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  • 301.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review: A Grammar of the Shina Language of Indus Kohistan by Ruth Laila Schmidt and Razwal Kohistani: (Beiträge zur Kenntnis südasiatischer Sprachen and Literaturen, 17. Herausgeben von Dieter B. Kapp)2008In: Himalayan Linguistics, ISSN 1544-7502, E-ISSN 1544-7502, no 6, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 302.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Supporting and sustaining language vitality in northern Pakistan2018In: The Routledge Handbook of Language Revitalization / [ed] Leanne Hinton, Leena Huss, Gerald Roche, New York: Routledge, 2018, p. 427-437Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern Pakistan is linguistically and culturally very diverse. Nearly 30 languages—representing a wide span, numerically and vitality-wise—are spoken in this mountainous region, sharing ties with adjacent areas of neighboring countries. Although most of these languages have received little outside recognition, there have been few restrictions for those wanting to promote their languages. Therefore, a number of sustaining efforts have been made in recent years, exemplified throughout the chapter: collaborative fieldwork, the formation of language organizations, training in documentation, the development of orthographies, publications, the introduction of mother-tongue schools, and lobbying for the region’s languages. Evaluating some of those activities and their effectiveness in terms of language maintenance and revitalization, some key factors stand out: community ownership, institutional support, pooling of resources, and multi-community collaboration. The observations and subsequent analysis are informed by the author’s own long-term involvement in the development of the Forum for Language Initiatives.

  • 303.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Dangari Tongue of Choke and Machoke: Tracing the proto-language of Shina enclaves in the Hindu Kush2009In: Acta Orientalia, ISSN 0001-6438, E-ISSN 1600-0439, no 70, p. 7-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from four little-studied varieties of Indo-Aryan (Southern Palula, Northern Palula, Sawi and Kalkoti) spoken in the Hindu Kush is analyzed and discussed from a historical-comparative perspective. Evidence is presented showing that Kalkoti, until recently only tentatively classified, is part of this particular cluster of closely-related Shina varieties. An attempt is made at reconstructing some phonological and grammatical features of a common source speech, here named Proto-Dangari, and the order in which the present-day varieties may have split off. An important conclusion drawn is that Southern and Northern Palula probably are more distantly related than present-day similarities seem to indicate, the high degree of synchronic similarity instead being due to relatively recent convergence taking place in southern Chitral. It is hypothesized that the present speech communities are the result of two different westward routes of migration, one geographically linking Southern Palula (Ashreti) and Sawi with Chilas, the other linking Northern Palula (Biori) and Kalkoti with Tangir, both located in the same general area of the main Indus Valley.

  • 304.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The linguistic identity of the Greater Hindu Kush, a transit zone between South and Central Asia2012In: 45th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Bert Cornillie and María Sol Sansiñena Pascual, Stockholm, 2012, p. 187-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regardless of the particular view one takes on areality, there are a number of reasons for trying to characterize the accumulation of languages in the highland region between, or simultaneously belonging to, South Asia (or the Indian subcontinent) and Central Asia.  This region is, to borrow the words of one of the foremost experts on South Asian linguistics, “where conflicting areal patterns meet and interact, and many peculiar languages (‘Dardic’, Burushaski [a language isolate], the Pamir group of Eastern Iranian), at once archaic and innovating, find their home” (Masica 2001:225). To the aforementioned mix should be added Tibeto-Burman Balti, spoken in the eastern part of this region, and the Nuristani languages in the border region between northern Pakistan and Afghanistan, the latter now considered a third branch of Indo-Iranian (on par with Indo-Aryan and Iranian). Historically we will have to assume several layers of settlement and highly complex patterns of language contact in this extremely mountainous region, and there are strong indications that several ancient substrata (the proto-language of Burushaski most likely one of them) have made important contributions to the resulting typologies (Tikkanen 1988:304).

    In the present study a substantial number of features (phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical) are taken into account in order to arrive at a non-speculative typological profile of the region. The author draws from his own fieldwork in the region, collaborating with several native-speaker consultants,  as well as from language-specific studies carried out by other researchers. In an initial stage, an intragenealogical typology of the Indo-Aryan cluster, native to and linguistically dominant in the region (often, although controversially, referred to as ‘Dardic’, see Bashir 2003:822; Strand 2001:258; Zoller 2005:10–11), is established, by investigating a sample representing each of the tentatively classified subgroups of ‘Dardic’. This is meant to shed further light on the still ongoing but very challenging classification work. This is projected to be followed up by a more extensive cross-genera comparison of the same features.

    A number of convergence features that are of particular relevance to this region have been identified (many of them confirming suggestions made by Bashir (Bashir 2003:821–823) and Tikkanen (1999; 2008). Some of those are macroareal features that either characterize South Asia at large (or the larger part of it), such as the presence of retroflex stops and non-nominative experiencers, or large parts of Central Asia, such as a contrast between velar and uvular stops and the presence of a vigesimal numeral system. Other features are better described as subareal, some covering a substantial part of the region, such as a the presence of retroflex affricates as well as fricatives, contrasting with corresponding dental and palatal sounds, and the optionality of copula verbs in nominal and adjectival predication, other features characterizing more limited subsets of (often geographically adjacent) languages, such as grammaticalization of evidentiality and animacy distinctions, multi-differentiating deictic systems, a preferred order subordinate clause followed by main clause, the development of tonal/accentual systems, the use of co-lexicalized intensifiers, and a great variety in alignment patterns and in the display and degree of ergativity.

    References:

    Bashir, Elena L. 2003. “Dardic.” Pp. 818-894 in The Indo-Aryan Languages, edited by George Cardona and Danesh Jain. London: Routledge.

    Masica. 2001. “The definition and significance of linguistic areas: Methods, pitfalls, and possibilities (with special reference to the validity of South Asia as a linguistic area).” Pp. 205-267 in The yearbook of South Asian languages and linguistics 2001. London: SAGE.

    Strand, Richard F. 2001. “The tongues of Peristân. Appendix 1.” in Gates of Peristan: History, Religion and Society in the Hindu Kush, Reports and memoirs, edited by Alberto M Cacopardo and Augusto S Cacopardo. Rome: IsIAO.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1988. “On Burushaski and other ancient substrata in northwestern South Asia.” Studia Orientalia 64:3030-325. Retrieved January 4, 2012.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1999. “Archaeological-linguistic correlations in the formation of retroflex typologies and correlating areal features in South Asia.” Pp. 138-148 in Archaeology and language. London: Routledge.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 2008. “Some areal phonological isoglosses in the transit zone between South and Central Asia.” Pp. 250-262 in Proceedings of the third International Hindu Kush Cultural Conference. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

    Zoller, Claus Peter. 2005. A Grammar and Dictionary of Indus Kohistani: Volume 1, Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

     

  • 305.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Where have all the verbs gone? On verb stretching and semi-words in Indo-Aryan Palula.2010In: Himalayan Linguistics, ISSN 1544-7502, E-ISSN 1544-7502, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 51-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of complex predicates consisting of a verb component (verbalizer) and a non-verb component (host) is well-known from descriptions of languages in large parts of West and South Asia. Looking particularly at data from the hitherto less-studied Indo-Aryan Palula (Chitral Valley, Pakistan), we will explore their position within the total verb lexicon. Instead of regarding the verbalizers and hosts as building blocks that due to their respective properties license particular argument structures, as has been done in some previous descriptions, I propose that it is the construction as a whole, and its semantics, that assigns case and selects arguments. Rather than seeing a strict dichotomy between verbalizers (also called “light verbs”) used in complex predicates and the corresponding simple verbs, a few highly generic verbs (BECOME, DO, GIVE) seem to be exposed to a high degree of “stretching”. As such they stand as syntactic models – basic argument templates (BAT) – when forming novel complexes, sometimes involving host elements that lack a lexical identity of their own (hence semi-words) in the language as of today.

  • 306.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Akhunzada, Fakhruddin
    Linguistic diversity, vitality and maintenance: A case study on the language situation in northern Pakistan2017In: Multiethnica. Meddelande från Centrum för multietnisk forskning, Uppsala universitet, ISSN 0284-396X, no 36-37, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multilingual and multicultural region of northern Pakistan, which has approximately 30 distinct languages, is described and evaluated from the perspective of language vitality, revealing the diverse and complex interplay of language policies, community attitudes and generational transmission. Based on the experience of conscious language maintenance efforts carried out in the area, some conclusions are offered concerning the particular effectiveness of regional networking and non-governmental institution support to promote local languages and sustain their vitality in times of great change.

  • 307.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Facts, feelings and temperature expressions in the Hindukush2015In: The Linguistics of Temperature / [ed] Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 440-470Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indo-Aryan Palula (Pakistan) is spoken in a part of the mountainous Hindukush region characterised by sharp climatic and altitude contrasts. In this study, five central temperature terms are investigated and related to tactile temperature, ambient temperature and experiencer-based (i.e. personal-feeling) temperature: táatu ‘hot/warm’, šidáalu ‘cold’, húluk ‘heat’, šidaloó ‘coolness’, and šid ‘coldness’. A few salient correlations between particular expressions and the type of experience involved are identified: First, temperature adjectives are restricted to the domain of rational experience, whereas temperature nouns typically are associated with expressions that refer to thermal (and subjective) comfort or ambient temperature. Second, while temperature evaluated or measured directly by touching an entity tends to be grammatically encoded as noun modification, the subjective experience is expressed with the temperature noun as a stimulus acting upon a non-nominative experiencer. Finally we discuss a few semantic extensions into the human temperament/propensity domain, such as ‘affection is warmth’ and ‘anger is heat’.

  • 308.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Forum for Language Initiatives, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Palula: Illustrations of the IPA2009In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Palula texts2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to "Towards a grammatical description of Palula" (Liljegren 2008) and "Palula vocabulary" (Liljegren & Haider 2011). A collection of texts representing various genres (historical narratives, ethnographic accounts, personal experiences, proverbs, etc.) have been transcribed and annotated, including morphological analysis, a free translation into English and an orthographic representation (Perso-Arabic based) of the transcribed text. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). Henrik Liljegren is a field linguist at Stockholm University, Sweden, and Naseem Haider, himself a native speaker of Palula, is a local researcher with the Forum for Language Initiatives in Islamabad.

  • 310.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Forum for Language Initiatives.
    Palula Vocabulary2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to Towards a grammatical description of Palula (Liljegren 2008). The 1460 main entries included in the present work are limited to those lexical items that are cited or exemplified in the aforementioned work. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). It contains much of the basic vocabulary used in today's Palula, presented along with illustrative example sentences, grammatical information, and comments on word origins. Henrik Liljegren is a field linguist at Stockholm University, Sweden, and Naseem Haider, himself a native speaker of Palula, is a local researcher with the Forum for Language Initiatives in Islamabad.

  • 311.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Khan, Afsar Ali
    Khowar: Illustrations of the IPA2017In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Khowar (ISO 639-3: khw) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 200,000–300,000 (Decker 1992: 31–32; Bashir 2003: 843) people in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (formerly North-West Frontier Province). The majority of the speakers are found in Chitral (a district and erstwhile princely state bordering Afghanistan, see Figure 1), where the language is used as a lingua franca, but there are also important pockets of speaker groups in adjacent areas of Gilgit-Baltistan and Swat District as well as a considerable number of recent migrants to larger cities such as Peshawar and Rawalpindi (Decker 1992: 25–26). Its closest linguistic relative is Kalasha, a much smaller language spoken in a few villages in southern Chitral (Morgenstierne 1961: 138; Strand 1973: 302, 2001: 252). While Khowar has preserved a number of features (phonological, morphological as well as lexical) now lost in other Indo-Aryan languages of the surrounding Hindukush-Karakoram mountain region, it has, over time, incorporated a massive amount of lexical material from neighbouring or influential Iranian languages (Morgenstierne 1936) – and with it, new phonological distinctions. Certain features might also be attributable to formerly dominant languages (e.g. Turkic), or to linguistic substrates, either in the form of, or related to, the language isolate Burushaski, or other, now extinct, languages previously spoken in the area (Morgenstierne 1932: 48, 1947: 6; Bashir 2007: 208–214). There is relatively little dialectal variation among the speakers in Chitral itself, probably attributable to the relative recency of the present expansion of the language (Morgenstierne 1932: 50).

  • 312.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    From left-branching to right-branching: Syntactic changes in the Hindukush under pressure from languages of wider communication2014In: Book of abstracts, 2014, p. 251-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Hindukush languages spoken in the north-western regions of the Indian Subcontinent (particularly Indo-Aryan, sometimes referred to as “Dardic”), a variety of means are available within a complex construction to mark one clause as dependent on another. A subordinate clause may precede the main clause, whereby a complementizer is placed at the end of the subordinate clause: tu kíi baáanu thaní, khooǰóolu. ‘Where are you going? (he) asked‘ (Indo-Aryan Palula), or tu xató hatoɣoót doós reé, buhtuií astám,‘I was afraid that you might give him the letter’ (Indo-Aryan Khowar). A preposed subordinate clause can also be formed with a verbal noun, with or without case marker/postposition: nu ba asaám mhaar-anií the ukháatu de. ‘He had come up to kill us’ (Palula). Pre-nominal participials is another strategy, semantically corresponding to relative clauses in languages such as English: phaí, teeṇíi háa-tam čooṇṭéeli, rumiaál díti híni. ‘The girl gave him a handkerchief which she herself had embroidered’ (Palula). Alternatively, the subordinate clause can be placed after the main clause, in this case often making use of a complementizer ki (or something similar) preceding the subordinate clause: mhéeli i khooǰóolu, ki míi báabu koó. ‘(He) asked: Who is my father?’ (Palula), or, awá buhtaí astám, ki hatoɣóot doós reé. ‘I was afraid that you might give him the letter‘ (Khowar). In a survey covering an area from southern India through parts of southern Pakistan, Hook (1987) observed a significant pattern, whereby the order subordinate – main clause was gradually replaced by the order main clause—subordinate as one moves from the Dravidian South to the Iranian Northwest. While the survey did not include the Hindukush, Bashir (2003: 823), points out that left-branching (i.e. the order subordinate—main clause), like in Dravidian and in the Indo-Aryan languages spoken in their vicinity, is also characteristic of the extreme North of the Subcontinent. Bashir (1996: 177) proposes that left-branching in this northern region has come about as the result of ancient areal influences related to Central Asia, whereas right-branching (i.e. main clause—subordinate) and the use of ki is a feature more recently imported from influential languages spoken in South and West Asia. She further notes that the two constructions are used parallel in Khowar, and that the more recent construction may include the imported marker ki as well as the indigenous (a grammaticalization of ‘say’).In the present study, we investigated interlinear texts in a few Hindukush Indo-Aryan languages (Palula, Kalasha, Pashai, Gilgiti Shina, Kalam Kohistani), empirically testing Bashir‘s suggestion, and found that these, like Khowar, to a varying degree allow both constructions, with the left-branching alternative representing what seems like an older stratum of the languages, whereas the right-branching alternative most likely stems from massive Persian and, more recently, Urdu pressure as influential languages of literacy and wider communication. The distribution across different types of subordination within each language (Noonan 2007; Andrews 2007; Thompson et al. 2007), as well as quantitative differences between the languages in this regard, is presented and discussed.

  • 313.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bisyndetic Contrast Marking in the Hindukush: Additional Evidence of a Historical Contact Zone2017In: Journal of Language Contact : Evolution of Languages, ISSN 1877-4091, E-ISSN 1955-2629, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 450-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contrastive (or antithetical) construction which makes simultaneous use of two separate particles is identified through a mainly corpus-based study as a typical feature of a number of lesser-described languages spoken in the Afghanistan-Pakistan borderland in the high Hindukush. The feature encompasses Nuristani languages (Waigali, Kati) as well as the Indo-Aryan languages found in their close vicinity (Palula, Kalasha, Dameli, Gawri), while it is not shared by more closely related Indo-Aryan languages spoken outside of this geographically delimited area. Due to a striking (although not complete) overlap with at least two other (unrelated) structural features, pronominal kinship suffixes and retroflex vowels, we suggest that a linguistic and cultural diffusion zone of considerable age is centred in the mountainous Nuristan-Kunar-Panjkora area.

  • 314.
    Lindblom, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Dravidian languages: A descriptive typological study on verbal and non-verbal negation in simple declarative sentences2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years the typology of negation has been much described and discussed. However, focus has mainly been on standard negation. Studies on non-verbal negation in general and comparative studies covering the complete domain of non-verbal negation in particular are less common. The strategies to express non-verbal negation vary among languages. In some languages the negation strategy employed in standard negation is also used in non-verbal negation. Several researchers have argued that languages express negation of non-verbal predications using special constructions. This study examines and describes negation strategies in simple declarative sentences in 18 Dravidian languages. The results suggest that the majority of the Dravidian languages included in this study express standard negation by the use of a negative suffix while non-verbal negation is expressed by a negative verb. Further distinctions are made in the negation of non-verbal predications in that different negation markers are used for attributive and existential/possessive predications respectively.

  • 315.
    Lindblom, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Romance languages: A micro-typological study on negation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Languages that are genealogically or areally related often exhibit similar typological features due to their affinity. Large scale typological studies aiming to explain universal patterns and structural variation tend to exclude data from genealogical and areally related languages not to compromise the validity of the results. This typological study investigates the micro- and the macro-typological relation by examining negation features as well as word order of negative markers in relation to the verb in a number of genealogically and areally related Romance languages. The hypothesis is that the selected languages, despite their close relatedness, will exhibit a high degree of variation in regards to negation features. Most likely, not all of the non-standard languages will exhibit the same negation features as their standard language. The results show no correlation between genealogical relatedness and negation features. Moreover, they show that standardization has no demonstrable effect on the negation constructions employed by non-standard languages and that language contact is relevant in regards to the position of the negative marker and a language's position in Jespersen's cycle. The results support the theory that the diachronic evolution of negation is governed by a language's need to emphasize negation.

  • 316.
    Lindmark, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hungrig som en gnu och snäll som en karamell: En korpusstudie över nutida liknelser i svenska bloggtexter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien kartlägger vanliga adjektivliknelser i svenska bloggtexter ur två aspekter, vilka adjektiv och substantiv som förekommer tillsammans i konstruktionen ADJEKTIV som en/ett SUBSTANTIV samt deras grad av konventionalisering. Tidigare forskning visar att liknelser är svårdefinierade, vilket tas upp i bakgrunden. Materialet är hämtat från fem korpusar med svensk bloggtext. Resultaten visar att de vanligaste adjektivliknelserna föredrar att knyta an till ett eller några substantiv. Däremot finns det visst utrymme för produktivitet. Studien är en preliminär kartläggning över hur pass konventionaliserade liknelserna är. Möjliga källor för uppkomst av liknelserna diskuteras i diskussionen. Resultaten belyser även att det finns en ytterligare dimension i definitionen av liknelser utöver kontinuumet mellan bokstavlighet och figurativitet, nämligen en distinktion mellan exaktare måttangivelse och figurativitet.

  • 317.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Animacy in Interrogative Pronouns1995In: Papers from the XVth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, University of Oslo, January 13–15, 1995 / [ed] Inger Moen, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Helge Lødrup, Oslo: Department of Linguistics, University of Oslo , 1995, p. 307-315Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents a typological investigation of whether languages make an animacy distinction in their independent nominal interrogative pronouns. The data comprises 24 languages and was taken mainly from grammatical descriptions. 3rd person pronouns and relative pronouns are included for comparison. The outcome of the survey is that the vast majority of the sample languages do make a ‘who’ vs. ‘what’ distinction. Constructions special to questions, in particular fronting and its possible implications for the question words, are discussed, as is the role of case marking on interrogative pronouns.

  • 318.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gender in Kuot, an East Papuan Isolate2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 319.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language complexity and interlinguistic difficulty2008In: Language Complexity: Typology, contact, change / [ed] Matti Miestamo, Kaius Sinnemäki, Fred Karlsson, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008, p. 217-242Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the related but distinct issues of linguistic complexity and difficulty, as from the viewpoint of an adult learner. Language complexity is seen as an objective property of a system, which could in principle be computed mathematically, while difficulty is grounded in the particular person who experiences the difficulty, involving factors such as the linguistic categories present and the nature of their marking in the learner’s own language. Th is reasoning will be illustrated with one non-Austronesian language, Kuot, and its three Austronesian neighbours, Nalik, Notsi and Madak, of north-central New Ireland, Papua New Guinea.

  • 320.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Linguistic classification: Sprachklassifikation2013In: Wörterbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (WSK) Online: Theories and Methods in Linguistics / [ed] Schierholz, Stefan J. & Wiegand, Herbert Ernst; Kortmann, Bernd, Berlin: De Gruyter , 2013, onlineChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 321.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Literacy in a Dying Language: The Case of Kuot, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea2007In: Language Planning and Policy: Issues in Language Planning and Literacy / [ed] Anthony J. Liddicoat, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2007, p. 185-208Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kuot is a language in a critical situation. Most adults of lower middle age and older are full speakers but children are not learning it. In other words, it will become extinct in a few decades if nothing is done; but it is not too late if the community decides to turn it around, and do so fast. Thus far, the community has shown little interest. Into this situation, vernacular elementary education was introduced. While the community expects this to work for language survival, the aim of the education policy is the eventual transfer of literacy skills to English. This paper describes the tensions between these conflicting goals, and the various components that make up the specific situation of Kuot, including vernacular literacy, orthographic considerations arising from the language’s precarious situation, and the eventual extension of the internet era to Melanesia.

  • 322.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Literacy in a Dying Language: The Case of Kuot, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea2005In: Current Issues in Language Planning, ISSN 1466-4208, E-ISSN 1747-7506, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 200-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kuot is a language in a critical situation. Most adults of lower middle age and older are full speakers but children are not learning it. In other words, it will become extinct in a few decades if nothing is done; but it is not too late if the community decides to turn it around, and do so fast. Thus far, the community has shown little interest. Into this situation, vernacular elementary education was introduced. While the community expects this to work for language survival, the aim of the education policy is the eventual transfer of literacy skills to English. This paper describes the tensions between these conflicting goals, and the various components that make up the specific situation of Kuot, including vernacular literacy, orthographic considerations arising from the language’s precarious situation, and the eventual extension of the internet era to Melanesia.

  • 323.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Påminnande: en funktion av demonstrativer i samtalssvenska2000In: ASLA Information: Denna – den här – den där. Om demonstrativer i tvärspråklig belysning. En minnesskrift till Elsie Wijk-Andersson, ISSN 1100-5629, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta bidrag redovisar några av resultaten från en studie av demonstrativerna den här/den där (etc) i svenska samtal. Ett lite förvånande resultat av studien var att mer än en tredjedel av förekomsterna av dessa demonstrativer utgjorde förstaomnämnanden. Detta finner sin främsta förklaring i deras funktion att påminna; att signalera att en viss referent förväntas vara bekant för lyssnaren.

    Svenska demonstrativer har tre formtyper: den/det/de, denna/detta/dessa, och den/det/de här/där. Den senare typen är som grupp föremål för den studie som redovisas här. (Proximitetsskillnaden i uttrycken kommer inte att behandlas, och inte heller faktorer som har med genus eller numerus att göra.) De förekommer framför allt i talspråket och är inte så väl representerade i skriven svenska (se Fraurud, denna volym).

    Med ”påminnande” menas här att talaren signalerar att lyssnaren förväntas kunna identifiera en icke-topikal referent via kunskap som inte nödvändigtvis förmedlats i det aktuella samtalet. Exempel (1) illustrerar principen:

    (1) A ja ja just det vi pratar den här killen som var hos oss i somras som [ohörbart] konstitutionen

    B amerikanen

    Det är tydligt att A väntar sig att B känner till referenten, vilket bekräftas i Bs yttrande, och det är också klart att referenten inte är aktiverad för B.

    Påminnande visar sig vara en typisk funktion för den aktuella gruppen demonstrativer. Denna funktion är mig veterligen inte tidigare beskriven för svenska. Funktionen har också en koppling till sökande efter ord och avbrutna eller reparerade yttranden.

  • 324.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. La Trobe University, Australia.
    Referring to Space: Studies in Austronesian and Papuan Languages: Ed. by Gunter Senft2001In: Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America, ISSN 0097-8507, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 175-176Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 325.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Some Uses of Demonstratives in Spoken Swedish2000In: Corpus-based and Computational Approaches to Discourse Anaphora / [ed] Botley, S.P. & McEnery, A.M., Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000, p. 107-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents work in progress on some aspects of the use of one set of demonstrative expressions in a corpus of conversational Swedish. The demonstratives under study are the compound forms den här and den där (Eng. approx. ‘this’, ‘that’), both as pronouns and determiners. These forms belong mainly to the spoken language, and have not received much attention in previous studies of Swedish. Typical cases of deictic, first-mention and anaphoric uses are illustrated, and cases that cause problems for the distinction between first mention and anaphor are discussed. A surprisingly large number of first mentions with demonstratives were found, many of which are used in what is here called the “you know” function of demonstratives, i.e., a means for the speaker of signalling his or her assumption of the listener having a previous representation of the intended referent. Among anaphoric uses, some interesting occurrences are discussed, which resemble cases previously described as ‘identificationally overspecified’ (Maes and Noordman, 1995).

  • 326.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Body in Expressions of Emotion: Kuot2002In: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, Vol. 10, no 1-2, p. 159-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution examines the use of body terms in expressions of emotion in Kuot, a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. It is found that expressions involving the word for ‘stomach’, daləp, correspond mainly to what we would consider to be psychological states, while expressions making use of neip ‘skin; body’ are largely concerned with physical states. Some other body parts also form part of emotive expressions.

  • 327.
    Lindström, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Remijsen, Bert
    Aspects of the prosody of Kuot, a language where intonation ignores stress2005In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 839-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the basic system of intonation and lexical stress in Kuot, a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Kuot employs pitch (F0 variation) primarily to express structural information about the clause. Some intonation contours express functions that are commonly expressed by intonation crosslinguistically, such as final vs. nonfinal clauses and parts of clauses, and yes/no questions. In addition, Kuot has particular contours (or tunes) for question-word questions and negated sentences. Word stress, on the other hand, does not interact with intonation in terms of its encoding. It displays a very stable correlation with duration but no association with F0; in other words, there is no consistent marking of stress by means of F0 in Kuot. The position of Kuot word stress is lexically determined, yielding minimal stress pairs.

    In this article, we present a description of Kuot intonation on the basis of pitch extractions made from spontaneous speech. The results reveal that intonation in Kuot is anchored only at the boundaries of intonational phrases. A phonetic analysis of minimal stress pairs recorded in controlled environments demonstrates that lexically stressed syllables do not correlate with pitch.

    The findings are discussed against a background of prosodic typology.

  • 328.
    Lindström, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Terrill, Angela
    Radboud University, Nijmegen.
    Reesink, Ger
    Dunn, Michael
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    The Languages of Island Melanesia2007In: Genes, Language, and Culture History in the Southwest Pacific / [ed] Friedlaender, Jonathan S, New York: Oxford University Press , 2007, p. 118-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 329. Lockwood, Hunter
    et al.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    There is no thermostat in the forest - the semantics and sociolinguistics of temperature in Ojibwe2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 330.
    Luzhkova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ongoing Semantic Change in Seven Swedish Words: A questionnaire-based study2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lexical semantics of a language is an area of linguistics that has many important implications for the life of modern society. It is important to understand how language change works and why this change occurs. Thus the aim of the work described in the thesis was to examine how six Swedish words, fett, fräsch, fräck, grym, häftig, and tajt are used by five different age groups of Swedish people in Uppsala region. To accomplish the aim of the study an appropriate questionnaire was compiled and used by the author. The questionnaire asked for information about the respondents as well as about the usage of each studied word. Analogous previous studies of the ongoing semantic change are reported in literature, frequently in regard to the words from English language. My results show that most of the chosen words are used differently by different age groups. Some words change their usage only slightly while other words experience larger metamorphose. The investigated words do not change their meaning completely, however some meanings do become more or less frequent. The results also show that the usage of the words does not always correlate to their dictionary definitions. Overall it can be concluded that semantic change for the considered words is a gradual ongoing process.

  • 331.
    Löfstrand, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    En jämförelse mellan ord för ansiktsuttryck på svenska och mandarin: En intervju- och korpusbaserad studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen har användningen och betydelsen av ett utvalt antal översättningsekvivalenter av ord och fasta uttryck som betecknar ansiktsuttryck på svenska och mandarin studerats. Uppgiften närmades genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med modersmålstalare av svenska och mandarin, samt genom en korpusbaserad kollokationsundersökning. Analysmetoden Natural Semantic Metalanguage har använts för att beskriva det inre sinnestillståndet hos personer när de handlar på de sätt som orden och uttrycken beskriver, samt vilka känslor och tankar som tillskrivs dessa personer av dem som bevittnar handlingarna. Vissa intressanta skillnader mellan översättningsekvivalenterna har observerats.

  • 332.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Computational simulations of temporal vocalization behavior in adult-child interaction2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017, 2017, p. 2208-2212Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to introduce a computational simulation of timing in child-adult interaction. The simulation uses temporal information from real adult-child interactions as default temporal behavior of two simulated agents. Dependencies between the agents’ behavior are added, and how the simulated interactions compare to real interaction data as a result is investigated. In the present study, the real data consisted of transcriptions of a mother interacting with her 12- month-old child, and the data simulated was vocalizations. The first experiment shows that although the two agents generate vocalizations according to the temporal characteristics of the interlocutors in the real data, simulated interaction with no contingencies between the two agents’ behavior differs from real interaction data. In the second experiment, a contingency was introduced to the simulation: the likelihood that the adult agent initiated a vocalization if the child agent was already vocalizing. Overall, the simulated data is more similar to the real interaction data when the adult agent is less likely to start speaking while the child agent vocalizes. The results are in line with previous studies on turn-taking in parent-child interaction at comparable ages. This illustrates that computational simulations are useful tools when investigating parent-child interactions.

  • 333.
    Matz, Henriette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    De som (som) vi använder: En korpusstudie av optionellt ’som’ i svenska objektsrelativsatser2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar förekomsten av den optionella subjunktionen som i svenska objektsrelativsatser. Sökningar gjordes i en svenskspråkig korpus för att hitta objektsrelativsatser med och utan som. Resultaten undersöktes mot bakgrund av två hypoteser gällande processningseffektivitet och tillgänglighet hos referenter. I båda fallen styrktes dessa hypoteser. Som tycks vara mer frekvent i relativsatser där många ord skiljer matrissatsens korrelat från relativsatsens finita verb vilket stödjer principen Maximize On-line Processing som formulerats av Hawkins och som grundar sig i teorier kring processningseffektivitet. Som tycktes också vara mer frekvent i relativsatser där det inbäddade subjektet var i hög grad tillgängligt, i fråga om pronominell och animat status hos referenten.

  • 334. Mayer, Thomas
    et al.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rohrdantz, Christian
    Hund, Michael
    From the extraction of continuous features in parallel texts to visual analytics of heterogeneous areal-typological datasets2014In: Language Processing and Grammars: The role of functionally oriented computational models / [ed] Brian Nolan & Carlos Periñán-Pascual, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 13-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we show that functionally motivatedprocedural approaches may help to automatically extract typological featuresfrom texts. This idea is illustrated with measuring cross-linguistic variationin the domain of morphological typology based on parallel texts. Second, wedemonstrate that the methodology developed in the field of visual analyticsallows for detecting patterns or regularities in the automatically extractedfeatures. At the heart of our approach lies an extended sunburst visualization,which enables a cross-comparison of a large number of features within thecontext of language genealogy and areal information. We provide evidence of theusefulness of the present approach with case studies where the visualizations ofthe extracted features reveal interesting insights.

  • 335. McWhorter, John
    et al.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Pas tout à fait du français: Une étude créole2002In: Études créoles, ISSN 0708-2398, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 179-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 336. Melin, Lars
    et al.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Laddade ord: en bok om tankens makt över språket2016Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 337.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A typological perspective on negation in Finnish dialects2011In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 83-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at negation in Finnish dialects from a typological perspective. The focus is on standard negation, i.e. the negation of declarative verbal main clauses. The dialectal variation that Finnish shows in its negative construction is examined in the light of current typological knowledge of the expression of negation. Developmental trends connected to the micro-typological variation are also discussed, Finnish dialects are compared with related and neighbouring languages, and relevant theoretical and methodological issues relating to the meeting point of typology and dialectology are addressed.

  • 338.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Coding epistemic perspective in polar interrogatives: A typological perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Constructions and paradigms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kielten vertailu kielitypologisessa tutkimuksessa2013In: Kielten vertailun metodiikka / [ed] Kolehmainen, Leena; Miestamo, Matti; Nordlund, Taru, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2013, p. 27-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Maailman kielellinen diversiteetti ja sen tutkimus2015In: Virittäjä : Kotikielen Seuran aikakauslehti, ISSN 0042-6806, E-ISSN 2242-8828, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 104-108Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation2017In: The Cambridge handbook of linguistic typology / [ed] Akexandra Y. Aikhenvald, R. M. W. Dixon, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 405-439Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Partitives and negation: A cross-linguistic survey2014In: Partitive cases and related categories / [ed] Silvia Luraghi; Tuomas Huumo, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2014, p. 63-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Norbert Cyffer, Erwin Ebermann & Georg Ziegelmeyer (eds.), 2009, Negation patterns in West African languages and beyond (Typological Studies in Language 87), Amsterdam: John Benjamins.2011In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 0942-2919, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 277-279Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Skolt Saami: A typological profile2011In: Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja / Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne, ISSN 0355-0214, E-ISSN 1798-2987, Vol. 93, p. 111-145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 346.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Skolt Saami Documentation Corpus (SSDC-2016)2017Other (Other academic)
  • 347.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The marking of nominal participants under negation2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 348.
    Miestamo, Matti
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Helsingfors Universitet.
    Koponen, Eino
    Helsingfors Universitet.
    Negation in Skolt Saami2015In: Negation in Uralic languages / [ed] Miestamo, Matti; Tamm, Anne, Wagner-Nagy, Beáta, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 353-376Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes negation in Skolt Saami in a typological perspective. In the standard negation construction, the negative marker is a negative auxiliary verb and the lexical verb appears in a non-finite form. Negative imperatives employ a special form for the negative auxiliary. The copula used with non-verbal predicates is negated with standard negation, but a special contracted form may also appear. In dependent clauses, negation is expressed either by standard negation or using the verbal abessive. With negative indefinite pronouns, the negative auxiliary is present in the clause. There is an abessive case for nominals to express absence, and a privative suffix can derive adjectives. Other aspects of negation, such as negative replies, the scope of negation, and reinforcing negation are also addressed.

  • 349.
    Miestamo, Matti
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koponen, Eino
    Negation in Skolt Saami2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Miestamo, Matti
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Helsingfors Universitet.
    Tamm, Anne
    Wagner-Nagy, Beáta
    Negation in Uralic Languages: Introduction2015In: Negation in Uralic Languages / [ed] Miestamo, Matti; Tamm, Anne, Wagner-Nagy, Beáta, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 1-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
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