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  • 2701.
    Walters, Jamie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Mid Sweden University.
    Kanter, Theo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Context-Relational Approach for the Internet of Things2012In: EMERGING 2012, The Fourth International Conference on Emerging Network Intelligence / [ed] Michael D. Logothetis, Tulin Atmaca, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2012, p. 49-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-centric applications and services are premised on the ability to readily respond to changes in context. Centralized approaches to enabling this are undermined by their dependencies on DNS naming services while decentralized approaches using DHT variants have been centred on the provisioning of the underlying context information, creating information-centric rather than context-centric solutions. A dynamic Internet of Things mandates a new paradigm; approaches storing, discovering and associating context entities relevant to their context state. In this paper, we explore such a paradigm, and with the implementation of a prototype, show the advantages of moving towards the notion of context-state centricity on the Internet of Things.

  • 2702. Walters, Jamie
    et al.
    Kanter, Theo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Evolving Presentity-Based Context Schemas by Estimating Context Proximity2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2703. Walters, Jamie
    et al.
    Kanter, Theo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Norling, Roger
    Distributed Context Models in Support of Ubiquitous Mobile Awareness Services2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2704.
    Walters, Jamie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kanter, Theo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rahmani, Rahim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Relational Context Proximity Query Language2015In: Mobile Networks and Management: Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Ramón Agüero et al., Berlin: Springer, 2015, no 1, p. 277-289Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of applications and services realising massive immersive participation require the provisioning of current, relevant and accurate context information. These applications benefit from access to this highly dynamic information in real time. Existing approaches to provisioning context information are limited by their interpretation of context relationships as address book solutions thus limiting the discovering of related entities. We introduce the context proximity query language (CPQL) for querying context related entities on distributed across collections of remote endpoints. As a declarative query language (CPQL) is similar in structure to SQL and describes the relationships between entities as distance functions between their associated context information. We simulate CPQL and show that it offers improvements over existing approaches while scaling well.

  • 2705.
    Walters, Jamie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kanter, Theo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rahmani, Rahim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Adaptive Information Provisioning in Distributed Context Centric Architectures2014In: International Journal of Computer Science Issues, ISSN 1694-0784, E-ISSN 1694-0814, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 10-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The provisioning of user context information between service endpoints is central to realizing massive immersive participation on an Internet of Things. This information must in turn be provisioned to endpoints with minimal overhead costs. Where this is achieved through centralized repositories of context information there arises issues of scalability and availability. Where distributed approaches have been proposed, information dissemination has been optimized relative to the underlying network properties. In this paper we extend the Distributed Context Protocol (DCXP) to support subscriptions relative to an entity-application-entity triple, minimizing the number of subscriptions required and through application specific optimization minimize the overall cost of delivering user context information to service endpoints.

  • 2706.
    Walters, Jamie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kanter, Theo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rahmani, Rahim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Establishing Multi-Criteria Context Relations Supporting Ubiquitous Immersive Participation2013In: International Journal of Ad Hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 0976-2205, E-ISSN 0976-1764, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 59-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immersive Participationentails massive participatory activities in the Internetengaging people, places and objects. This ispremised on the existence of an Internet of Things infrastructure supporting applications and services with the same richness of experience as the World Wide Web. This in turn presupposes the existence of models for establishing and maintaining context relations. Where these models do exist, they impose a limited interpretation of context relations in the presence of the inherent heterogeneous and dynamic characteristics of the supporting information. In this paper we introduce an approach towards establishing context relations through the use of an improved context relational model permitting a wider, more complete range of application specific scenarios. Additionally, wederive a measure of context proximity that considers the situation, attributes, relations, accuracy and heterogeneity of both the underlying information and the vast array of requirements for metrics supporting application problem domains

  • 2707.
    Walters, Jamie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kanter, Theo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rahmani, Rahim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Supporting Context-Centric Relationships in Heterogeneous Environments2013In: International Journal of Computer Science Issues, ISSN 1694-0784, E-ISSN 1694-0814, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive Immersive Participation is enriched through the use of context information describing the dynamic states and relations among people places and things. This in turn mandates the creation of methods and models for establishing and supporting these relationships. Previous approaches are undermined by their limited interpretation of context centric relations and subsequently do not offer support for multi-criteria relationships. In this paper, we extend on our previous work on establishing multi-criteria context relationships, to adding the support required for maintaining these relationships over heterogeneous and dynamic context information. We introduce a query language that supports an extended publish-subscribe approach and define solutions for maintaining, evaluating and adjusting these relationships while minimizing overall costs.

  • 2708. Walters, Jamie
    et al.
    Kanter, Theo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Savioli, Enrico
    A Distributed Framework for Organizing an Internet of Things2011In: The 3rd International ICST Conference on Mobile Lightweight Wireless Systems, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2709.
    Wang, Jiabao
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Factors Hindering Business-IT Alignment in Small and Medium Enterprises in China2018In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 138, p. 425-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business-IT alignment (BITA) continues to be important for organizations and has received a considerable attention during the last 25 years from academic research. The organizational size has already been found to affect business-IT alignment but there are still a fewer research studies exploring BITA in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) compared with those studies done on large-size companies. Moreover the previous research studies have less focused on understanding the existing factors hindering BITA in SMEs particularly in China. Especially in regards to China, where there are millions of SMEs that are facing different challenges in achieving and sustaining their business-IT alignment. Therefore, case studies have been conducted in three SMEs in China that have no more than 250 employees and their turnover does not exceed 50 million annually. The data has been collected through semi-structured interviews with managers in these SMEs and also from SMEs internal documents and then analyzed thematically. The results of this study are a number of 26 factors hindering BITA in SMEs in China including seven new factors that are hindering BITA in these SMEs. The findings of this study could help researchers but also business and IT practitioners to understand the factors that are hindering BITA in Chinese SMEs and the actions to be taken for aligning business and IT strategy.

  • 2710.
    Wang, Jinyi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Crafting Movement: Moving Image Collections for Interaction Design2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis conceptualises, investigates, and reflects on the moving image design space in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Motivated by the increasing number of videos, films, and animations produced in the field, the thesis recognizes moving image making as a designerly way of inquiry across research and practice, and argues for the importance of moving image as a research topic in interaction design. 

    The first contribution of this thesis is the conceptualization of the moving image design space. The growing body of moving images, varying in forms and purposes, can be held together to establish a foundation of knowledge that informs and generates new research and practice. We identify four collections of existing works and their different roles, namely moving image as design technique, design element, design exhibit, and design promotion. The second contribution is the manifestation of moving image making through concrete design studies. These exemplars empirically demonstrate how they investigate, enrich, and challenge the four established collections, and ultimately expand the moving image design space. 

    These contributions not only provide new knowledge on moving images for better understanding their various roles in interaction design and making works that respond to emerging design opportunities, but also foreground the discussion on the mediation aspect of moving image in HCI.

  • 2711.
    Wang, Jinyi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Exploring the Alternative Means to Communicate Interaction Design Research2014In: DIS Companion '14 - Proceedings of the 2014 companion publication on Designing interactive systems, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 157-162Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the author's doctoral study that intends to explore alternative means to communicate interactions design research with focus on the communication of hybrid interactions. This exploration is realized by proposing and validating different approaches in various design cases. The processes and outcomes contribute to the ongoing discussion in the interaction design community on bridging the gap between research and design, in particular, in designing hybrid interactive systems.

  • 2712.
    Wang, Jinyi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hughes, Nathan
    Object2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2713.
    Wang, Jinyi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Juhlin, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Banka Johnson, Eva-Carin
    Previsualization with Computer Animation (Previs): Communicating Research to Interaction Design Practice2014In: Proceedings of the 26th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference on Designing Futures: the Future of Design, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 11-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been growing concern about a gap between HCI research and industrial practitioners. We review methods proposed in HCI for enhancing communication between researchers and designers, and propose previsualization animation, borrowed from the movie industry, as an additional means to support this communication. The potential benefit is investigated through a process of designing and producing an animated film for a design research project at a furniture company and gathering initial user feedback. We argue that a technique that accounts for interaction dynamics and provisionality and that supports brevity and mobility can communicate design research in an inspirational manner to practitioners. However we also identified a remaining difference in the two groups' expectations about the animation, with researchers wanting it to be more research-like and practitioners wanting it to be more production-oriented.

  • 2714.
    Wang, Jinyi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Juhlin, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Blomgren, Erika
    Bågander, Linnea
    Kägo, Evelin
    Meier, Florian
    Takahashi, Mariko
    Thornquist, Clemens
    Design space of the new materials for fashionable wearables2016In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services Adjunct, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 1159-1162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a design workshop that explores the future of fashionable wearable technology focusing on aesthetics. The results of the workshop include four fashion design concepts and the implications emerged from the discussions on each concept during the workshop. These implications open up new design space of technologies and materials that account for aesthetics beyond traditional fabric, i.e. transparency, scale, irregularity, movement, contextual expressions and fashion intelligence.

  • 2715.
    Wang, Jinyi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Juhlin, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hughes, Nathan
    Fashion Film as Design Fiction for Wearable Concepts2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 461-461Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This video presents a design fiction in the form of a fashion film. It intends to mediate a design concept for a smartwatch that can change its colors and patterns to fit in the wearer's dress ensemble, which has been reported previously [1]. We see an increased interest in HCI to design fashionable wearables. However, visually appealing designs are not necessarily considered fashionable. We are motivated by the fundamental role of fashion media in transforming clothing items into fashionable garments. Fashion film, as one of the most important fashion media in the industry today, has the potential to represent wearable design concepts and to speak to a fashion-oriented audience within and beyond HCI.

  • 2716.
    Wang, Jinyi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Karlström, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mobility and multi-modality: An exploratory study of tablet use in interaction design learning2012In: / [ed] M. Specht, M. Sharples J. Multisilta, 2012, p. 276-279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tablet computers contain affordances that could make them particularly useful for students in interaction design. However, there is a lack of research and guidelines on how to integrate mobile tablets in learning. In this paper, we aim to gain understanding on the use of tablets in interaction design education by conducting a case study in an undergraduate class in interaction design. We frame our results in five features of mobile devices. Mobility and multi-modality stood out as the most distinct features of tablets in interaction design education.

  • 2717.
    Wang, Jinyi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mughal, Mudassar Ahmad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    LiveNature: Connecting People with Their Cherished Places2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 Companion Publication on Designing Interactive Systems, Vancouver: ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 113-116Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2718.
    Wang, Jinyi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mughal, Mudassar Ahmad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Juhlin, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Experiencing Liveness of a Cherished Place in the Home2015In: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Interactive Experiences for TV and Online Video, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 3-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liveness, as discussed in HCI and in media studies, focuses on an intriguing and beloved experiential quality that can influence new forms of video applications. We suggest a shift from accounts of liveness in "events" to liveness in ambient media for home décor by designing a system called TransLive that exploits the "magic" of mediatizing the "now" at a distant and cherished place. We present an interview study including four families, who experienced the system for two weeks each in a concept apartment setting. It shows how immediacy and unpredictability provide compelling experiences. Authenticity and engagement, which are previously considered as inherent qualities in live media, instead occur in the context of use. Finally, the experience of transcendence triggered by slow and continuous video streams open up a new design space of liveness. Thus, not only do we take inspiration from liveness theory, but we also need to redefine it.

  • 2719.
    Wang, Jinyi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    User Participatory Sketching in User Requirements Gathering2012In: ICIC Express Letters: An International Journal of Research and Surveys, ISSN 1881-803X, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 3055-3059Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2720.
    Wang, Jinyi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kuoppala, Hannu
    User Participatory Sketching: A Complementary Approach to Gather User Requirements2012In: Proceedings of the 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2721. Wang, Xueqin
    et al.
    Al Sabbagh, Bilal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kowalski, Stewart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Socio-Technical Framework for Threat Modeling A Software Supply Chain2013In: The 2013 Dewald Roode Workshop on Information Systems Security Research, IFIP WG8.11/WG11.13: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Anthony Vance, International Federation for Information Processing, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest a possible threat modeling approach for software supply chain. A Socio-technical approach is discussed and applied for modeling software supply chain security based on a case study of Swedish armed forces (SWAF). First we review current practices and theories for threat modeling of software supply chain. Then we suggest the application of a socio-technical framework for studying software supply chain security problem from a systemic viewpoint. Afterward we propose a step-by-step approach for threat modeling including modeling the target system, identifying threats and analyzing countermeasures. We also present a Delphi groups validation of the socio-technical framework.

  • 2722. Wang, Yanan
    et al.
    Lou, Shijian
    Gong, Hebo
    Xu, Fei
    Chen, Ruija
    Liu, Shuai
    Hansen, Preben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    SKIN+: Fabricating Soft Fluidic User Interfaces for Enhancing On-Skin Experiences and Interactions2018In: CHI EA '18, Extended Abstracts of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, article id LBW111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human skin is the largest organ on our body not only senses and external environment. A growing number of researchers devote themselves to design seamless interfaces directly on skin. In this late-breaking work, we propose a novel way for creating dynamic 2.5D skin textures, called SKIN+, a soft fluidic mini-scale user interface by introducing fluidic actuation. We have created four swatches with different pre-defined textures, topologies and structures to explore how this fluidic actuation system can benefit on-skin experiences and interactions. Our work details the intriguing experiences and interactions and future applications of on-skin wearables. Our work also extends the expressiveness, aesthetics and design space of soft fluidic interface as skin decoration and beauty technology.

  • 2723. Wang, Yanan
    et al.
    Luo, Shijian
    Liu, Shuai
    Lu, Yuija
    Hansen, Preben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Crafting Concrete as a Material for Enhancing Meaningful Interactions2017In: Human-Computer Interaction. User Interface Design, Development and Multimodality: Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Springer, 2017, p. 634-644Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is a composite material mostly used for the buildings and road surfaces ever since early human history, and which also can be used in contemporary product design as its unique aesthetic properties. In this paper, we present a series of small-scale explorations of concrete crafted as a central material, first utilizing its hygroscopicity interacting as an ephemeral and dynamic display; and secondly eliciting tactile interaction for its unique surface textures. Through hands-on engagement to unveil concrete potential when fabricated with digital technologies, we discuss how this large-scale and ubiquitous material could bring particular and intriguing experiences in our everyday lives, most importantly how can the potential of concrete be framed and described and enhance meaningful concrete reflections within HCI community.

  • 2724. Wang, Yanan
    et al.
    Luo, Shijian
    Lu, Yujia
    Gong, Hebo
    Zhou, Yexing
    Liu, Shuai
    Hansen, Preben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    AnimSkin: Fabricating Epidermis with Interactive, Functional and Aesthetic Color Animation2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 397-401Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human epidermis, as the largest organ on body, has become a new design platform for wearable computing. The availability of miniature electronics makes more possibilities for on-skin designs. In this paper, we present AnimSkin, a thin-film interface, which will emit dynamic color animations directly on skin. This is done by using thermochromic material embedded with transparent electrode acting as a capacitive sensor. Moreover, an accessible and low-cost fabrication method is introduced. Individuals could also customize aesthetic graphic designs by following the detailed fabrication process to achieve personalized patterns. We propose four different dynamic types of color animation by applying certain voltage to the heating circuitry. With two examples, Email Reminder and Light Control System, we demonstrate how AnimSkin can be integrated into everyday life, and specifically, we show how AnimSkin can benefit areas such as on-skin design, thin-film interface and beauty technology.

  • 2725. Wang, Yanbo
    et al.
    Min, Qingfei
    Han, Shengnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Understanding the effects of trust and risk on individual behavior toward social media platforms: A meta-analysis of the empirical evidence2016In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 56, p. 34-44Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trust and risk have been theorized and empirically approved as the most influential factors affecting individual behavior toward social media platforms (SMPs). However, the evidence is scattered and the understanding of the effects is ambiguous:To address this problem, a rigorous and quantitative meta analysis was conducted to investigate the empirical evidence of 43 studies in information systems research between 2006 and 2014. The findings suggested that trust and risk both had significant effects on individual behavior toward SMPs but that trust had a stronger effect. Moderating effects of trust objects (community members vs. platforms) and platform types (virtual communities vs. social networking sites) were found. Surprisingly, culture was found to exert no moderating effect. This paper contributes more generalized knowledge to social media research literature to the theory with regard to the influence of trust and risk on individual behavior toward SMPs. The knowledge serves as the foundation for future research efforts in social media. Implications for practice are discussed.

  • 2726. Wanjira, Judith
    et al.
    Hallberg, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Systems for improved social (e-)care provision2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2727.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cues and insinuations: Indicating affordances of non-player characters using visual indicators2015In: Proceedings of DiGRA 2015: Diversity of play: Games – Cultures – Identities, Digital Games Research Association , 2015, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-player characters (NPCs) provide an important service in video games in that they provide an active connection to the narrative through their behavior, as if they were actors in a play. In this study, we aim to explore in what ways the visual appearance of an NPC affects how players perceive their role in the game, and what criteria players use to evaluate the role of NPCs based on visual information. This is done by performing a survey of players, where the respondents are asked to determine the role that a number of NPCs had given their visual appearance, and describe how they decided the roles of the NPCs.

  • 2728.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mind the Gap: Exploring the social capability of non-player characters2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the most important factors governing enjoyment of computer games is immersion, or the feeling the player has of being in the game world. This feeling allows the player to be transported into the world of the game, where they can experience grand adventures and riveting tales. Many factors contribute to the feeling of immersion, but as with any story-based experience the actors in the story are of the utmost importance. If the actors perform poorly, however, the player's feeling of immersion will be lessened, and the game will become less entertaining. Therefore, the Non-Player Characters (NPCs) inhabiting the game world must act in such a way that they are perceived as believable. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, and NPCs often disrupts the player's feeling of immersion. The purpose of this research is to describe how we can create NPCs who behave in ways that are conducive to player immersion, and who better portray the story of the game. This is done by identifying the current issues affecting the believability of NPC behavior. Over the course of the studies described in this thesis, we have developed a method by which problematic behaviors can be identified and described. This was done by studying NPCs in modern games using video recordings, and using an analytical tool to identify the specific factors that affect the believability of their behavior. In the end, we identified a number of such factors that affect the believability of NPCs, chief among them the inability of NPCs to perceive the world. By improving the way in which NPCs perceive the world, and more importantly how players perceive that NPCs perceive the world, we can greatly improve NPC believability.

  • 2729.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The Non-Player Character: Exploring the believability of NPC presentation and behavior2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades there has been immense growth in the video game industry, and we have seen great improvements in both graphics and audio. Unfortunately, the development of artificial intelligence (AI) and non-player characters (NPCs) has not proceeded at the same pace. Although there have undoubtedly been improvements, the field as a whole has lagged behind its siblings.

    Many of the problems with NPCs stem from the fact that they do not achieve a sufficient level of believability, particularly in the social arena. This is primarily related to the fact that the NPCs do not behave in ways that align with the expectations of the player. This can lead to the player misunderstanding the role and purpose of the NPC, which damages the believability of the game. By extension, this lessens the enjoyment the player can derive from the game. Hence, it is imperative that the design of the NPC be in line with player expectations.

    This thesis takes a holistic view of NPCs, encompassing their design, evaluation, and player perceptions. It uses a design science methodology, and primarily uses qualitative and interpretative methods. It will provide a description of the various types of NPCs found in games, what their design elements are, and how they are interpreted by players.

  • 2730.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Analyzing the believability of game character behavior using the Game Agent Matrix2014In: Proceedings of DiGRA 2013: DeFragging Game Studies, Digital Games Research Association , 2014, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been significant improvement in the simpler actions performed by characters in computer games – such as navigating the world and attacking enemies and similar actions. In previous work, the ability of NPCs to adapt to changing circumstances was found to be inadequate in many circumstances. In order to validate these findings we have studied a total of 20 games, observing NPC behavior in each of the games in many different situations, ranging from everyday town life to combat. Using the Game Agent Matrix, we found a number of different behavior categories related to the social context of the agent and its behavior within that context indicating a gap between the most convincing behavior was focused around navigating the world, using tools and using language, as well as more complex behavior such as social sanctions and ranking, connected to the narrative of the game. The middle ground, containing behaviors such as dynamic group formation and the ability to perceive the actions of others were generally seen as unconvincing.

  • 2731.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Strååt, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A method for comparing NPC social ability2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of game developers has for a long time been the audiovisual fidelity of the games, but some researchers claim that artificial intelligence (AI) will be the next step in improving the player experience in games. However, there is as of yet a lack of ways of measuring comparing the believability of non-player character (NPC) behavior in games. In order to rectify this we present a method which can be used to create a typology of NPC behavior believability. Our method uses the Carley & Newell fractionation matrix to describe how advanced the behavior of a game’s NPCs is. This is then recorded in a format that can be compared by simple logic operations.

  • 2732.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Strååt, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Breaking immersion by creating social unbelievabilty2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last 20 years, computer games and virtual worlds have made great advances when it comes to audiovisual fidelity. However, this alone is not sufficient to make the games seem believable -- the game world must also seem to be alive. In order to accomplish this, the world must be populated by realistic characters who behave in a coherent and varied way. Many game developers seem to realize this, and the capacity of the artificial intelligence controlled non-player characters in the games are often large selling points. However, as pointed out by recent research these opponents do not always exhibit realistic, coherent and varied behaviour. We have examined this phenomenon by analysing a number of games where non-player characters are especially important for the players' enjoyment, and established six anti-heuristics that can be used to identify non-desirable behaviour in non-player characters.

  • 2733.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A model of non-player character believabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we aim to describe in what ways non-player characters (NPCs) affect believability. To this end, we have conducted an online survey, where respondents were asked to classify and describe NPCs. Furthermore, we also examined recordings of NPCs in games. These data sources were examined using a model for NPC believability in order to describe the effect on believability by different types of NPCs. Based on this, we were able to construct a model of NPC believability, based on the NPC’s level of complexity and ability to handle a mutable social context. As described by the model, NPCs are currently less capable of handling changing social contexts. They do, however, show promise, and given current emerging technologies it is feasible that new types of more socially capable NPCs will arise within the near future.

  • 2734.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A model of non-player character believability2017In: Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, ISSN 1757-191X, E-ISSN 1757-1928, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 39-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we aim to describe in what ways non-player characters (NPCs) affect believability. To this end, we have conducted an online survey, where respondents were asked to classify and describe NPCs. Furthermore, we also examined recordings of NPCs in games. These data sources were examined using a model for NPC believability in order to describe the effect on believability by different types of NPCs. Based on this, we were able to construct a model of NPC believability, based on the NPC’s level of complexity and ability to handle a mutable social context. As described by the model, NPCs are currently less capable of handling changing social contexts. They do, however, show promise, and given current emerging technologies it is feasible that new types of more socially capable NPCs will arise within the near future.

  • 2735.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A typology of non-player characters2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-player characters (NPCs) critically impact the experience of the game, and must help uphold the player's feeling of immersion. To avoid negatively impacting the player's sense of immersion, the NPCs must be designed in ways that are in line with the player's expectation on the game, and must fulfill the interaction conventions of games. In this article, we present a typology that provide descriptions of the various types of NPCs found in games, and their design features. This typology was created based on previous work by Bartle (2004) and Warpefelt and Verhagen (2015), which was verified and expanded on using an online survey. The end product can be used to describe NPCs and their design features, primarily for analytical purposes but possibly also as a basis for procedural content generation.

  • 2736.
    Warpefelt, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Towards an updated typology of non-player character roles2015In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference Computer Graphics, Visualization, Computer Vision and Image Processing / [ed] Piet Kommers, Pedro Isaías, Heredina Fernandez Betancort, International Association for Development of the Information Society , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In video games, non-player characters (NPCs) provide important services in that they facilitate the player's interaction with the game in a way that is in accordance with the expectations set by the narrative. It is, however, still unclear in what ways these NPCs must act, look, and feel in order to fulfill these expectations. In this study we aim to establish a typology of the roles NPCs play in games, building on a previous typology by Bartle (2004) aimed at providing a framework for describing the requirements put on NPCs by these expectations. This was done via an online survey, where respondents were asked to classify NPCs in images from 4 games, and to provide a description of why they classified it as belonging to a certain role. The results of the survey were the analyzed for instances where players expressed confusion about which role an NPC belonged to. These findings were used to update the previous typology. The results from this were later verified by applying the new typology to 10 other games. In the end we identified a number of new roles, as well as modifications to existing roles, which when combined with Bartle’s original typology created a typology applicable to a larger number of genres.

  • 2737.
    Weegar, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Casillas, Arantza
    Diaz de Ilarraza, Arantza
    Oronoz, Maite
    Pérez, Alicia
    Gojenola, Koldo
    The impact of simple feature engineering in multilingual medical NER2016In: Proceedings of the Clinical Natural Language Processing Workshop (ClinicalNLP), 2016, article id W16-4201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this paper is to examine the impact of simple feature engineering mechanisms before applying more sophisticated techniques to the task of medical NER. Sometimes papers using scientifically sound techniques present raw baselines that could be improved adding simple and cheap features. This work focuses on entity recognition for the clinical domain for three languages: English, Swedish and Spanish. The task is tackled using simple features, starting from the window size, capitalization, prefixes, and moving to POS and semantic tags. This work demonstrates that a simple initial step of feature engineering can improve the baseline results significantly. Hence, the contributions of this paper are: first, a short list of guidelines well supported with experimental results on three languages and, second, a detailed description of the relevance of these features for medical NER.

  • 2738.
    Weegar, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Creating a rule based system for text mining of Norwegian breast cancer pathology reports2015In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Health Text Mining and Information Analysis, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2015, p. 73-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    National cancer registries collect cancer related information from multiple sources and make it available for research. Part of this information originates from pathology reports, and in this pre-study the possibility of a system for automatic extraction of information from Norwegian pathology reports is investigated. A set of 40 pathology reports describing breast cancer tissue samples has been used to develop a rule based system for information extraction. To validate the performance of this system its output has been compared to the data produced by experts doing manual encoding of the same pathology reports. On average, a precision of 80%, a recall of 98% and an F-score of 86% has been achieved, showing that such a system is indeed feasible.

  • 2739.
    Weegar, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kvist, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sundström, Karin
    Brunak, Søren
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Finding Cervical Cancer Symptoms in Swedish Clinical Text using a Machine Learning Approach and NegEx2015In: AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, American Medical Informatics Association , 2015, p. 1296-1305Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of early symptoms in cervical cancer is crucial for early treatment and survival. To find symptoms of cervical cancer in clinical text, Named Entity Recognition is needed. In this paper the Clinical Entity Finder, a machine-learning tool trained on annotated clinical text from a Swedish internal medicine emergency unit, is evaluated on cervical cancer records. The Clinical Entity Finder identifies entities of the types body part, finding and disorder and is extended with negation detection using the rule-based tool NegEx, to distinguish between negated and non-negated entities. To measure the performance of the tools on this new domain, two physicians annotated a set of clinical notes from the health records of cervical cancer patients. The inter-annotator agreement for finding, disorder and body part obtained an average F-score of 0.677 and the Clinical Entity Finder extended with NegEx had an average F-score of 0.667.

  • 2740.
    Weegar, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nygård, Jan F.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Efficient Encoding of Pathology Reports Using Natural Language Processing2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing, RANLP 2017 / [ed] Galia Angelova, Kalina Bontcheva, Ruslan Mitkov, Ivelina Nikolova, Irina Temnikova, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, p. 778-783Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present a system that extracts information from pathology reports. The reports are written in Norwegian and contain free text describing prostate biopsies. Currently, these reports are manually coded for research and statistical purposes by trained experts at the Cancer Registry of Norway where the coders extract values for a set of predefined fields that are specific for prostate cancer. The presented system is rule based and achieves an average F-score of 0.91 for the fields Gleason grade, Gleason score, the number of biopsies that contain tumor tissue, and the orientation of the biopsies. The system also identifies reports that contain ambiguity or other content that should be reviewed by an expert. The system shows potential to encode the reports considerably faster, with less resources, and similar high quality to the manual encoding.

  • 2741.
    Weegar, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Åström, Kalle
    Nugues, Pierre
    Linking Entities Across Images and Text2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Conference on Computational Language Learning, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2015, p. 185-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a set of methods to link entities across images and text. Asa corpus, we used a data set of images, where each image is commented by a short caption and where the regions in the images are manually segmented and labeled with a category. We extracted the entity mentions from the captions and we computed a semantic similarity between the mentions and the region labels. We also measured the statistical associations between these mentions and the labels and we combined them with the semantic similarity to produce mappings in the form of pairs consisting of a region label and a caption entity. In a second step, we used the syntactic relationships between the mentions and the spatial relationships between the regions to rerank the lists of candidate mappings. To evaluate our methods, we annotated a test set of 200 images, where we manually linked the image regions to their corresponding mentions in the captions. Eventually, we could match objects in pictures to their correct mentions for nearly 89 percent of the segments, when such a matching exists.

  • 2742.
    Weerasinghe, Thushani A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Hewagamge, Kamalanath
    University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Re-evaluation of community of inquiry model with its metacognitive presence construct2012In: The International Journal on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions, ISSN 1800-4156, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the discussion-content analytical tools in the field of e-learning research, the community of inquiry (CoI) model is extensively applied and continuously improved by its users. This model investigates the types of elements that are manifested through inquiry-based learning processes in online discussions. They are social, cognitive, teaching and metacognitive presences. These elements are essential for meaningful student interactions to take place in online learning environments. In particular, the metacognitive presence construct of the CoI model discovers the students’ ability of self and co-regulation of learning in an online learning environment. However, the metacognitive presence construct of the CoI model has not been evaluated along with the other components of the model. Therefore, in this paper the CoI model was re-evaluated to determine its reliability in analysing discussions in online courses on information technology related subjects. The evaluation is conducted with four online courses designed and developed for a distance learning programme in Sri Lanka. The paper discusses the modifications that were needed to make the model more applicable for conducting discussion-content analysis in similar types of online learning environments, and reports on the results of the final evaluation. Furthermore, the findings of the study imply that the theoretical framework of the CoI model needs to be improved to properly enclose the metacognitive presence component. In spite of this, the study adds points to the CoI model supporting for its well applicability and reliability in analysing online discussion content in information technology related courses.

  • 2743.
    Weerasinghe, Thushani A.
    et al.
    University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Nishakumari, Kariyawasam M. G. B.
    University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.
    University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Gap between theory and practice: Human factors in designing and developing effective e-learning materials for a structured syllabus2007In: The International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, ISSN 0858-7027, Vol. 15, no SP3, p. 19.1-19.6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2744.
    Weerasinghe, Thushani A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.
    University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    An Empirical Study: A success story of effectiveness of an OLE2008In: Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Aided Learning (ICL) 2008 / [ed] Michael E. Auer, 2008, p. 1(10)-10(10)Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an empirical study conducted with students following a distance education program. In the study questions posed were whether students could perform well in examinations using only the Learning Management System (LMS), whether they could use it in an efficient way and whether there was a relationship between students’ learning styles, number of LMS hits and learning achievements. Students were given access to a specially designed course section. The students’ learning achievements were evaluated in two tests at different intervals. The study data were gathered using questionnaires and LMS statistics. We found that once the students got acquainted with the environment they could use the LMS more efficiently and managed to get high scores by only using the LMS. Results associated with the learning style preferences imply that we have designed the learning content and the environment to support learners with different learning style preferences.

  • 2745.
    Weerasinghe, Thushani A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.
    University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka.
    Designing Online Learning Environments for Distance Learning2009In: International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, ISSN 1550-6908, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of an Online Learning Environment (OLE) and presentation of content in a distance educational programme is a major factor in success or failure of the learning programme. The role of instructional designers who design online learning environments for distance learning programmes has become demanding. In order to support instructional designers to do their work effectively, they are provided with instructional design guidelines. However, most of these guidelines are not specific nor easily applicable. Therefore, we were motivated to create sets of easy applicable instructional design guidelines. We selected an OLE which was already reported as successful in achieving learning effectiveness and student satisfaction. We gathered students’ experiences on using the OLE for their studies and analysed the data to find what design components of the OLE has led to the learner satisfaction, what design strategies used to design the learning content and design features of it led to the learning effectiveness and whether there was a relationship between students’ learning style preferences and students’ learning design preferences. The findings of the data analysis were presented as guidelines for instructional designers of online learning materials for novice online learners in distance learning programmes. on computer applications and information technology.

  • 2746.
    Weerasinghe, Thushani A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.
    University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Student led inquiry-based learning2014In: International journal of education and information technologies, ISSN 2074-1316, Vol. 8, p. 265-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inquiry-based learning and peer-teaching are two teaching and learning approaches best applicable in higher educational contexts. Considering benefits of each approach in learning, a study was conducted to determine how to design peer-teaching activities to promote inquiry-based learning. Data were collected from a group of instructional designers, a sample group of students in an online learning environment prepared for a distance learning programme and from the learning management system of the online learning environment. The findings of the study were used to improve sets of design principles that were followed to design the peer-teaching activity. In addition, sets of design guidelines were also prepared for easy application of the design principles.

  • 2747.
    Weerasinghe, Thushani Alwis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hewagamage, K. P.,
    Learners' Satisfaction, Learning Style Preferences and Effectiveness of an OLE2008In: International Journal on Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2748.
    Weerasinghe, Thushani Alwis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath Priyantha
    University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Inquiry-Based Learning With or Without Facilitator Interactions2012In: Journal of Distance Education, ISSN 0830-0445, Vol. 26, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses findings of a study investigating how students, on four online courses, engaged in inquiry-based learning with and without support from a facilitator. The investigation was conducted by analysing discussions of the online courses using the community of inquiry model. The results of the study imply that students in online discussions can engage in deep and meaningful learning, even when there is no facilitator interaction. Further the findings of the analysis suggest that successful inquiries are possible without teacher or facilitator interactions, if learning environments are designed to support students to be interactive and the students have motivation, regulatory skills and a willingness to collaborate with peers.

  • 2749.
    Weerasinghe, Thushani Alwis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath Priyantha
    University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Learners' satisfaction, learning style preferences and effective use of an OLE2008In: International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, ISSN 1863-0383, Vol. 3, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an empirical study conducted with a set of students using an online learning environment (OLE) to follow a distance education program. The aim of the study was to find whether students could perform well in examinations using only the Learning Management System (LMS), whether they could use it in an efficient way and whether there was a relationship between students? learning styles, number of LMS hits and learning achievements. The students were given access to a specially designed course section. The students? learning achievements were evaluated in two tests at different intervals. The study data were gathered using questionnaires and LMS statistics. We found that once the students got acquainted with the environment they could use the LMS more efficiently and managed to get high scores by only using the LMS. Results associated with the learning style preferences imply that we have designed the learning content and the environment to satisfy and support the learners with different learning style preferences.

  • 2750.
    Weerasinghe, Thushani
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath
    Designing a peer-teaching activity to promote inquiry-based learning2013In: Mathematics and Computers in Contemporary Science: Proceedings / [ed] Reinhard Neck, WSEAS Press , 2013, p. 34-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses findings of a study conducted to determine how to design peerteaching activities to promote inquiry based learning in a virtual learning environment (VLE) designed for a distance learning programme where teacher support is kept at a minimum level. A previous study conducted in the same environment, revealed that the students could engage in peer-teaching. Considering this ability and the instructional designers’ requirement to know how forum based activities should be designed, a peer-teaching activity was designed with necessary instructions to promote inquiry-based learning in the VLE. The activity was designed based on sets of collaborative and inquiry-based learning design principles. The findings of the study were used to improve the sets of design principles. In addition, sets of design guidelines were also prepared for easy application of the design principles.

52535455565758 2701 - 2750 of 2945
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