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  • 301. Abelin, Åsa
    et al.
    Zetterholm, Elisabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Spanish accented Swedish – when the neighbor becomes a fir-tree2019In: Comunicación Social: Lingüística, Medios Masivos, Arte, Etnología, Folclor y otras ciencias afines / [ed] María Rosa Álvarez Silva, Alex Muñoz Alvarado, Leonel Ruiz Miyares, Santiago de Cuba: Ediciones Centro de Lingüística Aplicada , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 302. Abellán, F. J.
    et al.
    Indebetouw, R.
    Marcaide, J. M.
    Gabler, M.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Spyromilio, J.
    Burrows, D. N.
    Chevalier, R.
    Cigan, P.
    Gaensler, B. M.
    Gomez, H. L.
    Janka, H. -Th.
    Kirshner, R.
    Larsson, J.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Matsuura, M.
    McCray, R.
    Ng, C. -Y.
    Park, S.
    Roche, P.
    Staveley-Smith, L.
    van Loon, J. Th.
    Wheeler, J. C.
    Woosley, S. E.
    Very Deep inside the SN 1987A Core Ejecta: Molecular Structures Seen in 3D2017In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 842, no 2, article id L24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most massive stars end their lives in core-collapse supernova explosions and enrich the interstellar medium with explosively nucleosynthesized elements. Following core collapse, the explosion is subject to instabilities as the shock propagates outward through the progenitor star. Observations of the composition and structure of the innermost regions of a core-collapse supernova provide a direct probe of the instabilities and nucleosynthetic products. SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of very few supernovae for which the inner ejecta can be spatially resolved but are not yet strongly affected by interaction with the surroundings. Our observations of SN 1987A with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array are of the highest resolution to date and reveal the detailed morphology of cold molecular gas in the innermost regions of the remnant. The 3D distributions of carbon and silicon monoxide (CO and SiO) emission differ, but both have a central deficit, or torus-like distribution, possibly a result of radioactive heating during the first weeks (nickel heating). The size scales of the clumpy distribution are compared quantitatively to models, demonstrating how progenitor and explosion physics can be constrained.

  • 303. Abel-Ollo, K.
    et al.
    Rahu, M.
    Rajaleid, K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Talu, A.
    Ruutel, K.
    Platt, L.
    Bobrova, N.
    Rhodes, T.
    Uuskula, A.
    Knowledge of HIV serostatus and risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Estonia2009In: AIDS Care, ISSN 0954-0121, E-ISSN 1360-0451, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 851-857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used the findings from two, cross-sectional studies of HIV serostatus and risk behaviours to assess the effects of knowledge of HIV serostatus and risk behaviours (relating to sex and injection drug use) among injecting drug users (IDUs). Respondent-driven sampling was used simultaneously at two sites in Estonia (the capital Tallinn, and the second-largest city of Ida-Virumaa County, Kohtla-Järve). The research tool was an interviewer-administered survey. Biological samples were collected for HIV testing. Participants were categorised into three groups based on HIV testing results and self-report on HIV serostatus: HIV-negative (n=133); HIV-positive unaware of their serostatus (n=75); and HIV-positive aware of their serostatus (n=168). In total, 65% of the participants tested positive for HIV. Of those 69% were aware of their positive serostatus. HIV-positive IDUs aware of their serostatus exhibited more risk behaviours than their HIV-positive counterparts unaware of their serostatus or HIV-negative IDUs. Effective prevention of HIV among IDUs should therefore, include programmes to reduce high-risk sexual and drug use behaviours at the public health scale and enhanced prevention efforts focusing on HIV-infected individuals.

  • 304. Aben, Ralf C. H.
    et al.
    Barros, Nathan
    van Donk, Ellen
    Frenken, Thijs
    Hilt, Sabine
    Kazanjian, Garabet
    Lamers, Leon P. M.
    Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.
    Roelofs, Jan G. M.
    de Senerpont Domis, Lisette N.
    Stephan, Susanne
    Velthuis, Mandy
    Van de Waal, Dedmer B.
    Wik, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Thornton, Brett F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Wilkinson, Jeremy
    DelSontro, Tonya
    Kosten, Sarian
    Cross continental increase in methane ebullition under climate change2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, article id 1682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4) strongly contributes to observed global warming. As natural CH4 emissions mainly originate from wet ecosystems, it is important to unravel how climate change may affect these emissions. This is especially true for ebullition (bubble flux from sediments), a pathway that has long been underestimated but generally dominates emissions. Here we show a remarkably strong relationship between CH4 ebullition and temperature across a wide range of freshwater ecosystems on different continents using multi-seasonal CH4 ebullition data from the literature. As these temperature-ebullition relationships may have been affected by seasonal variation in organic matter availability, we also conducted a controlled year-round mesocosm experiment. Here 4 degrees C warming led to 51% higher total annual CH4 ebullition, while diffusion was not affected. Our combined findings suggest that global warming will strongly enhance freshwater CH4 emissions through a disproportional increase in ebullition (6-20% per 1 degrees C increase), contributing to global warming.

  • 305.
    Abenius, Nina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Fogelberg, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Samspelet mellan fonologi, minne och inlärning hos unga vuxna och vuxna med språkstörning: En systematisk litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 306.
    Abergel, D. S. L.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Excitonic condensation in spatially separated one-dimensional systems2015In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 106, no 21, article id 213103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show theoretically that excitons can form from spatially separated one-dimensional ground state populations of electrons and holes, and that the resulting excitons can form a quasicondensate. We describe a mean-field Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory in the low carrier density regime and then focus on the core-shell nanowire giving estimates of the size of the excitonic gap for InAs/GaSb wires and as a function of all the experimentally relevant parameters. We find that optimal conditions for pairing include small overlap of the electron and hole bands, large effective mass of the carriers, and low dielectric constant of the surrounding media. Therefore, one-dimensional systems provide an attractive platform for the experimental detection of excitonic quasicondensation in zero magnetic field.

  • 307.
    Abergel, David S. L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Edge, Jonathan M.
    Balatsky, Alexander V.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA.
    The role of spin-orbit coupling in topologically protected interface states in Dirac materials2014In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 16, p. 065012-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We highlight the fact that two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac-like low energy band structures and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) will produce linearly dispersing topologically protected Jackiw-Rebbi modes at interfaces where the Dirac mass changes sign. These modes may support persistent spin or valley currents parallel to the interface, and the exact arrangement of such topologically protected currents depends crucially on the details of the SOC in the material. As examples, we discuss buckled 2D hexagonal lattices such as silicene or germanene, and transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2.

  • 308.
    Abergel, David S. L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Mucha-Kruczynski, Marcin
    Infrared absorption of closely aligned heterostructures of monolayer and bilayer graphene with hexagonal boron nitride2015In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 92, no 11, article id 115430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We model optical absorption of monolayer and bilayer graphene on hexagonal boron nitride for the case of closely aligned crystal lattices. We show that perturbations with different spatial symmetry can lead to similar absorption spectra. We suggest that a study of the absorption spectra as a function of the doping for an almost completely full first miniband is necessary to extract meaningful information about the moire characteristics from optical absorption measurements and to distinguish between various theoretical proposals for the physically realistic interaction. Also, for bilayer graphene, the ability to compare spectra for the opposite signs of electric-field-induced interlayer asymmetry might provide additional information about the moire parameters.

  • 309. Abernethy, K. E.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hilly, Z.
    Schwarz, A.
    Two steps forward, two steps back: The role of innovation in transforming towards community-based marine resource management in Solomon Islands2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 28, p. 309-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many coastal nations, community-based arrangements for marine resource management (CBRM) are promoted by government, advocated for by non-government actors, and are seen by both as one of the most promising options to achieve sustainable use and secure inshore fisheries and aquatic resources. Although there is an abundant literature on what makes CBRM effective, is it less clear how CBRM is introduced or develops as an idea in a community, and the process of how the idea leads to the adoption of a new resource management approach with supporting institutions. Here we aim to address this gap by applying an explicit process-based approach drawing on innovation history methodology by mapping and analysing the initiation and emergence of CBRM in five fishing-dependent communities in Solomon Islands. We use insights from the literatures on diffusion of innovation and transformability to define phases of the process and help guide the inductive analysis of qualitative data. We show the CBRM institutionalisation processes were non-linear, required specific strategies to move from one phase to the next, and key elements facilitated or hindered movement. Building active support for CBRM within communities depended on the types of events that happened at the beginning of the process and actions taken to sustain this. Matching CBRM to known resource management ideas or other social problems in the community, developing legitimate institutions and decision-making processes, strong continual interactions between key actors and the rest of the community (not necessarily NGO actors), and community members witnessing benefits of CBRM, all contributed to the emergence and diffusion of CBRM in the communities, and helped to overcome barriers to transformative change.

  • 310. Abhiman, Saraswathi
    et al.
    Daub, Carsten O
    Sonnhammer, Erik L L
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Prediction of function divergence in protein families using the substitution rate variation parameter alpha.2006In: Mol Biol Evol, ISSN 0737-4038, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 1406-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 311. Abhiman, Saraswathi
    et al.
    Sonnhammer, Erik L L
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Large-scale prediction of function shift in protein families with a focus on enzymatic function.2005In: Proteins, ISSN 1097-0134, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 758-68Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Abiala, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Säljande samspel: en sociologisk studie av privat servicearbete2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction between people can be seen as a distinctive feature of 'post-industrial society'. In this study I investigate some of the conditions for this encounter in private service work in Sweden. I start by discussing some important concepts: service, service encounter and emotional labour. Three parties in an interactional triangle can be perceived: the service enterprise, the service worker and the customer.

    The service encounter is embedded in organisational frames. Recruiting for social competence and training for selling interaction are two facets of these frames. In interactive service work, control is complicated by the fact that a third party, the customer, is involved and that the borders between worker, work process and result are somewhat indistinct. Indirect forms of control can be used to affect workers' attitudes and thinking, as well as behaviour.

    Service work can be described as a form of acting. Different service workers will identify differently with their work role. In my study I observe both positive and negative experiences of work. A majority report that they sometimes are so tired of people that they want to be alone after work.

    I distinguish two dimensions of interactive service work: type of interaction and sales situation. Interaction can be more or less important, and the sales situation can be more or less concealed. Based on these dimensions I suggest a typology to illustrate some differences between different service occupations. Four types are suggested: (1) Work first, and customer later; (2) Personalised services; (3) Routine selling; and (4) Persuasive selling. In the second group we find the experts of interaction, but also the strongest signs of social strain.

  • 313. Abiala, Kristina
    et al.
    Hernwall, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Tweens konstruerar identitet online – flickors och pojkars erfarenheter av sociala medier2013In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 18, no 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 314. Abiala, Kristina
    et al.
    Hernwall, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Tweens negotiating identity online – Swedish girls' and boys' reflections on online experiences2013In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 951-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do Swedish tweens (10–14 years old) understand and experience the writing of their online identities? How are such intertwined identity markers as gender and age expressed and negotiated? To find some answers to these questions, participants in this study were asked to write a story about the use of online web communities on pre-prepared paper roundels with buzzwords in the margins to inspire them. Content analysis of these texts using the constant comparative method showed that the main factors determining how online communities are understood and used are the cultural age and gender of the user. Both girls and boys chat online, but girls more often create blogs while boys more often play games. Gender was increasingly emphasised with age; but whereas boys aged 14 described themselves as sexually active and even users of pornography, girls of the same age described themselves as shocked and repelled by pornography and fearful of sexual threats. In this investigation an intersectionalist frame of reference is used to elucidate the intertwined power differentials and identity markers of the users' peer group situation.

  • 315.
    Abidi, Sami
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Mosseby, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Living the Brand: A case study of Stadium Sweden AB2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    No summary is available.

  • 316. Abiven, Samuel
    et al.
    Hund, Andreas
    Martinsen, Vegard
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway; Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway .
    Biochar amendment increases maize root surface areas and branching: a shovelomics study in Zambia2015In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 395, no 1-2, p. 45-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive crop yield effects from biochar are likely explained by chemical, physical and/or biological factors. However, studies describing plant allometric changes are scarcer, but may be crucial to understand the biochar effect. The main aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of biochar on root architecture under field conditions in a tropical setting. The presented work describes a shovelomics (i.e., description of root traits in the field) study on the effect of biochar on maize root architecture. Four field experiments we carried out at two different locations in Zambia, exhibiting non-fertile to relatively fertile soils. Roots of maize crop (Zea mays L.) were sampled from treatments with fertilizer (control) and with a combination of fertilizer and 4 t.ha(-1) maize biochar application incorporated in the soil. For the four sites, the average grain yield increase upon biochar addition was 45 +/- 14 % relative to the fertilized control (from 2.1-6.0 to 3.1-9.1 ton ha(-1)). The root biomass was approximately twice as large for biochar-amended plots. More extensive root systems (especially characterized by a larger root opening angle (+14 +/- 11 %) and wider root systems (+20 +/- 15 %)) were observed at all biochar-amended sites. Root systems exhibited significantly higher specific surface areas (+54 +/- 14 %), branching and fine roots: +70 +/- 56 %) in the presence of biochar. Biochar amendment resulted in more developed root systems and larger yields. The more extensive root systems may have contributed to the observed yield increases, e.g., by improving immobile nutrients uptake in soils that are unfertile or in areas with prolonged dry spells.

  • 317.
    Ablhad, Reem
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Ny teknik i förskolan: En netnografisk studie kring iPad-projekt i tio kommuner i Sverige2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 318. Abor, J
    et al.
    Graham, Michael
    School of Economics, Finance, and Marketing, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University (RMIT) University.
    Yawson, A
    Corporate Governance and Restructuring Activities following Completed Bids2011In: Corporate governance: An International Review, ISSN 0964-8410, E-ISSN 1467-8683, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 61-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Question/Issue: We examine the extent to which effective corporate governance impacts three restructuring choices following completed acquisitions – significant adjustment to workforce; sale of subsidiaries; and further acquisitions. We also investigate the relative firm performance in the post-restructuring period for the three respective options examined.

    Research Findings/Insights: Based on a sample of 649 US firms between the period 1991 and 2009, we find support for the assertion that corporate governance impacts layoffs and further acquisitions. We, however, find no evidence to support a measurable governance effect on divestiture likelihood. In examining the post-acquisition performance following restructuring, we find no significant difference in performance between acquirers that made further acquisitions and those that did not. There is evidence, however, suggesting that acquirers who laid off workers and those that divested assets performed significantly poorer relative to a comparable group of acquirers.

    Theoretical/Academic Implications: This study adds to the empirical literature on the relation between governance and restructuring choices. We provide evidence on the impact of governance on restructuring choices that has not been documented in the academic literature. An implication of this study is that performance in post-restructuring period would not necessarily be enhanced even when governance exerts positive influences on restructuring choice.

    Practitioner/Policy Implications: Our empirical results demonstrate the relative importance of corporate governance in organizational strategic choices. This study offers insights to stakeholders interested in enhancing governance structures to influence restructuring decisions following completed bids.

  • 319.
    Abou-Gabal, Rukaia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Allt börjar med ett val: Svenska som andraspråkslärarens val av skönlitteratur inom arbete med nyanlända på introduktionsprogrammet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie behandlar svenska som andraspråkslärarens val av skönlitteratur inom arbete med nyanlända på introduktionsprogrammen samt hur läraren motiverar dess val av densamma. Syftet är att undersöka vilka texter och teman som lärare anger att de föredrar eller undviker vid arbete med nyanlända och varför. Studien baseras på en surveyundersökning i form av ett frågeformulär, och genom att sammanställa de författare, böcker och teman som använts mest och av flest lärare undersöks huruvida lärarnas angivna val stämmer överens med de angivna teman som föredras eller undviks eller om det förekommer en diskrepans. Resultaten visar att lärarna ser valet av skönlitteratur som en utmaning men att de i slutändan gör liknande val. Detta visar att lärare och skolor redan har olika former av böcker som de alla anser bör läsas med nyanlända och att de på så sätt kanske redan har en form av litterär kanon. Vidare visar resultaten att det finns en diskrepans mellan lärarna och deras syn på val av temat flykt. Vissa lärare anser att det är gynnande för eleverna att diskutera temat flykt medan andra anser att det bara leder till elevernas lidande. I slutändan använder sig dock de flesta lärarna av detta tema vilket anses vara problematiskt då det riskerar att reproducera stereotyper.

  • 320.
    Abraha, Feben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    ”If it's important to you, you will find a way. If not you will find an excuse.”: - en kritisk fokusgruppsstudie om det meritokratiska talet om ansträngning utifrån icke-vita elevers föreställningar om agens, framgång och framtid2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens övergripande syfte ligger i att problematisera meritokratins grundläggande idéer om ansträngning och ’vilja att lyckas’ som nyckeln till framgång (Carlbaum, 2012). Föreställningar som härrör ifrån nyliberala idéer om ’individens ansvar’ riskerar att förbise strukturella problem och ojämlika maktförhållanden som håller individen ansvarig för sitt eget ’misslyckande’ (ibid.). Elever som hålls ansvariga för sina egna misslyckanden tenderar att kategoriseras som ”omotiverade” eller ”skoltrötta” där deras vilja att lyckas ifrågasätts snarare än deras grundförutsättningar(ibid.). Mot denna bakgrund vill uppsatsen därför ge utrymme för barn att komma till tals i frågor som direkt berör dem och som skildrar barns perspektiv i komplexa samhällsfrågor och maktförhållanden (UNICEF Sverige, 2009).

    Studien utgår ifrån ett normkritiskt förhållningssätt som vill synliggöra postkoloniala perspektiv på orsakssamband mellan möjlighetsstrukturer och samhällsnormer som problematiserar ’individers vilja att lyckas’.

  • 321. Abraham, Arpad
    et al.
    Koehne, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Pavoni, Nicola
    On the first-order approach in principal agent models with hidden borrowing and lending2011In: Journal of Economic Theory, ISSN 0022-0531, E-ISSN 1095-7235, Vol. 146, no 4, p. 1331-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide sufficient conditions for the validity of the first-order approach for two-period dynamic moral hazard problems where the agent can save and borrow secretly. The first-order approach is valid if the following conditions hold: (i) the agent has non-increasing absolute risk aversion utility (NIARA), (ii) the output technology has monotone likelihood ratios (MLR), and (iii) the distribution function of output is log-convex in effort (LCDF). Moreover, under these three conditions, the optimal contract is monotone in output. We also investigate a few possibilities of relaxing these requirements.

  • 322. Abraham, Arpad
    et al.
    Koehne, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. CESifo, Germany.
    Pavoni, Nicola
    Optimal income taxation when asset taxation is limited2016In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 136, p. 14-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several frictions restrict the government's ability to tax assets. First, it is very costly to monitor trades on international asset markets. Second, agents can resort to nonobservable low-return assets such as cash, gold or foreign currencies if taxes on observable assets become too high. This paper shows that limitations in asset taxation have important consequences for the taxation of labor income. We study a simple dynamic moral hazard model of social insurance with observable and nonobservable saving decisions. We find that optimal labor income taxes become less progressive when the ability to tax savings is limited.

  • 323. Abrahamczyk, S.
    et al.
    Kessler, M.
    Hanley, D.
    Karger, D. N.
    Mueller, M. P. J.
    Knauer, A. C.
    Keller, F.
    Schwerdtfeger, M.
    Humphreys, Aelys M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Imperial College London, UK.
    Pollinator adaptation and the evolution of floral nectar sugar composition2017In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 112-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long-standing debate concerns whether nectar sugar composition evolves as an adaptation to pollinator dietary requirements or whether it is 'phylogenetically constrained'. Here, we use a modelling approach to evaluate the hypothesis that nectar sucrose proportion (NSP) is an adaptation to pollinators. We analyse similar to 2100 species of asterids, spanning several plant families and pollinator groups (PGs), and show that the hypothesis of adaptation cannot be rejected: NSP evolves towards two optimal values, high NSP for specialist-pollinated and low NSP for generalist-pollinated plants. However, the inferred adaptive process is weak, suggesting that adaptation to PG only provides a partial explanation for how nectar evolves. Additional factors are therefore needed to fully explain nectar evolution, and we suggest that future studies might incorporate floral shape and size and the abiotic environment into the analytical framework. Further, we show that NSP and PG evolution are correlated - in a manner dictated by pollinator behaviour. This contrasts with the view that a plant necessarily has to adapt its nectar composition to ensure pollination but rather suggests that pollinators adapt their foraging behaviour or dietary requirements to the nectar sugar composition presented by the plants. Finally, we document unexpectedly sucrose-poor nectar in some specialized nectarivorous bird-pollinated plants from the Old World, which might represent an overlooked form of pollinator deception. Thus, our broad study provides several new insights into how nectar evolves and we conclude by discussing why maintaining the conceptual dichotomy between adaptation and constraint might be unhelpful for advancing this field.

  • 324.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alcohol in courtship contexts. Focus group interviews with young Swedish women and men2004In: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 31, p. 3-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alkohol och mötet mellan unga kvinnor och män2003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 227-239Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 326.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alkohol och unga i 20-årsåldern - rus, lust, problem och prevention2004Report (Other academic)
  • 327.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Alkoholkontroll i brytningstid: ett kultursociologiskt perspektiv1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation is a product of four separate cultural studies, intended to throw light on the changes in Swedish alcohol policy taking place in recent years.

    Paper 1 discusses factors contributing to the rapid proliferation of restaurants in Sweden in the 1980’s and the subsequent tensions arising from a restrictive legislation, an increasingly liberal legal praxis and the new, public alcohol culture. Urban transformations and changes in public life, the transition from modem to late modernism, the emergence of a new middle class and the redefinition of women’s use of alcohol were among the crucial developments. Beginning in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s, important steps away from the traditionally strict control of restaurants stimulated competition and led to a loosening up of Swedish restaurant culture. By the 1980’s, the restrictive laws governing restaurants had begun to lose legitimacy as legal praxis was applied in an increasingly liberal spirit. The establishment of the Stockholm Water Festival, which allowed central parts of the city to be transformed into a gigantic beer hall, is one example of this. As in many other countries, age limits have now become almost the only actual restriction on the availability of alcohol. Today, rather than protection, the aim of alcohol policy - especially with regard to restaurants - is keeping damage to a minimum.

    Paper 2 is based on participant observation in three types of restaurants in Stockholm’s city centre. These are characterised as ‘the fashionable bar’, ‘the folksy bar’, and ‘the ethnic bar’. The study takes its starting point in Goffman’s (1956) concepts of ‘performance’, ‘setting’ and ‘personal front’, and how people consciously or unconsciously choose different milieus as a way of controlling the impression of themselves they wish to project. The fashionable bar clearly functioned as an arena for demonstrating professional and social success. The folksy bar could be used as the setting for a form of play in which company colleagues could temporarily set aside their differences in status. The closed room of the ethnic bar encouraged ‘time-out’ behaviour - seeming to serve as a second home, but also as a sex market for contacts between African men and Nordic women.

    Paper 3 presents an analysis of how five different occupational groups discuss their alcohol habits in serious compared to humorous speech. The occupational areas are media, politics, business, culture and civil service. In serious speech, the speakers tended to value cautious drinking, setting sharp limits as to how and when use of alcohol is appropriate. In humorous speech, the situation was largely the opposite - the interviewees often presenting themselves as being under external constraints with regard to alcohol. The situations that provoked humour are also where we find controversy in serious speech. Discrepancies between alcohol habits and the role model one represents as a parent gave rise to a number of jokes. The parts of serious discourse that concerned other people displayed a very different content, dealing with excessive drinking, not being able to handle alcohol and not being permitted to drink alcohol - a content reflected in humorous form when the interviewees talked about themselves.

    Paper 4, based on the same interview data as Paper 3, examines the issue of youth and alcohol. Common dividing lines between the groups could be observed, such as describing the problem as an individual, personal or family affair versus seeing it as a problem for the society, or placing responsibility for problem control on the individual as opposed to placing responsibility on the society. Those active in cultural pursuits viewed teenage use and abuse of alcohol as a social problem, but placed responsibility for its solution on a private, individual level. Journalists saw the problem as belonging within the family, which is also where they placed responsibility for the solution. The politicians clearly perceived teenage drinking as a problem for the society and placed responsibility for solutions on outer agents, such as legislation and extensive information campaigns. Civil servants described the problem both in terms of belonging within the family and as a problem for the society. Business executives varied between the level on which they described the problem and the level on which they sought solutions. In considering the problem from the point of view of the consumer, they stressed individual responsibility. But as the discussion progressed, they came to see teenage drinking both as a family problem and a problem for the society and to place responsibility on outer authorities.

    The four studies are linked together in an introductory chapter within the common framework of Swedish alcohol control policy.

  • 328.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Diskursiv analys av fokusgruppintervjuer: två exempel2005In: Forskningsmetoder i socialt arbete / [ed] S. Larsson, J. Lilja & K. Mannheimer, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Moral norms in older Swedish women’s drinking narratives. Enduring patterns and successively new features2012In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 371-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS - To examine how the changes in women's relationship to alcohol during the 1960s appear in narratives of situated drinking occasions. DATA - Newly collected autobiographies written by women born between 1918 and 1951 are analysed using theories by William Labov on narrative construction and Kenneth Burke on the rhetoric of motives. RESULTS - The historically restrictive attitude to women at all drinking is present in the oldest women's narratives, while the liberalisation of attitudes to alcohol that took place in the 1960s likewise marks the narratives told by the younger women, even though they when writing are of pension able age. With the writers' diminishing age, the norms framing the narratives have changed, from sobriety among the oldest women to controlled moderation among the younger. And yet, the narratives also demonstrate a stable pattern of questioning women's drinking, although the focus has shifted from tasting alcohol at all to the state of becoming intoxicated. CONCLUSIONS - A controlling norm remains in place, which the women have internalised and made their own. The mitigating circumstances and the neutralising explanations that are presented throughout indicate that the women are conscious of the narratives' deviation from the prevailing norm, and show that women take a risk in drinking alcohol. When a woman drinks she risks her femininity.

  • 330.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    När jag drack för mycket: unga i 20-årsåldern berättar2003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 395-408Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Organisationsteoretiska utgångspunkter2009In: Mot en bättre missbrukarvård?: En undersökning om förutsättningar för att evidensbasera missbrukarvården i fyra organisationer / [ed] Irja Christophs, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Organisatioriska förutsättningar för gemensamma riktlinjer: Intervjuer med grupp-/ enhetschefer inom socialtjänst, beroendevård, frivård och LVM-vård2009In: Mot en bättre missbrukarvård?: En undersökning om förutsättningar för att evidensbasera missbrukarvården i fyra organisationer / [ed] Irja Christophs, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Perceptions of heavy drinking and alcohol problems among young adults2003In: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 30, p. 815-837Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Sociala representationer av alkohol och narkotika i fokusgruppintervjuer med 18-åringar och tonårsföräldrar2006In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 343-358Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 335.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Unga kvinnors och män skilda världar i berättelser om alkohol, våld och rädsla för våld2008In: Berättelser om olika världar – Narrativa perspektiv i socialt arbete, Studentlitteratur: Lund , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Ungas definitioner av alkoholist, storkonsument och fyllo2002Report (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    "When I drank too much"  young people in their 20s tell their stories.2004In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 21, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Young women’s and men’s different worlds of alcohol, fear and violence in focus group discussions with 18 year olds in Stockholm.2006In: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 33, p. 2-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Äldre kvinnor berättar om alkoholkulturens förändring2011In: Äldre i Centrum - Tidkskrift för aktuell äldreforskning, ISSN 1653-3585, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 32-34Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 340.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Äldres värderingar och ideal i skrivaruppropet "Alkoholen i mitt liv"2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 439-461Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Heimdahl, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Gendered discourse in Swedish national alcohol policy action plans 1965-2007: Invisible men and problematic women2010In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 63-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 342.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Heimdahl, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Kvinnor dricker för att de mår dåligt - män dricker för att de är män: om könad diskurs i alkoholpolitiska propositioner och utredningar 1965 - 20112012In: Samhället, alkoholen och drogerna: politik, konstruktioner och dilemman / [ed] Jessica Storbjörk, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2012, p. 104-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 343.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Stenius, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Genetisk riskbedömning: nytt inslag i svensk alkoholskadeprevention2004In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 156-163Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Tryggvesson, Kalle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Användning av bedömningsinstrument i missbrukarvården - en nationell kartläggning och fallstudier av två län2008Report (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Tryggvesson, Kalle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    ASI - terror eller hjälp? : Om socialtjänstens användning av standrardiserade klientbedömningsinstrument i två kommuner.2009In: Alkohol och droger: Samhällsvetenskapliga perspektiv, Malmö: Gleerups , 2009, första, p. 67-86Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Tryggvesson, Kalle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Socialtjänstens användning av standardiserade klientbedömningsinstrument – ASI som retorik och praktik i två svenska kommuner2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 347.
    Abrahamsson, Bengt
    Stockholm University.
    Military professionalization and political power1970Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 348.
    Abrahamsson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Organisation av undervisning för nyanlända elever: Ett exempel från två skolor med inkluderande arbetssätt2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A current subject in Sweden today is how to organize education for newly arrived children in school. The number of newly arrived children continues to increase and this will ask for new demands on the school regarding reception and organization of learning for these students. This also demands the school to improve the knowledge about these children. The aim of this study is to describe the principals’, teachers’ and students’ experience of an inclusive organization of learning for newly arrived students. Two different schools in an area frequented of immigrants in one of the largest cities in Sweden have been selected. Both schools are working with inclusion around the newly arrived students. To obtain a pre-understanding of how the school works, lesson observations have been carried out in the schools. Thereafter interviews with principals, teachers and students have been carried out. The principals at both schools believe that the work with newly arrived students should be carried out in an inclusive organization. Depending on how long the school has had this way of working, but also depending on the teachers’ backgrounds, they are thinking differently about if it is favourable for the students to be included. At the Betaschool which is a school that has worked longer than the Alfaschool in an inclusive way, the teachers see more advantages with this way of working. The students at both schools are more positive than the teachers. The cultural capital that the students already have when they arrive to the school is important for the way of adjusting to the new school. There is also a difference in which position the student take on depending on the capital they bring with them. Several components are important for the school choosing to work inclusively with newly arrived students. Some of these are study counsellors, language development approach, relations and a shared view on how to educate newly arrived children at the school.

  • 349.
    Abrahamsson, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Gender Studies.
    Enahanda läsning: En queer tolkning av romancegenren2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis investigates popular romance, a mass-cultural genre with a large female audience. Popular romance is often considered ”lowbrow” and is referred to by terms such as ”porn” and ”garbage”. The female reader of this so called “sentimental trash” is often portrayed as naïve and unworldly. The thesis makes this derogatory view of the genre its point of departure, to investigate what cultural understandings of gender and sexuality the critique against popular romance entails. The thesis further investigates how these conceptions of gender and sexuality deviate from and challenge a culturally promoted and normative sexuality.

    The thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter describes the selection of the empirical material and the theoretical and methodological framework. The empirical material consists of the three novels in the popular series Fifty Shades of Grey and the four novels and five films in the popular series Twilight. The thesis places itself within the field of feminist cultural studies and queer theory. It makes use of the concept of masturbation (both literal and figurative) as an analytical entry point and as a method focusing on the “here and now” of romance reading.

    The second chapter contextualizes the study by defining the term “popular romance” and by providing a brief historical overview of the genre. Previous research on popular romance is presented and discussed in relation to the derogatory view of the genre.

    The third chapter studies the Swedish media commentaries on Fifty Shades of Grey and Twilight to define how the rejected romance reader is conceptualized, and how this romance reader is presumed to be reading. This “romance reader” is thereafter discussed in relation to the Western historical discourse on masturbation, “female illness” and (women’s) private reading. The chapter closes with a discussion on the form of reading that the romance reader is associated with. This self-immersed, excessive and over-invested reading form is defined as “masturbatory”.

    The fourth chapter explores the act of romance reading when defined as a sexual activity. The romance community is compared to the “second wave” feminism of the 1970s in order to demonstrate how the genre establishes a separatist female community where relations, positions, and identifications are in motion, revealing both homoerotic and autoerotic elements to this homosocial context.

    In the fifth chapter, a close reading of the material is performed with a focus on the “here and now” of the reading situation. The dichotomy of desiring subject and desired object is problematized in relation to looks and gaze. The thesis argues that the romance text uses detailed and intimate descriptions to instill a sexual charge and to freeze the flow of the storyline in order to make room for constant erotic contemplation. These “frozen moments” and the repetitiveness of the genre are discussed in relation to theories of queer temporality. The romance text constructs a room “outside of time” that privileges the overwhelming pleasures of the “here and now”. This liminal room is not only available for the heroine and hero of the story, but for the romance reader as well.

    The sixth and final chapter ties together the main arguments of the thesis in an overarching discussion on how conceiving romance reading as a form of masturbation challenges previous research on popular romance and the gendering of and contempt for mass culture.

  • 350. Abrahamsson, Emil
    et al.
    Forni, Timothy
    Skeppstedt, Maria
    Kvist, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Medical text simplification using synonym replacement: adapting assessment of word difficulty to a compounding language2014In: Proceedings of the 3rdWorkshop on Predicting andImproving Text Readability for Target Reader Populations(PITR) / [ed] Sandra Williams, Stroudsburg: Association for Computational Linguistics , 2014, p. 57-65Conference paper (Refereed)
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