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  • 251. Briggs, Joseph S.
    et al.
    Cesarini, David
    Lindqvist, Erik
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Windfall gains and stock market participation2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the causal effect of wealth on stock market participation using administrative data on Swedish lottery players. A $150,000 windfall gain increases stock ownership probability among pre-lottery non-participants by 12 percentage points, while pre-lottery stock holders are unaffected. The effect is immediate, seemingly permanent and heterogeneous in intuitive ways. Standard lifecycle models predict wealth effects far too large to match our causal estimates under common calibrations. Additional analyses suggest a limited role for explanations such as procrastination or real-estate investment. Overall, results suggest that “nonstandard” beliefs or preferences contribute to the nonparticipation of households across many demographic groups.

  • 252.
    Brinca, Pedro
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Monetary Business Cycle Accounting for Sweden2013Inngår i: The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, ISSN 1935-1690, E-ISSN 1935-1690, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 1085-1119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When creating competing models of economic fluctuations, researchers typically introduce frictions in their models aiming at replicating the observed movements in the data. This paper implements a business cycle accounting procedure for the Swedish economy. Both the 1990's and the 2008 recessions are given special focus. Evidence is provided for properties that structural extensions to the business cycle model need to have in order to replicate the movements in the data. Distortions to the labor market and movements in total factor productivity are the most determinant features to be modeled with respect to real variables as well as deviations from a Taylor rule for interest rate setting, though the latter plays little role for both the 1990's and the 2008 recessions. The distortions share a structural break during the 1990's crisis but not during the recent one.

  • 253.
    Brinca, Pedro Soares
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Essays in Quantitative Macroeconomics2013Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first essay, Distortions in the Neoclassical Growth Model: A Cross Country Analysis, I show that shocks that express themselves as total factor productivity and labor income taxes are comparably more synchronized than shocks that resemble distortions to the ability of allocating resources across time and states of the world. These two shocks are also the most important to model. Lastly, I document the importance of international channels of transmission for the shocks, given that these are spatially correlated and that international trade variables, such as trade openness correlate particularly well with them. The second essay is called Monetary Business Cycle Accounting for Sweden. Given that the analysis is focused in one country, I can extend the prototype economy to include a nominal interest rate setting rule and government bonds. As in the previous essay, distortions to the labor-leisure condition and total factor productivity are the most relevant margins to be modeled, now joined by deviations from the nominal interest rate setting rule. Also, distortions do not share a structural break during the Great Recession, but they do during the 1990’s.  Researchers aiming to model Swedish business cycles must take into account the structural changes the Swedish economy went through in the 1990’s, though not so during the last recession. The third essay, Consumer Confidence and Consumption Spending: Evidence for the United States and the Euro Area, we show that, the consumer confidence index can be in certain circumstances a good predictor of consumption. In particular, out-of-sample evidence shows that the contribution of confidence in explaining consumption expenditures increases when household survey indicators feature large changes, so that confidence indicators can have some increasing predictive power during such episodes. Moreover, there is some evidence of a confidence channel in the international transmission of shocks, as U.S. confidence indices help predicting consumer sentiment in the euro area.

  • 254. Bring, Ove
    Det folkrättsliga investeringsskyddet: en studie i u-ländernas inflytande på den internationella sedvanerätten1979Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 255. Brinka, Pedro
    et al.
    Holter, Hans A.
    Krusell, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Malafry, Laurence
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Fiscal Multipliers in the 21st Century2016Inngår i: Journal of Monetary Economics, ISSN 0304-3932, E-ISSN 1873-1295, Vol. 77, s. 53-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiscal multipliers appear to vary greatly over time and space. Based on VARs for a large number of countries, we document a strong correlation between wealth inequality and the magnitude of fiscal multipliers. In an attempt to account for this finding, we develop a life-cycle, overlapping-generations economy with uninsurable labor market risk. We calibrate our model to match key characteristics of a number of OECD economies, including the distribution of wages and wealth, social security, taxes, and government debt and study how a fiscal multiplier depends on various country characteristics. We find that the fiscal multiplier is highly sensitive to the fraction of the population who face binding credit constraints and also to the average wealth level in the economy. These findings together help us generate a cross-country pattern of multipliers that is quite similar to that in the data.

  • 256.
    Broer, Tobias
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Crowding Out and Crowding In: When Does Redistribution Improve Risk-sharing in Limited Economies?2011Inngår i: Journal of Economic Theory, ISSN 0022-0531, E-ISSN 1095-7235, Vol. 146, nr 3, s. 957-975Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 257.
    Broer, Tobias
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Domestic or global imbalances?: Rising income risk and the fall in the US current account2014Inngår i: Journal of Monetary Economics, ISSN 0304-3932, E-ISSN 1873-1295, Vol. 64, s. 47-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When default leads to exclusion from financial markets, the implied loss of consumption smoothing opportunities is more costly when income volatility is high. A rise in income risk thus makes default less attractive, allowing creditors to relax borrowing limits. I show how, in an open economy, this endogenous financial deepening may reduce aggregate foreign assets in response to a rise in individual income risk, against the precautionary savings intuition. Conditions for this depend on whether default constrains complete or uncontingent contracts. The post-1980 rise in US household income risk strongly reduces foreign assets when domestic markets are complete or world interest rates low.

  • 258.
    Broer, Tobias
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    The home bias of the poor: Foreign asset portfolios across the wealth distribution2017Inngår i: European Economic Review, ISSN 0014-2921, E-ISSN 1873-572X, Vol. 92, s. 74-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper documents how the share of foreign stocks in US household portfolios rises with the ratio of financial wealth to non-financial income. This is both because wealthier households are more likely to participate in foreign asset markets, and because portfolio shares of participants increase with financial wealth but decrease with non-financial income. A simple, standard two-country general equilibrium model shows that hedging of terms of trade movements and non-financial income risk produces non-trivial heterogeneity in portfolios across the wealth and income distribution within countries that is qualitatively in line with this evidence.

  • 259.
    Broer, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. CEPR, United Kingdom.
    Kapicka, Marek
    Klein, Paul
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Consumption risk sharing with private information and limited enforcement2017Inngår i: Review of economic dynamics (Print), ISSN 1094-2025, E-ISSN 1096-6099, Vol. 23, s. 170-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study consumption risk sharing when individual income shocks are persistent and not publicly observable, and individuals can default on contracts at the price of financial autarky. We find that, in contrast to a model where the only friction is limited enforcement, our model has observable implications that are similar to those of an Aiyagari (1994) self-insurance model and therefore broadly consistent with empirical observations. However, some of the implied effects of changes in policy or the economic environment are noticeably different in our model compared to self-insurance.

  • 260.
    Broer, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Kapicka, Marek
    Klein, Paul
    Simon Fraser University, Canada .
    Consumption Risk Sharing with Private Information and Limited Enforcement2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study consumption risk sharing when individual income shocks are persistent and not publicly observable, and individuals can default on contracts at the price of financial autarky. We find that, in contrast to a model where the only friction is limited enforcement, our model has observable implications that are similar to those of an Aiyagari (1994) self-insurance model and therefore broadly consistent with empirical observations. However, some of the implied effects of changes in policy or the economic environment are noticeably different in our model compared to self-insurance.

  • 261.
    Brownstone, David
    et al.
    University of California at Irvine, Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research (Stockholm).
    Englund, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Effects of Tax Reform on the Demand for Owner-Occupied Housing: A Microsimulation Approach1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes the effects on the demand for owner-occupied housing that are likely to result from the Swedish 1983-85 tax reform. This is done by means of a microsimulation model which takes into account the dichotomous nature of the demand for housing: the consumers choose the mode of tenure (owning versus renting) as well as the quantity of housing conditional on the choice of the mode of tenure. The tax reform consists of a general reduction of marginal tax rates (i.e. an increase in disposable income) together with limitations in the deductibility of mortgage interests. The simulations show that this will cause an increase in home-ownership in the sense that more households will demand owner-occupied housing. At the same time, however, the households will demand smaller houses in the average, and thus aggregate demand for small and medium-sized units will increase while demand for large units will fall sharply.

  • 262.
    Brownstone, David
    et al.
    University of California at Irvine, Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research (Stockholm).
    Englund, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Tax Reform and Housing Demand: The Distribution of Welfare Gains and Losses1985Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 263.
    Bruno, Michael
    Hebrew University .
    Adjustment and Structural Change under Supply Shocks1982Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 264.
    Bruno, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Sachs, Jeffrey
    Falk Institute for Economic Research.
    Macroeconomic Adjustment with Import Price Shocks: Real and Monetary Aspects1979Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 265.
    Bruzelius, Nils
    Stockholms universitet.
    The value of travel time: theory and measurement1978Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 266.
    Buhai, I. Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Cottini, Elena
    Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels
    How Productive Is Workplace Health and Safety?2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, nr 4, s. 1086-1104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the causal impact of workplace health and safety practices on firm performance, using Danish longitudinal matched employer–employee data merged with unique cross-sectional representative firm survey data on work environment conditions. We estimate standard production functions, augmented with workplace environment indicators, addressing both time-invariant and time-varying potentially relevant unobservables in the production process. We find positive and large productivity effects of improved physical dimensions of the health and safety environment, specifically, “internal climate” and “monotonous repetitive work”.

  • 267.
    Buhai, I. Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Portela, Miguel A.
    Teulings, Coen N.
    van Vuuren, Aico
    RETURNS TO TENURE OR SENIORITY?2014Inngår i: Econometrica, ISSN 0012-9682, E-ISSN 1468-0262, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 705-730Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study documents two empirical facts using matched employer-employee data for Denmark and Portugal. First, workers who are hired last, are the first to leave the firm. Second, workers' wages rise with seniority, where seniority is defined as a worker's tenure relative to the tenure of his colleagues. Controlling for tenure, the probability of a worker leaving the firm decreases with seniority. The increase in expected seniority with tenure explains a large part of the negative duration dependence of the separation hazard. Conditional on ten years of tenure, the wage differential between the 10th and the 90th percentiles of the seniority distribution is 1.1-1.4 percentage points in Denmark and 2.3-3.4 in Portugal.

  • 268.
    Bulow, Jeremy
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Rogoff, Kenneth
    University of Wisconsin.
    Sovereign Debt: Is to Forgive to Forget?1988Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    International lending to a less-developed country cannot be based on the debtor's reputation for making repayments. That is, loans to LDCs will no be made or repaid unless foreign creditors have legal or other direct sanctions they can exercise agains a sovereign debtor who defaults. Even if some lending is feasible because of direct sanctions, having a reputation for repayment in no way enhances a small LDC's ability to borrow.

  • 269.
    Burchardi, Konrad B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Hassan, Tarek A.
    The Economic Impact of Social Ties: Evidence from German Reunification2013Inngår i: Quarterly Journal of Economics, ISSN 0033-5533, E-ISSN 1531-4650, Vol. 128, nr 3, s. 1219-1271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 to show that personal relationships which individuals maintain for noneconomic reasons can be an important determinant of regional economic growth. We show that West German households who had social ties to East Germany in 1989 experienced a persistent rise in their personal incomes after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Moreover, the presence of these households significantly affects economic performance at the regional level: it increases the returns to entrepreneurial activity, the share of households who become entrepreneurs, and the likelihood that firms based within a given West German region invest in East Germany. As a result, West German regions that (for idiosyncratic reasons) have a high concentration of households with social ties to the East exhibit substantially higher growth in income per capita in the early 1990s. A one standard deviation rise in the share of households with social ties to East Germany in 1989 is associated with a 4.7 percentage point rise in income per capita over six years. We interpret our findings as evidence of a causal link between social ties and regional economic development. JEL Codes: O10, O43, J61, L14, F20.

  • 270.
    Burda, Michael C.
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
    Migration and the Option Value of Waiting1995Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration is an investment: it involves fixed, unrecoverable costs and uncertain future returns. If migration can be postponed, the option value of doing so may have positive value. Migration may not occur for a range of individuals who would otherwise migrate on a net present valur basis. This paper models the migration decision using ideas developed by Pindyck (1991) and Dixit (1992). Th option value of waiting is related to the interest rate, fixed costs, and especially uncertainty governing the evolution of income at home and abroad. The "bad news principle" predicts that only unfavorable states of the world will affect the value of the migration option. In a rational intertemporal equilibrium of two regional labor markets, low migration rates may coexist with large or even increasing current wage differentials.

  • 271.
    Burda, Michael C.
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
    Unions and Wage Insurance1995Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing theories of unions emphasize their impact on wage levels relative to the opportunity cost of leisure. This paper explores tha possibility that monopoly unions provide income insurance against idiosyncratic wage variability. An optimal union contract is characterized by real wage and other types of flexibility only in response to systematic changes in underlying uncertainty. Under such conditions, there is no presumption that the "union wage premium" relative to the free market wage is positive. The model shows the effect of unemployment benefits, average productivity, and risk on the desirability of union membership, and offers and economic interpretation of equity and solidarity in union policy. It can also explain the negative correlation between inequality and unionism in developed countries.

  • 272.
    Burn, Ian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Not All Laws are Created Equal: Legal Differences in State Non-Discrimination Laws and the Impact of LGBT Employment Protections2018Inngår i: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 462-497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I study the impact of legal differences in state employment nondiscrimination acts (ENDAs) for gay men and lesbian women on labor market outcomes. Employing a DDD approach, I show that enacting an employment non-discrimination act is associated with increased wages of gay men and decreased employment of lesbian women. If all employment non-discrimination acts are treated as identical, these laws increased the hourly wages of gay men by 2.7% and decreased the employment of lesbian women by 1.7% and their hours worked by 0.7 hours. The results show that the strength of the law can result in heteroge-neous effects of the laws for gay men, but not for lesbian women. ENDAs with both punitive and compensatory damage provisions resulted in smaller wage increases for gay men than ENDAs with only compensatory damage provisions. ENDAs with longer statutes of limitations for complaints increased the employment of gay men, whereas laws with shorter statutes of limitations decreased employment. Based on the estimates from the state-level employment non-discrimination acts, I argue that extending federal protections under Title VII would lead to a small increase in the wages of gay men, but would significantly reduce the employment of lesbian women.

  • 273.
    Burn, Ian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kettler, Kyle
    The More You Know, the Better You’re Paid? Evidence from Pay Secrecy Bans for Managers2019Inngår i: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 59, s. 92-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately half of Americans are employed at firms where employees are forbidden or discouraged from discussing their pay with coworkers. Employees who violate these rules may be subject to punishment or dismissal. While many employees are legally protected from reprisal under the National Labor Rights Act, the law exempts managers from these protections. Eleven states have passed laws banning pay secrecy policies for managers. In this paper, we explore what effect these state laws had on the wages and employment of managers. We find pay secrecy bans increased the wages of managers by 3.5% but had no effect on the gender wage gap, job tenure, or labor supply. The effects are heterogeneous along a number of dimensions. Below the median wage, female managers experienced a 2.9% increase in their wages relative to male managers. Above the median wage, male managers experienced a 2.7% increase in their wages relative to female managers. The wage gains were concentrated among managers employed at firms with fewer than 500 employees.

  • 274.
    Buzaglo, Jorge D.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen, Latinamerikainstitutet.
    Planning alternative development strategies: experiments on the Mexican economy1982Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 275.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register Data2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a gap in school performance between native and immigrant pupils in Sweden.This article analyzes the role of age at immigration, which is believed to be an importantdeterminant of this gap, since it is inversely related to the time spent acquiring Swedenspecificskills before graduation. The analysis exploits within-family variation in a largeset of register data on immigrant siblings (and native children) graduating fromcompulsory school between 1988 and 2003. The estimated negative impact from shortduration of residence prior to graduation is significantly less than the one observed usinga standard cross-sectional approach which fails to net out family-fixed effects. Thecritical age at arrival is about 10. Above this age, there is a strong negative impact onperformance, where the sibling-difference estimates are 27-54 percent less negative thanthe cross-sectional ones. The results show both similarities and striking differencesbetween boys and girls and between children of different origin. Moreover, children withshort duration of residence perform significantly better in mathematics than in a range ofsubjects taken together. This demonstrates the importance of Sweden-specific skills.

  • 276.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Education Policy for Adolescent Immigrants2019Inngår i: Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets / [ed] Lars Calmfors, Nora Sánchez-Gassen, Nordic Council of Ministers , 2019, s. 65-83Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the challenge to prepare adolescent immigrants for the Nordic labour markets. A review of the literature identifies general education efforts and targeted interventions that may be useful. There is convincing evidence of the effectiveness of several school practices for the benefit of disadvantaged students, some of which are probably generalizable to immigrant students. The evidence of the effectiveness of interventions targeted to adolescent immigrants is scarce. However, study support and guidance are identified as important measures, as well as new roads to employment for individuals who have difficulties to qualify for and finish regular high school programs.

  • 277.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Leder lottning av skolplatser till förbättrad likvärdighet?2019Inngår i: Lika för alla? En ESO-antologi om skolans likvärdighet / [ed] Robert Eriksson, Lena Unemo, Stockholm: Regeringskansliet, Finansdepartementet , 2019, s. 171-188Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 278.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    School Reform, Educational Achievement and Lifetime Income: Essays in Empirical Labor Economics2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Impact of School Choice on Pupil Achievement, Segregation and Costs: Swedish Evidence. This paper evaluates school choice at the compulsory school level. We estimate the impact of an increased enrolment in private schools on average achievement using within-municipality variation over time. We find positive effects, shown to be the sum of a (small) private school attendance effect and a competition effect. We also find effects on segregation and costs.

    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register Data. This paper analyzes the role of age at immigration for the school performance gap between native and immigrant pupils by exploiting within-family variation. The critical age is about nine, above which there is a strong negative impact on performance. The results are similar for boys and girls, but vary by region of origin. A comparison of sibling-difference and cross-sectional estimates reveals striking similarities.

    Integration of Childhood Immigrants in the Short and in the Long Run: Swedish Evidence. I study childhood immigrants at different stages in life in order to examine the role of age at immigration for educational and labor market outcomes. I find that childhood immigrants tend later to recover strongly in terms of educational achievement. Yet, the same individuals are on average found to be poorly integrated into the labor market.

    Life-Cycle Variations in the Association between Current and Lifetime Income: Replication and Extension for Sweden. We apply a generalized errors-in-variables model, recently developed by Steven Haider and Gary Solon, in order to produce estimates of the association between current and lifetime income. We find strong life-cycle patterns. This implies that the widespread use of current income as a proxy for lifetime income leads to inconsistent estimates even when the proxy is used as the dependent variable. We find country similarities, but gender and cohort differences.

  • 279.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    The Headmaster Ritual: The Importance of Management for School Outcomes2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, nr 4, s. 912-940Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the impact of individual principals on school outcomes by using panel data that allow us to track principals over time. We find that individual principals have a substantive impact on school policies, working conditions, and student outcomes. In particular, students who attend a school that has a one standard deviation better principal improve their achievement by between 0.05 and 0.1 standard deviations. Despite rich background information on principals, it is difficult to characterize successful management, suggesting that innate skills are central. We find that the scope for discretion is larger among voucher schools and in areas with school competition.

  • 280.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    20 år med förändringar i skolan: Vad har hänt med likvärdigheten?2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 281.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lika möjligheter?: familjebakgrund och skolprestationer 1988–20102012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 282.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lotta ut platserna till friskolor2011Inngår i: Svenska DagbladetArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 283.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Parental choice, neighbourhood segregation or cream skimming? An analysis of school segregation after a generalized choice reform2016Inngår i: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 1155-1190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the evolution of school segregation in Sweden in the aftermath of the 1992 universal voucher reform, which spurred the establishment of new independent schools and introduced parental choice. We assess the relative importance of neighbourhood segregation, parental choice and the location of independent schools for school segregation. In particular, we exploit variation in school choice opportunities across municipalities and provide descriptive evidence that in regions where school choice has become more prevalent, school segregation between immigrants and natives, and between children of high/low educated parents, has increased more than in regions where choice is limited. This result also holds when we account for residential segregation and focus on excess segregation over and above the segregation that would occur if all pupils attended their assigned schools. We find that the increase in school segregation 15 years after the reform that can be attributed to choice is relatively small.

  • 284.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala university.
    Friskolereformens långsiktiga effekter på utbildningsresultat2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 285.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet.
    Independent Schools and Long-Run Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Sweden´s Large Scale Voucher Reform2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 286.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). CREAM, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Independent Schools and Long-Run Educational Outcomes: evidence from Sweden's Large Scale Voucher Reform2015Inngår i: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 82, nr 327, s. 508-551Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate effects on educational outcomes from the expansion of the independent school sector in Sweden, which followed as a consequence of the radical 1992 voucher reform. Using variation in this expansion across municipalities, we find that an increase in the share of independent school students improves average short- and long-run outcomes, explained primarily by external effects (e.g. school competition). For most outcomes, we observe significant effects first a decade after the reform. By using regional level TIMSS data, we can reconcile our results with the negative national trend for Swedish students in international achievement tests.

  • 287.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Life-Cycle Variations in the Association Between Current and Lifetime Income: Country, Cohort and Gender Comparisons2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 288.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Willén, Alexander
    Tipping and the Effects of Segregation2020Inngår i: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, ISSN 1945-7782, E-ISSN 1945-7790, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 318-347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze how neighborhood ethnic population composition affects the short- and long-run education and labor market outcomes of natives and immigrants. To overcome the problem of nonrandom sorting across neighborhoods, we borrow theoretical insights from the tipping point literature and exploit estimated tipping thresholds as instruments for changes in ethnic population composition. Our results provide little evidence in support of the idea that living in a neighborhood with a higher immigrant share leads to worse outcomes.

  • 289.
    Caldara, Dario
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Essays on Empirical Macroeconomics2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four essays in empirical macroeconomics.

    What Are the Effects of Fiscal Policy Shocks? A VAR-Based Comparative Analysis

    The literature using structural vector autoregressions (SVARs) to assess the effects of fiscal policy shocks strongly disagrees on the qualitative and quantitative response of key macroeconomic variables. We find that controlling for differences in specification of the reduced-form model, all identification approaches used in the literature yield similar results regarding the effects of government spending shocks, but diverging results regarding the effects of tax shocks.

    The Analytics of SVARs. A Unified Framework to Measure Fiscal Multipliers

    Does fiscal policy stimulate output? SVARs have been used to address this question, but no stylized facts have emerged. I show that different priors about the output elasticities of tax revenue and government expenditures implied by the identification schemes generate a large dispersion in the estimates of tax and spending multipliers. I estimate fiscal multipliers consistent with prior distributions of the elasticities computed by a variety of empirical strategies. I document that in the U.S. spending multipliers are larger than the tax multipliers.

    Computing DSGE Models with Recursive Preferences and Stochastic Volatility

    This paper compares solution methods for computing the equilibrium of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models with recursive preferences and stochastic volatility. The main finding is that a third-order perturbation is competitive in terms of accuracy with Chebyshev polynomials and value function iteration, while being an order of magnitude faster to run.

    Business Cycle Accounting and Misspecified DSGE Models

    This paper investigates how insights from the literature on business cycle accounting can be used to trace out the implications of missing channels in a baseline estimated dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model used for forecast and policy analysis.

  • 290.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Active Labour Market Policy and Unemployment: A Framework for the Analysis of Crucial Design Features1994Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 291.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Bara dåliga alternativ2011Inngår i: Dagens Nyheter, Vol. 13/9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 292.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Bara dåliga lösningar kvar2011Inngår i: Dagens Nyheter, Vol. 16/11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 293.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Bildning, bredd och samhällsengagemang inom nationalekonomi2011Inngår i: Från Högskolan i Borås till Humboldt, Högskolan i Borås , 2011, 2Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 294.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Blytunga experter: återinför fastighetsskatten2014Inngår i: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-640X, nr JanArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 295.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Budgeten ger inga enkla lösningar2014Inngår i: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr NovArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 296.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Can the Eurozone Develop into a Well-functioning Fiscal Union?2012Inngår i: CESifo Forum, ISSN 1615-245X, E-ISSN 2190-717X, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 10-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sovereign debt crises have demonstrated clearly the inadequacy of the earlier system of economics governance in the euro area. Parallel with the acute crisis management, far-reaching reforms of the rules system have been instituted. These include the new regulations adopted in the so-called 'Six-pack' in November 2011 based on earlier proposals from the European Commission and the van Rompuy Task Force. The latest addition is the intergovernmental treaty on a fiscal compact agreed in March 2012 ('Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economics and Monetary Union'). This article discusses whether or not these reforms are likely to work.

  • 297.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Centralization of Wage Bargaining and Macroeconomic Performance: A Survey1993Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 298.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Comment on Charles Wyplosz: Fiscal Policy Councils - Unlovable or Just Unloved?2008Inngår i: Swedish Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1400-1829, Vol. 15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 299.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Dags att revidera överskottsmålet2013Inngår i: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 300.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Dokumentären vilseleder om lönerna2013Inngår i: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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