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  • 251.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Om särskilt kvalificerad kontaktperson - mentorskap och dess effekter2010Inngår i: Ungdomar som begår brott - Vilka insatser fungerar? / [ed] A-K. Andershed, K. Söderholm Carpelan, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag , 2010, s. 108-119Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 252.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Phantom of the Neighbourhood: Longitudinal Studies on Area-based Conditions and Individual Outcomes2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained but interrelated empirical studies focusing on theoretical, empirical and political questions in the multidisciplinary field of neighbourhood effect research. Along with a comprehensive introductory essay, each study addresses questions concerning the potential influence of neighbourhood characteristics on individual social and economic outcomes at different life stages.

    Study I combines longitudinal register and survey data from the ‘golden era’ of Swedish welfare policy to evaluate a hypothesised impact of neighbourhood poverty during adolescence on a wide range of outcomes (including, but not limited to, educational and employment status) within a counterfactual model framework based on matching on propensity scores. Extensive empirical analyses indicate that, when two groups of children who are identical according to observed factors before age 10 (including household income, family structure and welfare receipt) live in different types of neighbourhood in adolescence, the outcome for those who grow up in a poor neighbourhood is not more likely to be worse than for those who grow up in a more affluent neighbourhood.

    Study II considers the maximum theoretical scope of unique neighbourhood influence experienced during the years of growth on individuals’ later life income and social assistance recipiency. A three-level hierarchical linear model is applied to simultaneously distinguish variation in the outcomes over time from variation that is attributable to differences between neighbourhoods. By utilising longitudinal register data derived from a birth cohort who grew up in Stockholm at a time when Swedish welfare policy ambitions were at a peak, this study attempts to estimate the long-term significance of neighbourhood origin in the Swedish setting. The analyses clearly show that prior place of residence accounts for an exceedingly modest proportion of the variation in cohort members’ subsequent income and receipt of social assistance.

    Study III explores the hypothesised negative impact of disadvantaged neighbourhood conditions, individual disadvantage, and degree of labour market establishment on levels of social trust. Using data from the Swedish Longitudinal Survey among Unemployed, ordered logit regression analyses indicate that low levels of social trust are contingent upon perceived neighbourhood disorder, personal powerlessness, perceived fear of victimisation, and accumulated episodes of temporary employment. The tentative results also indicate that neighbourhood disorder, powerlessness, and fear of victimisation interact, magnifying the negative impact on social trust.

  • 253.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nyström, M.
    Om ungdomstjänst och dess effekter2010Inngår i: Ungdomar som begår brott : vilka insatser fungerar? / [ed] A-K. Andershed, K. Söderholm Carpelan, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag , 2010, s. 103-107Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 254.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Rojas, Yerko
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Rethinking the Long-term Consequences of Growing up in a Disadvantaged Neighbourhood: Lessons from Sweden2012Inngår i: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 729-747Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using extensive longitudinal register data for more than 80 000 young metropolitan Swedes, this study addresses the effect of a disadvantaged neighbourhood social context on groupings of outcomes that are important for the living conditions of young adults. The overall results show that growing up in a disadvantaged neighbourhood increases the risk of experiencing comparably more unemployment, having less education and receiving more social assistance than similar young people from more affluent neighbourhoods. However, when the estimated effects of neighbourhood are assessed by means of an epidemiological impact measure that takes the prevalence of the risk factor at population level into account; these effects prove to be minimal. We discuss possible drawbacks of placing too much emphasis on policies targeting disadvantaged neighbourhoods versus universal social policy measures.

  • 255.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sellström, Eva
    Inst. f. hälsovetenskap, Östersund, Mittuniversitet.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Statistiska insitututionen, Umeå universitet.
    Boendesegregationens konsekvenser för ungdomars framtida levnadsförhållanden2010Inngår i: Social Rapport 2010, socialstyrelsen , 2010, s. 204-220Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 256.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Stenberg, Sten-Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Does Social Assistance Recipiency Influence Unemployment?: Macro-level Findings from Sweden in a Period of Turbulence2007Inngår i: Acta Sociologica, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 347-362Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 257.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Effectiveness of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program for older children2015Inngår i: Research on social work practice, ISSN 1049-7315, E-ISSN 1552-7581, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 190-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To estimate the impacts of Sweden’s Contact Family/Person Program (CFPP) for older children on participants’ long-term outcomes related to mental health problems, illicit drug use, public welfare receipt, placement in out-of-home care, educational achievement, and offending. Method: We analyzed longitudinal register data on more than 1,000,000 individuals born between 1973 and 1984, including 6,386 individuals who entered CFPP at 10–13 years of age, with a follow-up until 2008. The program impact was estimated by means of propensity score matching. Results: Outcomes for those who had received the intervention were not better than that for matched peers who did not receive the intervention. Conclusions: The results did not find support for CFPP effectiveness in reducing risks of compromised long-term development in older children.

  • 258.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Long-term outcomes of Sweden’s Contact Family Program for children2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 259.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Long-term outcomes of Sweden's Contact Family Program for children2013Inngår i: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 404-414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To assess the long-term impacts of Sweden's Contact Family Program (CFP) for children on participants' future outcome profiles, here conceptualized as combinations of outcomes related to mental health problems, public welfare receipt, illicit drug use, placement in out-of-home care, educational achievement, and offending. Methods: We analyzed longitudinal register data on more than 950,000 children born 1980-90, including 6693 children who entered CFP at 2-5 years of age, with a follow-up until 2008. Children's outcome profiles were identified by latent class analysis. The average program impact was estimated by means of propensity score matching. Results: Long-term outcomes for those who had received the intervention were not better than for matched peers who did not receive the intervention. Simulation-based sensitivity analyses indicate that some of our estimated negative treatment effects may be affected by unobserved factors related to program participation and outcomes. However, both selection and outcome effects must be extremely strong in order to generate notable positive effects of CFP participation. Conclusions: The results did not find support for CFP effectiveness in reducing risks of compromised long-term development in children. Since the intervention reaches a high-risk group of children and is popular among users, volunteer families and professionals, the program should be reinforced with knowledge-based components that target known risk factors for child welfare recipients.

  • 260.
    Buhai, I. Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Cottini, Elena
    Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels
    How Productive Is Workplace Health and Safety?2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, nr 4, s. 1086-1104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the causal impact of workplace health and safety practices on firm performance, using Danish longitudinal matched employer–employee data merged with unique cross-sectional representative firm survey data on work environment conditions. We estimate standard production functions, augmented with workplace environment indicators, addressing both time-invariant and time-varying potentially relevant unobservables in the production process. We find positive and large productivity effects of improved physical dimensions of the health and safety environment, specifically, “internal climate” and “monotonous repetitive work”.

  • 261. Bukodi, Erzsebet
    et al.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Goldthorpe, John H.
    The effects of social origins and cognitive ability on educational attainment: Evidence from Britain and Sweden2014Inngår i: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 293-310Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous work we have shown that in Britain and Sweden alike parental class, parental status and parental education have independent effects on individuals’ educational attainment. In this paper we extend our analyses, first by also including measures of individuals’ early-life cognitive ability, and second by bringing our results for Britain and Sweden into direct comparative form. On the basis of extensive birth-cohort data for both countries, we find that when cognitive ability is introduced into our analyses, parental class, status and education continue to have significant, and in fact only moderately reduced and largely persisting, effects on the educational attainment of members of successive cohorts. There is some limited evidence for Britain, but not for Sweden, that cognitive ability has a declining effect on educational attainment, and a further cross-national difference is that in Britain, but not in Sweden, some positive interaction effects occur between advantaged social origins and high cognitive ability in relation to educational success. Overall, though, cross-national similarities are most apparent, and especially in the extent to which parental class, status and education, when taken together, create wide disparities in the eventual educational attainment of individuals who in early life were placed at similar levels of cognitive ability. Some wider implications of these findings are considered.

  • 262. Bukodi, Erzsébet
    et al.
    Eibl, Ferdinand
    Buchholz, Sandra
    Marzadro, Sonia
    Minello, Alessandra
    Wahler, Susanne
    Blossfeld, Hans-Peter
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Schizzerotto, Antonio
    Linking the macro to the micro: a multidimensional approach to educational inequalities in four European countries2018Inngår i: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 26-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research into educational inequalities has shown the importance of decomposing social origins into parental class, status and education, representing economic, socio-cultural and educational family resources, respectively. But we know little about how inequalities in educational attainment at the micro-level map onto institutional characteristics of educational systems at the macro-level, if we treat social origins in a multidimensional way. Drawing on the rich over-time variation in educational systems in four European countries–Britain, Sweden, Germany and Italy–this paper develops and tests a number of hypotheses regarding the effects of various components of social origins on individuals’ educational attainment in different institutional contexts. It is evident from our results that a great deal of similarity exists across nations with different educational systems inthe persisting importance for individuals’ educational attainment of parental class, status and education. But our findings also indicate that changes in the institutional features of educational systems have, in some instances although not in others, served to reinforce or to offset the social processes generating educational inequalities at the micro level.

  • 263.
    Burn, Ian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Not All Laws are Created Equal: Legal Differences in State Non-Discrimination Laws and the Impact of LGBT Employment Protections2018Inngår i: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 462-497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I study the impact of legal differences in state employment nondiscrimination acts (ENDAs) for gay men and lesbian women on labor market outcomes. Employing a DDD approach, I show that enacting an employment non-discrimination act is associated with increased wages of gay men and decreased employment of lesbian women. If all employment non-discrimination acts are treated as identical, these laws increased the hourly wages of gay men by 2.7% and decreased the employment of lesbian women by 1.7% and their hours worked by 0.7 hours. The results show that the strength of the law can result in heteroge-neous effects of the laws for gay men, but not for lesbian women. ENDAs with both punitive and compensatory damage provisions resulted in smaller wage increases for gay men than ENDAs with only compensatory damage provisions. ENDAs with longer statutes of limitations for complaints increased the employment of gay men, whereas laws with shorter statutes of limitations decreased employment. Based on the estimates from the state-level employment non-discrimination acts, I argue that extending federal protections under Title VII would lead to a small increase in the wages of gay men, but would significantly reduce the employment of lesbian women.

  • 264.
    Burn, Ian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The Relationship between Prejudice and Wage Penalties for Gay Men in the United States2020Inngår i: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 73, nr 3, s. 650-675Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article estimates the empirical relationship between prejudicial attitudes toward homosexuality and the wages of gay men in the United States. It combines data on prejudicial attitudes toward homosexuality from the General Social Survey with data on wages from the U.S. Decennial Censuses and American Community Surveys-both aggregated to the state level. The author finds that a one standard deviation increase in the share of individuals in a state who are prejudiced toward homosexuals is correlated with a decrease in the wages of gay men of between 2.7% and 4.0%. The results also suggest that the prejudice of managers is responsible for this correlation. The author finds that a one standard deviation increase in the share of the managers in a state who are prejudiced toward homosexuals is associated with a 1.9% decrease in the wages of gay men. The author finds no evidence that the wage penalty for gay men is correlated with the prejudice of customers or co-workers.

  • 265.
    Burn, Ian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kettler, Kyle
    The More You Know, the Better You’re Paid? Evidence from Pay Secrecy Bans for Managers2019Inngår i: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 59, s. 92-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately half of Americans are employed at firms where employees are forbidden or discouraged from discussing their pay with coworkers. Employees who violate these rules may be subject to punishment or dismissal. While many employees are legally protected from reprisal under the National Labor Rights Act, the law exempts managers from these protections. Eleven states have passed laws banning pay secrecy policies for managers. In this paper, we explore what effect these state laws had on the wages and employment of managers. We find pay secrecy bans increased the wages of managers by 3.5% but had no effect on the gender wage gap, job tenure, or labor supply. The effects are heterogeneous along a number of dimensions. Below the median wage, female managers experienced a 2.9% increase in their wages relative to male managers. Above the median wage, male managers experienced a 2.7% increase in their wages relative to female managers. The wage gains were concentrated among managers employed at firms with fewer than 500 employees.

  • 266.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Career outcomes in the Swedish labor market: three contextual studies2001Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper I:Being Different in the Workplace: Job Mobility into other Workplaces and Shifts into Unemployment. This study evaluates contradictory theoretical predictions about the consequences of belonging to a minority in a workplace context. The impact of workplace sex and ethnic composition on its constituent members' voluntary (workplace shifts) and involuntary (unemployment) mobility out of the workplace is assessed. Multilevel models are estimated on a sample of 1,959 Swedish workplaces for which information is available on all employees. The results indicate that the sex composition of the workplace does not affect men's and women's propensity for job shifts into other workplaces. However, natives have a higher propensity to leave workplaces with relatively many immigrants. Moreover, women and immigrants who are in a small minority run significantly larger risks of ending up in unemployment. No such association is found for men when they are in the minority, or for natives in workplaces with a large proportion of immigrants. Thus, the minority position is disadvantageous for women and immigrants. In contrast to previous research, the ethnic composition effects dwarf those of sex composition. This dimension of "being different" thus seems more important for involuntary as well as voluntary moves out of workplaces.

    Paper II:What You See is Not Always What You Get. Imperfect Information in the Job-Worker Matching Process, and Its Consequences for the Attainment of Occupational Prestige. This study uses Swedish job history data to test the hypothesis that easily observable characteristics of both jobs and workers matter more for the individual attainment of job rewards when better information about such characteristics is not available. The notion of "easily observable worker characteristics" is operationalized as formal education, and that of "easily observable job characteristics" is operationalized as occupational prestige. The results are consistent with the hypothesis and previous empirical evidence obtained using US data. The formal education of workers influences employers' decisions about hiring, but in employer-internal mobility employers appear to make use of more direct measures of worker ability. Moreover, the longer the employer has had an opportunity to observe a worker, the smaller the influence of formal education on internal job mobility outcomes. Similarly, easily observable characteristics of jobs influence workers' mobility between employers, i.e. when other job information is unavailable or difficult to observe. Workers were also found to use more easily observable characteristics early on in the job-worker matches, but with time in the job, these characteristics lose their influence on job mobility decisions.

    Paper III:Pay Reference Standards and Pay Satisfaction. What Do Workers Evaluate Their Pay Against? Reference group theory postulates that actors' satisfaction originates in relative rather than absolute standing, but largely neglects the question of what these comparison standards actually are. This study contributes to filling this void through an empirical investigation of the standards against which workers evaluate their pay. The associations between several indicators of reference pay and pay satisfaction are examined in a random sample of Swedish employees. The data set is unusually rich in its information about both the individual and the structural context in which worker pay satisfaction is formed: the past pay of the worker, and the pay level of the organizational, occupational, and national labor market context. The results indicate that workers' satisfaction primarily stems from more general comparisons with others in their occupation, and in the labor market at large. Comparisons with co-workers' and the individuals' own past pay, are of minor importance. Reference group theory as applied to pay comparisons would therefore benefit from a focus on this more general level.

  • 267.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Anni, Erlandsson
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Do Employers Prefer Fathers? Evidence from a Field Experiment Testing the Gender by Parenthood Interaction Effect on Callbacks to Job Applications2017Inngår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 337-348Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In research on fatherhood premiums and motherhood penalties in career-related outcomes, employers’ discriminatory behaviours are often argued to constitute a possible explanation for observed gender gaps. However, there is as yet no conclusive evidence of such discrimination. Utilizing a field experiment design, we test (i) whether job applicants are subject to recruitment discrimination on the basis of their gender and parenthood status, and (ii) whether discrimination by gender and parenthood is conditional on the qualifications required by the job applied for. We applied for 2,144 jobs in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parenthood status to fictitious job applicants. Based on the rate of callbacks, we do not find that employers practise systematic recruitment discrimination on the basis of the job applicants’ gender or parental status, neither in relation to less qualified nor more highly qualified jobs.

  • 268.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Moulding Parents’ Childcare?: A Comparative Analysis of Paid Work and Time with Children in Different Family Policy Models2011Inngår i: Work-Life Balance in Europe: The Role of Job Quality / [ed] Drobnic, Sonja & Guillén, Ana, Palgrave Macmillan , 2011, s. 207-230Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 269.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Family Formation and Men's and Women's Attainment of Workplace Authority2012Inngår i: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 90, nr 3, s. 795-816Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish panel data, we assess whether the gender gap in supervisory authority has changed during the period 1968-2000, and investigate to what extent the gap can be attributed to gender-specific consequences of family formation. The results indicate that the gap has narrowed modestly during the period, and that the life-event of parenthood is a major cause. As long as women and men are childless and single, the gender gap in supervisory authority is marginal, even reversed. When men become fathers, however, they strongly increase their chances for supervisory authority whereas women's chances remain unaffected when they become mothers. We also find a male "marriage premium" on workplace authority, but this premium is generated by selection.

  • 270.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gähler, Michael
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kvinnors underrepresentation på chefspositioner – en familjeangelägenhet?2007Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 271.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gähler, Michael
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kvinnors underrepresentation på chefspositioner - en familjeangelägenhet?2008Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 33-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 272.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gähler, Michael
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The Gender Gap in Workplace Authority in Sweden 1968-2000 - A Family Affair?2007Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 273.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gähler, Michael
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The gender gap in workplace authority in Sweden 1968–2000 – a family affair?2007Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    We assess whether the gender gap in authority in Sweden has changed during the period 1968–2000, and investigate to what extent family factors are respon-sible for this gap. We find that the gap has narrowed modestly during this period, and identify the life-event of parenthood as a major cause of the gap. When men become fathers, they gain authority; when women become mothers, they do not. Our fixed effects panel estimates of the effects of family factors deviate from the cross-sectional estimates, suggesting that unobserved individ-ual heterogeneity – routinely neglected in this line of research – matters.

  • 274.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kumlin, Johanna
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mechanisms of Organizational Segregation: Organizational Characteristics and the Sex of Newly Recruited Employees2005Inngår i: Work and Occupations, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 39-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the process underlying sex segregation at the organizational level by focusing on the process through which organizations renew their workforce. The authors used a sample of 1,460 Swedish workplaces that recruited 75,261 employees during the period 1991 to 1995. The results indicate that the most important factor in reproducing segregation at the organizational level is sex segregation in the occupations from which organizations recruit their personnel. Organizations’ sex composition is to a very high degree determined by the sex composition of the occupations they employ. In addition, large organizations and expanding organizations tend to make more sex-atypical recruitments compared with other organizations.

  • 275.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kumlin, Johanna
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mechanisms of Organizational Segregation: Organizational Characteristics and the Sex of Newly Recruited Employees2005Inngår i: Work and Occupations, Vol. 32, s. 39-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the process underlying sex segregation at the organizational level by focusing on the process through which organizations renew their workforce. The authors used a sample of 1,460 Swedish workplaces that recruited 75,261 employees during the period 1991 to 1995. The results indicate that the most important factor in reproducing segregation at the organizational level is sex segregation in the occupations from which organizations recruit their personnel. Organizations’ sex composition is to a very high degree determined by the sex composition of the occupations they employ. In addition, large organizations and expanding organizations tend to make more sex-atypical recruitments compared with other organizations.

  • 276. Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Kumlin, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mechanisms of organizational sex segregation: Organizational characteristics and the sex of newly recruited employees2005Inngår i: Work and Occupations, ISSN 0730-8884, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 39-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 277.
    Byun, Young-hwan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Government Redistribution and Public Opinion: A Matter of Contention or Consensus?2019Inngår i: International Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0020-7659, E-ISSN 1557-9336, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 204-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous comparative research has been guided by the idea that the level of government redistribution accords with the degree of consensus on redistribution among citizens. By extending the scope of analysis to non-Western rich democracies, I offer an alternative account that associates public opinion with actual redistribution. I argue that it is not a broad consensus but a clearly formed contention among citizens that concurs with more redistributive governments. Using the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) 2016 data, this study compares social cleavages in redistributive preferences in 23 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Countries with the least egalitarian governments, such as South Korea, Taiwan, Chile, and Israel, have broadly consented high-levels of support for redistribution. What distinguishes them from more redistributive countries is that those common redistributive cleavages such as income, education, and gender are either nonexistent or weak, indicating that the economically disadvantaged do not prefer redistribution significantly more than the advantaged. The statistical results support an explanation of the association between redistributive preferences and the size of redistribution based on “cleavage” rather than “consensus.”

  • 278.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Anknytning till arbetsmarknaden och ungas etablering2010Inngår i: Social rapport 2010, Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 2010, s. 54-87Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 279.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Att få fotfäste på arbetsmarknaden2011Inngår i: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas, Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 280.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gymnasieavhopp ökar risken att stå utan jobb2010Inngår i: Välfärd (SCB-statistik), nr 3, s. 6-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 281.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    High School Dropout, Resource Attainment, and Criminal Convictions2017Inngår i: Journal of research in crime and delinquency, ISSN 0022-4278, E-ISSN 1552-731X, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 715-749Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    To examine the effect of high school dropout on subsequent criminal convictions and how postdropout resource attainment in terms of education and employment may modify such an effect.

    Methods:

    Propensity score matching (PSM) using administrative register data covering two full Swedish birth cohorts is employed to assess the effect of dropout on convictions. Event history analysis is used to examine the modifying effect of subsequent resource attainment.

    Results:

    The PSM analysis reveals an effect of dropout on convictions for men, whereas no evidence of such an effect is found for women. Returning to school after dropout significantly reduces the crime-inducing effect of dropout among men. Finding occupation after dropout also reduces the risk for criminal conviction but does so independently of the effect of dropout.

    Conclusion:

    Since resource attainment after the dropout event modifies the effect on criminal convictions, it is concluded that policies such as lifelong learning strategies promoting opportunities for a “second chance” may, besides their intended consequences, also have crime preventive side effects.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 282.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Longitudinal Studies on Sickness Absence in Sweden1998Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The research object of this thesis is sickness absence taking behavior in Sweden. In four empirical studies, using longitudinal data, the thesis investigates sickness absence taking behavior as a result of the impact of specific structural factors.

    The first empirical study (Chapter II) examines the relationship between the annual national sickness absence and unemployment rates for the period 1935-1990. The effects of changes of the replacement level are also studied. The analyses show that the widespread notion of an inverse relationship between the unemployment rate and the sickness absence rate cannot be verified by a closer analysis of available data.

    The remaining three empirical studies use micro-data to study sickness absence behavior. Chapter III closely examines the effect of the reduction in sickness cash benefits of March 1 1991 on the short-term absence rate. The theoretical perspective is derived from rational choice theory. Intensity regressions on duration data show that the objectives that were linked to the reduction of benefits-lower sickness absence rates and an equal distribution of the burdens brought about by the reduction-are incompatible. The weaker groups that are likely to have the greatest need for sickness absence reduce their absence taking more than stronger groups in the labor market.

    Chapter IV, co-authored with Joakim Palme, addresses the question of how conditions in childhood affect absence taking in adulthood. Analyses of data of a Stockholm cohort reveal how conditions in childhood and early adolescence structure the absence taking behavior of individuals. The chapter shows the endurance of these effects, a finding that is most clearly manifested in what has been labeled "the social imprint effect".

    The fourth of the empirical studies (Chapter V) treats the issue of gender differences in short-term absence rates. The study focuses on the impact of the gender composition of work places, but hierarchical positioning and integration among workers are also investigated. The results indicate that numerical representation conditions the short-term absence rate of women in the sense that women at workplaces where they constitute a small minority have a lower short-term absence rate than other women. For men, the hierarchical position in which they work is a more important determinant for the short-term absence rate.

    The results provide new insights for the study of sickness absence from a sociological perspective by specifying the mechanisms through which the social structure, in terms of institutional constraints, incentives, social stratification, and organizational traits of job sites, influences the behavior of individuals.

  • 283.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ungdomar utanför – ett nordiskt perspektiv: vad innebär avhopp från gymnasiet?2014Inngår i: På väg in: ungdomars liv och försörjning: rapport från forskarseminarium i Umeå 15-16 januari 2014, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 284.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Escaping Welfare? Social Assistance Dynamics in Sweden2011Inngår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 486-500Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses temporal patterns in social assistance receipt in Sweden in the 2000s by looking at which circumstances facilitate versus reduce the possibilities of a person ceasing to be a recipient of social assistance. The analysis is guided by the following questions: What conditions lead people to terminate periods of social assistance receipt? Which factors are central to exits with different subsequent income patterns? How do these explain the different situations of recipients prior to termination? We focus particularly on income maintenance prior to spells of social assistance. We use event history data on monthly social assistance take-up covering the total adult Swedish population for the years 2002–2004. We adopt a gamma mixture model to control for unobserved heterogeneity. The results suggest that previous experience of both employment and social assistance receipt are important determinants for all types of exits from social assistance recipiency. A negative duration dependence is found also when unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for.

  • 285.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Esser, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Korpi, Tomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Rojas, Yerko
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sjöberg, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Comparative Indicators on Job Quality and Social Protection2009Inngår i: Quality of Work in the European Union: Concept, Data and Debates from a Transnational Perspective / [ed] Ana M. Guillén, Svenn-Åge Dahl, Brussels: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 286.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Locked Up and Locked Out? The Impact of Imprisonment on Labour Market Attachment2018Inngår i: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 58, nr 5, s. 1044-1065Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates what effects a first prison sentence has on labour market inclusion, both by comparing those sentenced to prison to the population as a whole, and by comparing groups of convicted offenders. We utilize longitudinal data on criminal sanctions and earnings available for two complete birth cohorts of Swedish men (N = 107,337). These data enable us to compare the labour market attachment of prison inmates both before and after imprisonment. Results from propensity score matching show small negative effects of imprisonment on post-release labour market attachment. Moreover, we find no effect for those without pre-sentence labour market attachment. Thus, the negative effects are restricted to those with some labour market attachment before imprisonment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 287.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Substance Abuse, Crime and the Life Course2017Inngår i: The Routledge International Handbook of Life-Course Criminology / [ed] Arjan Blokland, Victor van der Geest, Routledge, 2017Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 288.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Shannon, David
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen. The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, Sweden.
    The life course of young male and female offenders: Stability or change between different birth cohorts?2014Inngår i: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 393-410Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals’ life chances are shaped by the times and events that they experience. This emphasizes the need for studies that focus on staggered birth cohorts. The article presents a new longitudi-nal data set that includes three complete Swedish birth cohorts, born in 1965, 1975 and 1985. Comparisons between the different birth cohorts show how offending distributions among young offenders, as well as their socio-demographic backgrounds and life chances, have developed over time. The analyses of stability and change presented in the study may serve as a point of departure for more informed discussions of the significance of societal changes for the criminality and life chances of male and female offenders.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 289.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Shannon, David
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Unga och brott i Sverige: underlagsrapport till Barns och ungas hälsa, vård och omsorg 20132013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten beskrivs barns och ungas utsatthet för brott samt ungdomsbrottslighetens omfattning och utveckling. Dessutom analyseras de demografiska och sociala bakgrundsfaktorerna bakom ungdomsbrottslighet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 290.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Att bekämpa barnfattigdom2011Inngår i: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas, Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 291.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Combating Child Poverty? A Multilevel Assessment of Links Between Family Policy Institutions in 20 Countries2010Inngår i: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 275-296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the links between family policy institutions and poverty in households with pre-school children in 21 old and new welfare democracies. New institutional information which enables a separation of different family policy dimensions is combined with micro data from the Luxembourg Income Study. Through statistical multilevel modelling, individual- and country-level data are combined in a simultaneous analysis of their relationships to child poverty risks. The results show that family policy transfers are related to lower child poverty risks at the micro level. However, the mechanisms by which such transfers reduce poverty vary by type of family support. Support to dual-earner families operates by enabling both parents to work and raise market income, while support to more traditional family structures in some instances has a more direct effect on poverty risks. The analysis also renders support to the hypothesis that dual-earner transfers also alleviate poverty most effectively among single-mother households.

  • 292.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Men de äro rysligt dyra - barn, fattigdom och familjepolitik2012Inngår i: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, nr 1/2012, s. 9-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 293.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Hjalmarsson, Randi
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Pettersson, Tove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Könsskillnader i brottslighet - hur kan de förklaras?2018Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 67-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi dokumenterar könsskillnader i lagföringar och presenterar de i litteraturen vanligast förekommande förklaringsansatserna. Män begår fler och grövre tillgreppsbrott samt våldsbrott, medan kvinnor begår färre och lindrigare tillgreppsbrott, företrädesvis utan våld. För att förklara dessa viktiga könsskillnader menar vi att man, utöver de vanligaste ekonomiska incitamenten, även måste ta hänsyn till könsskillnader i icke-kognitiva förmågor, kamrateffekter samt könsroller och den ”manliga” identitet som tillåter och ibland uppmuntrar till våld.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 294.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jacobsen, Vibeke
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Österbacka, Eva
    Dahl, Espen
    Avhopp från gymnasieskolan i Norden: omfattning och konsekvenser2014Inngår i: Yrkesutbildning för morgondagens arbetsliv / [ed] Alexandru Panican, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 295.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jakobsen, Vibeke
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Österbacka, Eva
    Early School Leaving and Labour Market Inclusion in the Nordic Countries2018Inngår i: Youth, Diversity and Employment: Comparative Perspectives on Labour Market Policies / [ed] Rune Halvorsen, Bjørn Hvinden, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, s. 84-105Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 296.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jakobsen, Vibeke
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Österbacka, Eva
    Dahl, Espen
    Early school leaving in Scandinavia: extent and labour market effects2015Inngår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 253-269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational tracks are organized. Denmark and Norway have dual vocational tracks, that is, they combine school-based education and workplace apprenticeships, whereas in Finland and Sweden they are primarily school based. We analyse administrative longitudinal data from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s in the four countries and find the highest vocational track dropout rates in Norway and the lowest in Finland. The results indicate that the relative labour market effect of dropping out from a vocational track is most detrimental in Norway. It is also in Norway that we find the greatest gender differences in this respect.

  • 297.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The Egalitarian Paradise?2017Inngår i: The Routledge Handbook of Scandinavian Politics / [ed] Peter Nedergaard, Anders Wivel, Routledge, 2017Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 298.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Long-term consequences of being not in employment, education or training as a young adult. Stability and change in three Swedish birth cohorts2016Inngår i: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 136-157Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we analyse the development of young adults not in education, employment or training (NEET) in three complete Swedish birth cohorts born in 1975, 1980 and 1985. We analyse the risk for future labour-market exclusion among NEETs, and how this risk varies between three birth cohorts who made the transition from school to work during periods characterised by different opportunity structures for young adults. Analyses using propensity score matching with repeated outcomes show that belonging to the NEET-group in early adulthood has an independent effect on the development of subsequent labour-market risk for both men and women. Moreover, this effect increases across the cohorts. The fact that the degree of labour-market attachment has clear and long-lasting implications indicates that the problems associated with being NEET cannot be reduced to a transient phase. Rather, it seems as though being NEET may be both a step on an already unfavourable life career and a triggering factor for social exclusion.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 299.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Pathways to Social Exclusion— A Life-Course Study2011Inngår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 107-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses how living conditions during childhood and adolescence structure socio-economic circumstances in midlife. The data are drawn from a new longitudinal Swedish data set—the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study—in which we can follow 14,294 individuals from birth (1953) to the age of 48 (2001). The analysis proceeds in three steps. The first step establishes the link between precarious living conditions in childhood and midlife social exclusion. In the second step, structural equation modelling is used to depict the pathways by which this association is mediated. The analysis produces tentative evidence that the long-term effect of financial poverty primarily runs via educational failure, whereas the effect of other social problems in the family of origin runs via deviant behaviour. In the third step, we analyse whether or not children who were raised in poor families or in families with other social problems are more sensitive to new risk exposures as adults. This is tested by examining the effect of long-term unemployment during the economic crisis of the 1990s on social exclusion risks 7–9 years later.

  • 300.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Social exkludering i ett livsförloppsperspektiv2011Inngår i: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas och Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, 1, s. 143-161Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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