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  • 251. Duc, Nguyen Thanh
    et al.
    Silverstein, Samuel B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Lundmark, Lars
    Reyier, Henrik
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Bastviken, David
    Automated Flux Chamber for Investigating Gas Flux at Water-Air Interfaces2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 968-975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). Representative measurements of GHG fluxes from aquatic ecosystems to the atmosphere are vital for quantitative understanding of relationships between biogeochemistry and climate. Fluxes occur at high temporal variability at diet or longer scales, which are not captured by traditional short-term deployments (often in the order of 30 min) of floating flux chambers. High temporal frequency measurements are necessary but also extremely labor intensive if manual flux chamber based methods are used. Therefore, we designed an inexpensive and easily mobile automated flux chamber (AFC) for extended deployments. The AFC was designed to measure in situ accumulation of gas in the chamber and also to collect gas samples in an array of sample bottles for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, providing two independent ways of CH4 concentration measurements. We here present the AFC design and function together with data from initial laboratory tests and from a field deployment.

  • 252.
    Duc, Nguyen Thanh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Silverstein, Samuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Lundmark, Lars
    Reyier, Henrik
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Bastviken, David
    An automatic flux chamber for investigating gas flux at water – air interfacesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG).  Representative measurements of GHG fluxes from aquatic ecosystems to the atmosphere are vital for quantitative understanding of climate related biogeochemistry. Fluxes occur at high temporal variability at diel or longer scales which are not captured by traditional short term deployments (typically on the order of 30 minutes) of floating flux chambers. High temporal frequency measurements are necessary but are extremely labor intensive if manual flux chamber based methods are used. Eddy correlation methods require expensive equipment and lead to uncertain results because of the high spatial variability of fluxes from restricted areas. Therefore we designed an inexpensive and easily mobile automatic flux chamber system (AFC) for extended deployments. This device includes a flux chamber and a box with the controller/datalogger, valves, a pump, a 12 V battery and a solar cell. Sensors tested in this study recorded CH4 concentration in the chamber headspace, temperature in the water and air and barometric pressure, but other sensors for CO2 and weather variables can also be attached to the system. The unit was designed to measure in situ accumulation of gas in the chamber and also to collect gas samples in an array of sample bottles for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, providing two independent ways of CH4 concentration measurements.  We here present the AFC design and function together with data from initial laboratory tests and from a field deployment.

  • 253. Duffy, Brendan
    et al.
    Quigley, Mark
    Harris, Ron
    Ring, Uwe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. University of Canterbury.
    Arc-parallel extrusion of the Timor sector of the Banda arc-continent collision2013In: Tectonics, ISSN 0278-7407, E-ISSN 1944-9194, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 641-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural studies of synorogenic basins in Timor using field and remote sensing techniques provide new structural and geomorphic evidence for syn-collisional extension in the converging plate boundary zone between the Australian Plate and Banda Arc. Fault mapping and kinematic analysis at scales ranging from outcrop (<1m(2)) to the dimensions of the active orogen in East Timor (similar to 100km(2)) identify a predominance of NW-SE oriented dextral-normal faults and NE-SW oriented sinistral-normal faults that collectively bound large (5-20km(2)) bedrock massifs throughout the island. These fault systems intersect at non-Andersonian conjugate angles of approximately 120 degrees and accommodate an estimated 20km of NE-directed extension across the Timor orogen based on reconstructions of fault-dismembered massifs. Major orogen-parallel ENE-oriented faults on the northern and southern sides of Timor exhibit normal-sinistral and normal-dextral kinematics, respectively. The overall pattern of deformation is one of lateral crustal extrusion sub-parallel to the Banda Arc. Stratigraphic relationships suggest that extrusion began prior to 5.5Ma, before pronounced rapid uplift of the orogen. We link this to progressive coupling of the fore-arc to an underthrust plateau on the Australian Plate and subduction of its ocean crust. Our results enable us to track the structural evolution of the upper crust during dramatic plate-boundary reorganizations accompanying the transition from subduction to collision. The deformation structures that we document suggest that both upper and lower plate deformation during incipient island arc-continent collision was largely controlled by the geometry and topography of the lower plate.

  • 254. Dutton, Andrea
    et al.
    Webster, Jody M.
    Zwartz, Dan
    Lambeck, Kurt
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Tropical tales of polar ice: evidence of Last Interglacial polar ice sheet retreat recorded by fossil reefs of the granitic Seychelles islands2015In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 107, p. 182-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for a record of eustatic sea level change on glacial-interglacial timescales, the Seychelles ranks as one of the best places on the planet to study. Owing to its location with respect to the former margins of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets that wax and wane on orbital cycles, the local-or relative-sea level history is predicted to lie within a few meters of the globally averaged eustatic signal during the Last Interglacial period. We have surveyed and dated Last Interglacial fossil corals to ascertain peak sea level and hence infer maximum retreat of polar ice sheets during this time interval. We observe a pattern of gradually rising sea level in the Seychelles between similar to 129 and 125 thousand years ago (ka), with peak eustatic sea level attained after 125 ka at 7.6 +/- 1.7 m higher than present. After accounting for thermal expansion and loss of mountain glaciers, this sea-level budget would require similar to 5-8 m of polar ice sheet contribution, relative to today's volume, of which only similar to 2 m came from the Greenland ice sheet. This result clearly identifies the Antarctic ice sheet as a significant source of melt water, most likely derived from one of the unstable, marine-based sectors in the West and/or East Antarctic ice sheet. Furthermore, the establishment of a +5.9 +/- 1.7 m eustatic sea level position by 128.6 +/- 0.8 ka would require that partial AIS collapse was coincident with the onset of the sea level highstand.

  • 255. Ebner, Marcus
    et al.
    Piazolo, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Renard, Francois
    Koehn, Daniel
    Stylolite interfaces and surrounding matrix material: Nature and role of heterogeneities in roughness and microstructural development2010In: Journal of Structural Geology, ISSN 0191-8141, E-ISSN 1873-1201, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1070-1084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rough pressure solution interfaces, like stylolites, are one of the most evident features of localized slow deformation in rocks of the upper crust. There is a general consensus that the development of these rough structures is a result of localized, stress enhanced, dissolution of material along a fluid filled interface, but little is known on the initiation of this roughness. The aim of this article is to reveal the role of heterogeneities initially present in the host-rock on roughness initiation. This should give insights on whether stylolite roughness is generated by a stress-induced instability or by the presence of disorder in the material (i.e. quenched noise). We use a microstructural approach based on SEM/EBSD analysis combined with orientation contrast (OC) image analysis of stylolites in limestones. We found that the stylolite roughness is induced by heterogeneities in the host rock (clay particles and detrital quartz grains in our case). In addition, close to mature stylolite interfaces matrix modifications occur, which can be attributed to the compaction along the stylolite. The grain size decreases by 15-25% and a pre-existing shape- and lattice-preferred orientation (SPO, LPO) are significantly modified in the vicinity of the stylolite. The results presented here imply that localized pressure solution along stylolites is not necessarily restricted to the actual interface but influences the adjacent matrix. The heterogeneity data might serve as a quantitative basis for elaborate numerical models of localized compaction.

  • 256.
    Edberg, Frida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Bacterial community composition in an artificial lake of a former open pit mine – effects of extreme chemistry and anoxic conditionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 257.
    Edberg, Frida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Bacterial community composition in the water column of a lake formed by a former uranium open pit mine2012In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 870-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining of pyrite minerals is a major environmental issue involving both biological and geochemical processes. Here we present a study of an artificial lake of a former uranium open pit mine with the aim to connect the chemistry and bacterial community composition (454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes) in the stratified water column. A shift in the water chemistry from oxic conditions in the epilimnion to anoxic, alkaline, and metal and sulfide-rich conditions in the hypolimnion was corresponded by a strong shift in the bacterial community, with few shared operational taxonomic units (OTU) between the water layers. The epilimnetic bacterial community of the lake (similar to 20 years old) showed similarities to other temperate freshwater lakes, while the hypolimnetic bacterial community showed similarity to extreme chemical environments. The epilimnetic bacterial community had dominance of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The hypolimnion displayed a higher bacterial diversity and was dominated by the phototrophic green sulphur bacterium of the genus Chlorobium (ca. 40 % of the total community). Deltaproteobacteria were only represented in the hypolimnion and the most abundant OTUs were affiliated with ferric iron and sulfate reducers of the genus Geobacter and Desulfobulbus, respectively. The chemistry is clearly controlling, especially the hypolimnetic, bacterial community but the community composition also indicates that the bacteria are involved in metal cycling in the lake.

  • 258.
    Edberg, Frida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hägglund, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wällstedt, Teresia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Geochemistry of metals in a former uranium open pit mine – size fractionation of the water columnManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 259.
    Edberg, Frida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kalinowski, Birgitta E..
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Mangament Co, Stockholm .
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Holm, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mobilization of metals from uranium mine waste: the role of pyoverdines produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens2010In: Geobiology, ISSN 1472-4677, E-ISSN 1472-4669, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 278-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms produce chelating agents, such as siderophores and other ligands, which allow them to mobilize and scavenge essential elements from the environment when bioavailability is low. To better understand the effects of biologically mediated leaching of metals from mine waste, Pseudomonas fluorescens was cultivated in the presence of processed ore from the former uranium mine in Ranstad, southern Sweden. Light conditions, the concentration of the mineral source and oxygen availability were varied. The presence of ore in the culture flasks enhanced bacterial growth and raised the pH of the culture medium. Increasing the amount of ore or enhancing aeration of the medium further encouraged cell growth and pH rise. Bacteria mobilized Fe, Ni and Co from the ore. Fe-siderophore complexes were detected and estimated to be present at approximately 9 μm. In the presence of bacteria and light, dissolved Fe and U concentrations were higher compared to dark conditions. Increasing the amount of ore resulted in higher dissolved Ni concentrations but lower dissolved Fe, most likely due to precipitate formation. Data from this study support siderophore production by bacteria that allowed mobilization of essential nutrients from the processed ore. However, the availability of potentially toxic metals like Ni and U may also be enhanced. Microbial-promoted mobilization could contribute to leaching of toxic metals in current and historic mining areas. This process should be considered during design and implementation of remediation projects where trace metals are of environmental concern.

  • 260. Edwards, Thomas W. D.
    et al.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Newton, Brandi W.
    Sjolte, Jesper
    Linderson, Hans
    Sturm, Christophe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Amour, Natalie A. St.
    Bailey, Joscelyn N. -L.
    Nilsson, Anders L.
    Seasonal variability in Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age2017In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 165, p. 102-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report new reconstructions of winter temperature and summer moisture during the past millennium in southeastern Sweden, based on stable-isotope data from a composite tree-ring sequence, that further enhances our knowledge and understanding of seasonal climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere over the past millennium. Key features of these new climate proxy records include evidence for distinctive fluctuations in winter temperature in SE Sweden, superimposed upon the general pattern of cooling between the so-called Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) of the early millennium and the Little Ice Age (LIA) of the late millennium, as well as evidence for sustained summer wetness during the MCA, followed by drier and less variable conditions during the LIA. We also explore these new records within a circumpolar spatial context by employing self-organizing map analysis of meteorological reanalysis data to identify potential modern analogues of mid-tropospheric synoptic circulation types in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics that can reconcile varying seasonal climate states during the MCA and LIA in SE Sweden with less variable conditions in southwestern Canada, as portrayed by paleoclimate records developed in the same manner in an earlier study.

  • 261. Ehrenfreund, Pascale
    et al.
    Spaans, Marco
    Holm, Nils G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    The evolution of organic matter in space2011In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 369, no 1936, p. 538-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon, and molecules made from it, have already been observed in the early Universe. During cosmic time, many galaxies undergo intense periods of star formation, during which heavy elements like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, silicon and iron are produced. Also, many complex molecules, from carbon monoxide to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are detected in these systems, like they are for our own Galaxy. Interstellar molecular clouds and circumstellar envelopes are factories of complex molecular synthesis. A surprisingly high number of molecules that are used in contemporary biochemistry on the Earth are found in the interstellar medium, planetary atmospheres and surfaces, comets, asteroids and meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Large quantities of extra-terrestrial material were delivered via comets and asteroids to young planetary surfaces during the heavy bombardment phase. Monitoring the formation and evolution of organic matter in space is crucial in order to determine the prebiotic reservoirs available to the early Earth. It is equally important to reveal abiotic routes to prebiotic molecules in the Earth environments. Materials from both carbon sources (extra-terrestrial and endogenous) may have contributed to biochemical pathways on the Earth leading to life’s origin. The research avenues discussed also guide us to extend our knowledge to other habitable worlds.

  • 262. El Albani, Abderrazak
    et al.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Canfield, Donald E.
    Bekker, Andrey
    Macchiarelli, Roberto
    Mazurier, Arnaud
    Hammarlund, Emma U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Boulvais, Philippe
    Dupuy, Jean-Jacques
    Fontaine, Claude
    Fuersich, Franz T.
    Gauthier-Lafaye, Francois
    Janvier, Philippe
    Javaux, Emmanuelle
    Ossa, Frantz Ossa
    Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine
    Riboulleau, Armelle
    Sardini, Paul
    Vachard, Daniel
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Meunier, Alain
    Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago2010In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 466, no 7302, p. 100-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence for macroscopic life during the Palaeoproterozoic era (2.5-1.6 Gyr ago) is controversial(1-5). Except for the nearly 2-Gyr-old coil-shaped fossil Grypania spiralis(6,7), which may have been eukaryotic, evidence for morphological and taxonomic bio-diversification of macroorganisms only occurs towards the beginning of the Mesoproterozoic era (1.6-1.0 Gyr)(8). Here we report the discovery of centimetre-sized structures from the 2.1-Gyr-old black shales of the Palaeoproterozoic Francevillian B Formation in Gabon, which we interpret as highly organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms. The structures are up to 12 cm in size and have characteristic shapes, with a simple but distinct ground pattern of flexible sheets and, usually, a permeating radial fabric. Geochemical analyses suggest that the sediments were deposited under an oxygenated water column. Carbon and sulphur isotopic data indicate that the structures were distinct biogenic objects, fossilized by pyritization early in the formation of the rock. The growth patterns deduced from the fossil morphologies suggest that the organisms showed cell-to-cell signalling and coordinated responses, as is commonly associated with multicellular organization(9). The Gabon fossils, occurring after the 2.45-2.32-Gyr increase in atmospheric oxygen concentration(10), may be seen as ancient representatives of multicellular life, which expanded so rapidly 1.5 Gyr later, in the Cambrian explosion.

  • 263. El Albani, Abderrazak
    et al.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Canfield, Donald E.
    Riboulleau, Armelle
    Bard, Claire Rollion
    Macchiarelli, Roberto
    Pemba, Lauriss Ngombi
    Hammarlund, Emma
    Meunier, Alain
    Mouele, Idalina Moubiya
    Benzerara, Karim
    Bernard, Sylvain
    Boulvais, Philippe
    Chaussidon, Marc
    Cesari, Christian
    Fontaine, Claude
    Chi-Fru, Ernest
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel
    Gauthier-Lafaye, Francois
    Mazurier, Arnaud
    Pierson-Wickmann, Anne Catherine
    Rouxel, Olivier
    Trentesaux, Alain
    Vecoli, Marco
    Versteegh, Gerard J. M.
    White, Lee
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Bekker, Andrey
    The 2.1 Ga Old Francevillian Biota: Biogenicity, Taphonomy and Biodiversity2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, p. e99438-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth's surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations similar to 2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rodshaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life.

  • 264. El-Morsy, E. M.
    et al.
    Hassan, H. M.
    Ahmed, Engy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Biodegradative activities of fungal isolates from plastic contaminated soils2017In: Mycosphere, ISSN 2077-7000, E-ISSN 2077-7019, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 1071-1087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungal strains were isolated from plastic contaminated soils in open dump sites located in different governorates in Egypt. The isolates showed various abilities in enzymes production that were related to soil origins and characteristics. For example, fungi isolated from El-Sharqia soil were able to produce protease, esterase, lipase followed by those isolated from Ismailia soil. Moreover, isolates with high esterase activity were identified as Monascus ruber, Monascus sanguineus and Monascus sp. The results showed that M. ruber could produce maximum esterase concentration followed by M. sanguineus. The same three Monascus species were selected to assess polyurethane biodegradation. Monascus sp. isolated from El-Sharqia was the most efficient isolate in degradation of polyurethane in the form of Impranil DLN. In addition, SEM micrographs and zeta potential measurements confirmed the adsorption and complex formation between the polyurethane and the hyphae of Monascus sp.

  • 265. Elsabe, Julies M.
    et al.
    Bruchert, Volker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Fuchs, Bernhard M.
    Vertical shifts in the microbial community structure of organic rich Namibian shelf sediments2012In: African Journal of Microbiology Research, ISSN 1996-0808, E-ISSN 1996-0808, Vol. 6, no 17, p. 3887-3897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the diversity and abundance of bacteria in organic-rich Namibian shelf sediments from two sampling stations, using the 16S rRNA library approach and Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH). Six clone libraries were constructed. Clone libraries were dominated by Delta-proteobacteria (up to 48%) and Gamma-proteobacteria (up to 98%). Bacteroidetes were dominant in the clone library of the top 6 cm (up to 17%), while actinobacteria dominated at a depth of 10 to 12 cm (up to 34%). Sequences that were related to bacteria with hydrolytic and fermenting abilities include members from the Gamma-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria. Cloned sequences within the Delta-proteobacteria affiliates to sulfate reducing bacteria, including Desulfarculaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Desulfuromonadales and were detected throughout the sediment. The two sampling stations differed in microbial diversity with a higher diversity prevailing at the station with higher metabolic rates for organic matter decomposition. At both sampling stations a shift in microbial community composition with depth was observed and is explained by gradients in organic substrate availability within the sediment, which affects the life strategies adopted by bacteria, resulting in niche diversification and ultimately affects bacterial community composition and structure throughout the sediment depth.

  • 266. Ely, Jeremy C.
    et al.
    Clark, Chris D.
    Spagnolo, Matteo
    Stokes, Chris R.
    Greenwood, Sarah L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Hughes, Anna L. C.
    Dunlop, Paul
    Hess, Dale
    Do subglacial bedforms comprise a size and shape continuum?2016In: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695X, Vol. 257, p. 108-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the evolution of the ice-bed interface is fundamentally important for gaining insight into the dynamics of ice masses and how subglacial landforms are created. However, the formation of the suite of landforms generated at this boundary - subglacial bedforms - is a contentious issue that is yet to be fully resolved. Bedforms formed in aeolian, fluvial, and marine environments either belong to separate morphological populations or are thought to represent a continuum of forms generated by the same governing processes. For subglacial bedforms, a size and shape continuum has been hypothesised, yet it has not been fully tested. Here we analyse the largest data set of subglacial bedform size and shape measurements ever collated (96,900 bedforms). Our results show that flutes form a distinct population of narrow bedforms. However, no clear distinction was found between drumlins and megascale glacial lineations (MSGLs), which form a continuum of subglacial lineations. A continuum of subglacial ribs also exists, with no clear size or shape distinctions indicating separate populations. Furthermore, an underreported class of bedform with no clear orientation to ice flow (quasi-circular bedforms) overlaps with the ribbed and lineation continua and typically occurs in spatial transition zones between the two, potentially merging these three bedform types into a larger continuum.

  • 267. Emerson, Joanne B.
    et al.
    Roux, Simon
    Brum, Jennifer R.
    Bolduc, Benjamin
    Woodcroft, Ben J.
    Jang, Ho Bin
    Singleton, Caitlin M.
    Soden, Lindsey M.
    Naas, Adrian E.
    Boyd, Joel A.
    Hodgkins, Suzanne B.
    Wilson, Rachel M.
    Trubl, Gareth
    Li, Changsheng
    Frokings, Steve
    Pope, Phillip B.
    Wrighton, Kelly C.
    Crill, Patrick M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Chanton, Jeffrey P.
    Saleska, Scott R.
    Tyson, Gene W.
    Rich, Virginia
    Sullivan, Matthew B.
    Host-linked soil viral ecology along a permafrost thaw gradient2018In: Nature Microbiology, E-ISSN 2058-5276, Vol. 3, no 8, p. 870-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change threatens to release abundant carbon that is sequestered at high latitudes, but the constraints on microbial metabolisms that mediate the release of methane and carbon dioxide are poorly understood(1-7). The role of viruses, which are known to affect microbial dynamics, metabolism and biogeochemistry in the oceans(8-10), remains largely unexplored in soil. Here, we aimed to investigate how viruses influence microbial ecology and carbon metabolism in peatland soils along a permafrost thaw gradient in Sweden. We recovered 1,907 viral populations (genomes and large genome fragments) from 197 bulk soil and size-fractionated metagenomes, 58% of which were detected in metatranscriptomes and presumed to be active. In silico predictions linked 35% of the viruses to microbial host populations, highlighting likely viral predators of key carbon-cycling microorganisms, including methanogens and methanotrophs. Lineage-specific virus/host ratios varied, suggesting that viral infection dynamics may differentially impact microbial responses to a changing climate. Virus-encoded glycoside hydrolases, including an endomannanase with confirmed functional activity, indicated that viruses influence complex carbon degradation and that viral abundances were significant predictors of methane dynamics. These findings suggest that viruses may impact ecosystem function in climate-critical, terrestrial habitats and identify multiple potential viral contributions to soil carbon cycling.

  • 268. Emmanouilidis, Alexandros
    et al.
    Katrantsiotis, Christos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Norström, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kylander, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Sheik, Taariq Ali
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Iliopoulos, George
    Avramidis, Pavlos
    Middle to late Holocene palaeoenvironmental study of Gialova Lagoon, SW Peloponnese, Greece2018In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 476, p. 46-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coastal areas of Eastern Mediterranean have long been the subject of research, due to their rapid geomorphological changes, but also because of their archaeological interest. Our study is focused on a shallow coastal lagoon of Peloponnese, Gialova Lagoon, which for several years has attracted the scientific interest of archaeologists, geomorphologists as well as sedimentologists. Gialova lagoon is located near the ancient city of Pylos, the kingdom of king Nestor during the Mycenaean period (1600-1100 BC). The objectives of this study are: (a) to reconstruct the middle to late Holocene depositional environments of the lagoon and (b) to correlate our data to already existing publications, in order to shed new light on the Holocene evolution of the lagoon and the associated coastal palaeoenvironmental changes. An 8m deep vibracore was drilled and a multi proxy analysis was carried out on the sediment sequence, including sedimentological (grain size analysis and moment measures, total organic carbon - TOC, total nitrogen e TN and total phosphorus - TP), high resolution geochemical (XRF-scanning) and palaeontological (micro-and macro faunal) analysis. The chronological framework is based on five C-14 datings forming the basis for an age depth model, calculated using the OxCal software. The radiocarbon dates from previous studies (6 cores, similar to 20 dates) were also taken into account. The data synthesis and interpretation provided robust and coherent indications regarding the palaeoenvironment, shoreline changes and the rate of geomorphological changes of the coastal area of Gialova Lagoon, as well as useful information about the palaeonvironmental and palaeoclimatic conditions that prevailed during the Mycenaean period. The interpretation, reveal a transition from a shallow marine environment (65005800 yr B.P.) to a brackish/lagoonal (5800-3300 yr B.P.), followed by a shift towards a freshwater/marsh environment (3300 yr B.P. to present).

  • 269.
    Engström, Adam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Investigation of the metamorphic environment conditions of Persholmen, NE Utö, with SEM generated data.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This geothermobarometric investigation of St Persholmen, Utö, in the south central part of Sweden presents an attempt at determining the metamorphic conditions of this important part of the Svecofennian province. Belonging to the geology of the Bergslagen area, Utö historically represent part of Sweden’s vast ore resources with concentrations of iron, copper and sulfides. Rock types from this area are around 1.91-1.89 Ga old (Stephens et al. 2009) and as such Paleoproterozoic in age. The rocks on Utö are considered representative of Bergslagen and record the closing of an ocean starting with subduction followed by volcanic episodes and orogeny (Talbot 2008). The bedrock we observe at Persholmen is thought to represent the remains of the aforementioned orogeny where greywackes from the oceanic stage have been preserved at the base of the mountain range (Stålhös 1982).

    The two rock types of interest at Persholmen which have been evaluated in this study are 1) normal greywackes and 2) greywackes which have been migmatised either because of the influence of fluids, reworking in an accretionary prism or melted at the base of a mountain range. In this project the area of study has been mapped and samples have been retrieved in order to distinguish the mineralogy and metamorphic history of the bedrock. After petrographic analysis I have determined mineral chemistry by the use of a SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). These chemical data have then been entered into the computer programs AX and THERMOCALC for determination of temperature and pressure. For the normal/migmatised greywackes a temperature of 538

    ±36/756±133°C and a pressure of 3.1±1.3/3.8±3.2 kbars respectively have been estimated. Two generations of muscovite provide evidence of fluid-rock interactions and at the north coast of Persholmen the occurrence of sillimanite indicates a high grade of metamorphism.

  • 270.
    Engström, Adam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Metal mobility during metamorphism and formation of orogenic gold deposits: Insights from the Dalradian of Scotland2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Orogenic gold deposits occur within metamorphic belts throughout the world and have through time represented the source for over 25% of the world’s gold production. Although orogenic gold deposits are of great economic importance, controversies exist on the subject of fluid and metal sources and there have been few studies of gold´s distribution and mobility outside of large economic deposits. Research made by Pitcairn et al. (2006), on the Mesozoic Otago and Alpine schists of New Zealand, observed systematic depletion of Au and a suite of 6 associated elements with increasing metamorphic grade. This depletion was identical to the suite of elements enriched in the Otago gold deposits and provided strong evidence that orogenic gold deposits form due to metamorphic processes. The mobilization of metals was attributed to the recrystallization of sulfide minerals during prograde metamorphism causing dehydration and release of metal-rich metamorphic fluids. 

    This thesis is part of a larger project aimed at testing the “Otago model” in a classic metamorphic terrain: The Dalradian metamorphic belt of Scotland. Rocks in the study are from the southern higlands group and the Appin and Argyll group which range in metamorphic grade from chlorite zone greenschist facies to sillimanite zone amphibolite facies. Three main aspects, which supplement earlier research, are addressed in this study: 1) Investigation of the sulfide paragenesis at Loch Lomond and Stonehaven was carried out to map the evolution of sulfides with metamorphic grade and the possible relations to the distribution of gold. Using SEM scanning to quantify the abundance of different sulfide minerals together with previous data on the Glen Esk region, a complex sulfide evolution pattern for the Dalradian Supergroup is identified. The sulfide evolution describes the same changes in texture and chemistry as observed in the Otago Schists but is made complex by the difference in geological evolution for the different regions. 2) Reinvestigation of the higher grade zones of Glen Esk (staurolite to sillimanite) was carried out as samples from the previous study were very weathered. Results from ultralow detection limit methods (HG-AFS and a gold detection method developed by Pitcairn et al. 2006) showed significant systematic depletion of Au and As with metamorphic grade. From chlorite to sillimanite zone average values of Au and As were showed to decrease by 65% and 88% respectively. Furthermore, a suite of 10 major and 12 trace elements were analyzed using ICP methods showing no trends of systematic depletion with increased metamorphic grade.  3) Investigation of Pb-Ag Veining and vein samples from each of the metamorphic index mineral zones in the Glen Esk area was carried out to identify fluid composition and ore mineralogy. Using microthermometry and Raman laser spectroscopy two distinct fluids were identified. The first type is a H2O-CO2-N2-salt fluid of low salinity (0-15 weight percent NaCl equivalent) and medium temperature (150 to 250 °C) locally containing minor amounts of CH4. It is found in the veins from the mineral index zones of Glen Esk and was formed in the ductile regime most likely related to late stage metamorphic devolatilization released during Caledonian uplift of the Dalradian. Pb-Ag veins from the locality of Hardhill host the second fluid type which was formed in the brittle regime  accompanied by brecciation as a high salinity (15 to 20 weight percent NaCl equivalent) low temperature (70-140°C) H2O-salt fluid with calcic composition was precipitated. This fluid bears much resemblance to Carboniferous calcic brines responsible for economic base-metal precipitation with widespread occurrence in southwest Scotland and Northern Ireland.

    Results of this thesis show many similarities with the Otago study, with a connection between metal mobility and metamorphic grade, providing support for the dehydration model as a viable mechanism for the generation of orogenic gold deposits.

  • 271. Erbs-Hansen, Dorthe Reng
    et al.
    Knudsen, Karen Luise
    Gary, Anthony Cavedo
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jansen, Eystein
    Holocene climatic development in Skagerrak, eastern North Atlantic: Foraminiferal and stable isotopic evidence2012In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 301-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-resolution multiproxy study of core MD99-2286 reveals a highly variable hydrographic environment in the Skagerrak from 9300 cal. yr BP to the present. The study includes foraminiferal faunas, stable isotopes and sedimentary parameters, as well as temperature and salinity reconstructions of a c. 29 m long radiocarbon-dated core record. The multivariate technique fuzzy c-means was applied to the foraminiferal counts, and it was extremely valuable in defining subtle heterogeneities in the foraminiferal faunal data corresponding to hydrographic changes. The major early-/mid-Holocene (Littorina) transgression led to flooding of large former land areas in the North Sea, the opening of the English Channel and Danish straits, and initiation of the modern circulation system. This is reflected by fluctuating C/N values and an explosive bloom of Hyalinea balthica. A slight indication of ameliorated conditions between 8000 and 5750 cal. yr BP is related to the Holocene Thermal Maximum. A subsequent increase in freshwater/Baltic water influence between 5750 and 4350 cal. yr BP is reflected by dominance of Bulimina marginata and depleted delta O-18 values. The Neoglacial cooling (after 4350 cal. yr BP) is seen in the Skagerrak as enhanced turbidity, increasing TOC values and short-term changes in an overall Cassidulina laevigata-dominated fauna suggesting a prevailing influence of Atlantic waters. This is in agreement with increased strength of westerly winds, as recorded for this period. The last 2000 years were also dominated by Atlantic Water conditions with generally abundant nutrient supply. However, during warm periods, particularly the 'Medieval Warm Period'and the modern warming, the area was subject to a restriction in the supply of nutrients and/or the nutrient supply had a more refractory character.

  • 272. Erbs-Hansen, Dorthe Reng
    et al.
    Knudsen, Karen Luise
    Gary, Anthony Cavedo
    Jansen, Eystein
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Scao, Vincent
    Lambeck, Kurt
    Late Younger Dryas and early Holocene palaeoenvironments in the Skagerrak, eastern North Atlantic: a multiproxy study2011In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 660-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-resolution study of palaeoenvironmental changes through the late Younger Dryas and early Holocene in the Skagerrak, the eastern North Atlantic, is based on multiproxy analyses of core MD99-2286 combined with palaeowater depth modelling for the area. The late Younger Dryas was characterized by a cold ice-distal benthic foraminiferal fauna. After the transition to the Preboreal (c. 11 650 cal. a BP) this fauna was replaced by a Cassidulina neoteretis-dominated fauna, indicating the influence of chilled Atlantic Water at the sea floor. Persisting relatively cold bottom-water conditions until c. 10 300 cal. a BP are presumably a result of an outflow of glacial meltwater from the Baltic area across south-central Sweden, which led to a strong stratification of the water column at MD99-2286, as also indicated by C. neoteretis. A short-term peak in the C/N ratio at c. 10 200 cal. a BP is suggested to indicate input of terrestrial material, which may represent the drainage of an ice-dammed lake in southern Norway, the Glomma event. After the last drainage route across south-central Sweden closed, c. 10 300 cal. a BP, the meltwater influence diminished, and the Skagerrak resembled a fjord with a stable inflow of waters from the North Atlantic through the Norwegian Trench and a gradual increase in boreal species. Full interglacial conditions were established at the sea floor from c. 9250 cal. a BP. Subsequent warm stable conditions were interrupted by a short-term cooling around 8300-8200 cal. a BP, representing the 8.2 ka event.

  • 273.
    Eriksson Hägg, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Wällstedt, Teresia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Claremar, Björn
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Future nutrient load scenarios for the Baltic Sea due to climate and lifestyle changes2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 337--351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic model simulations of the future climate and projections of future lifestyles within the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB) were considered in this study to estimate potential trends in future nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads were estimated using a simple proxy based only on human population (to account for nutrient sources) and stream discharges (to account for nutrient transport). This population-discharge proxy provided a good estimate for nutrient loads across the seven sub-basins of the BSDB considered. All climate scenarios considered here produced increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea over the next 100 years. There was variation between the climate scenarios such that sub-basin and regional differences were seen in future nutrient runoff depending on the climate model and scenario considered. Regardless, the results of this study indicate that changes in lifestyle brought about through shifts in consumption and population potentially overshadow the climate effects on future nutrient runoff for the entire BSDB. Regionally, however, lifestyle changes appear relatively more important in the southern regions of the BSDB while climatic changes appear more important in the northern regions with regards to future increases in nutrient loads. From a whole-ecosystem management perspective of the BSDB, this implies that implementation of improved and targeted management practices can still bring about improved conditions in the Baltic Sea in the face of a warmer and wetter future climate

  • 274. Eriksson, Jerker
    et al.
    Löwemark, Ludvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Kirchner, Nina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Holmgren, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Andersson, Per
    Schöberg, Hans
    Wallner, Karin
    Persson, Per-Olov
    Weichselian ice dammed lakes: New geochemical evidence for a rapidly deposited event-layer in the Eurasian Arctic Basin2012In: : APEX Sixth International Conference and Workshop: Quaternary Glacial and Climate Extremes / [ed] Ninna Immonen, Martin Jakobsson, Juha Pekka Lunkka, Kari Strand, Oulu: Oulun yliopisto , 2012, p. 48-48Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 275. Esposito, Alfonso
    et al.
    Ahmed, Engy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Ciccazzo, Sonia
    Sikorski, Johannes
    Overmann, Jörg
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Brusetti, Lorenzo
    Comparison of Rock Varnish Bacterial Communities with Surrounding Non-Varnished Rock Surfaces: Taxon-Specific Analysis and Morphological Description2015In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 741-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rock varnish is a thin layer of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides with embedded clay minerals that contain an increased Mn/Fe ratio compared to that of the Earth's crust. Even if the study of rock varnish has important implications in several fields, the composition of epilithic bacterial communities and the distribution of taxa on varnish surfaces are still not wholly described. The aim of this study was (i) to identify the bacterial taxa which show the greatest variation between varnish and non-varnish environments, collected from the same rock, and (ii) to describe the morphology of epilithic communities through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Triplicate samples of rock surfaces with varnish and triplicate samples without varnish were collected from five sites in Matsch Valley (South Tyrol, Italy). The V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was analyzed by Illumina sequencing. Fifty-five ubiquitous taxa have been examined to assess variation between varnish and non-varnish. Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria along with minor taxa such as Solirubrobacterales, Conexibaxter, and Rhodopila showed significant variations of abundance, diversity, or both responding to the ecology (presence/absence of varnish). Other taxa, such as the genus Edaphobacter, showed a more marked spatial variation responding to the sampling site. SEM images showed a multitude of bacterial morphologies and structures involved in the process of attachment and creation of a suitable environment for growth. The features emerging from this analysis suggest that the highly oxidative Fe and Mn-rich varnish environment favors anoxigenic autotrophy and establishment of highly specialized bacteria.

  • 276. Fahnestock, M. F.
    et al.
    Bryce, J. G.
    McCalley, C. K.
    Montesdeoca, M.
    Bai, S.
    Li, Y.
    Driscoll, C. T.
    Crill, Patrick M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Rich, V.
    Varner, R. K.
    Mercury reallocation in thawing subarctic peatlands2019In: Geochemical perspectives letters, ISSN 2410-339X, Vol. 11, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Warming Arctic temperatures have led to permafrost thaw that threatens to release previously sequestered mercury (Hg) back into the environment. Mobilisation of Hg in permafrost waters is of concern, as Hg methylation produced under water-saturated conditions results in the neurotoxin, methyl Hg (MeHg). Thawing permafrost may enhance Hg export, but the magnitude and mechanisms of this mobilisation within Arctic ecosystems remain poorly understood. Such uncertainty limits prognostic modelling of Hg mobilisation and impedes a comprehensive assessment of its threat to Arctic ecosystems and peoples. Here, we address this knowledge gap through an assessment of Hg dynamics across a well-studied permafrost thaw sequence at the peak of the growing season in biologically active peat overlying permafrost, quantifying total gaseous mercury (TGM) fluxes, total mercury (Hg-Tot) in the active layer peat, porewater MeHg concentrations, and identifying microbes with the potential to methylate Hg. During the initial thaw, TGM is liberated, likely by photoreduction from permafrost where it was previously stored for decades to centuries. As thawing proceeds, TGM is largely driven by hydrologic changes as evidenced by Hg accumulation in water-logged, organic-rich peat sediments in fen sites. MeHg in porewaters increase across the thaw gradient, a pattern coincident with increases in the relative abundance of microbes possibly containing genes allowing for methylation of ionic Hg. Findings suggest that under changing climate, frozen, well-drained habitats will thaw and collapse into saturated landscapes, increasing the production of MeHg and providing a significant source of the toxic, bioaccumulative contaminant.

  • 277. Fairchild, Ian J.
    et al.
    Spencer, Anthony M.
    Ali, Dilshad O.
    Anderson, Ross P.
    Anderton, Roger
    Boomer, Ian
    Dove, Dayton
    Evans, Jonathan D.
    Hambrey, Michael J.
    Howe, John
    Sawaki, Yusuke
    Shields, Graham A.
    Skelton, Alasdair
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Tucker, Maurice E.
    Wang, Zhengrong
    Zhou, Ying
    Tonian-Cryogenian boundary sections of Argyll, Scotland2018In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 319, p. 37-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tonian-Cryogenian System boundary is to be defined at a GSSP (Global Boundary Stratigraphic Section and Point) beneath the first evidence of widespread glaciation. A candidate lies within the Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland and Ireland, which is least deformed and metamorphosed in Argyll, western Scotland. We present new stratigraphic profiles and interpretations from the Isle of Islay and the Garvellach Islands, update the chemostratigraphy of the Appin Group Tonian carbonates underlying the thick (ca. 1 km) glacigenic Port Askaig Formation (PAF) and demonstrate an environmental transition at the contact. The Appin Group forms a regionally extensive, > 4 km-thick, succession of limestones, shales and sandstones deposited on a marine shelf. On Islay, the upper part of the lithostratigraphy has been clarified by measuring and correlating two sections containing distinctive stratigraphic levels including molar tooth structure, oolite, stromatolitic dolomite and intraclastic microbial mounds. Significantly deeper erosion at the unconformity at the base of the overlying PAF is demonstrated in the southern section. Carbonate facies show a gradual decline in delta C-13(VPDB) from +5 to + 2 parts per thousand upwards. In NE Garbh Eileach (Garvellach Islands), a continuously exposed section of Appin Group carbonates, 70 m thick, here designated the Garbh Eileach Formation (GEF), lies conformably beneath the PAF. The GEF and the GEF-PAF boundary relationships are re -described with new sedimentological logs, petrological and stable isotope data. Interstratified limestone and dolomicrosparite with delta C-13 of -4 to -7 parts per thousand (a feature named the Garvellach anomaly, replacing the term Islay anomaly) are overlain by dolomite in which the isotope signature becomes weakly positive (up to +1 parts per thousand) upwards. Shallow subtidal conditions become peritidal upwards, with evidence of wave and storm activity. Gypsum pseudomorphs and subaerial exposure surfaces are common near the top of the GEF. The basal diamictite (D1) of the PAF is rich in carbonate clasts similar to slightly deeper water parts of the underlying succession. D1 is typically several metres thick with interstratified sandstone and conglomerate, but dies out laterally. Scattered siliciclastic coarse sandstone to pebble conglomerate with dropstones associated with soft -sediment deformation is interbedded with carbonate below and above D1. Dolomite beds with derived intraclasts and gypsum pseudomorphs are found above D1 (or equivalent position, where Dl is absent). Published and new Sr isotope studies, including successive leach data, demonstrate primary Tonian Sr-87/Sr-86 values of 0.7066-0.7069 on Islay, decreasing to 0.7064-0.7066 in the younger GEF limestones on the Garvellachs, with 1700-2700 ppm Sr. Other typically Tonian characteristics of the carbonates are the Sr-rich nature of limestones, molar tooth structure, and dolomitized peritidal facies with evidence of aridity. Seabed surveys suggesting uniformly-dipping strata and shallow borehole core material illustrate the potential for extending the Tonian record offshore of the Garvellachs. A candidate Tonian-Cryogenian GSSP is proposed on Garbh Eileach within the smooth delta C-13 profile at the cross-over to positive delta C-13 signatures, 4 m below the first occurrence of ice-rafted sediment and 9 m below the first diamictite. Although lacking radiometric constraints or stratigraphically significant biotas or biomarkers, the Scottish succession has a thick and relatively complete sedimentary record of glaciation, coherent carbon and strontium chemostratigraphy, lateral continuity of outcrops and 100% exposure at the proposed boundary interval.

  • 278. Faleide, Jan Inge
    et al.
    Pease, Victoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Curtis, Mike
    Klitzke, Peter
    Minakov, Alesander
    Scheck-Wenderoth, Madgalena
    Kostyuchenko, Sergei
    Zayonchek, Andrei
    Tectonic implications of the lithospheric structure across the Barents and Kara shelves2018In: Geological Society Special Publication, ISSN 0305-8719, E-ISSN 2041-4927, Vol. 460, p. 285-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the lithospheric structure and evolution of the wider Barents–Kara Sea region based on the compilation and integration of geophysical and geological data. Regional transects are constructed at both crustal and lithospheric scales based on the available data and a regional three-dimensional model. The transects, which extend onshore and into the deep oceanic basins, are used to link deep and shallow structures and processes, as well as to link offshore and onshore areas. The study area has been affected by numerous orogenic events in the Precambrian–Cambrian (Timanian), Silurian–Devonian (Caledonian), latest Devonian–earliest Carboniferous (Ellesmerian–Svalbardian), Carboniferous–Permian (Uralian), Late Triassic (Taimyr, Pai Khoi and Novaya Zemlya) and Palaeogene (Spitsbergen–Eurekan). It has also been affected by at least three episodes of regional-scale magmatism, the so-called large igneous provinces: the Siberian Traps (Permian–Triassic transition), the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (Early Cretaceous) and the North Atlantic (Paleocene–Eocene transition). Additional magmatic events occurred in parts of the study area in Devonian and Late Cretaceous times. Within this geological framework, we integrate basin development with regional tectonic events and summarize the stages in basin evolution. We further discuss the timing, causes and implications of basin evolution. Fault activity is related to regional stress regimes and the reactivation of pre-existing basement structures. Regional uplift/subsidence events are discussed in a source-to-sink context and are related to their regional tectonic and palaeogeographical settings.

  • 279. Fehr, Manuela A.
    et al.
    Andersson, Per S.
    Halenius, Ulf
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Iron isotope variations in Holocene sediments of the Gotland Deep, Baltic Sea2008In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 807-826Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Holocene sediments from the Gotland Deep basin in the Baltic Sea were investigated for their Fe isotopic composition in order to assess the impact of changes in redox conditions and a transition from freshwater to brackish water on the isotope signature of iron. The sediments display variations in delta Fe-56 (differences in the Fe-56/Fe-54 ratio relative to the IRMM-14 standard) from -0.27 +/- 0.09 parts per thousand to +0.21 +/- 0.08 parts per thousand. Samples deposited in a mainly limnic environment with oxygenated bottom water have a mean delta Fe-56 of +0.08 +/- 0.13 parts per thousand, which is identical to the mean Fe isotopic composition of igneous rocks and oxic marine sediments. In contrast, sediments that formed in brackish water under periodically euxinic conditions display significantly lighter Fe isotope signatures with a mean delta Fe-56 of -0.14 +/- 0.19 parts per thousand. Negative correlations of the delta Fe-56 values with the Fe/Al ratio and S content of the samples suggest that the isotopically light Fe in the periodically euxinic samples is associated with reactive Fe enrichments and sulfides. This is supported by analyses of pyrite separates from this unit that have a mean Fe isotopic composition of -1.06 +/- 0.20 parts per thousand for delta Fe-56. The supply of additional Fe with a light Fe isotopic signature can be explained with the shelf to basin Fe shuttle model. According to the Fe shuttle model, oxides and benthic ferrous Fe that is derived from dissimilatory iron reduction from shelves is transported and accumulated in euxinic basins. The data furthermore suggest that the euxinic water has a negative dissolved delta Fe-56 value of about -1.4 parts per thousand to -0.9 parts per thousand. If negative Fe isotopic signatures are characteristic for euxinic sediment formation, widespread euxinia in the past might have shifted the Fe isotopic composition of dissolved Fe in the ocean towards more positive delta Fe-56 values.

  • 280. Fenty, Ian
    et al.
    Willis, Josh K.
    Khazendar, Ala
    Dinardo, Steven
    Forsberg, Rene
    Fukumori, Ichiro
    Holland, David
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Moller, Delwyn
    Morison, James
    Munchow, Andreas
    Rignot, Eric
    Schodlok, Michael
    Thompson, Andrew F.
    Tinto, Kirsteen
    Rutherford, Matthew
    Trenholm, Nicole
    Oceans Melting Greenland: Early Results from NASA’s Ocean-Ice Mission in Greenland2016In: Oceanography, ISSN 1042-8275, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 72-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet represents a major uncertainty in projecting future rates of global sea level rise. Much of this uncertainty is related to a lack of knowledge about subsurface ocean hydrographic properties, particularly heat content, how these properties are modified across the continental shelf, and about the extent to which the ocean interacts with glaciers. Early results from NASA's five-year Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) mission, based on extensive hydrographic and bathymetric surveys, suggest that many glaciers terminate in deep water and are hence vulnerable to increased melting due to ocean-ice interaction. OMG will track ocean conditions and ice loss at glaciers around Greenland through the year 2020, providing critical information about ocean-driven Greenland ice mass loss in a warming climate.

  • 281. Fernandez, Marilen
    et al.
    Björck, Svante
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Maidana, Nora I.
    Unkel, Ingmar
    Van der Putten, Nathalie
    Diatom assemblage changes in lacustrine sediments from Isla de los Estados, southernmost South America, in response to shifts in the southwesterly wind belt during the last deglaciation2013In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 433-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isla de los Estados (54A degrees 45'S, 63A degrees 10'aEuro64A degrees 46'W) lies east of the main island of Tierra del Fuego and is the southeastern-most point in Argentina. Because of its geographic position near the latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies and the strong influence of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the area is suitable for paleoecological and paleoclimate research. The island is not far north of the Subantarctic Front, which limits the northern boundary of the ACC. Paleoenvironmental study in this geographic location can shed light on past changes in atmospheric and marine circulation patterns. Diatom analysis of the lower part of a sediment sequence from Laguna Cascada (54A degrees 45' 51.3''S, 64A degrees 20' 20.07''W) enabled inference of changing lake conditions between 16 and 11.1 cal ka BP. Between 16 and 14.4 cal ka BP fragilarioid diatom species, often a pioneer group, dominated the record. Their presence shows seasonally open-water conditions from the onset of sedimentation. In zone II (14.4-12.8 cal ka BP), the dominance of planktonic/tychoplanktonic Aulacoseira spp. might represent longer ice-free periods and windier conditions, which would have kept this heavy species suspended in the water column. This period corresponds to the Antarctic Cold Reversal, when the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies were possibly centered on the latitudes of Tierra del Fuego, resulting in windy and wet conditions. Zone III (12.8-11.1 cal ka BP) is dominated by benthic diatom taxa that are mainly associated with peat and wetland vegetation. This suggests that climate conditions had become milder and less windy, favoring aquatic productivity and terrestrial vegetation development. This change in environmental conditions may have been a consequence of the southward movement of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies at the start of the Antarctic Holocene thermal optimum.

  • 282. Ferreira, David
    et al.
    Cessi, Paola
    Coxall, Helen K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    de Boer, Agatha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Dijkstra, Henk A.
    Drijfhout, Sybren S.
    Eldevik, Tor
    Harnik, Nili
    McManus, Jerry F.
    Marshall, David P.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Roquet, Fabien
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Schneider, Tapio
    Wills, Robert C.
    Atlantic-Pacific Asymmetry in Deep Water Formation2018In: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science, ISSN 0084-6597, E-ISSN 1545-4495, Vol. 46, p. 327-352Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the Atlantic Ocean is ventilated by high-latitude deep water formation and exhibits a pole-to-pole overturning circulation, the Pacific Ocean does not. This asymmetric global overturning pattern has persisted for the past 2-3 million years, with evidence for different ventilation modes in the deeper past. In the current climate, the Atlantic-Pacific asymmetry occurs because the Atlantic is more saline, enabling deep convection. To what extent the salinity contrast between the two basins is dominated by atmospheric processes (larger net evaporation over the Atlantic) or oceanic processes (salinity transport into the Atlantic) remains an outstanding question. Numerical simulations have provided support for both mechanisms; observations of the present climate support a strong role for atmospheric processes as well as some modulation by oceanic processes. A major avenue for future work is the quantification of the various processes at play to identify which mechanisms are primary in different climate states.

  • 283.
    Finné, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kylander, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Boyd, Meighan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Sundqvist, Hanna S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Löwemark, Ludvig
    Can XRF scanning of speleothems be used as a non-destructive method to identify paleoflood events in caves?2015In: International Journal of Speleology, ISSN 0392-6672, E-ISSN 1827-806X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 17-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a novel, quick and non-destructive method for tracing flood events in caves through the analysis of a stalagmite thick section with an XRF core scanner. The analyzed stalagmite has multiple horizons of fine sediments from past flood events intercalated with areas of cleaner calcite. Flood events detected from the elemental XRF core scanning data show good agreement with the position of flood horizons identified in petrographic thin sections. The geochemical composition of the individual flood layers shows that in certain cases the clay horizons had a distinct geochemical fingerprint suggesting that it may be possible to distinguish individual flood layers based on their geochemistry. This presents the possibility for using flood events as marker horizons to chronologically tie different speleothems in a cave to each other.

  • 284.
    Fischer, Benjamin M. C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Frentress, Jay
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Smittenberg, Rienk H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. The Nature Conservancy, United States.
    Mojito, Anyone? An Exploration of Low-Tech Plant Water Extraction Methods for Isotopic Analysis Using Locally-Sourced Materials2019In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 7, article id 150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stable isotope composition of water (delta O-18 and delta H-2) is an increasingly utilized tool to distinguish between different pools of water along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) and thus provides information on how plants use water. Clear bottlenecks for the ubiquitous application of isotopic analysis across the SPAC are the relatively high-energy and specialized materials required to extract water from plant materials. Could simple and cost-effective do-it-yourself MacGyver methods be sufficient for extracting plant water for isotopic analysis? This study develops a suite of novel techniques for plant water extraction and compares them to a standard research-grade water extraction method. Our results show that low-tech methods using locally-sourced materials can indeed extract plant water consistently and comparably to what is done with other state-of-the-art methods. Further, our findings show that other factors play a larger role than water extraction methods in achieving the desired accuracy and precision of stable isotope composition: (1) appropriate transport, (2) fast sample processing and (3) efficient workflows. These results are methodologically promising for the rapid expansion of isotopic investigations, especially for citizen science and/or school projects or in remote areas, where improved SPAC understanding could help manage water resources to fulfill agricultural and other competing water needs.

  • 285. Fisher, Rebecca E.
    et al.
    France, James L.
    Lowry, David
    Lanoisellé, Mathias
    Brownlow, Rebecca
    Pyle, John A.
    Cain, Michelle
    Warwick, Nicola
    Skiba, Ute M.
    Drewer, Julia
    Dinsmore, Kerry J.
    Leeson, Sarah R.
    Bauguitte, Stéphane J. -B.
    Wellpott, Axel
    O'Shea, Sebastian J.
    Allen, Grant
    Gallagher, Martin W.
    Pitt, Joseph
    Percival, Carl J.
    Bower, Keith
    George, Charles
    Hayman, Garry D.
    Aalto, Tuula
    Lohila, Annalea
    Aurela, Mika
    Laurila, Tuomas
    Crill, Patrick M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    McCalley, Carmody K.
    Nisbet, Euan G.
    Measurement of the C-13 isotopic signature of methane emissions from northern European wetlands2017In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 605-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isotopic data provide powerful constraints on regional and global methane emissions and their source profiles. However, inverse modeling of spatially resolved methane flux is currently constrained by a lack of information on the variability of source isotopic signatures. In this study, isotopic signatures of emissions in the Fennoscandian Arctic have been determined in chambers over wetland, in the air 0.3 to 3m above the wetland surface and by aircraft sampling from 100m above wetlands up to the stratosphere. Overall, the methane flux to atmosphere has a coherent delta C-13 isotopic signature of -71 +/- 1%, measured in situ on the ground in wetlands. This is in close agreement with delta C-13 isotopic signatures of local and regional methane increments measured by aircraft campaigns flying through air masses containing elevated methane mole fractions. In contrast, results from wetlands in Canadian boreal forest farther south gave isotopic signatures of -67 +/- 1%. Wetland emissions dominate the local methane source measured over the European Arctic in summer. Chamber measurements demonstrate a highly variable methane flux and isotopic signature, but the results from air sampling within wetland areas show that emissions mix rapidly immediately above the wetland surface and methane emissions reaching the wider atmosphere do indeed have strongly coherent C isotope signatures. The study suggests that for boreal wetlands (>60 degrees N) global and regional modeling can use an isotopic signature of -71 parts per thousand to apportion sources more accurately, but there is much need for further measurements over other wetlands regions to verify this.

  • 286.
    Fitch, Peter
    et al.
    University of Leicester.
    Backman, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Heterogeneity and Cyclicity in the Physical Property Measurements of Cenozoic Sediments (IODP Expedition 320/321)2009In:  Eos Trans. AGU, 90(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cenozoic sediments of the Equatorial Pacific provide an ideal and unique record of oceanographic conditions and climate change over the last 50 million years of Earth’s history. Previous studies utilizing data and samples from ODP Leg 199 have provided great insight into astronomically calibrated time-scales which control depositional sequences and lithologies of the deep Pacific waters. IODP Expeditions 320 and 321 aimed to further our understanding of the time-scales, processes and geological signatures in this environment by recovering a more detailed and higher resolution record of data and samples through this important geological record.

    This study uses physical properties and wireline logging data together with detailed sedimentological descriptions from IODP Expedition 320 to investigate heterogeneity and cyclicity in the physical properties across a time-transect of six sites. The application of statistical techniques for the numerical quantification of heterogeneity to these data shows that the various discrete time periods (age units) studied along the transect (lower Eocene through upper Miocene) return consistent values allowing these age units to be traced laterally based on contrasts in heterogeneity values. Heterogeneities in bulk density, magnetic susceptibility, and natural gamma ray data are seen to vary with unit thickness and can be related to lithology, and the presence / abundance of bioturbated intervals and carbonate turbidite beds. Numerical heterogeneities are also shown to be consistent across three scale of investigation; wireline (meter scales), track (cm scales) and discrete (mm-cm scale) datasets. These results could significantly impact future sampling strategies for similar sites by guiding the minimum sampling density required to ensure resolving high-resolution heterogeneities and cyclicity.

    Analysis of cyclicity within the physical properties data using the Fourier transform and semi-variogram analysis, with depth-scale converted to a time-series based on shipboard paleontological analysis, shows a number of large wavelength cycles have been captured, ranging from 100ka to 6Ma. Further analysis of the location and intensity of bioturbation and the occurrence of carbonate turbidites  at two key sites reveals that cyclicity of similar wavelengths can still be resolved, suggesting that it may be possible to identify  and remove the bioturbated layers and/or turbidite beds prior to a more detailed study of Milankovitch cyclicity.

  • 287. Flink, Anne E.
    et al.
    Noormets, Riko
    Fransner, Oscar
    Hogan, Kelly A.
    O'Regan, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Past ice flow in Wahlenbergfjorden and its implications for late Quaternary ice sheet dynamics in northeastern Svalbard2017In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 163, p. 162-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wahlenbergfjorden is a fjord situated in the western part of Nordaustlandet in northern Svalbard. It leads into the 400 m deep Hinlopen Strait located between Nordaustlandet and Spitsbergen. High-resolution multibeam bathymetric and sub-bottom data, as well as sediment cores are used to study the past extent and dynamics of glaciers in Wahlenbergfjorden and western Nordaustlandet. The submarine landform assemblage in Wahlenbergfjorden consists of landforms characteristic of subglacial, ice marginal and proglacial conditions. Glacial lineations indicate that Wahlenbergfjorden was occupied by streaming ice during the LGM and most likely acted as an ice stream onset zone. Westward ice flow in the fjord merged with the ice stream in Hinlopen Strait. Absence of ice recessional landforms in outer Wahlenbergfjorden suggests relatively fast deglaciation, possibly by flotation of the glacier front in the deeper parts of the fjord. The inner part of Wahlenbergfjorden and Palanderbukta are characterized by De Geer moraines, indicating episodic retreat of a grounded glacier front. In Palanderbukta, longer still stands of the glacier terminus resulted in the formation of larger terminal moraine ridges. The inner part of Wahlenbergfjorden was deglaciated prior to 11.3 +/- 55 Cal. ka BP. The submarine landform assemblages in front of Bodleybreen, Etonbreen, Idunbreen, Frazerbreen and Aldousbreen confirm that these glaciers have surged at least once during the Holocene.

  • 288.
    Flodén, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Seismic refraction soundings in the area around Gotland, central Baltic.1975Book (Other academic)
  • 289.
    Flodén, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Volume in honour of professor Ivar Hessland.1982Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 290.
    Forbes Halldén, Malvina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Cr-spinels in the Franklinian Mobile Belt: a geochemical record of Paleozoic tectonics2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical compositions of Cr-spinel extracted from mafic and ultramafic rocks collected on Ellesmere Island in the Arctic Canadian Archipelago were obtained through electron microprobe analyses. The extensively altered rocks are sampled from rock units in the Franklinian MobileBelt, which is representative of a Paleozoic tectonically active oceanic regime of which little is presently known. The evolutionary trend of the ocean basin may have changed when the exotic crustal fragments now called the Pearya terrane were accreted to the North American margin through poorly understood tectonic processes sometime prior to the Devonian. The results of the analysis are used to determine the tectonic setting associated with the rock units. The results reveal that the Cr-spinels predominantly have a supra-subduction zone geochemical signature, suggesting an island arc origin.

  • 291.
    Fransner, Filippa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Gustafsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Tedesco, Letizia
    Vichi, Marcello
    Hordoir, Robinson
    Roquet, Fabien
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Spilling, Kristian
    Kuznetsov, Ivan
    Eilola, Kari
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nycander, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Non-Redfieldian Dynamics Explain Seasonal pCO2 Drawdown in the Gulf of Bothnia2018In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, ISSN 2169-9275, E-ISSN 2169-9291, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 166-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High inputs of nutrients and organic matter make coastal seas places of intense air‐sea CO2 exchange. Due to their complexity, the role of coastal seas in the global air‐sea CO2 exchange is, however, still uncertain. Here, we investigate the role of phytoplankton stoichiometric flexibility and extracellular DOC production for the seasonal nutrient and CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) dynamics in the Gulf of Bothnia, Northern Baltic Sea. A 3‐D ocean biogeochemical‐physical model with variable phytoplankton stoichiometry is for the first time implemented in the area and validated against observations. By simulating non‐Redfieldian internal phytoplankton stoichiometry, and a relatively large production of extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the model adequately reproduces observed seasonal cycles in macronutrients and pCO2. The uptake of atmospheric CO2 is underestimated by 50% if instead using the Redfield ratio to determine the carbon assimilation, as in other Baltic Sea models currently in use. The model further suggests, based on the observed drawdown of pCO2, that observational estimates of organic carbon production in the Gulf of Bothnia, derived with the method, may be heavily underestimated. We conclude that stoichiometric variability and uncoupling of carbon and nutrient assimilation have to be considered in order to better understand the carbon cycle in coastal seas.

  • 292.
    Fransner, Filippa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Nycander, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    Gustafsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Deutsch, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tracing terrestrial DOC in the Baltic Sea - a 3-D model study2016In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 134-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fate of terrestrial organic matter brought to the coastal seas by rivers, and its role in the global carbon cycle, are still not very well known. Here the degradation rate of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOCter) is studied in the Baltic Sea, a subarctic semi-enclosed sea, by releasing it as a tracer in a 3-D circulation model and applying linear decay constants. A good agreement with available observational data is obtained by parameterizing the degradation in two rather different ways; one by applying a decay time on the order of 10 years to the whole pool of DOCter, and one by dividing the DOCter into one refractory pool and one pool subject to a decay time on the order of 1 year. The choice of parameterization has a significant effect on where in the Baltic Sea the removal takes place, which can be of importance when modeling the full carbon cycle and the CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In both cases the biogeochemical decay operates on time scales less than the water residence time. Therefore only a minor fraction of the DOCter reaches the North Sea, whereas approximately 80% is removed by internal sinks within the Baltic Sea. This further implies that DOCter mineralization is an important link in land-sea-atmosphere cycling of carbon in coastal- and shelf seas that are heavily influenced by riverine DOC.

  • 293. Fransner, O.
    et al.
    Noormets, R.
    Flink, A. E.
    Hogan, K. A.
    O'Regan, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Glacial landforms and their implications for glacier dynamics in Rijpfjorden and Duvefjorden, northern Nordaustlandet, Svalbard2017In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 437-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of subglacial landforms yielding the configuration and dynamics of former ice-flows have for the first time been made in Rijpfjorden and Duvefjorden, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, using sub-bottom acoustic, swath-bathymetric data and sediment cores. Five acoustic-stratigraphic units were distinguished suggesting the presence of a complete glacial-postglacial succession in the central fjord basins. C-14 ages from the sediments indicate that the inner Rijpfjorden and central Duvefjorden were deglaciated before ca. 10.6 cal ka BP and 11.0 cal ka BP, respectively. Maximum sediment thickness in Rijpfjorden and Duvefjorden is 26 m, resulting in sediment accumulation rates of ca. 66 cm ka(-1). The landform record suggests that the ice streaming in both fjords was topographically controlled. The considerably deeper basin and higher elongation ratios of the crag-and-tails in Duvefjorden are linked to the faulted bedrock and possibly to somewhat larger ice stream and/or more focused ice-flow compared to that in Rijpfjorden. De Geer moraines suggest slower retreat of a grounded ice margin from shallow areas of Rijpfjorden. In deeper areas of the fjords, the glaciers were probably floating, resulting in the lack of ice-marginal transverse landforms. The ice margin retreat from these areas was probably relatively rapid and dominated by calving.

  • 294.
    Fransner, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Geophysical Mapping around Björkö Island in Lake Mälaren, South central Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The former Viking settlement Birka is located on Björkö Island in Lake Mälaren, the third largest lake in Sweden. Birka is a well-known archeological site that onshore has been carefully examined. The lake floor of the waters surrounding the island has been less investigated but has a great potential to host not yet discovered archeological objects from this former hub for seafarers. Therefore, a geophysical survey including multibeam sonar mapping and subbottom profiling was carried out mainly along the shores of western Björkö Island. Processing and analysis of these collected data form the basis of this thesis. The main aims of this study are to produce a suite of geological maps and stratigraphic profiles that are used to geologically interpret the uppermost sediment stratigraphy and the bathymetry of the area. In addition, the processed data are investigated for archeological objects.

    The result shows that the acoustic records of the sediment stratigraphy reaches back to glacial clay formed as a consequence of the retreat of the Late Weichselian ice sheet, and that the uppermost sediment units probably are from the time after the isolation of Lake Mälaren from the Baltic Sea. The bathymetry and backscatter results have revealed that this relatively shallow study area contains several objects that potentially could be of interest from an archeological point of view. These objects include several unidentified objects in the Björkö strait and two unregistered shipwrecks where ground truthing data need to be collected to determine their respective origin.

  • 295.
    Fransner, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Sediment variations in the Kuchi Lake, southern Taiwan:: Climate signal or tectonics?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate archives are of greatest significance when it comes to paleoclimate studies, since these types of archives in a natural way have registered and preserved the conditions of the past. There are several types of climate archives, one of the most commonly used are lake sediments, because lakes can reveal different types of information, for example weathering, vegetation and precipitation. Another reason why lakes are important in climate research is because they are widely spread over the world, and therefore they can be chosen depending on where the focus of the study will be. In this study, -the Lake Kuchi in the southern part of Taiwan, situated at the boundary between the Asian Mainland and the Western Pacific, was used. What makes this densely populated region of the world particularly interesting for climate research is because it is affected not only by monsoons, but also by typhoons and earthquakes.

    In this paleoclimate study, a total 16 core sections from three different coring points in the Kuchi Lake were analyzed. The main goal was to clarify if the lake could be used as a reliable climate archive, and also interpret the depositional environment of the sediment layers in the cores. All core sections were described and analyzed with the ITRAX XRF-scanner, which lead to the conclusion that the cores consist of a sedimentary sequence of alternating gray clay and dark gray gyttja clay layers, capped by peat, gyttja or clayey gyttja at topmost part.

     By sieving samples from all different layers, it was observed that some dark gyttja clay layers contained terrestrial organic matter, and hard, angular clay clasts that suggest intense rain falls and flash floods as transportation mechanism. The uppermost part of the cores, from 310 cm to the top layers, consist of homogenous clay and in situ organic matter which indicate calmer depositional environments compared to the alternation between dark gyttja clay and homogenous gray clay. LOI-950 data indicate that the carbonate content of the Kuchi Lake is low, since the weight loss during this temperature is insignificant compared to LOI-550, which stood for the majority of the weight loss.

    Thus, the sediment sequence in the Kuchi Lake consist of alternation of clays deposited in a calm and relatively deep lake, mixed with layers apparently flushed in from land, possibly due to typhoons. This alternation is capped by organic rich layers, including peat, which indicating filling up of the basin, and shallower conditions.

  • 296. Franz, Daniela
    et al.
    Acosta, Manuel
    Altimir, Núria
    Arriga, Nicola
    Arrouays, Dominique
    Aubinet, Marc
    Aurela, Mika
    Ayres, Edward
    López-Ballesteros, Ana
    Barbaste, Mireille
    Berveiller, Daniel
    Biraud, Sébastien
    Boukir, Hakima
    Brown, Timothy
    Brümmer, Christian
    Buchmann, Nina
    Burba, George
    Carrara, Arnaud
    Cescatti, Allessandro
    Ceschia, Eric
    Clement, Robert
    Cremonese, Edoardo
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Darenova, Eva
    Dengel, Sigrid
    D'Odorico, Petra
    Filippa, Gianluca
    Fleck, Stefan
    Fratini, Gerardo
    Fuss, Roland
    Gielen, Bert
    Gogo, Sébastien
    Grace, John
    Graf, Alexander
    Grelle, Achim
    Gross, Patrick
    Grünwald, Thomas
    Haapanala, Sami
    Hehn, Markus
    Heinesch, Bernard
    Heiskanen, Jouni
    Herbst, Mathias
    Herschlein, Christine
    Hörtnagl, Lukas
    Hufkens, Koen
    Ibrom, Andreas
    Jolivet, Claudy
    Joly, Lilian
    Jones, Michael
    Kiese, Ralf
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Kljun, Natascha
    Klumpp, Katja
    Kolari, Pasi
    Kolle, Olaf
    Kowalski, Andrew
    Kutsch, Werner
    Laurila, Tuomas
    de Ligne, Anne
    Linder, Sune
    Lindroth, Anders
    Lohila, Annalea
    Longdoz, Bernhard
    Mammarella, Ivan
    Manise, Tanguy
    Maraňón Jiménez, Sara
    Matteucci, Giorgio
    Mauder, Matthias
    Meier, Philip
    Merbold, Lutz
    Mereu, Simone
    Metzger, Stefan
    Migliavacca, Mirco
    Mölder, Meelis
    Montagnani, Leonardo
    Moureaux, Christine
    Nelson, David
    Nemitz, Eiko
    Nicolini, Giacomo
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Op de Beeck, Maarten
    Osborne, Bruce
    Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell
    Pavelka, Marian
    Peichl, Matthias
    Peltola, Olli
    Pihlatie, Mari
    Pitacco, Andrea
    Pokorny, Radek
    Pumpanen, Jukka
    Ratié, Céline
    Rebmann, Corinna
    Roland, Marilyn
    Sabbatini, Simone
    Saby, Nicolas P. A.
    Saunders, Matthew
    Schmid, Hans Peter
    Schrumpf, Marion
    Sedlák, Pavel
    Serrano Ortiz, Penelope
    Siebicke, Lukas
    Šigut, Ladislav
    Silvennoinen, Hanna
    Simioni, Guillaume
    Skiba, Ute
    Sonnentag, Oliver
    Soudani, Kamel
    Soule, Patricé
    Steinbrecher, Rainer
    Tallec, Tiphaine
    Thimonier, Anne
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka
    Vestin, Patrik
    Vincent, Gaëlle
    Vincke, Caroline
    Vitale, Domenico
    Waldner, Peter
    Weslien, Per
    Wingate, Lisa
    Wohlfahrt, Georg
    Zahniser, Mark
    Vesala, Timo
    Towards long-term standardised carbon and greenhouse gas observations for monitoring Europe's terrestrial ecosystems: a review2018In: International Agrophysics, ISSN 0236-8722, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 439-+Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research infrastructures play a key role in launching a new generation of integrated long-term, geographically distributed observation programmes designed to monitor climate change, better understand its impacts on global ecosystems, and evaluate possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. The pan-European Integrated Carbon Observation System combines carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O) observations within the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems and oceans. High-precision measurements are obtained using standardised methodologies, are centrally processed and openly available in a traceable and verifiable fashion in combination with detailed metadata. The Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem station network aims to sample climate and land-cover variability across Europe. In addition to GHG flux measurements, a large set of complementary data (including management practices, vegetation and soil characteristics) is collected to support the interpretation, spatial upscaling and modelling of observed ecosystem carbon and GHG dynamics. The applied sampling design was developed and formulated in protocols by the scientific community, representing a trade-off between an ideal dataset and practical feasibility. The use of open-access, high-quality and multi-level data products by different user communities is crucial for the Integrated Carbon Observation System in order to achieve its scientific potential and societal value.

  • 297.
    Freire, Francis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Acoustic characterization of submarine geomorphological features in the Polar Oceans2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine glacial environments contain unique seafloor features resulting from the dynamic glacial processes. Studying these submarine geomorphological features can help us understand the glacial paleo-environments so that we can predict the likely responses of present day glaciers and ice sheets to future changes in the climate. This thesis details different approaches in understanding glacial seafloor features using acoustic systems. It focuses on the novel technique of automated mapping seafloor properties using the backscatter intensity collected by acoustic multibeam echosounder systems (MBES). The aim of this thesis is to assess the potential of this unexploited data source in characterizing different glacial landforms in the polar oceans. This is done by examining the voluminous backscatter data collected by Swedish icebreaker Oden from different cruises to the polar oceans and employing an automated backscatter processing technique, the ARA algorithm, to extract surficial sediment characteristics. The results from the sediment characterization are used together with outputs from other marine acoustical systems and sediment core data to understand formational processes of the glacial submarine features. Operational issues encountered in using this technology and its viability as a tool in characterization of glacial seafloor features are discussed and suggestions are given on the improvements needed to effectively implement the method in future studies. The final part of the manuscript is a paper, published in Geo-marine Letters, where I and my co-authors show a practical application of the acoustic systems ability to characterize geomorphological features of a mass-wasting event in the deepest part of the Arctic, the Molloy Hole. 

  • 298.
    Freire, Francis Fletcher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    High Arctic submarine glaciogenic landscapes: their formation and significance2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is focused on studies of glacial and slope morphology in the high Arctic of western Greenland shelf and the Molloy Hole seafloor spreading area, based on high-resolution acoustic methods and other geophysical data. The main purpose is to improve our understanding of glacial dynamics and associated processes in the marginal region of a large marine-terminating ice sheet. Newly acquired data, together with existing datasets have been compiled to create bathymetric models, which were used to study the seafloor landscape and its preserved record of glacial and sedimentary processes. The new bathymetric models were used with novel processing tools combined with seismic profiles, sub-bottom profiles and overlays of geological- and gravimetric maps to describe the observed landforms and interpret causal relationships. The main conclusions are:

    1)   The underlying geology is an important control on the cross-shelf trough (CST) dimensions in western Greenland. This is likely due to the influence of underlying geology to the frictional resistance of the ice flow over the basement rock. Our observations show that ice streaming in areas with basaltic bed-types cause minimal over-deepening of the main trunk of the trough, which also has weaker lateral boundaries allowing the ice stream to shift flow direction more easily. CSTs on the Cenozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary basins indicate a stronger eroding and more focused paleo-ice streams.

    2)   Bedrock lithology has an important part in controlling the location of the head-to-trough transition in CSTs of western Greenland. The areas where the head’s network of channels converges to form the main trunk of the trough are mostly located on the boundary from crystalline to sedimentary bedrock. These areas are also marked by distinct over-deepenings.

    3)   Preglacial conditions such as faults/fractures and lithological properties of the basement rocks in western Greenland served as an important control on the erosional potential of the glacial processes, particularly on a local scale. Faults and fractures have led to the topographic steering of the ice flow that causes further excavation and erosion of the bed, while uneven erosion patterns, based on differences in glacial morphological features, is observed between areas of adjacent bedrocks with different lithology.

    4)   The occurrence of trough mouth fans is suggested to be controlled mainly by the shelf width, which governs the glacial flow length along available sediment sources. It is also controlled by the continental slope steepness, which may be too steep for sediment fans to accumulate, or may cause slope failure which eventually transports the sediments to the deep basin.

    5)   The maximum ice extent in west Greenland extended towards the shelf edge. Geomorphological evidence of ice margin standstills and slow retreat (grounding zone wedges and transverse moraines) in some areas reveal a multi-stage deglaciation process.

    6)   The view of a highly dynamic paleo-Greenland ice sheet is supported by the presence of a large number of CSTs which hosted ice streams, and evidence of ice stream flow-switching throughout one or several glaciations.

    7)   The influence of glacial sedimentary processes extends into the deepest areas of the Arctic Ocean. A submarine landslide, here termed the Molloy Slide, has been described in the Molloy Hole in the Davis Strait between Greenland and Svalbard. This slide was likely caused by massive glacial sediment deposition along the west Svalbard margin.

  • 299.
    Freire, Francis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Greenwood, Sarah L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mayer, Larry
    Egilsson, Arnar
    Thorsteinsson, Tomas
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    High resolution mapping of offshore and onshore glaciogenic features in metamorphic bedrock terrain, Melville Bay, northwestern Greenland2015In: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695X, Vol. 250, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geomorphological studies of previously glaciated landscapes are important to understand how ice sheets and glaciers respond to rapidly changing climate. Melville Bay, in northwestern Greenland, contains some of the most sensitive but least studied ice sheet sectors in the northern hemisphere, where the bathymetric knowledge previously was restricted to a few sparsely distributed single beam echo soundings. We present here the results of high-resolution, geomorphological mapping of the offshore and onshore landscapes in Melville Bay using multibeam sonar and satellite data, at 5- and 10-m resolutions respectively. The results show a similar areally-scoured bedrock-dominated landscape with a glacially modified cnoc-and-lochan morphology on the inner shelf (150-500 m depth) and on the nearby exposed coast. This is manifested by the presence of U-shaped troughs, moutonee-type elongated landforms, stoss-and-lee forms, and streamlined features. The submarine landscape shows features that are characteristic of bedrock in folded, faulted, and weathered metamorphic terrain, and, to a lesser extent, glacially molded bedforms; while coastal landforms exhibit higher relief, irregular-shaped basins, and more subdued fracture valleys. Although generally similar, the onshore and offshore landscapes contain examples of distinctly different landform patterns, which are interpreted to reflect a longer exposure to long-term deep weathering as well as to more recent periglacial weathering processes on land. The spatial variability in the distribution of landforms across the landscape in both study areas is mostly attributed to differences in lithological properties of the bedrock. The lack of sediment cover on the inner shelf is likely a result of a capacity for sediment erosion and removal by the West Greenland Current flowing northward over the area in combination with limited sediment supply from long sea ice-cover seasons. The distribution and orientation of the landforms in the offshore part indicate ice movement toward the NW, and suggests that this area acted as a tributary or onset region for the major paleo ice stream that formed the present day Melville Bay Trough.

  • 300.
    Freire, Francis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jafri, Rooh Ullah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Acoustic evidence of a submarine slide in the deepest part of the Arctic, the Molloy Hole2014In: Geo-Marine Letters, ISSN 0276-0460, E-ISSN 1432-1157, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 315-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The western Svalbard continental margin contains thick sediment sequences with areas known to contain gas hydrates. Together with a dynamic tectonic environment, this makes the region prone to submarine slides. This paper presents results from geophysical mapping of the deepest part of the high Arctic environment, the Molloy Hole. The mapping includes multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter and sub-bottom profiling. The geophysical data reveal seabed features indicative of sediment transport and larger-scale mass wasting. The large slide scar is here referred to as the Molloy Slide. It is located adjacent to the prominent Molloy Hole and Ridge system. The slide is estimated to have transported >65 km(3) of sediments over the deep axial valley of the Molloy Ridge, and further into the Molloy Hole. A unique feature of this slide is that, although its run-out distance is relatively short (<5 km), it extends over an enormous vertical depth (>2,000 m) as a result of its position in a complex bathymetric setting. The slide was most likely triggered by seismic activity caused by seafloor spreading processes along the adjacent Molloy Ridge. However, gas-hydrate destabilization may also have played a role in the ensuing slide event.

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