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  • 251. Gennings, Chris
    et al.
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Öberg, Mattias
    Lindh, Christian
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Incorporating regulatory guideline values in analysis of epidemiology data2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, s. 535-543Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental to regulatory guidelines is to identify chemicals that are implicated with adverse human health effects and inform public health risk assessors about acceptable ranges of such environmental exposures (e.g., from consumer products and pesticides). The process is made more difficult when accounting for complex human exposures to multiple environmental chemicals. Herein we propose a new class of nonlinear statistical models for human data that incorporate and evaluate regulatory guideline values into analyses of health effects of exposure to chemical mixtures using so-called 'desirability functions' (DFs). The DFs are incorporated into nonlinear regression models to allow for the simultaneous estimation of points of departure for risk assessment of combinations of individual substances that are parts of chemical mixtures detected in humans. These are, in contrast to published so-called biomonitoring equivalent (BE) values and human biomonitoring (HBM) values that link regulatory guideline values from in vivo studies of single chemicals to internal concentrations monitored in humans. We illustrate the strategy through the analysis of prenatal concentrations of mixtures of 11 chemicals with suspected endocrine disrupting properties and two health effects: birth weight and language delay at 2.5 years. The strategy allows for the creation of a Mixture Desirability Function i.e., MDF, which is a uni-dimensional construct of the set of single chemical DFs; thus, it focuses the resulting inference to a single dimension for a more powerful one degree-of-freedom test of significance. Based on the application of this new method we conclude that the guideline values need to be lower than those for single chemicals when the chemicals are observed in combination to achieve a similar level of protection as was aimed for the individual chemicals. The proposed modeling may thus suggest data-driven uncertainty factors for single chemical risk assessment that takes environmental mixtures into account.

  • 252. Gentsch, Norman
    et al.
    Wild, Birgit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. University of Vienna, Austria; Austrian Polar Research Institute, Austria.
    Mikutta, Robert
    Capek, Petr
    Diakova, Katka
    Schrumpf, Marion
    Turner, Stephanie
    Minnich, Cynthia
    Schaarschmidt, Frank
    Shibistova, Olga
    Schnecker, Joerg
    Urich, Tim
    Gittel, Antje
    Santruckova, Hana
    Barta, Jiri
    Lashchinskiy, Nikolay
    Fuss, Roland
    Richter, Andreas
    Guggenberger, Georg
    Temperature response of permafrost soil carbon is attenuated by mineral protection2018Ingår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 24, nr 8, s. 3401-3415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change in Arctic ecosystems fosters permafrost thaw and makes massive amounts of ancient soil organic carbon (OC) available to microbial breakdown. However, fractions of the organic matter (OM) may be protected from rapid decomposition by their association with minerals. Little is known about the effects of mineral-organic associations (MOA) on the microbial accessibility of OM in permafrost soils and it is not clear which factors control its temperature sensitivity. In order to investigate if and how permafrost soil OC turnover is affected by mineral controls, the heavy fraction (HF) representing mostly MOA was obtained by density fractionation from 27 permafrost soil profiles of the Siberian Arctic. In parallel laboratory incubations, the unfractionated soils (bulk) and their HF were comparatively incubated for 175 days at 5 and 15 degrees C. The HF was equivalent to 70 +/- 9% of the bulk CO2 respiration as compared to a share of 63 +/- 1% of bulk OC that was stored in the HF. Significant reduction of OC mineralization was found in all treatments with increasing OC content of the HF (HF-OC), clay-size minerals and Fe or Al oxyhydroxides. Temperature sensitivity (Q10) decreased with increasing soil depth from 2.4 to 1.4 in the bulk soil and from 2.9 to 1.5 in the HF. A concurrent increase in the metal-to-HF-OC ratios with soil depth suggests a stronger bonding of OM to minerals in the subsoil. There, the younger C-14 signature in CO2 than that of the OC indicates a preferential decomposition of the more recent OM and the existence of a MOA fraction with limited access of OM to decomposers. These results indicate strong mineral controls on the decomposability of OM after permafrost thaw and on its temperature sensitivity. Thus, we here provide evidence that OM temperature sensitivity can be attenuated by MOA in permafrost soils.

  • 253.
    Gerdes, Zandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Hermann, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ogonowski, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    A novel method for assessing microplastic effect in suspension through mixing test and reference materials2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 10695Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of microplastic in the environment is of global concern. However, the microplastic hazard assessment is hampered by a lack of adequate ecotoxicological methods because of conceptual and practical problems with particle exposure. In the environment, suspended solids (e.g., clay and cellulose) in the same size range as microplastic, are ubiquitous. Therefore, it must be established whether the addition of microplastic to these background levels of particulate material represents a hazard. We present a novel approach employing a serial dilution of microplastic and reference particles, in mixtures, which allows disentangling the effect of the microplastic from that of the other particulates. We demonstrate the applicability of the method using an immobilization test with Daphnia magna exposed to polyethylene terephthalate (test microplastic; median particle diameter similar to 5 mu m) and kaolin clay (reference material; similar to 3 mu m). In the range of the suspended solids test concentrations (0-10 000 mg L-1), with microplastic contributing 0-100% of total mass, the Lc(50) values for the plastic mixtures were significantly lower compared to the kaolin exposure. Hence, the exposure to polyethylene terephthalate was more harmful to the daphnids than to the reference material alone. The estimated threshold for the relative contribution of the test microplastic to suspended matter above which significantly higher mortality was observed was 2.4% at 32 mg of the solids L-1. This approach has a potential for standardization of ecotoxicological testing of particulates, including microplastic.

  • 254.
    Gerdes, Zandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ogonowski, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Aquabiota Water Research AB, Sweden; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nybom, Inna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ek, Caroline
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Barth, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Microplastic-mediated transport of PCBs? A depuration study with Daphnia magna2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 2, artikel-id e0205378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of microplastic (MP) as a carrier of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to aquatic organisms has been a topic of debate. However, the reverse POP transport can occur if relative contaminant concentrations are higher in the organism than in the microplastic. We evaluated the effect of microplastic on the PCB removal in planktonic animals by exposing the cladoceran Daphnia magna with a high body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 18, 40, 128 and 209) to a mixture of microplastic and algae; daphnids exposed to only algae served as the control. As the endpoints, we used PCB body burden, growth, fecundity and elemental composition (%C and %N) of the daphnids. In the daphnids fed with microplastic, PCB 209 was removed more efficiently, while there was no difference for any other congeners and Sigma PCBs between the microplastic-exposed and control animals. Also, higher size-specific egg production in the animals carrying PCB and receiving food mixed with micro-plastics was observed. However, the effects of the microplastic exposure on fecundity were of low biological significance, because the PCB body burden and the microplastic exposure concentrations were greatly exceeding environmentally relevant concentrations.

  • 255.
    Gewert, Berit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Chemical Pollutants Released to the Marine Environment by Degradation of Plastic Debris2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the beginning of the mass production in the 1940s, plastic has been manufactured in quickly increasing amounts. Plastic debris accumulates in the environment and lately much attention has been drawn to the pollution in the world’s oceans. Despite the rapid development and ubiquitous presence of plastic, degradation in the marine environment and potential risks associated with plastic are not fully understood. Thus, these knowledge gaps were addressed in this thesis, which adds information about exposure and hazards of marine plastic debris.

    Although sampling studies have been conducted all over the world, the concentrations of plastic debris in the Baltic Sea have hardly been investigated. In Paper I, the level and distribution of plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago were assessed. Plastic concentrations were higher close to suspected point sources compared to remote areas. Fibers accounted for the most common form and the predominant polymer types were polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE).

    In Paper II, the literature was critically reviewed for the most important degradation pathways for plastic under environmentally relevant conditions. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, leading to photo-oxidation, is the most important initiating factor for buoyant plastic. Consequently, a UV lamp was used in Paper III for an artificial weathering setup in the laboratory to degrade pristine plastics and analyze the chemical leachates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for degradation products using a nontarget approach. Carboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids of polymer fragments were the most commonly identified degradation products of the plastic polymers, confirming predictions made in Paper II.

    To evaluate potential hazards posed by leachates from weathering plastic debris to marine organisms, an acute toxicity screening study with Nitocra spinipes was conducted in Paper IV. Field-exposed plastic and the corresponding newly purchased plastic were artificially aged with the same weathering setup as in Paper III. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and PP leachates were generally most toxic, while leachates from polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were least toxic among the tested materials. For plastics, which were supposed to contain only few additives, we observed no difference in toxicity between leachates from the field-exposed and the newly purchased plastic. However, the other plastic products exposed to the marine environment were more toxic than their corresponding newly bought products. This indicates that the toxicity of the leachates not only depends on the polymer type, but also on the weathering condition of the plastic.

  • 256.
    Gewert, Berit
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Variability in toxicity of plastic leachates as a function of weathering and polymer type: A screening study with Nitocra spinipesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 257.
    Gewert, Berit
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ogonowski, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Aquabiota Water Research, Sweden.
    Barth, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Abundance and composition of near surface microplastics and plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago, Baltic Sea2017Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 120, nr 1-2, s. 292-302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We collected plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago using a manta trawl, and additionally along a transect in the Baltic Sea from the island of Gotland to Stockholm in a citizen science study. The samples were concentrated by filtration and organic material was digested using hydrogen peroxide. Suspected plastic material was isolated by visual sorting and 59 of these were selected to be characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polypropylene and polyethylene were the most abundant plastics identified among the samples (53% and 24% respectively). We found nearly ten times higher abundance of plastics near central Stockholm than in offshore areas (4.2 x 10(5) plastics km(-2) compared to 4.7 x 10(4) plastics km(-2)). The abundance of plastic debris near Stockholm was similar to urban areas in California, USA, and the overall abundance in the Stockholm Archipelago was similar to plastic abundance reported in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

  • 258.
    Gewert, Berit
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Plassmann, Merle M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Pathways for degradation of plastic polymers floating in the marine environment2015Ingår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 17, nr 9, s. 1513-1521Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year vast amounts of plastic are produced worldwide. When released to the environment, plastics accumulate, and plastic debris in the world's oceans is of particular environmental concern. More than 60% of all floating debris in the oceans is plastic and amounts are increasing each year. Plastic polymers in the marine environment are exposed to sunlight, oxidants and physical stress, and over time they weather and degrade. The degradation processes and products must be understood to detect and evaluate potential environmental hazards. Some attention has been drawn to additives and persistent organic pollutants that sorb to the plastic surface, but so far the chemicals generated by degradation of the plastic polymers themselves have not been well studied from an environmental perspective. In this paper we review available information about the degradation pathways and chemicals that are formed by degradation of the six plastic types that are most widely used in Europe. We extrapolate that information to likely pathways and possible degradation products under environmental conditions found on the oceans' surface. The potential degradation pathways and products depend on the polymer type. UV-radiation and oxygen are the most important factors that initiate degradation of polymers with a carbon-carbon backbone, leading to chain scission. Smaller polymer fragments formed by chain scission are more susceptible to biodegradation and therefore abiotic degradation is expected to precede biodegradation. When heteroatoms are present in the main chain of a polymer, degradation proceeds by photo-oxidation, hydrolysis, and biodegradation. Degradation of plastic polymers can lead to low molecular weight polymer fragments, like monomers and oligomers, and formation of new end groups, especially carboxylic acids.

  • 259.
    Gewert, Berit
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Plassmann, Merle
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sandblom, Oskar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Identification of Chain Scission Products Released to Water by Plastic Exposed to Ultraviolet Light2018Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2328-8930, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 272-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Buoyant plastic in the marine environment is exposed to sunlight, oxidants, and physical stress, which may lead to degradation of the plastic polymer and the release of compounds that are potentially hazardous. We report the development of a laboratory protocol that simulates the exposure of plastic floating in the marine environment to ultraviolet light (UV) and nontarget analysis to identify degradation products of plastic polymers in water. Plastic pellets [polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and poly(ethylene terephthalate)] suspended in water were exposed to a UV light source for 5 days. Organic chemicals in the water were concentrated by solid phase extraction and then analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry using a nontarget approach with a C18 LC column coupled to a Q Exactive Orbitrap HF mass spectrometer. We designed a data analysis scheme to identify chemicals that are likely chain scission products from degradation of the plastic polymers. For all four polymers, we found homologous series of low-molecular weight polymer fragments with oxidized end groups. In total, we tentatively identified 22 degradation products, which are mainly dicarboxylic acids.

  • 260. Ghan, Steven
    et al.
    Wang, Minghuai
    Zhang, Shipeng
    Ferrachat, Sylvaine
    Gettelman, Andrew
    Griesfeller, Jan
    Kipling, Zak
    Lohmann, Ulrike
    Morrison, Hugh
    Neubauer, David
    Partridge, Daniel G.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Stier, Philip
    Takemura, Toshihiko
    Wang, Hailong
    Zhang, Kai
    Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, nr 21, s. 5804-5811Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of processes are involved in the chain from emissions of aerosol precursor gases and primary particles to impacts on cloud radiative forcing. Those processes are manifest in a number of relationships that can be expressed as factors dlnX/dlnY driving aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing. These factors include the relationships between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and emissions, droplet number and CCN concentration, cloud fraction and droplet number, cloud optical depth and droplet number, and cloud radiative forcing and cloud optical depth. The relationship between cloud optical depth and droplet number can be further decomposed into the sum of two terms involving the relationship of droplet effective radius and cloud liquid water path with droplet number. These relationships can be constrained using observations of recent spatial and temporal variability of these quantities. However, we are most interested in the radiative forcing since the preindustrial era. Because few relevant measurements are available from that era, relationships from recent variability have been assumed to be applicable to the preindustrial to present-day change. Our analysis of Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) model simulations suggests that estimates of relationships from recent variability are poor constraints on relationships from anthropogenic change for some terms, with even the sign of some relationships differing in many regions. Proxies connecting recent spatial/temporal variability to anthropogenic change, or sustained measurements in regions where emissions have changed, are needed to constrain estimates of anthropogenic aerosol impacts on cloud radiative forcing.

  • 261.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    What contributes to human body burdens of phthalate esters?: An experimental approach2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters (PEs) and alternative plasticizers used as additives in numerous consumer products are continuously released into the environment leading to subsequent human exposure. The ubiquitous presence and potential adverse health effects (e.g. endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity) of some PEs are responsible for their bans or restrictions. This has led to increasing use of alternative plasticizers, especially cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH). Human exposure data on alternative plasticizers are lacking and clear evidence for human exposure has previously only been found for di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP) and DINCH, with increasing trends in body burdens. In this thesis, a study population of 61 adults (age: 20–66; gender: 16 males and 45 females) living in the Oslo area (Norway) was studied for their exposure to plasticizers. Information on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics that potentially affect the concentrations of PE and DINCH metabolites in adults was collected by questionnaires. Using the human biomonitoring approach, we evaluated the internal exposure to PEs and DINCH by measuring concentrations of their metabolites in urine (where metabolism and excretion are well understood) and using these data to back-calculate daily intakes. Metabolite levels in finger nails were also determined. Since reference standards of human metabolites for other important alternative plasticizers apart from DINCH (e.g. DEHTP, di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC)) are not commercially available, we further investigated the urine and finger nail samples by Q Exactive Orbitrap LC-MS to identify specific metabolites, which can be used as appropriate biomarkers of human exposure. Many metabolites of alternative plasticizers that were present in in vitro extracts were further identified in vivo in urine and finger nail samples. Hence, we concluded that in vitro assays can reliably mimic the in vivo processes. Also, finger nails may be a useful non-invasive matrix for human biomonitoring of specific organic contaminants, but further validation is needed. Concentrations of PEs and DINCH were also measured in duplicate diet, air, dust and hand wipes. External exposure, estimated based on dietary intake, air inhalation, dust ingestion and dermal uptake, was higher or equal to the back-calculated internal intake. By comparing these, we were able to explain the relative importance of different exposure pathways for the Norwegian study population. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Inhalation was important only for lower molecular weight PEs, while dust ingestion was important for higher molecular weight PEs and DINCH. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower than the total dermal uptake calculated via air, dust and personal care products, but still several research gaps remain for this exposure pathway. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure risk for the Norwegian participants to the PEs and DINCH did not exceed the established tolerable daily intake and reference doses, and the cumulative risk assessment for combined exposure to plasticizers with similar toxic endpoints indicated no health concerns for the selected population. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required. Findings through uni- and multivariate analysis suggested that age, smoking, use of personal care products and many other everyday habits, such as washing hands or eating food from plastic packages are possible contributors to plasticizer exposure.

  • 262. Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Alves, Andreia
    Bui, Thuy
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Covaci, Adrian
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Human exposure to plasticizer chemicals – correlation between indirect and biomonitoring exposure estimates in a Norwegian human cohort2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 263.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Alves, Andreia
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Schütze, André
    Koch, Holger M.
    Haug, Line S.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Evaluation of exposure to phthalate esters and DINCH in urine and nails from a Norwegian study population2016Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 151, s. 80-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters (PEs) and 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) used as additives in numerous consumer products are continuously released into the environment, leading to subsequent human exposure which might cause adverse health effects. The human biomonitoring approach allows the detection of PEs and DINCH in specific populations, by taking into account all possible routes of exposure (e.g. inhalation, transdermal and oral) and all relevant sources (e.g. air, dust, personal care products, diet). We have investigated the presence of nine PE and two DINCH metabolites and their exposure determinants in 61 adult residents of the Oslo area (Norway). Three urine spots and fingernails were collected from each participant according to established sampling protocols. Metabolite analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS. Metabolite levels in urine were used to back-calculate the total exposure to their corresponding parent compound. The primary monoesters, such as monomethyl phthalate (MMP, geometric mean 89.7 ng/g), monoethyl phthalate (MEP, 104.8 ng/g) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, 893 ng/g) were observed in higher levels in nails, whereas the secondary bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and DINCH oxidative metabolites were more abundant in urine (detection frequency 84-100%). The estimated daily intakes of PEs and DINCH for this Norwegian population did not exceed the established tolerable daily intake and reference doses, and the cumulative risk assessment for combined exposure to plasticizers with similar toxic endpoints indicated no health concerns for the selected population. We found a moderate positive correlation between MEP levels in 3 urine spots and nails (range: 0.56-0.68). Higher frequency of personal care products use was associated with greater MEP concentrations in both urine and nail samples. Increased age, smoking, wearing plastic gloves during house cleaning, consuming food with plastic packaging and eating with hands were associated with higher levels in urine and nails for some of the metabolites. In contrast, frequent hair and hand washing was associated with lower urinary levels of monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5-OH-MEHP), respectively.

  • 264.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bui, Tuong Thuy
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Xu, Fuchao
    Covaci, Adrian
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCHManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways. Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the back-calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 2.8 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. The dermal uptake assessed by hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the sum of dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products and unlikely represents an integrative dermal exposure. Dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure risk for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required.

  • 265. Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Assessment of external routes for human exposure to phthalate plasticizers in indoor environment. A case study based on a Norwegian cohort of 61 adults in Oslo area.2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 266.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Xu, Fuchao
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Padilla-Sanchez, Juan A.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Haug, Line S.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 112, s. 115-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways. Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 3 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the total dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products. Still, dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required.

  • 267.
    Glantz, Paul
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Freud, Eyal
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Noone, Kevin J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Tesche, Matthias
    Trends in MODIS and AERONET derived aerosol optical thickness over Northern Europe2019Ingår i: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 71, nr 1, artikel-id 1445379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term Aqua and Terra MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collections 5.1 and 6.1 (c051 and c061, respectively) aerosol data have been combined with AERONET (AERosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based sun photometer observations to examine trends in aerosol optical thickness (AOT, at 550nm) over Northern Europe for the months April to September. For the 1927 and 1559 daily coincident measurements that were obtained for c051 and c061, respectively, MODIS AOT varied by 86 and 90%, respectively, within the predicted uncertainty of one standard deviation of the retrieval over land (AOT = +/- 0.05 +/- 0.15<bold>AOT</bold>). For the coastal AERONET site Gustav Dalen Tower (GDT), Sweden, larger deviations were found for MODIS c051 and c061 (79% and 75%, respectively, within predicted uncertainty). The Baltic Sea provides substantially better statistical representation of AOT than the surrounding land areas and therefore favours the investigations of trends in AOT over the region. Negative trends of 1.5% and 1.2% per year in AOT, based on daily averaging, were found for the southwestern Baltic Sea from MODIS c051 and c061, respectively. This is in line with a decrease of 1.2% per year in AOT at the AERONET station Hamburg. For the western Gotland Basin area, Sweden, negative trends of 1.5%, 1.1% and 1.6% per year in AOT have been found for MODIS c051, MODIS c061 and AERONET GDT, respectively. The strongest trend of -1.8% per year in AOT was found for AERONET Belsk, Poland, which can be compared to -1.5% per day obtained from MODIS c051 over central Poland. The trends in MODIS and AERONET AOT are nearly all statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. The strongest aerosol sources are suggested to be located southwest, south and southeast of the investigation area, although the highest prevalence of pollution events is associated with air mass transport from southwest.

  • 268.
    Gomis Ferreira, Melissa I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Contribution of Direct and Indirect Exposure to Human Serum Concentrations of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in an Occupationally Exposed Group of Ski Waxers2016Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, nr 13, s. 7037-7046Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of direct (i.e., uptake of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) itself) and indirect (i.e., uptake of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and metabolism to PFOA) exposure to PFOA serum concentrations was investigated using a dynamic one compartment pharmacokinetic (PK) model. The PK model was applied to six occupationally exposed ski waxers for whom direct and indirect exposures via inhalation were characterized using multiple measurements with personal air sampling devices. The model was able to predict the diverging individual temporal trends of PFOA in serum with correlation coefficients of 0.82-0.94. For the four technicians with high initial concentrations of PFOA in serum (250-1050 ng/mL), the ongoing occupational exposure (both direct and indirect) was of minor importance and net depuration of PFOA was observed throughout the ski season. An estimated average intrinsic elimination half-life of 2.4 years (1.8-3.1 years accounting for variation between technicians and model uncertainty) was derived for these technicians. The remaining two technicians, who had much lower initial serum concentrations (10-17 ng/mL), were strongly influenced by exposure during the ski season with indirect exposure contributing to 45% of PFOA serum concentrations. On the basis of these model simulations, an average metabolism yield of 0.003 (molar concentration basis; uncertainty range of 0.0006-0.01) was derived for transformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA. An uncertainty analysis was performed, and it was determined that the input parameters quantifying the intake of PFOA were mainly responsible for the uncertainty of the metabolism yield and the initial concentration of PFOA in serum was mainly contributing to the uncertainty of estimated serum half-lives.

  • 269.
    Gomis Ferreira, Melissa Ines
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Borg, Daniel
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Comparing the toxic potency in vivo of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids and fluorinated alternatives2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2000, long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their respective precursors have been replaced by numerous fluorinated alternatives. The main rationale for this industrial transition was that these alternatives were considered less bioaccumulative and toxic than their predecessors. In this study, we evaluated to what extent differences in toxicological effect thresholds for PFAAs and fluorinated alternatives, expressed as administered dose, were confounded by differences in their distribution and elimination kinetics. A dynamic one-compartment toxicokinetic (TK) model for male rats was constructed and evaluated using test data from toxicity studies for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and ammonium 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate (GenX). Dose-response curves of liver enlargement from sub-chronic oral toxicity studies in male rats were converted to internal dose in serum and in liver to examine the toxicity ranking of PFAAs and fluorinated alternatives. Converting administered doses into equivalent serum and liver concentrations reduced the variability in the dose-response curves for PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA and GenX. The toxicity ranking using modeled serum (GenX>PFOA>PFHxA>PFBA) and liver (GenX>PFOA≈PFHxA≈PFBA) concentrations indicated that some fluorinated alternatives have similar or higher toxic potency than their predecessors when correcting for differences in toxicokinetics. For PFOS and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) the conversion from administered dose to serum concentration equivalents did not change the toxicity ranking. In conclusion, hazard assessment based on internal exposure allows evaluation of toxic potency and bioaccumulation potential independent of kinetics and should be considered when comparing fluorinated alternatives with their predecessors.

  • 270.
    Gomis, Melissa I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Historical human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids in the United States and Australia reconstructed from biomonitoring data using population-based pharmacokinetic modelling2017Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 108, s. 92-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) are found in the blood of humans and wildlife worldwide. Since the beginning of the 21st century, a downward trend in the human body burden, especially for PFOS and PFOA, has been observed while there is no clear temporal trend in wildlife. The inconsistency between the concentration decline in human serum and in wildlife could be indicative of a historical exposure pathway for humans linked to consumer products that has been reduced or eliminated. In this study, we reconstruct the past human exposure trends in two different regions, USA and Australia, by inferring the historical intake from cross-sectional biomonitoring data of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS using a population-based pharmacokinetic model. For PFOS in the USA, the reconstructed daily intake peaked at 4.5 ng/kg-bw/day between 1988 and 1999 while in Australia it peaked at 4.0 ng/kg-bw/day between 1984 and 1996. For PFOA in the USA and Australia, the peak reconstructed daily intake was 1.1 ng/kg-bw/day in 1995 and 3.6 ng/kg-bw/day in 1992, respectively, and started to decline in 2000 and 1995, respectively. The model could not be satisfactorily fitted to the biomonitoring data for PFHxS within reasonable boundaries for its intrinsic elimination half-life, and thus reconstructing intakes of PFHxS was not possible. Our results indicate that humans experienced similar exposure levels and trends to PFOS and PFOA in the USA and Australia. Our findings support the hypothesis that near-field consumer product exposure pathways were likely dominant prior to the phase-out in industrialized countries. The intrinsic elimination half-life, which represents elimination processes that are common for all humans, and elimination processes unique to women (i.e., menstruation, cord-blood transfer and breastfeeding) were also investigated. The intrinsic elimination half-lives for PFOS and PFOA derived from model fitting for men were 3.8 and 2.4 years, respectively, for the USA, and 4.9 and 2 years respectively for Australia. Our results show that menstruation is a depuration pathway for PFOA for women, similarly but to a lesser extent compared to previous reports for PFOS. However menstruation, cord-blood transfer and breastfeeding together do not fully explain the apparently more rapid elimination of PFOA and PFOS by women compared to men; the intrinsic elimination half-lives in women were up to 13% lower for PFOS and up to 12% lower for PFOA compared to the corresponding half-lives in men.

  • 271.
    Gomis, Melissa Ines
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    From emission sources to human tissues: modelling the exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Produced since the 1950’s, per- and polyfluoroalkyl (PFASs) substances are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. Being proteinophilic with a tendency to partition to protein-rich tissues, PFASs have been found in human serum worldwide and in wildlife with a predominance of long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxilic acids (C7-C14 PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C6-C9 PFSAs). Due to rising concern regarding their hazardous properties, several regulatory actions and voluntary industrial phase-outs have been conducted since early 2000s, shifting the production towards other fluorinated alternatives. This thesis explores the human exposure to long-chain PFASs and their alternatives using different modelling methods and aims to 1) link comprehensively the past and current industrial production with the human body burden and 2) assess the potential hazardous properties of legacy PFASs replacements, on which information is very limited. In Paper I, the historical daily intakes in Australia and USA were reconstructed from cross-sectional biomonitoring data of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) andperfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS). The results indicate that humans experienced similar exposure levels and trends to PFOS and PFOA in both regions, suggesting a common historical exposure possibly dominated by consumer products. The model could not be fitted to PFHxS concentration in serum. In Paper II, the relative contribution of indirect (i.e. subsequent metabolism of precursors into legacy PFASs) versus direct exposure was evaluated on occupationally exposed ski wax technicians. The indirect exposure contributed by up to 45% to the total body burden of PFOA. In Paper III, the physicochemical properties, the persistence and the long-range transport of fluorinated alternatives were predicted using different in silico tools. Findings suggest that fluorinated alternatives are likely similar to their predecessors, in terms of physicochemical properties and environmental fate. Finally, Paper IV compares the toxic potency of PFOS, PFOA and their alternatives as a function of external and internal dose. While alternatives are less potent than their predecessors when considering the administered dose, they become similarly potent when the assessment is based on levels in the target tissue. This thesis demonstrates that pharmacokinetic models are effective tools to comprehensively reconnect the body burden to the exposure of phased-out chemicals. More importantly, the studies on fluorinated alternatives raise the necessity to provide more information and data on the potential hazard of these novel and emerging products.

  • 272. Goodsir, Freya
    et al.
    Lonsdale, Jemma A.
    Mitchell, Peter J.
    Sühring, Roxana
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Farcas, Adrian
    Whomersley, Paul
    Brant, Jan L.
    Clarke, Charlotte
    Kirby, Mark F.
    Skelhorn, Matthew
    Hill, Polly G.
    A standardised approach to the environmental risk assessment of potentially polluting wrecks2019Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 142, s. 290-302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential risk to the marine environment of oil release from potentially polluting wrecks (PPW) is increasingly being acknowledged, and in some instances remediation actions have been required. However, where a PPW has been identified, there remains a great deal of uncertainty around the environmental risk it may pose. Estimating the likelihood of a wreck to release oil and the threat to marine receptors remains a challenge. In addition, removing oil from wrecks is not always cost effective, so a proactive approach is recommended to identify PPW that pose the greatest risk to sensitive marine ecosystems and local economies and communities. This paper presents a desk-based assessment approach which addresses PPW, and the risk they pose to environmental and socio-economic marine receptors, using modelled scenarios and a framework and scoring system. This approach can be used to inform proactive management options for PPW and can be applied worldwide.

  • 273.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Individual growth as a non-dietary determinant of the isotopic niche metrics2018Ingår i: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2041-210X, E-ISSN 2041-210X, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 269-277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Quantitative analytical approaches for isotopic niche analysis in the trophic diversity studies are proliferating rapidly; however, the assumptions behind the isotopic niche applications are rarely tested. One of the main assumptions is independence of the niche metrics and physiological status of the animals. The aim of this experimental study was to test the relationship between growth and Layman's metrics of isotopic niche in consumers eating the same food but in different quantities and growing at different rates.

    2. Based on research indicating that individual variability in isotopic fractionation increases under suboptimal conditions, I hypothesized that a group of consumers originating from the same population and exposed to food limitation would have greater estimates of the niche breadth and diversity as a result of higher inter-individual variability in growth rate and stable isotope signatures than in non-limiting feeding conditions. This hypothesis was tested using Baltic mysids Neomysis integer fed isotopically uniform diet under laboratory conditions and analysing individual growth and stable isotope signature in concert.

    3. As hypothesized, mysid growth rate was a significant negative predictor of most niche metrics. These effects were related to both increased inter-individual variability and higher trophic fractionation in malnourished animals, whereas in actively growing mysids, lower fractionation was observed together with lower values for niche size, isotopic range and trophic diversity.

    4. These findings challenge how we interpret the intrapopulation isotopic variance and evaluate isotopic evidence of individual specialization and call for integrated approaches for isotopic niche and growth assessment.

  • 274.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Screening for microplastic particles in plankton samples: How to integrate marine litter assessment into existing monitoring programs?2015Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 99, nr 1-2, s. 271-275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics (MPs) are a newly recognized type of environmental pollution in aquatic systems; however no monitoring of these contaminants is conducted, mostly due to the lack of routine quantification. In the net samples collected with a 90-mu m WP2 net, pelagic MP abundance was quantified by light microscopy and evaluated as a function of inshore-offshore gradient, depth, and season; the same samples were used for zooplankton analysis. The MP abundance was similar to 10(2)-10(4) particles m(-3), with no significant inshore-offshore gradient during summer but increasing offshore in winter. MP abundance in deeper layers was positively affected by zooplankton abundance in the upper layers and significantly lower during winter compared to summer. These findings indicate heterogeneity of MP distribution due to biotic and abiotic factors and suggest that samples collected for other purposes can be used for quantification of MPs in the Baltic Sea, thus facilitating integration of MP assessment into existing monitoring schemes.

  • 275.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Shifts in rotifer life history in response to stable isotope enrichment: testing theories of isotope effects on organismal growth2017Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, nr 3, artikel-id 160810Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In ecology, stable isotope labelling is commonly used for tracing material transfer in trophic interactions, nutrient budgets and biogeochemical processes. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism growth and metabolism. This assumption is, however, challenged by theoretical considerations and experimental studies on kinetic isotope effects in vivo. Here, I demonstrate profound changes in life histories of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis fed N-15-enriched algae (0.4-5.0 at%); i.e. at the enrichment levels commonly used in ecological studies. These findings support theoretically predicted effects of heavy isotope enrichment on growth, metabolism and ageing in biological systems and underline the importance of accounting for such effects when using stable isotope labelling in experimental studies.

  • 276.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Lehtiniemi, Maiju
    Postel, Lutz
    Rubene, Gunta
    Amid, Callis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Lesutiene, Jurate
    Uusitalo, Laura
    Strake, Solvita
    Demereckiene, Natalja
    Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikel-id e0158326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to the estuarine character of the Baltic Sea.

  • 277.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Rivetti, Claudia
    Furuhagen, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Edlund, Anna
    Ek, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bacteria-Mediated Effects of Antibiotics on Daphnia Nutrition2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 9, s. 5779-5787Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In polluted environments, contaminant effects may be manifested via both direct toxicity to the host and changes in its microbiota, affecting bacteria host interactions. In this context, particularly relevant is exposure to antibiotics released into environment. We examined effects of the antibiotic trimethoprim on microbiota of Daphnia magna and concomitant changes in the host feeding. In daphnids exposed to 0.25 mg L-1 trimethoprim for 24 h, the microbiota was strongly affected, with (1) up to 21-fold decrease in 16S rRNA gene abundance and (2) a shift from balanced communities dominated by Curvibacter, Aquabacterium, and Limnohabitans in controls to significantly lower diversity under dominance of Pelomonas in the exposed animals. Moreover, decreased feeding and digestion was observed in the animals exposed to 0.25-2 mg L-1 trimethoprim for 48 h and then fed C-14-labeled algae. Whereas the proportion of intact algal cells in the guts increased with increased trimethoprim concentration, ingestion and incorporation rates as well as digestion and incorporation efficiencies decreased significantly. Thus, antibiotics may impact nontarget species via changes in their microbiota leading to compromised nutrition and, ultimately, growth. These bacteria-mediated effects in nontarget organisms may not be unique for antibiotics, but also relevant for environmental pollutants of various nature.

  • 278. Grahn, Håkan
    et al.
    von Schoenberg, Pontus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. The Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Brännström, Niklas
    What's that smell? Hydrogen sulphide transport from Bardarbunga to Scandinavia2015Ingår i: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, ISSN 0377-0273, E-ISSN 1872-6097, Vol. 303, s. 187-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    On Sep 9 2014 several incidences of foul smell (rotten eggs) were reported on the coast of Norway (in particular in the vicinity of Molde) and then on Sep 10 in the interior parts of county Vasterbotten, Sweden. One of the theories that were put forward was that the foul smell was due to degassing of the Bardarbunga volcano on Iceland. Using satellite images (GOME-1,-2) of the sulphur dioxide, SO2, contents in the atmosphere surrounding Iceland to estimate flux of SO2 from the volcano and an atmospheric transport model, PELLO, we vindicate this theory: we argue that the cause for the foul smell was hydrogen sulphide originating from Bardarbunga. The model concentrations are also compared to SO2 concentration measurements from Muonio, Finland.

  • 279. Grasse, Patricia
    et al.
    Brzezinski, Mark A.
    Cardinal, Damien
    de Souza, Gregory F.
    Andersson, Per
    Closset, Ivia
    Cao, Zhimian
    Dai, Minhan
    Ehlert, Claudia
    Estrade, Nicolas
    Francois, Roger
    Frank, Martin
    Jiang, Guibin
    Jones, Janice L.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Liu, Qian
    Lu, Dawei
    Pahnke, Katharina
    Ponzevera, Emanuel
    Schmitt, Melanie
    Sun, Xiaole
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sutton, Jill N.
    Thil, Francois
    Weis, Dominique
    Wetzel, Florian
    Zhang, Anyu
    Zhang, Jing
    Zhang, Zhouling
    GEOTRACES inter-calibration of the stable silicon isotope composition of dissolved silicic acid in seawater2017Ingår i: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 562-578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The first inter-calibration study of the stable silicon isotope composition of dissolved silicic acid in seawater, delta Si-30(OH)(4), is presented as a contribution to the international GEOTRACES program. Eleven laboratories from seven countries analyzed two seawater samples from the North Pacific subtropical gyre (Station ALOHA) collected at 300 m and at 1000 m water depth. Sampling depths were chosen to obtain samples with a relatively low (9 mmol L-1, 300 m) and a relatively high (113 mmol L-1, 1000 m) silicic acid concentration as sample preparation differs for low- and highconcentration samples. Data for the 1000 m water sample were not normally distributed so the median is used to represent the central tendency for the two samples. Median delta Si-30(OH)(4) values of +1.66& for the low-concentration sample and +1.25& for the high-concentration sample were obtained. Agreement among laboratories is overall considered very good; however, small but statistically significant differences among the mean isotope values obtained by different laboratories were detected, likely reflecting inter-laboratory differences in chemical preparation including pre-concentration and purification methods together with different volumes of seawater analyzed, and the use of different mass spectrometers including the Neptune MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher (TM), Germany), the Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS (Nu Instruments (TM), Wrexham, UK), and the Finnigan (TM) (now Thermo Fisher (TM), Germany) MAT 252 IRMS. Future studies analyzing delta Si-30(OH)(4) in seawater should also analyze and report values for these same two reference waters in order to facilitate comparison of data generated among and within laboratories over time.

  • 280. Griniene, Evelina
    et al.
    Lesutiene, Jurate
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Zemlys, Petras
    Gasiunaite, Zita R.
    Lack of ciliate community integrity in transitional waters: A case study from the Baltic Sea2019Ingår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 226, artikel-id UNSP 106259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish water environments, is particularly suitable for studies aiming to understand biodiversity in saltwater-freshwater mixing zones, i.e., transitional waters at different spatial and temporal scales. To evaluate diversity fluctuations in the pelagic microbial communities experiencing frequent brackish water intrusions, we analyzed seasonal dynamics of ciliates inhabiting transitional waters of the Curonian Lagoon. During the intrusion periods, the community presented a mixture of fresh- and brackish taxa, with no specific autochthonous component unique to the transitional waters. In the plume area, outside of the lagoon, we found that (i) high biodiversity was due to mixing of two distinct assemblages, and (ii) freshwater taxa are rather resistant to salinity change, their abundance decreases almost linearly with the increasing salinity, following conservative mixing model. Small unidentified Lohmanniella occurring exclusively in the plume zone during our survey possibly presents an autochthonous component based on locally available resource. Also mixed assemblage of the plume is characterised by absence of large predatory ciliate species.

  • 281. Grohs, Melody N.
    et al.
    Reynolds, Jess E.
    Liu, Jiaying
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Pollock, Tyler
    Lebe, Catherine
    Dewey, Deborah
    Kaplan, Bonnie J.
    Field, Catherine J.
    Bell, Rhonda C.
    Bernier, Francois P.
    Cantell, Marja
    Casey, Linda M.
    Eliasziw, Misha
    Farmer, Anna
    Gagnon, Lisa
    Giesbrecht, Gerald F.
    Goonewardene, Laksiri
    Johnston, David W.
    Kooistra, Libbe
    Letoumeau, Nicole
    Manca, Donna P.
    McCargar, Linda J.
    O'Beirne, Maeve
    Pop, Victor J.
    Singhal, Nalini
    Prenatal maternal and childhood bisphenol a exposure and brain structure and behavior of young children2019Ingår i: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikel-id 85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used in the manufacture of plastics and epoxy resins. In North America, over 90% of the population has detectable levels of urinary BPA. Human epidemiological studies have reported adverse behavioral outcomes with BPA exposure in children, however, corresponding effects on children's brain structure have not yet been investigated. The current study examined the association between prenatal maternal and childhood BPA exposure and white matter microstructure in children aged 2 to 5 years, and investigated whether brain structure mediated the association between BPA exposure and child behavior.

    Methods: Participants were 98 mother-child pairs who were recruited between January 2009 and December 2012. Total BPA concentrations in spot urine samples obtained from mothers in the second trimester of pregnancy and from children at 3-4 years of age were analyzed. Children participated in a diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at age 2-5 years (3.7 +/- 0.8 years). Associations between prenatal maternal and childhood BPA and children's fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of 10 isolated white matter tracts were investigated, controlling for urinary creatinine, child sex, and age at the time of MRI. Post-hoc analyses examined if alterations in white matter mediated the relationship of BPA and children's scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).

    Results: Prenatal maternal urinary BPA was significantly associated with child mean diffusivity in the splenium and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Splenium diffusivity mediated the relationship between maternal prenatal BPA levels and children's internalizing behavior (indirect effect: beta = 0.213, CI [0.0167, 0.564]). No significant associations were found between childhood BPA and white matter microstructure.

    Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural correlates of BPA exposure in humans. Our findings suggest that prenatal maternal exposure to BPA may lead to alterations in white matter microstructure in preschool aged children, and that such alterations mediate the relationship between early life exposure to BPA and internalizing problems.

  • 282. Groot Zwaaftink, C. D.
    et al.
    Grythe, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway; Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Skov, H.
    Stohl, A.
    Substantial contribution of northern high-latitude sources to mineral dust in the Arctic2016Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 121, nr 22, s. 13678-13697Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Arctic, impurities in the atmosphere and cryosphere can strongly affect the atmospheric radiation and surface energy balance. While black carbon has hence received much attention, mineral dust has been in the background. Mineral dust is not only transported into the Arctic from remote regions but also, possibly increasingly, generated in the region itself. Here we study mineral dust in the Arctic based on global transport model simulations. For this, we have developed a dust mobilization scheme in combination with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. A model evaluation, based on measurements of surface concentrations and annual deposition at a number of stations and aircraft vertical profiles, shows the suitability of this model to study global dust transport. Simulations indicate that about 3% of global dust emission originates from high-latitude dust sources in the Arctic. Due to limited convection and enhanced efficiency of removal, dust emitted in these source regions is mostly deposited closer to the source than dust from for instance Asia or Africa. This leads to dominant contributions of local dust sources to total surface dust concentrations (similar to 85%) and dust deposition (similar to 90%) in the Arctic region. Dust deposition from local sources peaks in autumn, while dust deposition from remote sources occurs mainly in spring in the Arctic. With increasing altitude, remote sources become more important for dust concentrations as well as deposition. Therefore, total atmospheric dust loads in the Arctic are strongly influenced by Asian (similar to 38%) and African (similar to 32%) dust, whereas local dust contributes only 27%. Dust loads are thus largest in spring when remote dust is efficiently transported into the Arctic. Overall, our study shows that contributions of local dust sources are more important in the Arctic than previously thought, particularly with respect to surface concentrations and dust deposition.

  • 283. Gryspeerdt, Edward
    et al.
    Quaas, Johannes
    Ferrachat, Sylvaine
    Gettelman, Andrew
    Ghan, Steven
    Lohmann, Ulrike
    Morrison, Hugh
    Neubauer, David
    Partridge, Daniel G.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Stier, Philip
    Takemura, Toshihiko
    Wang, Hailong
    Wang, Minghuai
    Zhang, Kai
    Constraining the instantaneous aerosol influence on cloud albedo2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, nr 19, s. 4899-4904Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the uncertainty in estimates of the anthropogenic forcing of climate change comes from uncertainties in the instantaneous effect of aerosols on cloud albedo, known as the Twomey effect or the radiative forcing from aerosol-cloud interactions (RFaci), a component of the total or effective radiative forcing. Because aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei can have a strong influence on the cloud droplet number concentration (Nd), previous studies have used the sensitivity of the Nd to aerosol properties as a constraint on the strength of the RFaci. However, recent studies have suggested that relationships between aerosol and cloud properties in the present-day climate may not be suitable for determining the sensitivity of the Nd to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations. Using an ensemble of global aerosol-climate models, this study demonstrates how joint histograms between Nd and aerosol properties can account for many of the issues raised by previous studies. It shows that if the anthropogenic contribution to the aerosol is known, the RFaci can be diagnosed to within 20% of its actual value. The accuracy of different aerosol proxies for diagnosing the RFaci is investigated, confirming that using the aerosol optical depth significantly underestimates the strength of the aerosol-cloud interactions in satellite data.

  • 284.
    Grythe, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Quantification of sources and removal mechanisms of atmospheric aerosol particles2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this work has been to quantify important processes for climatically relevant aerosols, and to improve our understanding of, and ability to accurately model, aerosols in the atmosphere on a large scale. This thesis contains five papers focused on different parts of the life cycle of atmospheric aerosol particles. Two papers describe the physical process of emission of primary marine aerosols. The large uncertainties in these processes are demonstrated by examining the diversity of existing parameterizations for emissions. Building from laboratory experiments to validation of model results with observations, new parameterizations are suggested. These take into account also effects of water temperature on primary marine aerosol production. In the third paper the main focus was to develop a new aerosol wet removal scheme in the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model FLEXPART. Removal timescales and atmospheric concentrations are found to be close to observation based estimates. The final two papers focus on atmospheric black carbon aerosols at high latitudes. As an example of increased human activities in the Arctic, local emissions from cruise ships visiting the research base in Ny Ålesund had demonstrable effects on the level of pollutants measured there. In contrast, inland Antarctic air was shown to be clean compared to the Arctic, due to the extremely long transport time from any major aerosol sources. The work done in this thesis has addressed critical uncertainties regarding the aerosol lifecycle, by better constraining aerosol emissions and atmospheric lifetimes. The development of the new wet removal scheme has improved FLEXPART model accuracy, which will be beneficial in future applications of the model.

  • 285.
    Grythe, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Finland; Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Norway.
    Virkkula, A.
    Backman, J.
    Aalto, P.
    Väänänen, R.
    Petäjä, T.
    Kerminen, V.-M.
    Busetto, M.
    Lanconelli, C.
    Lupi, A.
    Vitale, V.
    Montaguti, S.
    Udisti, R.
    Becagli, S.
    Ogren, J. A.
    Kulmala, M.
    Long-term measurements of aerosol optical properties and modeled aerosol transport paths at Dome C, AntarcticaManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 286.
    Guban, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Elfvving, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Sundelin, Brita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Genetic diversity in Monoporeia affinis at polluted and reference sites of the Baltic Bothnian Bay2015Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 93, nr 1-2, s. 245-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The amphipod Monoporeia affinis plays an important role in the Baltic Sea ecosystem as prey and as detritivore. The species is monitored for contaminant effects, but almost nothing is known about its genetics in this region. A pilot screening for genetic variation at the mitochondrial COI gene was performed in 113 individuals collected at six sites in the northern Baltic. Three coastal sites were polluted by pulp mill effluents, PAHs, and trace metals, and two coastal reference sites were without obvious connection to pollution sources. An off-coastal reference site was also included. Contaminated sites showed lower levels of genetic diversity than the coastal reference ones although the difference was not statistically significant. Divergence patterns measured as Phi(ST) showed no significant differentiation within reference and polluted groups, but there was significant genetic divergence between them. The off-coastal sample differed significantly from all coastal sites and also showed lower genetic variation.

  • 287.
    Gustafsson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Hagens, Mathilde
    Sun, Xiaole
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Reed, Daniel C.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Slomp, Caroline P.
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum, Baltic Nest Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Sedimentary alkalinity generation and long-term alkalinity development in the Baltic Sea2019Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 437-456Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhanced release of alkalinity from the seafloor, principally driven by anaerobic degradation of organic matter under low-oxygen conditions and associated secondary redox reactions, can increase the carbon dioxide (CO2) buffering capacity of seawater and therefore oceanic CO2 uptake. The Baltic Sea has undergone severe changes in oxygenation state and total alkalinity (TA) over the past decades. The link between these concurrent changes has not yet been investigated in detail. A recent system-wide TA budget constructed for the past 50 years using BALTSEM, a coupled physical-biogeochemical model for the whole Baltic Sea area, revealed an unknown TA source. Here we use BALTSEM in combination with observational data and one-dimensional reactive transport modelling of sedimentary processes in the Fårö Deep, a deep Baltic Sea basin, to test whether sulfate reduction coupled to iron (Fe) sulfide burial can explain the missing TA source in the Baltic Proper. We calculated that this burial can account for 26% of the missing source in this basin, with the remaining TA possibly originating from unknown river inputs or submarine groundwater discharge. We also show that temporal variability in the input of Fe to the sediments since the 1970s drives changes in sulfur burial in the Fårö Deep, suggesting that Fe availability is the ultimate limiting factor for TA generation under anoxic conditions. The implementation of projected climate change and two nutrient load scenarios for the 21st century in BALTSEM shows that reducing nutrient loads will improve deep water oxygen conditions, but at the expense of lower surface water TA concentrations, CO2 buffering capacities and faster acidification. When these changes additionally lead to a decrease in Fe inputs to the sediment of the deep basins, anaerobic TA generation will be reduced even further, thus exacerbating acidification. This work highlights that Fe dynamics play a key role in the release of TA from sediments where Fe sulfide formation is limited by Fe availability, as exemplified for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, it demonstrates that burial of Fe sulfides should be included in TA budgets of low oxygen basins.

  • 288.
    Gustafsson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Björk, Göran
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. University of New Hampshire, USA.
    Andersson, Leif G.
    Geibel, Marc C.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Semiletov, Igor P.
    Thornton, Brett F.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Carbon cycling on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf – a change in air-sea CO2 flux induced by mineralization of terrestrial organic carbon2017Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements from the SWERUS-C3 and ISSS-08 Arctic expeditions were used to calibrate and validate a new physical-biogeochemical model developed to quantify key carbon cycling processes on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS). The model was used in a series of experimental simulations with the specific aim to investigate the pathways of terrestrial dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOCter and POCter) supplied to the shelf. Rivers supply on average 8.5 Tg C yr−1 dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and further 8.5 and 1.1 Tg C yr−1 DOCter and POCter respectively. Based on observed and simulated DOC concentrations and stable isotope values (δ13CDOC) in shelf waters, we estimate that only some 20 % of the riverine DOCter is labile. According to our model results, an additional supply of approximately 14 Tg C yr−1 eroded labile POCter is however required to describe the observed stable isotope values of DIC (δ13CDIC). Degradation of riverine DOCter and POCter results in a 1.8 Tg C yr−1 reduction in the uptake of atmospheric CO2, while degradation of eroded POCter results in an additional 10 Tg C yr−1 reduction. Our calculations indicate nevertheless that the ESAS is an overall small net sink for atmospheric CO2 (1.7 Tg C yr−1). The external carbon sources are largely compensated by a net export from the shelf to the Arctic Ocean (31 Tg C yr−1), and to a smaller degree by a permanent burial in the sediments (2.7 Tg C yr−1).

  • 289. Gutzkow, K. B.
    et al.
    Duale, N.
    Danielsen, T.
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Shahzadi, S.
    Instanes, C.
    Olsen, A. -K.
    Steffensen, I. -L.
    Hofer, T.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Brunborg, G.
    Lindeman, B.
    Enhanced susceptibility of obese mice to glycidamide-induced sperm chromatin damage without increased oxidative stress2016Ingår i: Andrology, ISSN 2047-2919, E-ISSN 2047-2927, Vol. 4, nr 6, s. 1092-1114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diet-induced obesity is known to impair male reproduction and may aggravate the male reproductive toxicity of the food contaminant acrylamide. Exposure of male mice to acrylamide induces paternally mediated pre- and post-implantation losses because of spermatozoal toxicity and these effects are potentiated in mice fed a high-fat diet. Glycidamide - an acrylamide metabolite - is the primary mediator of reproductive effects in males. The mechanisms causing the interaction between diet and acrylamide are not clear. However, diet-induced obesity is associated with oxidative stress in male reproductive tissues which might contribute to increased germ cell susceptibility. In this study, we investigated whether a moderate diet-induced obesity regimen could interfere with glycidamide-induced spermatozoal toxicity and increase oxidative stress. For this purpose, sperm chromatin integrity, oxidised DNA and protein levels, transcript levels of oxidative stress responsive genes and glycidamide-induced DNA and haemoglobin adducts were analysed in samples from male mice exposed to a high-fat diet for 6 weeks in combination with a single glycidamide exposure 7 days prior to sacrifice. We found that glycidamide-induced sperm DNA fragmentation was markedly higher in obese than in lean mice. However, the levels of oxidised DNA and/or protein in blood, liver and testicular tissue was lower in obese than in lean mice. Accompanying the reduced level of oxidised macromolecules, the transcript levels of several oxidative stress-related genes were altered in the liver and testis from obese mice suggesting induction of an antioxidant response in these animals. The haemoglobin-glycidamide adduct levels were higher in obese than in lean animals, whereas obesity did not seem to increase the level of glycidamide-induced DNA adducts. These findings show that a moderate diet-induced obesity regimen may potentiate glycidamide-induced sperm cells toxicity and suggest that the increase in glycidamide-induced sperm toxicity observed in obese mice does not depend on overt oxidative stress.

  • 290. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sandblom, Oskar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Berger, Urs
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Lignell, Sanna
    Wiberg, Karin
    Glynn, Anders
    Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) in Children's Serum and Contribution from PFAA-Contaminated Drinking Water2019Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 19, s. 11447-11457Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated associations between serum perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations in children aged 4, 8, and 12 years (sampled in 2008-2015; n = 57, 55, and 119, respectively) and exposure via placental transfer, breastfeeding, and ingestion of PFAA-contaminated drinking water. Sampling took place in Uppsala County, Sweden, where the drinking water has been historically contaminated with perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). PFOS showed the highest median concentrations in serum (3.8-5.3 ng g(-1) serum), followed by PFHxS (1.6-5.0 ng g(-1) serum), PFOA (2.0-2.5 ng g(-1) serum), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) (0.59-0.69 ng g(-1) serum) in children. Including all children, serum PFOA, PFHxS, and PFOS concentrations (adjusted mean), respectively, per unit (ng g(-1) serum) of increase in the maternal serum level (at delivery), the associations being strongest for 4 year-old children. PFHxS and PFOS significantly increased 3.9 and 3.8%, respectively, per month of nursing, with the highest increase for 4 year-olds. PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, and PFOS increased 1.2, 207, 7.4, and 0.93%, respectively, per month of cumulative drinking water exposure. Early life exposure to PFOA, PFHxS, and PFOS is an important determinant of serum concentrations in children, with the strongest influence on younger ages. Drinking water with low to moderate PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA contamination is an important source of exposure for children with background exposure from other sources.

  • 291. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sandblom, Oskar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Berger, Urs
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Lignell, Sanna
    Wiberg, Karin
    Glynn, Anders
    Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) in Serum from 2-4-Month-Old Infants: Influence of Maternal Serum Concentration, Gestational Age, Breast-Feeding, and Contaminated Drinking Water2018Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, nr 12, s. 7101-7110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about factors influencing infant perfluorinated alkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations. Associations between serum PFAA concentrations in 2-4-month-old infants (n = 101) and determinants were investigated by multiple linear regression and general linear model analysis. In exclusively breastfed infants, maternal serum PFAA concentrations 3 weeks after delivery explained 13% (perfluoroundecanoic acid, PFUnDA) to 73% (perfluorohexanesulfonate, PFHxS) of infant PFAA concentration variation. Median infant/maternal ratios decreased with increasing PFAA carbon chain length from 2.8 for perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to 0.53 for PFUnDA and from 1.2 to 0.69 for PFHxS and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Infant PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and PFOS levels increased 0.7-1.2% per day of gestational age. Bottle-fed infants had mean concentrations of PFAAs 2 times lower than and a mean percentage of branched (%br) PFOS isomers 1.3 times higher than those of exclusively breast-fed infants. PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS levels increased 8-11% per week of exclusive breast-feeding. Infants living in an area receiving PFAA-contaminated drinking water had 3-fold higher mean perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) and PFHxS concentrations and higher mean %br PFHxS. Prenatal PFAA exposure and postnatal PFAA exposure significantly contribute to infant PFAA serum concentrations, depending on PFAA carbon chain length. Moderately PFBS- and PFHxS-contaminated drinking water is an important indirect exposure source.

  • 292. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    McCleaf, Philip
    Euren, Karin
    Eriksson, Sara
    Ahlgren, Sven
    Lignell, Sanna
    Aune, Marie
    Kotova, Natalia
    Glynn, Anders
    Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum - A case study from Uppsala, Sweden2015Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 140, s. 673-683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high Sigma PFAA levels (> 100 ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala.

  • 293. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Diderholm, Barbro
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    Ridefelt, Peter
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Lignell, Sanna
    Lampa, Erik
    Glynn, Anders
    Perfluoroalkyl acid levels in first-time mothers in relation to offspring weight gain and growth2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 111, s. 191-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated if maternal body burdens of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) at the time of delivery are associated with birth outcome and if early life exposure (in utero/nursing) is associated with early childhood growth and weight gain. Maternal PFAA body burdens were estimated by analysis of serum samples from mothers living in Uppsala County, Sweden (POPUP), sampled three weeks after delivery between 1996 and 2011. Data on child length and weight were collected from medical records and converted into standard deviation scores (SDS). Multiple linear regression models with appropriate covariates were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA levels and birth outcomes (n = 381). After birth Generalized Least Squares models were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA and child growth (n = 200). Inverse associations were found between maternal levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and birth weight SDS with a change of - 0.10 to - 0.18 weight SDS for an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in ng/g PFAA. After birth, weight and length SDS were not significantly associated with maternal PFAA. However, BMI SDS was significantly associated with PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS at 3 and 4 years of age, and with PFOS at 4 and 5 years of age. If causal, these associations suggest that PFAA affects fetal and childhood body development in different directions.

  • 294.
    Göktas, Recep Kaya
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Kocaeli University, Turkey.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants in the multi-media global environment2016Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 217, s. 33-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying the remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can inform the design of monitoring studies and the interpretation of measurement data. Previous work on quantifying remoteness has not explicitly considered partitioning between the gas phase and aerosols, and between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. The objective of this study is to present a metric of remoteness for POPs transported through the atmosphere calculated with a global multimedia fate model, BETR-Research. We calculated the remoteness of regions covering the entire globe from emission sources distributed according to light emissions, and taking into account the multimedia partitioning properties of chemicals and using averaged global climate data. Remoteness for hypothetical chemicals with distinct partitioning properties (volatile, seimi-volatile, hydrophilic, low-volatility) and having two different half-lives in air (60-day and 2-day) are presented. Differences in remoteness distribution among the hypothetical chemicals are most pronounced in scenarios assuming 60-day half-life in air. In scenarios with a 2-day half-life in air, degradation dominates over wet and dry deposition processes as a pathway for atmospheric removal of all chemicals except the low-volatility chemical. The remoteness distribution of the low-volatility chemical is strongly dependent on assumptions about degradability on atmospheric aerosols. Calculations that considered seasonal variability in temperature, hydroxyl radical concentrations in the atmosphere and global atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns indicate that variability in hydroxyl radical concentrations largely determines the seasonal variability of remoteness. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in tree bark from around the world are more highly correlated with remoteness calculated using our methods than with proximity to human population, and we see considerable potential to apply remoteness calculations for interpretation of monitoring data collected under programs such as the Stockholm Convention Global Monitoring Plan.

  • 295. Hagemann, Stefan
    et al.
    Blome, Tanja
    Ekici, Altug
    Beer, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Soil-frost-enabled soil-moisture-precipitation feedback over northern high latitudes2016Ingår i: Earth System Dynamics, ISSN 2190-4979, E-ISSN 2190-4987, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 611-625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. The currently observed global warming is most pronounced in the Arctic region and is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input. This warming will certainly have effects on the ecosystems of the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of such effects, however, is still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, including several feedback mechanisms between land and atmosphere. In this study we contribute to increasing our understanding of such land-atmosphere interactions using an Earth system model (ESM) which includes a representation of cold-region physical soil processes, especially the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water on thermal and hydrological states and processes. The coupled atmosphere-land models of the ESM of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, MPI-ESM, have been driven by prescribed observed SST and sea ice in an AMIP2-type setup with and without newly implemented cold-region soil processes. Results show a large improvement in the simulated discharge. On the one hand this is related to an improved snowmelt peak of runoff due to frozen soil in spring. On the other hand a subsequent reduction in soil moisture enables a positive feedback to precipitation over the high latitudes, which reduces the model's wet biases in precipitation and evapotranspiration during the summer. This is noteworthy as soil-moisture-atmosphere feedbacks have previously not been the focus of research on the high latitudes. These results point out the importance of high-latitude physical processes at the land surface for regional climate.

  • 296. Hansen, Solrunn
    et al.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Herzke, Dorte
    Melhus, Marita
    Evenset, Anita
    Hanssen, Linda
    Brustad, Magritt
    Sandanger, Torkjel M.
    Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances through the consumption of fish from lakes affected by aqueous film-forming foam emissions - A combined epidemiological and exposure modeling approach. The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study2016Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 94, s. 272-282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Releases of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) from airport firefighting activities have been identified as important local point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in nearby waterways. PFASs can be taken up by fish, and in turn by the humans that consume them. Despite the global extent of AFFF emissions, few studies exist on related impacts on humans. We aimed to investigate the associations between the consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations in humans using a combination of statistical tools, empirical data, and toxicokinetic modeling. Participants of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study were the basis far this study sample, which comprised 74 persons. Fifty-nine participants who reported consuming fish from AFFF-affected waters and 15 nonconsumers completed a questionnaire and gave serum samples. Participants were classified based on their consumption of trout and char: high (n = 16), moderate (n = 16), low (n = 27), and nonconsumers (n = 15); and serum samples were tested for the presence of 15 PFASs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic add (PFOS) was found in all participants, with the highest concentrations detected in the high consumption group (geometric means, 28 ng/mL) compared to the low consumption group and nonconsumers (10 and 11 ng/mL, respectively). In an analysis of variance contrast model, a significant, positive increasing trend was seen for fish consumption and PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). Toxicokinetic modeling allowed us to predict the median increases in serum concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA among high consumers within a factor of 2.2. The combination of statistical evaluation and toxicokinetic modeling clearly demonstrated a positive relationship between consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations. Further studies on dietary exposure to other PFASs present in AFFF and its consequences on human health are warranted.

  • 297. Hanson, M. L.
    et al.
    Wolff, B. A.
    Green, J. W.
    Kivi, M.
    Panter, G. H.
    Warne, M. St J.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sumpter, J. P.
    How we can make ecotoxicology more valuable to environmental protection2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 578, s. 228-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing awareness that the value of peer-reviewed scientific literature is not consistent, resulting in a growing desire to improve the practice and reporting of studies. This is especially important in the field of ecotoxicology, where regulatory decisions can be partly based on data from the peer-reviewed literature, with wide-reaching implications for environmental protection. Our objective is to improve the reporting of ecotoxicology studies so that they can be appropriately utilized in a fair and transparent fashion, based on their reliability and relevance. We propose a series of nine reporting requirements, followed by a set of recommendations for adoption by the ecotoxicology community. These reporting requirements will provide clarity on the the test chemical, experimental design and conditions, chemical identification, test organisms, exposure confirmation, measurable endpoints, how data are presented, data availability and statistical analysis. Providing these specific details will allow for a fuller assessment of the reliability and relevance of the studies, including limitations. Recommendations for the implementation of these reporting requirements are provided herein for practitioners, journals, reviewers, regulators, stakeholders, funders, and professional societies. If applied, our recommendations will improve the quality of ecotoxicology studies and their value to environmental protection.

  • 298.
    Hanson, Marsha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Provningsjämförelse 2015-1 Metaller och spårämnen2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 299.
    Hanson, Marsha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Provningsjämförelse 2015-2 Suspenderade ämnen2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 300.
    Hanson, Marsha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Provningsjämförelse 2015-3 Närsalter2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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