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  • 251. Falkstedt, Daniel
    et al.
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Karolinska institutet, Sverige.
    Deary, Ian J.
    Melin, Bo
    Psychosocial Functioning and Intelligence Both Partly Explain Socioeconomic Inequalities in Premature Death. A Population-Based Male Cohort Study2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 12, artikel-id e82031Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The possible contributions of psychosocial functioning and intelligence differences to socioeconomic status (SES)-related inequalities in premature death were investigated. None of the previous studies focusing on inequalities in mortality has included measures of both psychosocial functioning and intelligence. Methods: The study was based on a cohort of 49 321 men born 1949-1951 from the general community in Sweden. Data on psychosocial functioning and intelligence from military conscription at similar to 18 years of age were linked with register data on education, occupational class, and income at 35-39 years of age. Psychosocial functioning was rated by psychologists as a summary measure of differences in level of activity, power of initiative, independence, and emotional stability. Intelligence was measured through a multidimensional test. Causes of death between 40 and 57 years of age were followed in registers. Results: The estimated inequalities in all-cause mortality by education and occupational class were attenuated with 32% (95% confidence interval: 20-45%) and 41% (29-52%) after adjustments for individual psychological differences; both psychosocial functioning and intelligence contributed to account for the inequalities. The inequalities in cardiovascular and injury mortality were attenuated by as much as 51% (24-76%) and 52% (35-68%) after the same adjustments, and the inequalities in alcohol-related mortality were attenuated by up to 33% (8-59%). Less of the inequalities were accounted for when those were measured by level of income, with which intelligence had a weaker correlation. The small SES-related inequalities in cancer mortality were not attenuated by adjustment for intelligence. Conclusions: Differences in psychosocial functioning and intelligence might both contribute to the explanation of observed SES-related inequalities in premature death, but the magnitude of their contributions likely varies with measure of socioeconomic status and cause of death. Both psychosocial functioning and intelligence should be considered in future studies.

  • 252.
    Falkstedt, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Strasbourg, France; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Wolff, Valerie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Strasbourg, France; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Allebeck, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Strasbourg, France; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Strasbourg, France; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Anna-Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Strasbourg, France; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Cannabis, Tobacco, Alcohol Use, and the Risk of Early Stroke: A Population-Based Cohort Study of 45000 Swedish Men2017Ingår i: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 265-270Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose - Current knowledge on cannabis use in relation to stroke is based almost exclusively on clinical reports. By using a population-based cohort, we aimed to find out whether there was an association between cannabis use and early-onset stroke, when accounting for the use of tobacco and alcohol.

    Methods - The cohort comprises 49321 Swedish men, born between 1949 and 1951, who were conscripted into compulsory military service between the ages of 18 and 20. All men answered 2 detailed questionnaires at conscription and were subject to examinations of physical aptitude, psychological functioning, and medical status. Information on stroke events up to approximate to 60 years of age was obtained from national databases; this includes strokes experienced before 45 years of age.

    Results - No associations between cannabis use in young adulthood and strokes experienced 45 years of age or beyond were found in multivariable models: cannabis use >50 times, hazard ratios=0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-2.57) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.59-1.53). Although an almost doubled risk of ischemic stroke was observed in those with cannabis use >50 times, this risk was attenuated when adjusted for tobacco usage: hazards ratio=1.47 (95% CI, 0.83-2.56). Smoking 20 cigarettes per day was clearly associated both with strokes before 45 years of age, hazards ratio=5.04 (95% CI, 2.80-9.06), and with strokes throughout the follow-up, hazards ratio=2.15 (95% CI, 1.61-2.88).

    Conclusions - We found no evident association between cannabis use in young adulthood and stroke, including strokes before 45 years of age. Tobacco smoking, however, showed a clear, dose-response shaped association with stroke.

  • 253. Feng, Lei
    et al.
    Ng, Xue-Ting
    Yap, Philip
    Li, Jialiang
    Lee, Tih-Shih
    Håkansson, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Kua, Ee-Heok
    Ng, Tze-Pin
    Marital Status and Cognitive Impairment among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults: the Role of Gender and Social Engagement.2014Ingår i: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra, E-ISSN 1664-5464, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 375-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To examine the association between marital status and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling Chinese older adults.

    METHODS: We analyzed data from 2,498 Chinese aged 55 and older from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study cohort. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination total score of 23 or below. Odds ratios of associations were reported and adjusted for potential confounders in logistic regression models.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 12.2% (n = 306). Being single was associated with about 2.5 times increased odds of cognitive impairment compared to being married (adjusted OR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.41-4.55). The association between marital status and cognitive impairment was much stronger in men compared to that in women, and was indeed statistically significant only for men. Among the single and widowed persons social engagement was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment. Compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of social engagement scores, the odds of having cognitive impairment was lowered by 50% for subjects in the second and the third tertile.

    CONCLUSION: Being single or widowed was associated with higher odds of cognitive impairment compared to being married in a cohort of older Chinese men but not women.

  • 254. Fernandes Portela, Luciana
    et al.
    Kröning Luna, Caroline
    Rotenberg, Lúcia
    Silva-Costa, Aline
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Araújo, Tania
    Härter Griep, Rosane
    Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC/Fiocruz), Brazil.
    Job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms among nurses: What about the influence of emotional demands and social support?2015Ingår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, artikel-id 820610Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Job strain, derived from high psychological demands and low job control, is associated with insomnia, but information on the role of emotional demands and social support in this relationship is scarce. The aims of this study were (i) to test the association between job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms, (ii) to evaluate the combination of emotional demands and job control regarding insomnia symptoms, and (iii) to analyze the influence of social support in these relationships. This cross-sectional study refers to a sample of nurses (N = 3,013 and N = 3,035 for Job Strain and Emotional demand-control model, resp.) working at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 34.3%. Job strain was associated with increased odds for insomnia symptoms (OR: 2.20); the same result was observed with the combination of emotional demands and low job control (OR: 1.99). In both models, the inclusion of low social support combined with high demands and low job control led to increased odds for insomnia symptoms, compared to groups with high social support from coworkers and supervisors. Besides job strain, the study of emotional demands and social support are promising with regards to insomnia symptoms, particularly among nurses.

  • 255.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sjöberg, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Decomposing the effect of social policies on population health and inequalities: An empirical example of unemployment benefits2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, nr 7, s. 635-642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to discuss and empirically contrast different conceptualizations and operationalizations of social policies in analysing health and educational differences in health cross-nationally. Methods: Country-level institutional and expenditure data on unemployment benefit schemes and individual-level data from the EU-SILC for 23 countries were used to analyse the association between unemployment benefits and self-assessed health for individuals with different educational attainment. Results: The analyses indicate that higher coverage rate (i.e. the proportion of the relevant population eligible for benefits) is associated with better self-related health among both low- and high-educated individuals, but is not linked to smaller educational differences in health. In contrast, replacement rate (i.e. the amount of benefits received) in isolation is not related to self-assessed health. However, in countries where coverage rates are high, higher replacement rates are associated with better health among both low- and high-educated individuals and smaller educational differences in health. Conclusions: Decomposing unemployment benefit programmes into two main dimensions – the proportion in the labour force covered by such programmes and the replacement rate received in case of unemployment – may present further insights into institutional mechanisms linking macro-level social policies to individual-level health outcomes.

  • 256. Ferrie, Jane E.
    et al.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Jokela, Markus
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Batty, G. David
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Dragano, Nico
    Elovainio, Marko
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Koskinen, Aki
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Kumari, Meena
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pahkin, Krista
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Salo, Paula
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Tabak, Adam
    Theorell, Töres
    Väänänen, Ari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job insecurity and risk of diabetes: a meta-analysis of individual participant data2016Ingår i: CMJA. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Onlineutg. Med tittel: ECMAJ. ISSN 1488-2329, ISSN 0820-3946, E-ISSN 1488-2329, Vol. 188, nr 17-18, s. E447-E455Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job insecurity has been associated with certain health outcomes. We examined the role of job insecurity as a risk factor for incident diabetes. Methods: We used individual participant data from 8 cohort studies identified in 2 open-access data archives and 11 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. We calculated study-specific estimates of the association between job insecurity reported at baseline and incident diabetes over the follow-up period. We pooled the estimates in a meta-analysis to produce a summary risk estimate. Results: The 19 studies involved 140 825 participants from Australia, Europe and the United States, with a mean follow-up of 9.4 years and 3954 incident cases of diabetes. In the preliminary analysis adjusted for age and sex, high job insecurity was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes compared with low job insecurity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.30). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis restricted to 15 studies with baseline data for all covariates (age, sex, socioeconomic status, obesity, physical activity, alcohol and smoking), the association was slightly attenuated (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24). Heterogeneity between the studies was low to moderate (age- and sex-adjusted model: I-2 = 24%, p = 0.2; multivariable-adjusted model: I-2 = 27%, p = 0.2). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis restricted to high-quality studies, in which the diabetes diagnosis was ascertained from electronic medical records or clinical examination, the association was similar to that in the main analysis (adjusted OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.35). Interpretation: Our findings suggest that self-reported job insecurity is associated with a modest increased risk of incident diabetes. Health care personnel should be aware of this association among workers reporting job insecurity.

  • 257. Fischer, Benedikt
    et al.
    Kuganesan, Sharan
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Medical marijuana programs: implications for control policy – observations from Canada2015Ingår i: International Journal of Drug Policy, ISSN 0955-3959, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 15-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While prohibition has been the dominant regime of cannabis control in most countries for decades, anincreasing number of countries have been implementing cannabis control reforms recently, includingdecriminalization or even legalization frameworks. Canada has held out from this trend, although ithas among the highest cannabis use rates in the world. Cannabis use is universally criminalized, and thecurrent (conservative) federal government has vowed not to implement any softening reforms to cannabiscontrol. As a result of several higher court decisions, the then federal government was forced to implementa ‘medical marijuana access regulations’ program in 2001 to allow severely ill patients therapeutic useand access to therapeutic cannabis while shielding them from prosecution. The program’s regulationsand approval processes were complex and subject to extensive criticism; initial uptake was low andmost medical marijuana users continued their use and supply outside the program’s auspices. This year,the government introduced new ‘marijuana for medical purposes regulations’, which allow physicians to‘authorize’ medical marijuana use for virtually any health condition for which this is considered beneficial;supply is facilitated by licensed commercial producers. It is expected that some 500,000 users, and dozensof commercial producers will soon be approved under the program, arguably constituting – as withmedical marijuana schemes elsewhere, e.g. in California – de facto ‘legalization’. We discuss the questionwhether the evolving scope and realities of ‘medical cannabis’ provisions in Canada offer a ‘sneaky sidedoor’ or a ‘better third way’ to cannabis control reform, and what the potential wider implications are ofthese developments.

  • 258. Floderus, Birgitta
    et al.
    Hagman, Maud
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Wikman, Anders
    Medically certified sickness absence with insurance benefits in women with and without children2012Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 85-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sickness absence in Sweden is high, particularly in young women and the reasons are unclear. Many Swedish women combine parenthood and work and are facing demands that may contribute to impaired health and well-being. We compared mothers and women without children under different conditions, assuming increased sickness absence in mothers, due to time-based stress and psychological strain. Methods: All women born in 1960-79 (1.2 million) were followed from 1993 to 2003. Information on children in the home for each year was related to medically certified sickness absence with insurance benefits the year after. We used age and time-stratified proportional hazard regression models accounting for the individual's changes on study variables over time. Data were retrieved from national administrative registers. Results: Sickness absence was higher in mothers than in women without children, the relative risks decreased by age, with no effect after the age of 35 years. An effect appeared in lonely women irrespective of age, while in cohabiting women only for the ages 20-25 years. Mothers showed increased sickness absence in all subgroups of country of birth, education, income, sector of employment and place of residence. The relation between number of children and sickness absence was nonlinear, with the highest relative risks for mothers of one child. The upward trend of sickness absence at the end of 1990s was steeper for mothers compared to women without children. Conclusion: Despite the well-developed social security system and child care services in Sweden, parenthood predicts increased sickness absence, particularly in young and in lone women.

  • 259.
    Fors, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Agahi, Neda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Shaw, Benjamin A.
    Paying the price? The impact of smoking and obesity on health inequalities in later life2012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 134-141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aims of the study are twofold: (i) to explore the impact of socioeconomic position, as measured 13 years earlier, on cognitive functioning and mobility impairment in later life, and (ii) to explore the extent to which obesity and smoking status can explain socioeconomic inequalities in cognitive and mobility impairments in later life. Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of Swedish adults aged 56-76 in 1991 who were re-interviewed 13 years later in 2004, was analysed to explore the impact of socioeconomic position, smoking, and obesity on cognitive and physical functioning in late life. Results: The results showed that both smoking and obesity in late mid-life were stratified by socioeconomic position. Moreover, the results showed significant associations between socioeconomic position and both cognitive and physical functioning in later life. However, these inequalities in late life function could only partially be explained by the socioeconomic differences in smoking and obesity. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that socioeconomic differences in the rates of smoking and obesity may explain some, but not all, of the socioeconomic inequalities in physical and cognitive functioning during old age.

  • 260.
    Fors, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Coexisting Social, Economic, and Health-Related Disadvantages in More than 2.4 Million Swedes: Combining Variable-Centred and Person-Centred Approaches2019Ingår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 143, nr 1, s. 115-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of coexisting disadvantages has been recognised in social welfare policy and welfare research, not least in the Nordic countries. The prevalence and patterning of coexisting disadvantages in society have far reaching implications for well-being, social policy, and social inequality. Using longitudinal register-based data for the years 1998‒2008 for all Swedish individuals born 1946‒1965 (n > 2.4 million), this exploratory study maps out the occurrence of coexisting disadvantages in the Swedish working-age population, and examines to what extent observed prevalence rates are associated with sex, age, immigrant status, and marital status. Coexisting disadvantages are analysed in terms of four broad register-based indicators intended to capture individuals’ resources in key areas of the society: education, income, labour market, and mental health. The results show that while most individuals are not disadvantaged in these areas, coexisting disadvantages do occur and its prevalence varies according to sex, age, immigrant status, and marital status. This study shows that combinations of person-centred and variable-centred analyses of register-based indicators can play a part when developing effective systems for policy surveillance.

  • 261.
    Fors, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Torssander, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    B. Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Is childhood intelligence associated with coexisting disadvantages in adulthood? Evidence from a Swedish cohort study2018Ingår i: Advances in Life Course Research, ISSN 1569-4909, E-ISSN 1879-6974, Vol. 38, s. 12-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence has repeatedly been linked to a range of different outcomes, including education, labour market success and health. Lower intelligence is consistently associated with worse outcomes. In this study, we analyzed the associations between intelligence measured in childhood, and the risk of experiencing a range of different configurations of coexisting disadvantages in adulthood. We also examined the role of educational achievements in shaping the associations. The analyses are based on the Stockholm Birth Cohort, a data material that encompasses more than 14,000 individuals born in 1953, with follow up until 2008. Latent class analysis was used to identify four different outcome configurations characterized by varying levels of disadvantages, measured in terms of unemployment, social assistance recipiency, and mental health problems. The results show that those who scored lower on an intelligence test in childhood were at an increased risk of experiencing all configurations characterized by increased levels of disadvantages during adulthood. However, these associations were contingent on educational achievement. Once the models were adjusted for school marks and educational attainment, no association between intelligence and disadvantages remained. These findings highlight the importance of developing strategies to facilitate optimal educational opportunities for all children, at all levels of cognitive performance.

  • 262.
    Forsström, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Jenny, Cisneros Örnberg
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Responsible gambling in practice: A case study of views and practices of Swedish oriented gambling companies2019Ingår i: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 91-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish gambling market faces a major change in legislation that will allow foreign-based companies to apply for a gambling licence in Sweden. A key element in the new legislation are consumer protection measures. The Swedish gambling market is currently divided between licensed companies and non-Swedish-based companies providing online gambling services without a licence in Sweden. How these companies view their responsibility for preventing gambling-related harm and how prepared they are for the new regulations are important questions regarding the new Swedish gambling market. Aims: To compare and analyse the views and practices on problem gambling and responsible gambling (RG) measures among licensed and unlicensed gambling companies on the Swedish market. Design/Methods/Data: Eleven semi-structured interviews were carried out with responsible gambling managers who are members of either of the two Swedish industry associations. Content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Results: Non-licensed companies have implemented behaviour tracking and monitoring of gamblers in a more extensive way than licensed companies. Both the licensed and the unlicensed companies conceptualise problem gambling in a similar manner and rely on informed choice in preventing gamblers from developing problems, seemingly arguing that offering responsible gambling measures on their website is enough. Conclusions: There are several similarities in how the two types of companies define problem gambling and responsible gambling. Both groups lack a critical perspective when discussing RG. There is a need for companies not only to provide RG measures, but to take an active role in preventing harm among gamblers. Future research should focus on exploring how companies work with RG after the legislative change.

  • 263.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Zins, Marie
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University College London, United Kingdom.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Väänänen, Ari
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Sabia, Séverine
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Pentti, Jaana
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Nordin, Maria
    Nielsen, Martin L
    Marmot, Michael G
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kumari, Meena
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Koskinen, Aki
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Knutsson, Anders
    Kittel, France
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Joensuu, Matti
    Houtman, Irene L.
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Erbel, Raimund
    Dragano, Nico
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Clays, Els
    Casini, Annalisa
    Burr, Hermann
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bonenfant, Sébastien
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Hamer, Mark
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity: An Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of Up to 170,000 Men and Women The IPD-Work Consortium2012Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 176, nr 12, s. 1078-1089Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.

  • 264.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Dragano, Nico
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hamer, Mark
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Houtman, Irene L
    Joensuu, Matti
    Jokela, Markus
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Koskinen, Aki
    Kumari, Meena
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pentti, Jaana
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Toppinen-Tanner, Salla
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Väänänen, Ari
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Zins, Marie
    Britton, Annie
    Brunner, Eric J.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job strain and the risk of stroke: an individual-participant data meta-analysis2015Ingår i: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 557-559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Psychosocial stress at work has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its role as a risk factor for stroke is uncertain.

    METHODS: We conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 196 380 males and females from 14 European cohort studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke.

    RESULTS: In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job strain was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.05;1.47) for ischemic stroke, 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.75;1.36) for hemorrhagic stroke, and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.94;1.26) for overall stroke. The association with ischemic stroke was robust to further adjustment for socioeconomic status.

    CONCLUSION: Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies.

  • 265. Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Alfredsson, Lars
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Batty, G. David
    Bonenfant, Sebastien
    Casini, Annalisa
    Clays, Els
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Kittel, France
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Knutsson, Anders
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nordin, Maria
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Suominen, Sakari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University College London, UK.
    Zins, Marie
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium2012Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, artikel-id 62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods: Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). Results: We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions: Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.

  • 266.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Barn i växelvis boende – en forskningsöversikt2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år separerar föräldrar till ungefär 50 000 barn i Sverige. Sedan 1980-talet bor en ökande andel av dessa barn växelvis efter separationen. Växelvis boende innebär att barnen flyttar regelbundet mellan sina föräldrars respektive hem och bor ungefär lika mycket hos båda. En högre andel barn bor i växelvis boende i Sverige än i något annat land, ca 35-40 procent av de barn som har särlevande föräldrar, totalt cirka 200 000 barn.

    Denna rapport har skrivits av forskare i Elvis-projektet på CHESS vid Stockholms Universitet/Karolinska institutet på uppdrag av Socialstyrelsen. Den ger en sammanfattning av den forskningsbaserade kunskapen om hälsa och välbefinnande hos barn i växelvis boende. När det gäller barn under sex år, där kunskapsläget är mest osäkert, ger rapporten en heltäckande bild av den internationella forskningen, inklusive en översikt av den psykologiska teoribildningen på området. För skolbarnen finns det ett ganska stort antal svenska studier och därför har vi här valt att lägga fokus på dessa och endast komplettera med särskilt relevant forskning från andra länder. Att det finns mer forskning kring skolbarn beror delvis på att växelvis boende är vanligare för de åldersgrupperna, men främst på att man lättare kan ta in deras egna åsikter och erfarenheter, medan forskning kring de yngre barnen är mer komplicerad metodologiskt sett, och därför mer resurskrävande.

    Anknytningsteorins betoning av kvaliteten i interaktionen mellan små barn och deras vårdgivare ger anledning att särskilt skärskåda konsekvenserna av växelvist boende för de yngsta barnen. Resultaten från studierna av barn 0-3 år ger inte en entydig bild av barns välbefinnande och anknytningsrelationer. Flera av de få studierna håller låg vetenskaplig kvalitet och studerar små grupper. En tillräcklig empirisk bas för de yngsta barnen i växelvis boende saknas därmed. Sammantaget visar studierna att föräldrars samarbetsförmåga, sätt att hantera konflikter och lyhördhet för barnets behov spelar större roll än boendeform.

    I rapporten presenteras tio svenska tvärsnittsstudier av skolbarn från 10 års ålder i stora nationellt eller regionalt representativa surveyundersökningar samt en studie med biologiska data. I en majoritet av studierna rapporteras barn i växelvis boende ha mindre psykisk ohälsa och bättre välbefinnande än jämnåriga som bor med bara en förälder. Detta mönster är likartat hos pojkar och flickor. Tvärsnittsdesignen i samtliga studier gör dock att man bör vara försiktig med alltför definitiva slutsatser, eftersom denna design inte gör det möjligt att fullt ut ta hänsyn till skillnader i bakomliggande faktorer som t ex föräldrars hälsa, sociala situation och kommunikation sinsemellan.

    Studier pekar på olika faktorer som kan tänkas förklara att barn i växelvis boende överlag verkar ha en större chans till god psykisk hälsa än barn som bor med enbart en förälder. Barn i växelvis boende har genomsnittligt bättre materiella resurser än barn som bor med bara en förälder. Även med god kontroll för socioekonomiska skillnader mellan olika slags familjer visar dock merparten av studierna att skolbarn och tonåringar i växelvis boende mår bättre än de som bor enbart med en förälder, varför det är rimligt att spekulera i andra fördelar med växelvis boende. En möjlig förklaring skulle kunna vara att barn i växelvis boende har tillgång till, och stöd från, båda sina föräldrar. Barn i växelvis boende har också oftare en god relation till båda sina föräldrar än de som bor med enbart eller mest med en förälder.

    En rad kunskapsluckor identifieras i rapporten. Studier av god metodologisk kvalitet som fokuserar på de yngsta barnen, framför allt 0-3 år, saknas i särskilt hög grad. Longitudinella studier som har förutsättningar att mäta förändringar i psykisk hälsa och välbefinnande före och efter att föräldrar separerar är också mycket angelägna, liksom studier med ett individperspektiv som kan ge vägledning för beslut om boendeform för särskilt sårbara barn när föräldrar separerar. Ökningen av andelen barn som bor växelvis är en av de största förändringarna i barns livsvillkor i Sverige under de senaste åren. Det är också en förändring som är en uppenbart påverkbar faktor i barns liv. Det är således angeläget att resurser görs tillgängliga för att fylla de kunskapsluckor som identifieras.

    Avslutningsvis kan konstateras att det saknas forskning som kan ge ett definitivt svar på vilka konsekvenser växelvis boende har för barns hälsa och välbefinnande efter att föräldrar separerat. Med denna begränsning är det ändå värt att notera är att inte finns någon studie som tyder på att barns hälsa skulle vara sämre i växelvis boende än i boende med enbart en förälder från 4 års ålder, men att avsaknaden av kunskap om barn 0-3 år gör att några slutsatser inte alls bör dras om denna åldersgrupp.

  • 267.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The Living Conditions of Children with Shared Residence – the Swedish Example2018Ingår i: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 861-883Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among children with separated parents, shared residence–i.e., joint phys-ical custody where the child is sharing his or her time equally between two custodialparents’homes–is increasing in many Western countries and is particularly commonin Sweden. The overall level of living among children in Sweden is high; however, thepotential structural differences between children in various post-separation familyarrangements have not been sufficiently studied. Potential risks for children with sharedresidence relate to the daily hassles and stress when having two homes. This study aimsat investigating the living conditions of children with shared residence compared withchildren living with two custodial parents in the same household and those living withone custodial parent, respectively. Swedish national survey data collected from childrenaged 10–18 years (n≈5000) and their parents were used. The outcomes were groupedinto: Economic and material conditions, Social relations with parents and peers, Healthand health behaviors, Working conditions and safety in school and in the neighbor-hood, and Culture and leisure time activities. Results from a series of linear probabilitymodels showed that most outcomes were similar for children with shared residence andthose living with two custodial parents in the same household, while several outcomeswere worse for children living with one parent. However, few differences due to livingarrangements were found regarding school conditions. This study highlights the in-equalities in the living conditions of Swedish children, with those living with oneparent having fewer resources compared with other children.

  • 268.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Folkesson, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Exploring salivary cortisol and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents living in two homes2014Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 21, s. S23-S23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Every year, around 50.000 children in Sweden experience a separation between their parents. Joint physical custody (JPC), where the child alternates homes between the parents for about equal amount of time, has become a common living arrangement after parental separation. Children living in two homes can benefit from everyday contact with both parents and access to both parents’ financial resources. However, children can also experience stress from constantly moving and from exposure to any parental conflict. Yet, research on JPC and stress-related biological functioning is limited. The aimof this study was to investigate how living arrangements (intact family/JPC) relate toHPA-axis activity and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents. Methods: Mid-adolescents (106 girls and 51 boys) provided demographic details, self-reports of recurrent pain (headache, stomachache, neck/shoulder and back pain) and salivary samples. Salivary cortisol samples were collected: 1) immediately at awakening, 2) +30 minutes, 3) +60 minutes, and 4) at 8 p.m. Results: Hierarchical regressions showed that living arrangements did not predict morning cortisol levels, the diurnal cortisol rhythm nor recurrent pain. However, sex was significantly associated with both morning cortisol and recurrent pain. Conclusion: Living arrangements were not linked to HPA-axis activity or recurrent pain in this group of well-functioning mid-adolescents. Although this is the first study investigating how living arrangements relate to HPA-axis functioning, which means that additional research is needed, the findings suggest that these mid-adolescents have adapted to their living arrangements and that other factors seem more pertinent for HPA-functioning and subjective health complaints.

  • 269.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Why should they live more with one of us when they are children to us both?: Parents' motives for practicing equal joint physical custody for children aged 0–42016Ingår i: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 66, s. 154-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint physical custody, i.e., children spending an equal amount of time in both parents' home after a separation or divorce, is increasing in many countries. In line with the national policy to promote paternal involvement in parenting, two-thirds of Swedish preschoolers with non-cohabiting parents live in two homes. Internationally, there has been a debate regarding the benefits or risks with joint physical custody for infants and toddlers. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the reasons given by divorced parents for sharing joint physical custody of children 0-4 years of age. Interviews were conducted with 46 parents (18 fathers and 28 mothers) and analyzed using systematic text condensation. Two themes emerged in response to the research question. In the theme Same rights and responsibilities, parents described that joint physical custody was 'a given' as both parents were seen to have equal rights to and responsibility for the children. Both men and women described involved fatherhood as an ideal goal. In the theme For the sake of the child, parents emphasized that joint physical custody was in the best interest of the child. Some parents had conflicts with their ex-spouses, but were still convinced of the benefits of joint physical custody and strove to make it work.

  • 270.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Turunen, Jani
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychological complaints among children in joint physical custody and other family types: Considering parental factors2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 177-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Increasing proportions of Scandinavian children and children in other Western countries live in joint physical custody, moving between parents’ homes when parents live apart. Children and parents in non-intact families are at risk of worse mental health. The potential influence of parental ill-health on child well-being in the context of differing living arrangements has not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the psychological complaints of children in joint physical custody in comparison to children in sole parental care and nuclear families, while controlling for socioeconomic differences and parental ill-health. Methods: Data were obtained from Statistics Sweden’s yearly Survey of Living Conditions 2007–2011 and child supplements with children 10–18 years, living in households of adult participants. Children in joint physical custody (n=391) were compared with children in sole parental care (n=654) and children in nuclear families (n=3,639), using a scale of psychological complaints as the outcome measure. Results: Multiple regression modelling showed that children in joint physical custody did not report higher levels of psychological complaints than those in nuclear families, while children in sole parental care reported elevated levels of complaints compared with those in joint physical custody. Adding socioeconomic variables and parental ill-health only marginally attenuated the coefficients for the living arrangement groups. Low parental education and parental worry/anxiety were however associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Conclusions: Psychological complaints were lower among adolescents in joint physical custody than in adolescents in sole parental care. The difference was not explained by parental ill-health or socioeconomic variables.

  • 271. Franzén, Eva
    et al.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    The epidemiology of out-of-home care for children and youth: A national cohort study2008Ingår i: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 1043-1059Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We used data from several national registers for fifteen entire cohorts (n > 1.5 million) of Swedish children and youth to examine the influence of parental socio-economic background on the risk of entry into out-of-home care. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the statistical impact of twelve background variables, including parental psycho-social risk markers. The results confirm and expand findings from a classic study by Bebbington and Miles, published in 1989. After controlling for other background variables, including parent hospitalizations for attempted suicide, psychiatric disorders or addiction problems, children of single mothers had three to four-fold higher odds of entering care than children from two-parent households. Low maternal education and receipt of social assistance were strongly associated with higher odds for care entries. Aggregations of socio-economic risk factors increased dramatically the risk of entering care. Among pre-school children with mothers who had received basic education only, were unemployed and received social assistance during three consecutive years, one in seven was placed in care before their seventh birthday. Among same-age children from two-parent families whose mothers were educated to post-secondary level, were employed and had not received social assistance for three consecutive years in the middle of the observation period, fewer than one in 2,000 entered care.

  • 272.
    Fresk, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Övelius, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Folkhälsa i förändring: En komparativ studie av hälsoutvecklingen i de postkommunistiska staterna Tjeckien, Polen, Estland och Ryssland2005Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats avser att utreda om och i så fall varför folkhälsan i de postkommunistiska staterna Ryssland, Polen, Tjeckien och Estland har utvecklats olika sedan Sovjetunionens sammanbrott. Huvudsyftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka och förklara skillnaden i hälsoläget efter den så kallade rubelkrisen 1998. Skillnader i hälsoutveckling ställs mot å ena sidan ekonomiska - och å andra sidan sociala faktorer. Tänkbara samband mellan bland annat förväntad livslängd och bruttonationalprodukten (BNP) per capita samt inkomstfördelning prövas. Dödlighet och förväntad livslängd undersöks i respektive land för perioden 1989-2002. Mortalitetens eventuella samband med sjukdomen levercirros samt alkoholkonsumtion över samma tidsperiod analyseras. Datamaterialet är sekundärdata och en kvantitativ komparativ metod används för analysen. Data är konstruerad främst som medelvärden för ett specifikt årtal för respektive land. Materialet består således av ett populationsurval.

    Två olika teoretiska utgångspunkter gör anspråk på att försöka förklara problematiken med transformationen från kommunism till demokrati. Det är den nyliberala - samt den mer socialorienterade ekonomiska teorin. Dessa ställs mot varandra i början av denna uppsats. Tidigare forskningsresultat tyder på en kraftig försämring av folkhälsan efter 1989 i främst Ryssland och Estland medan Tjeckien och Polen uppvisat en positiv hälsoutveckling. Våra resultat visar att det troligtvis är sociala och psykosociala faktorer, såsom hur en familje- och arbetssituation exempelvis kan påverka en persons hälsotillstånd, som verkar vara avgörande för förståelsen av ökad ohälsa. Analysen visar vidare att en ojämn ekonomisk fördelningspolitik tillsammans med en svag institutionell infrastruktur har en stark inverkan på ovannämnda faktorer. Ryssland presenterar ett avvikande resultat i jämförelse med de tre övriga länderna för flertalet av undersökta variabler. Vi har funnit att Tjeckien och Polen står för den mest hoppingivande förändringen beträffande dödlighet och förväntad livslängd. Estland har dragits med svårigheter att komma tillrätta med landets hälsoproblematik, men har under senare år uppvisat mer positiva siffror. Ryssland representerar däremot fortsatt negativ hälsoutveckling trots en liknande ekonomisk tillväxt. Att landet så sent som år 2002 redovisar en mycket hög dödlighetsfrekvens och låg förväntad livslängd ser vi som anmärkningsvärt. Skillnader i dödlighet och förväntad livslängd mellan könen och mellan de olika länderna visade sig vara mycket stora. Det bör noteras att denna uppsats endast är inriktad på att belysa den skillnad i förväntad livslängd och dödlighet som uppkommit sedan sammanbrottet 1989 fram till 2002.

  • 273. Friberg, Peter
    et al.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Osika, Walter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Self-perceived psychosomatic health in Swedish children, adolescents and young adults: an internet-based survey over time2012Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, nr 4, artikel-id e000681Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated self-perceived psychosomatic health in young people (10-24 years of age) in Sweden and analysed different samples during the years 2005 and 2007-2010 via a community website.

    DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional surveys: (1) single question on a single day in 2005. (2) One specific question delivered on each of eight separate days in 2005. (3) The same eight questions delivered to smaller groups on the same day in 2007 and then again to randomly selected subjects in 2010.

    SETTING: Validated questionnaires launched on the internet by a recognised Swedish community site. Study participants were invited to answer questions about their health with full anonymity as they logged into their personal area.

    PARTICIPANTS: 10-24-year-old children, adolescents and young adults. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported psychosomatic health in terms of sex and age over time.

    RESULTS: A large number of responses were obtained (up to 140 000). The response rate for the single item on stress was 41%. A high percentage of young subjects responded that they felt stressed very often/often; the numbers were higher for women (47%) than for men (29%). Older teenaged women had more psychosomatic complaints than did men of similar ages; in contrast, among 10-12-year-old children, the percentage of psychosomatic complaints was similar for men and women. When comparing results obtained in 2010 with those obtained in 2007, young people of both sexes had a slightly better self-perceived health status in 2007.

    CONCLUSIONS: During the period 2005-2010 a high percentage of young people, particularly females, 16-18 years of age, had psychosomatic complaints and considered themselves as being often or very often stressed. These complaints were more pronounced in the older age groups. When directing questions to a large community, internet-based surveys appear to be valuable tools.

  • 274.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Minucci, Daria
    Marini, Massimo
    Tevik Løvset, Lise
    Jónsdottir, Lilja Sigrún
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Characteristics of female and male academic physicians working while ill (the HOUPE study)2012Ingår i: Program, 2012, s. 59-60, artikel-id 835Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 275. Friesinger, Jan Georg
    et al.
    Topor, Alain
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan. University of Agder, Norway.
    Bøe, Tore Dag
    Larsen, Inger Beate
    Studies regarding supported housing and the built environment for people with mental health problems: A mixed-methods literature review2019Ingår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 57, s. 44-53Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Places where people live are important for their personal and social lives. This is also the case for people with mental health problems living in supported housing. To summarise the existing knowledge, we conducted a systematic review of 13 studies with different methodologies regarding the built environment in supported housing and examined their findings in a thematic analysis. The built environment of supported housing involves three important and interrelated themes: well-being, social identity and privacy. If overregulated by professionals or located in problematic neighbourhoods or buildings, the settings could be an obstacle to recovery. If understood as meaningful places with scope for control by the tenants or with amenities nearby, the settings could aid recovery.

  • 276.
    Fritzell, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Kangas, O.
    Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Blomgren, J.
    Hiilamo, H.
    Dynamics of cross-national poverty and mortality rates.2011Ingår i: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH:: 4TH EUROPEAN PUBLIC HEALTH CONFERENCE: ABSTRACT SUPPLEMENT / [ed] Torben Jørgensen, Finn Kamper-Jørgensen, Dineke Zeegers Paget, 2011, Vol. 21, nr suppl 1, s. 202-202Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 277.
    Fritzell, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Kangas, Olli
    Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Blomgren, Jenni
    Hiilamo, Heikki
    Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries2013Ingår i: Journal of Environmental and Public health, ISSN 1687-9805, E-ISSN 1687-9813, Vol. 2013, artikel-id 915490Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  • 278.
    Fritzell, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Kangas, Olli
    Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Blomgren, Jenni
    Hiilamo, Heikki
    Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 279.
    Fritzell, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Rehnberg, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Blomgren, Jenni
    Absolute or relative? A comparative analysis of the relationship between poverty and mortality2015Ingår i: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 101-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to examine the cross-national and cross-temporal association between poverty and mortality, in particular differentiating the impact of absolute and relative poverty. We employed pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. Our measure of relative poverty was based upon the standard 60 % of median income. The measure of absolute, or fixed, poverty was based upon the US poverty threshold. Our analyses were conducted on data for 30 countries between 1978 and 2010, a total of 149 data points. We separately studied infant, child, and adult mortality. Our findings highlight the importance of relative poverty for mortality. Especially for infant and child mortality, we found that our estimates of fixed poverty is close to zero either in the crude models, or when adjusting for gross domestic product. Conversely, the relative poverty estimates increased when adjusting for confounders. Our results seemed robust to a number of sensitivity tests. If we agree that risk of death is important, the public policy implication of our findings is that relative poverty, which has close associations to overall inequality, should be a major concern also among rich countries.

  • 280. Fritzell, Sara
    et al.
    Bakshi, A.-S.
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Burström, B.
    Lone mothers talking money and health: A discourse analysis of focus groups with Swedish lone mothers with financial difficulties.2011Ingår i: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH: 4TH EUROPEAN PUBLIC HEALTH CONFERENCE: ABSTRACT SUPPLEMENT / [ed] Torben Jørgensen, Finn Kamper-Jørgensen, Dineke Zeegers Paget, 2011, Vol. 21, nr suppl 1, s. 62-62Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 281. Fritzell, Sara
    et al.
    Vannoni, Francesca
    Whitehead, Margaret
    Burström, Bo
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Clayton, Stephen
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Does non-employment contribute to the health disadvantage among lone mothers in Britain, Italy and Sweden? Family policy and synergy effects2012Ingår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 199-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses self-rated health and non-employment and potential synergy effects among lone and couple mothers aged 25–59 in Britain, Sweden and Italy, representing different family policy categories using data from national surveys (2000–2005). Synergy effects on health were calculated by synergy index. Non-employment only marginally contributed to the excess risk of poor health among lone mothers but there were synergy effects between lone motherhood and non-employment in all three countries, producing a higher risk of poor health than would be expected from a simple addition of these exposures. Results are discussed in relation to the different family policy and living contexts.

  • 282. Fröberg, Frida
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rosendahl, Ingvar K
    Tengström, Anders
    Hallqvist, Johan
    The association between compulsory school achievement and problem gambling among Swedish young people2015Ingår i: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 420-428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between school grades at the age of 16 years and problem gambling at the age of 17-25 years among Swedish females and males. Methods: In a cohort design, we followed the 16-to 24-year-old participants in the representative Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study for 2 years, 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, generating 3,816 person-years of follow-up time. The outcome, incidence of mild and moderate/severe gambling problems, was measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index in telephone interviews. The exposure was register-linked information about final grades in compulsory school. The association between school grades and problem gambling was estimated in multinomial logistic regressions. Results: Low and average school grades were associated with increased incidence of mild and moderate/severe problem gambling compared to high grades, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, and alcohol use. Low grades, compared to high grades, were associated with a higher risk of mild gambling problems for adolescent males, whereas the incidence proportion of moderate/severe problem gambling was high for males aged 20-25 years with low grades, among whom unemployment was also very high. Furthermore, we found a strong and graded association between school grades and moderate/severe problem gambling for women in both age groups, despite a low prevalence of gambling participation among females compared to males. Conclusions: Our findings show that Swedish youth with low school achievement have an increased risk of gambling problems up to 8 years after school graduation, after control for confounding from sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, and alcohol use, and that this association is stronger for females than males.

  • 283. Gao, M.
    et al.
    Goodman, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Mishra, G.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Associations of birth characteristics with perimenopausal disorders: a prospective cohort study2019Ingår i: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, ISSN 2040-1744, E-ISSN 2040-1752, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 246-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perimenopausal disorders (PDs) are prevalent and importantly affect quality of life among middle-aged women. Yet, very little is known about the developmental origins of these disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of birth characteristics with PDs. This cohort study is based on archived birth records for birth weight and gestational age, and followed prospectively in Swedish inpatient and outpatient registers for 8 years (n=3212). The main outcomes were menopausal and climacteric states (e.g. flushing, sleeplessness), perimenopausal bleeding and other PDs (e.g. atrophic vaginitis). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for three subtypes of PDs separately. During the follow-up, 218 women had PDs, among whom 125 had menopausal and climacteric states, 61 had perimenopausal bleeding and 58 had other PDs as first recorded disorder. Birth weight was linearly associated with incidence rate of menopausal and climacteric states [HR=1.66 per 1 kg increase, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.14-2.41]. Gestational age (rather than birth weight) was associated with incidence rate of other PDs (HR=0.87 per 1 week increase, 95% CI=0.79-0.95). Neither birth weight nor gestational age was associated with perimenopausal bleeding. Similar results were found after adjustment for other early-life and adult socio-demographic characteristics. This observational study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the developmental origins of PDs. Future research is required to investigate the underlying causal mechanisms, which may shed further light on the etiology of this class of disorders.

  • 284. Gao, M.
    et al.
    Goodman, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Mishra, Gita
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Developmental origins of perimenopausal disorders: evidence from a Swedish cohort2017Ingår i: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, ISSN 2040-1744, E-ISSN 2040-1752, Vol. 8, nr Suppl. 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 285.
    Gao, Menghan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Exposure to out-of-home care in childhood and adult all-cause mortality: A life-course perspective2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The experience of childhood out-of-home care (OHC) has been linked to

    adverse health outcomes in young adulthood. However, less is known about the long-term

    influence of OHC on alumni’s mortality risk, or about the mechanisms from a life-course

    perspective.

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the gender-specific association between exposure to

    OHC in childhood and all-cause mortality in adulthood, while taking into account different

    placement characteristics. Additionally, mechanisms based on different life-course models

    were analysed.

    Methods: A longitudinal study of the 1953 Stockholm birth cohort (n=14,294). Sex-stratified

    Cox regression analyses were used to examine all-cause mortality during 1981 to 2009.

    Results: Male and female OHC alumni had around three times higher risk of all-cause

    mortality in adulthood, compared to the majority population. Mortality risks were particularly

    pronounced among those who were placed during adolescence because of behavioural

    problems, who experienced both family foster care and residential care, and who spend more

    than one year in care. The associations were reduced but remained significant after

    adjustments for life-course socioeconomic factors.

    Conclusions: Adults with OHC experience constitute a high-risk group for earlier death. In

    terms of being a social intervention, OHC does not seem to improve this vulnerable group’s

    life chances.

  • 286. Gao, Menghan
    et al.
    Allebeck, Peter
    Mishra, Gita D.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Developmental origins of endometriosis: a Swedish cohort study2019Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 73, nr 4, s. 353-359Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a chronic condition affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with multiple health burdens. Yet, findings regarding its 'developmental origins' are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the associations of birth characteristics with endometriosis. We also explored potential mediation by adult social and reproductive factors.

    METHODS: This cohort study consisted of 3406 women born in Uppsala, Sweden, between 1933 and 1972. We used data from archived birth records and endometriosis diagnoses at ages 15-50 recorded in the national patient registers. Socioeconomic and reproductive characteristics were obtained from routine registers. HRs were estimated from Cox regression.

    RESULTS: During the follow-up, 111 women have been diagnosed with endometriosis, and most cases are external endometriosis (ie, outside the uterus, n=91). Lower standardised birth weight for gestational age was associated with increased rate of endometriosis (HR 1.35 per standard deviation decrease; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.67). This increased rate was also detected among women with fewer number of live births (HR 2.38; 95% CI 1.40 to 4.07 for one child vs ≥2 children; HR 6.09; 95% CI 3.88 to 9.57 for no child vs ≥2 children) and diagnosed infertility problem (HR 2.00; 95% CI 1.10 to 3.61) prior to endometriosis diagnosis. All the observed associations were stronger for external endometriosis. However, no evidence was found that number of births was the mediator of the inverse association between standardised birth weight and endometriosis.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports the developmental origins theory and suggests that exposure to growth restriction during the fetal period is associated with increased risk of endometriosis during reproductive years.

  • 287.
    Gao, Menghan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Almquist B., Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Exposure to out-of-home care in childhood and adult all-cause mortality: a cohort study2017Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 1010-1017Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Children placed in out-of-home care (OHC) have exceedingly high rates of health problems. Their poor health tends to persist across adolescence and into young adulthood, resulting in increased risks of mortality. Yet, very little is known about this group’s mortality risks later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate whether OHC was associated with the risk of all-cause mortality across adulthood, and whether these risks varied across different placement characteristics. Moreover, the study addressed potential confounding by including two comparison groups with children who grew up under similarly adverse living conditions but did not experience placement.

    Methods: Data were derived from a 60-year follow-up of a Stockholm cohort born in 1953 (n = 15 048), of whom around 9% have had experiences of OHC. The associations between OHC and subsequent all-cause mortality were analysed by means of Cox’s proportional hazards regression models.

    Results: Individuals who were placed in OHC at any point during their formative years had increased mortality risks across ages 20 to 56 years. Elevated risk of mortality was particularly pronounced among those who were placed in adolescence and/or because of their own behaviours. Children who were exposed to OHC had increased risks of mortality also when compared with those who grew up under similar living conditions but did not experience placement.

    Conclusions: Children in OHC constitute a high-risk group for subsequent mortality. In order to narrow the mortality gap, interventions may need to monitor not only health aspects but also to target the cognitive and social development of these children.

  • 288.
    Garcy, Anthony
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Whitehead, M
    The relationship between school quality, educational quality, and health inequalities: A critical review. In: Developing Methodologies to Reduce Inequalities in the Determinants of Health (DEMETRIQ),2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 289.
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Extending the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study Database With a New Collection From Archival Sources: Collection and Error Correction Strategies When Problems Arise2018Övrigt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study is an account of the 2014-2016 effort to expand a Swedish research database called the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study. The research project collected and photographed available data on school quality from local, regional, and national Swedish archives. The discovery of a widespread data quality issue in the existing database ultimately prevented the completion of the data collection and the execution of the planned research. A narrative is given about the challenges of conducting a complex, multistage archival data collection. Some of the problems that were encountered are mentioned. Practical methods and strategies that were used to collect the relevant data from the archival material are discussed. The methods used in the conversion and entry of some of this material into an electronic, numerical database format are also reviewed.

  • 290.
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The Effects of Health Insurance Coverage on the Math Achievement Trajectories of School Children in Yuma County, Arizona: Implications for Education Accountability Policy2013Ingår i: Education Policy Analysis Archives, ISSN 1068-2341, E-ISSN 1068-2341, Vol. 21, nr 80, s. 1-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    U.S. Federal and state education policies place considerable emphasis on assessing the effects that schools and teachers have on student test score performance. It is important for education policy makers to also consider other factors that can affect student achievement. This study finds that an exogenous school factor, discontinuous health insurance coverage, leads to a deficit in math achievement over time. A sample of Yuma County, Arizona public school students who experienced an illness or injury and whose health insurance coverage status was known were selected for inclusion into the study over five consecutive school years (1999 – 2003). The longitudinal math achievement trajectory of students who had private health insurance coverage was compared to students who had discontinuous coverage. Net of a student’s poverty status and other background characteristics the findings suggest that students who experienced a health event when they had no healthcare insurance had the same growth rate but lower overall math achievement. The average achievement gap was a constant -8.84 scale score points. However, separate analyses for specific types of illness/injury suggest the achievement deficit varied considerably and is typically larger.

  • 291.
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Berliner, David C.
    A critical review of the literature on the relationship between school quality and health inequalities2018Ingår i: Review of Education/Pedagogy/Cultural Studies, ISSN 1071-4413, E-ISSN 1556-3022, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 40-66Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust evidence suggesting a strong association between greater educational attainment, betterhealth and lower mortality, has led to speculation that the quality of schooling can also have effectson health. This review critically summarises findings from 15 studies in a growing area of researchconcerning the effects of school quality on health. Findings suggested positive, long-term benefits ofhigh-quality pre-school. Other findings suggested that higher teacher wages, lower pupil–teacherratios, a longer school year, and higher college selectivity had mostly positive long-term effects onhealth and mortality. Several studies found that school quality modified the effect of years of completededucation on various health outcomes. Some measures of school quality including smallerclass size in relation to mortality, and higher college selectivity in the case of smoking were not consistentlyrelated to better health. While studies varied in their consistency and significance, theweight of the evidence together, suggests that some health inequalities over the life course wereexplained partly by differences in school quality. This may be related to improved cognition, occupationalcharacteristics, and the incomes of those exposed to better quality schooling. Direct healthknowledge and behaviour may also play a role.

  • 292.
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Berliner, David C.
    Context and Implications Document for: A critical review of the literature on the relationship between school quality and health inequalities2018Ingår i: Review of Education, ISSN 2049-6613, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 67-68Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 293.
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The length of unemployment predicts mortality, differently in men and women, and by cause of death: A six year mortality follow-up of the Swedish 1992-1996 recession2012Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 74, nr 12, s. 1911-1920Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between the total amount of accumulated unemployment during the deep Swedish recession of 1992-1996 and mortality in the following 6 years. Nearly 3.4 million Swedish men and women, born between 1931 and 1965 who were gainfully employed at the time of the 1990 census were included. Almost 23% of these individuals were unemployed at some point during the recession. We conduct a prospective cohort study utilizing Cox proportional hazard regression with a mortality follow-up from January 1997 to December 2002. We adjust for health status (1982-1991), baseline (1991) social, family, and employer characteristics of individuals before the recession. The findings suggest that long-term unemployment is related to elevated all-cause mortality for men and women. The excess mortality effects were small for women and attributable to a positive, linear increase in the hazard of alcohol disease-related mortality and external causes-of-death not classified as suicides or transport accidents. For men, the excess hazard of all-cause mortality was best represented by a cubic, non-linear shape. The predicted hazard increases rapidly with the shortest and longest accumulated levels of unemployment. However, the underlying pattern differed by cause-of-death. The cancer, circulatory, and alcohol disease-related analyses suggest that mortality peaks with mid-levels of accumulated unemployment and then declines with longer duration unemployment. For men, we observed a positive, linear increase in the hazard ratios associated with transport and suicide mortality, and a very steep non-linear increase in the excess hazard ratio associated with other external causes of death that were not classified as suicide or transport accidents. In conclusion, mortality risk increases with the duration of unemployment among men and women. This was best described by a cubic function for men and a linear function for women. Behind this pattern, different causes-of-death varied in their relation to the accumulation of unemployment.

  • 294. Garde, Anne Helene
    et al.
    Karlson, Berndt
    Hansen, Åse Marie
    Persson, Roger
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sleep and salivary cortisol2012Ingår i: The role of saliva cortisol measurement in health and disease / [ed] Margareta Kristenson, Peter Garvin, Ulf Lundberg, Bentham eBooks, 2012, s. 116-128Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfil the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed nonsignificant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep duration and single measures of salivary cortisol at awakening, which was observed in 3 studies. In these studies, sleep duration was also associated with low evening cortisol levels, steep diurnal deviation of cortisol and/or high area under the curve. Together these findings suggest that longer sleep duration is related to a more dynamic cortisol secretion. Two of the 6 studies on disturbed or restless sleep showed relations to flat diurnal deviation and low laboratory stress test reactivity. This to some extent corroborates the findings on sleep duration. However, the many nonsignificant findings as well as the theoretical and methodological differences (e.g., heterogeneity in measures) complicate comparisons. Conflicting results may be at least partially due to differences in methods and underlying assumptions.

  • 295.
    Garefelt, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Work and sleep – a prospective study of psychosocial work factors, physical work factors and work scheduling2014Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, nr S1, s. 218-218, artikel-id P706Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 296.
    Gauffin, Karl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Finding common ground: how the development of theory in public health research can bring us together2019Ingår i: Social Theory & Health, ISSN 1477-8211, E-ISSN 1477-822XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the past few decades, the academic discipline of public health has taken root in universities around the world. As a young and multidisciplinary field with a dual-research/practice focus and a tradition that emphasises method development, the use of theory in public health research has often been neglected. In this article, we argue that explicit utilisation of theory is crucial to further the development of public health as an academic discipline. By examining three core areas of academic activity at universities—education, research and public outreach—we illustrate the role theory plays in establishing public health as an independent research discipline. We discuss the importance and benefits of including theoretical reasoning in teaching, research articles and communication with non-academic audiences. We also highlight the role of postgraduate students and junior researchers who, thanks to a combination of experience and receptiveness, play an important role in developing public health theory. We believe that a key to a successful process of establishing public health as an academic discipline lies in the development of a transdisciplinary approach to the research subject. This will equip public health researchers with appropriate tools to take on the public health challenges of the future.

  • 297.
    Gauffin, Karl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The effect of childhood socioeconomic position on alcohol-related disorders later in life: a Swedish national cohort study2013Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 67, nr 11, s. 932-938Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol use is the third most important global-health risk factor and a main contributor to health inequalities. Previous research on social determinants of alcohol-related disorders has delivered inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate whether socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood predicts alcohol-related disorders in young adulthood in a Swedish national cohort.

    Methods: We studied a register-based national cohort of Swedish citizens born during 1973–1984 (N=948 518) and followed them up to 2009 from age 15. Childhood SEP was defined by a six-category socioeconomic index from the Censuses of 1985 and 1990. Rs of alcohol-related disorders, as indicated by register entries on alcohol-related death and alcohol-related medical care, were analysed in Cox regression models with adjustment for sociodemographic variables and indicators of parental morbidity and criminality.

    Results: Low childhood SEP was associated with alcohol-related disorders later in life among both men and women in a stepwise manner. Growing up in a household with the lowest SEP was associated with risk for alcohol-related disorders of HR: 2.24 (95% CI 2.08 to 2.42) after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, compared with the highest SEP group. Adjusting the analysis for parental psychosocial problems attenuated the association to HR 1.87 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.01).

    Conclusions: The study demonstrates that low SEP in childhood predicts alcohol-related disorders in young adulthood. Alcohol abuse needs to be addressed in policies to bridge the gap of health inequalities.                                                                                 

  • 298.
    Gauffin, Karl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Björkenstam, Emma
    Childhood Household Dysfunction, Social Inequality and Alcohol Related Illness in Young Adulthood. A Swedish National Cohort Study2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id e0151755Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD) on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973-82 (n = 872 912), which was followed from age 18 to 29-40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7-2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4-7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1-12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks-those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9-14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage.

  • 299.
    Gauffin, Karl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    School performance and alcohol-related disorders in early adulthood: a Swedish national cohort study2015Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 919-927Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Alcohol misuse is an important global health determinant and a major contributor to health inequalities. We aimed to investigate the association between school performance and alcohol-related disorders in early adulthood in a longitudinal register-based national cohort study. Methods We followed a register-based national cohort of Swedish citizens born 1973-1984 (N = 948 440) from compulsory school graduation at age 15-16 to 2009. We divided the population into five groups: high school marks (> mean+1 SD); high average (between mean and mean - 1 SD); low average (between mean and mean - 1 SD); low (< mean - 1SD); and missing. Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the relation between school marks at time of graduation and hospital care for alcohol-related disorders in early adulthood. Results There was a steep gradient in the risk of alcohol-related disorders related to school performance. In comparison with peers in the top category of school marks, students with low marks had adjusted hazard ratios of 8.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.20 to 8.91], low average 3.02 (2.72 to 3.35) and high average 1.55 (1.39 to 1.73). The risk associated with low school marks was stronger in the male population and in the group from high socioeconomic background. Conclusions The study demonstrated a strong graded relation between low school performance and alcohol-related disorders in young adulthood. School performance should be taken into account when developing prevention programmes/policies targeting alcohol misuse among teenagers and young adults, especially if the aim is to reach high-risk groups.

  • 300. Germeys, Lynn
    et al.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Divergent concurrent and lagged effects of the reciprocal relation between work-nonwork interactions and sleep disturbance2019Ingår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 42, nr 3, artikel-id zsy255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives

    Work-nonwork interactions and sleep disturbances are found to be important predictors of well-being and job performance outcomes. However, little is known about the mutual interrelations of the interactions between life domains and disturbed sleep over short and long periods of time.

    Methods

    In total, 4079 representative individuals of the Swedish working population completed three subsequent waves of surveys with a time interval of 2 years (i.e. longitudinal design).

    Results

    Concurrent, cross-lagged, and reverse directionality effects were simultaneously examined using autoregressive longitudinal path analysis. Contemporarily, interference between work and nonwork increased sleep disturbances, whereas work-nonwork enhancement decreased sleep disturbances. From one time point to the other, work-nonwork interference negatively related to sleep disturbances, and work-nonwork enhancement was mostly no longer (or positively) related to sleep disturbances. Over time sleep disturbances, in turn, predicted more interference and less enhancement between both life domains.

    Conclusions

    The results highlight that problematic work-nonwork interactions (i.e. high work-nonwork interference and low work-nonwork enhancement) disturb an individual's sleep in the short term (i.e. cross-sectional). Furthermore, the results suggest that individuals adapt to negative work-nonwork interactions over time, but that sleep disturbances impair an individual's work-nonwork interactions 2 years later.

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