stability vis-à-vis macro and micro effects of wives' employment on divorce risk in 11 Western countries. Correlations among 1990s aggregate data on marriage, divorce, and wives' employment rates, along with attitudinal and social policy information, seem to support specialization hypotheses that divorce rates are higher where more wives are employed and where policies support that employment. This is an ecological fallacy, however, because of the nature of the changes in specific countries. At the micro level, we harmonize national longitudinal data on the most recent       cohort of wives marrying for the first time and find that the stabilizing effects of a gendered division of labor have ebbed.  In the United States with its lack of policy support, a wife's employment still significantly increases the risk of divorce. A wife's employment has no significant effect on divorce risk in Australia, Flanders, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. In Finland, Norway, and Sweden, wives' employment predicts a significantly lower risk of divorce when compared with wives who are out of the labor force. The results indicate that greater policy support for equality reduces and may even reverse the relative divorce risk associated with a wife's employment.

  • 298. Corak, Miles
    et al.
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mazumder, Bhashkar
    A Comparison of Upward and Downward Intergenerational Mobility in Canada, Sweden and the United States2014Report (Other academic)
  • 299. Corak, Miles
    et al.
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mazumder, Bhashkar
    A comparison of upward and downward intergenerational mobility in Canada, Sweden and the United States2014In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 30, p. 185-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use new estimators of directional rank mobility developed by Bhattacharya and Mazumder (2011) to compare rates of upward and downward intergenerational mobility across three countries: Canada, Sweden and the United States. These measures overcome some of the limitations of traditional measures of intergenerational mobility such as the intergenerational elasticity, which are not well suited for analyzing directional movements or for examining differences in mobility across the income distribution. Data for each country include highly comparable, administrative data sources containing sufficiently long time spans of earnings. Our most basic measures of directional mobility, which simply compare whether sons moved up or down in the earnings distribution relative to their fathers, do not differ much across the countries. However, we do find that there are clear differences in the extent of the movement. We find larger cross-country differences in downward mobility from the top of the distribution than upward mobility from the bottom. Canada has the most downward mobility while the U.S. has the least, with Sweden in the middle. We find some differences in upward mobility but these are somewhat smaller in magnitude. An important caveat is that our analysis may be sensitive to the concept of income we use and broader measures such as family income could lead to different conclusions. Also, small differences in rank mobility translate into rather large differences in absolute mobility measured in dollars, due to large differences in income inequality across countries.

  • 300. Crawford, Jarret T.
    et al.
    Duarte, Jose L.
    Haidt, Jonathan
    Jussim, Lee
    Stern, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Tetlock, Philip E.
    It may be harder than we thought, but political diversity will (still) improve social psychological science2015In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 38, article id e164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our target article, we made four claims: (1) Social psychology is now politically homogeneous; (2) this homogeneity sometimes harms the science; (3) increasing political diversity would reduce this damage; and (4) some portion of the homogeneity is due to a hostile climate and outright discrimination against non-liberals. In this response, we review these claims in light of the arguments made by a diverse group of commentators. We were surprised to find near-universal agreement with our first two claims, and we note that few challenged our fourth claim. Most of the disagreements came in response to our claim that increasing political diversity would be beneficial. We agree with our critics that increasing political diversity may be harder than we had thought, but we explain why we still believe that it is possible and desirable to do so. We conclude with a revised list of 12 recommendations for improving political diversity in social psychology, as well as in other areas of the academy.

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