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  • 301.
    Kolu, Jaana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    "Me ollaan mukana tässä experimentissä": Lingvistiska resurser och språkpraktiker i tvåspråkiga ungdomssamtal i Haparanda, Stockholm och Helsingfors2018In: Folkmålsstudier, ISSN 0356-1771, Vol. 56, p. 185-193Article in journal (Other academic)
    The full text will be freely available from 2019-09-01 12:51
  • 302.
    Kolu, Jaana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Translanguaging Practices in Bilingual Adolescents’ Conversations in Haparanda, Stockholm and Helsinki2018In: Nordiques, ISSN 1761-7677, no 35, p. 149-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 303.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vanhove, Martine
    Koch, Peter
    Typological approaches to lexical semantics2007In: Linguistic Typology, ISSN 1430-0532; 1613-415X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 159 – 186-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 304.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    From Aleksandr Evgen'evič's garden2013In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 518-518Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 305.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Introduction from the new Editor: Linguistic Typology today and tomorrow2018In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 306. Kuhl, Patricia K
    et al.
    Andruski, J E
    Chistovich, I A
    Chistovich, L A
    Kozhevnikova, E V
    Ryskina, V L
    Stolyarova, E I
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Cross-language analysis of phonetic units in language addressed to infants.1997In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, Vol. 277, no 5326, p. 684-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early months of life, infants acquire information about the phonetic properties of their native language simply by listening to adults speak. The acoustic properties of phonetic units in language input to young infants in the United States, Russia, and Sweden were examined. In all three countries, mothers addressing their infants produced acoustically more extreme vowels than they did when addressing adults, resulting in a "stretching" of vowel space. The findings show that language input to infants provides exceptionally well-specified information about the linguistic units that form the building blocks for words.

  • 307.
    Kulick, Don
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Christianity, cargo and ideas of self: Patterns of literacy in a Papua New Guinean village1990In: Man, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 286-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literacy in a small, rural, newly literate Papua New Guinean village is analysed by placing it in the context of local notions of Christianity, the self and language. Villagers' interpretations of the relationship between Catholicism and the written word are based on their Cargo-oriented world-view and on their pre-Christian beliefs about language as a powerful means by which individuals could bring about transformations in their world. Local ideas of the self and others are articulated and reinforced through an emphasis on particular dimensions of oral language use. This emphasis has consequences for the uses to which literacy is put, the structure of the writing the villagers produce, and the ways in which they attribute meaning to written texts.

     

  • 308. Kullenberg, Christopher
    et al.
    Van Meerbergen, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German, Dutch.
    Westberg, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    What are analog bulletin boards used for today? Analysing media uses, intermediality and technology affordances in Swedish bulletin board messages using a citizen science approach: 2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8, article id e0202077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analog bulletin boards are omnipresent in Swedish urban areas, yet little systematic knowledge about this communication medium exists. In the shadow of the rapid emergence of digital media the analog bulletin board has received less attention than its digital successors, many of them having incorporated similar functionality with novel technical solutions. In this study we used a citizen science method to collect 1167 messages from bulletin boards around Sweden aided by school children and teachers, with the purpose of shedding new light on what is communicated on the boards, by whom, using what types of technologies and in what way the messages refer to other media. Results show that the most common messages are invitations to events, such as concerts, lectures and sports events, followed by buy-and-sell ads for goods and services. The most frequent sender is an association, for example NGOs, sports associations or religious communities. Almost half of the sampled messages were professionally printed, about forty per cent were made by home printers. Only six per cent of the messages were handwritten, almost exclusively by private persons as senders. Moreover, we show how the analog bulletin board has adapted to recent changes in media technology-a media landscape which is saturated with electronicand mobile media. Further, the bulletin board still holds a firm place in a media ecology where local communication is in demand, and exists in parallel with electronic media. Close to forty percent of the messages contained hyperlinks to web pages and we found (and removed for anonymization purposes) more than six hundred phone numbers from the dataset.

  • 309.
    Kunitz, Silvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Scriptlines as emergent artifacts in collaborative group planning2015In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 76, p. 135-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By adopting a process-oriented, praxeological approach to planning research, this study illustrates how group planning is collaboratively achieved as a situated activity during interactions-for-classroom-tasks. Such approach, based on the theoretical tenets of Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis, gives an emic (i.e., participant-relevant), non-mentalist account of planning as a nexus of situated discursive and embodied practices. The analysis focuses on a planning session during which three adult learners of Italian as a foreign language prepare for a classroom presentation in their L2; the final planning product is a written script for the presentation. Specifically, the participants' plan for their classroom presentation emerges as orally formulated scriptlines, which are collaboratively shaped until they come to constitute a written script for the presentation. Overall, this process-oriented study provides a moment-by-moment documentation of the participants' planning practices, such as inscribing, writing aloud, translating into their L2, and retranslating into their L1. The findings suggest that teachers should give students planning time in the classroom, in order to observe the students' practices and make sure that their respective interpretations of the final task follow the same agenda. Moreover, the direct observation of the planning process could provide an opportunity for assessment for learning.

  • 310.
    Kupula, Mikko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Nygrekiska.
    A visible trace of movement?2007In: Snippets, ISSN 1590-1807, no 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This snippet illustrates that placement of possessive clitics in Modern Greek can be used as heuristic for detecting a visible trace of N-to-D movement. The finding also supports the view that N>A strings involve movement chain.

  • 311.
    Kuteeva, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Mauranen, Anna
    Digital academic discourse: Texts and contexts2018In: Discourse, Context & Media, ISSN 2211-6958, E-ISSN 2211-6966, Vol. 24, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Special Issue focuses on how digital media – blogs, tweets, and other digital platforms – are used by researchers, and how these new modes of academic communication have impacted writing practices and language uses in the academy. It brings together research in two related areas of scholarship: academic discourse analysis and literacies research. In this introductory article, we first outline the concept of digital academic discourse as we perceive it in the context of our Special Issue and show how it is related to, and at the same time different from, its “analogue” predecessor. We then continue to discuss the practices surrounding the production of academic texts with the support of digital media, followed by an outline of how both digital academic discourse and related writing practices are tied to the networks, communities and spaces in which they take place. Next, methodological issues in the study of digital academic discourse are considered, and the articles in this special issue are presented in connection to the themes outlined above. We conclude by contextualising the studies reported here within current trends in discourse analytical and sociolinguistic research and identify venues for future studies.

  • 312.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    Därför fungerar inte röstbaserade lögndetektorer2009In: NewsmillArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Voice-based lie detectors rely on pseudo science. Nevertheless they are used in Great Britan and a number of other locations. One of the major producers of these detectors attempts to use threats to silence swedish researchers who pointed out that their technique lacks scientific basis, writes Francisco Lacerda, professor of Phonetics at Stockholm University.

  • 313.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    Lögnbaserade lögndetektorer2009In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 3, p. 7-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses the underlying principles of voice-based lie-detectors, in particular Nemesysco's LVA-technology. The conclusion is that the system cannot (even in principle) work, a notion that is supported by the results from the UK's Department of Work and Pensions' systematic evaluation.

  • 314.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Phonolgoy: An emergent consequence of memory constraints and sensory input2003In: Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, ISSN 0922-4777 (Print) 1573-0905 (Online), Vol. 16, no 1, p. 41-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper presents a theoretical model that attempts to account for the early stages of language acquisition in terms of interaction between biological constraints and input characteristics. The model uses the implications of stochastic representations of the sensory input in a volatile and limited memory. It is argued that phonological structure is a consequence of limited memory resources under the pressure of ecologically relevant multi-sensory information.

  • 315.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Språkets begynnelse: Att härleda lingvistisk struktur ur löpande tal2008In: Dyslexi: Aktuellt om läs- och skrivsvårigheter, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 11-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln presenterar en översiklig modell av tidig talspråksinlärning som bygger på samspelet mellan barnet och sin omgivning. Fonologisk medvetenhet föreslås som vidare konsekvenser av samma hierarkiska process som förklarar hur spädbarn härleder ord som återkommande ljudsekvenser förekommande i initialt oanalyserat löpande tal.

  • 316.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    An Ecological Theory of Language Acquisition2006In: Linguística: Revista de Estudos Linguísticos da Universidade do Porto, ISSN 1646-6195, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 54-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ecological approach to early language acquisition is presented in this article. The general view is that the ability of language communication must have arisen as an evolutionary adaptation to the representational needs of Homo sapiens and that about the same process is observed in language acquisition, although under different ecological settings. It is argued that the basic principles of human language communication are observed even in non-human species and that it is possible to account for the emergence of an initial linguistic referential function on the basis of general-purpose perceptual, production and memory mechanisms, if there language learner interacts with the ecological environment. A simple computational model of how early language learning may be initiated in today's human infants is proposed.

  • 317.
    Lainio, Jarmo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German, Finnish.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Muhonen, Anu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German, Finnish.
    Flerspråkiga ungas identiteter och diskurser om dessa – ett internationellt projekt som börjar avkasta resultat2012In: Fenno-Ugrica Suecana - Nova Series, ISSN 1504-1921, E-ISSN 2001-6204, Vol. 14, p. 41-56Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the local, global and sociolinguistic contexts of an international HERAproject (IDII4MES; the Humanities in the European Research Area, 2010-2012). Its main aims are summarized as follows; to:

    - investigate the range of language and literacy practices of multilingual young people and how these practices are used to negotiate inheritance and identities,

    - explore the cultural and social significance of language and literacy practices of multilingual young people,

    - develop innovative multi-site, ethnographic team methodologies using interlocking case studies across national, social, cultural, and linguistic contexts

    - contribute to policy and practice in the inclusion of non-national minority languages in the wider European educational agenda.

    The four research sites, Birmingham (U.K.; coordinator), Copenhagen (Denmark), Stockholm (Sweden), and Tilburg (Netherlands), followed similar routes for data creation, but concentrated on school-age children of different language-backgrounds: Punjabi (Birmingham), Finnish and Spanish (Stockholm), Chinese (Tilburg, Eindhoven, Utrecht), and mainstream context (Danish) for various language-background children (Copenhagen). The methods involve ethnographic fieldwork in- and out-of-school, interviews, discussions, linguistic landscaping and ‘nethnographic’ studies of multilingual adolescents’ social media and internet communication. Analyses and reports based on the qualitative data from the diverse, multilingual contexts have been discussed and produced. Following these, new datadriven and comparative-theoretical studies of the project are being produced.

  • 318.
    Lainio, Jarmo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German, Finnish.
    Wande, Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German, Finnish.
    Meänkieli today – to be or not to be standardised2015In: Sociolinguistica: Internationales Jahrbuch fuer Europaeische Soziolinguistik, ISSN 0933-1883, E-ISSN 1865-939X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 121-140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 319.
    Larsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Breaking News: nya rön i jakten på det indoeuropeiska urspråket!2015In: Curie: en tidning från Vetenskapsrådet, ISSN 2001-3426Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 320.
    Larsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German, Baltic Languages.
    Det indoeuropeiska urspråket2015In: Anropet, ISSN 1653-8633Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 321.
    Larsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Om detta talar skeletten2015In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no juniArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 322.
    Larsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Report from the 9th Conference on Baltic Studies in Europe – Transitions, Visions and Beyond2011In: Baltu filoloģija, ISSN 1691-0036, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 90-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 9th Conference on Baltic Studies in Europe, Transitions, Visions andBeyond, was organized by the Center for Baltic and East European Studiesat Södertörn University, and held in Stockholm, 12–15 June 2011. Theconference attracted over 200 participants from all over the world, and thepanel sessions covered nearly all aspects of Baltic Studies, including linguistics,history, political studies, economics, media, culture, literature and the arts.Three key-note speakers were featured; Bengt Jacobsson (Södertörn) openedthe conference with the paper “Changes in Governance: Europeanization andthe Baltic States”, on the second day Valdis Muktupāvels (Riga) talked aboutlocal, regional and continental components of national musical culture, andon the last day, Tiina Kirss (Tallinn) addressed post-Soviet memory work inher talk “Writing Baltic Lives: Continuities and Caesuras”.In the following, I will attempt to briefly summarize the main points of the papers in the linguistic section, which was organized by Raimo Raag(Uppsala) and Pēteris Vanags (Stockholm).

  • 323.
    Larsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German, Baltic Languages.
    Ta inte listan på orden!2015In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no oktoberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 324.
    Larsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Var talades det indoeuropeiska urspråket?2015In: Curie: en tidning från Vetenskapsrådet, ISSN 2001-3426Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 325.
    Larsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Varför blir man språkhistoriker?2015In: Curie: en tidning från Vetenskapsrådet, ISSN 2001-3426Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 326.
    Larsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Vilket språk är äldst?2015In: Curie: en tidning från Vetenskapsrådet, ISSN 2001-3426Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 327.
    Larsson, Jenny H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Apophonie et catégories grammaticales dans les langues baltiques2013In: Kratylos, ISSN 0023-4567, Vol. 53, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Larsson, Jenny Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Deverbative Root Nouns in Baltic?2003In: Linguistica Baltica: International Journal of Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 1230-3984, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 99-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 329.
    Larsson, Jenny Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Nominal Compounds in Old Lithuanian Texts: the Original Distribution of the Composition Vowel2004In: Linguistica Baltica: International Journal of Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 1230-3984, Vol. 10, p. 99-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Larsson, Jenny Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Nominal Compounds in the Baltic Languages2002In: Transactions of the Philological Society (Print), ISSN 0079-1636, E-ISSN 1467-968X, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 203-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Larsson, Jenny Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Proto-Indo-European Root Nouns in the Baltic Languages2001In: Journal of Indo-European Monograph Series, Vol. 40, p. 50-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 332.
    Larsson, Jenny Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Secondary Ablaut in Baltic2006In: Meijerbergs Arkiv för Svensk Ordforskning, Vol. 32, p. 174-176Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Larsson, Jenny Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    The master of the house – Lithuanian viẽšpats, Greek οἴκαδε and related issues2007In: Cambridge Classical Journal, ISSN 1750-2705, E-ISSN 2047-993X, Vol. 32, p. 101-106Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 334. Lehtonen, Minna
    et al.
    Harrer, Gabor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German, Finnish.
    Wande, Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German, Finnish.
    Laine, Matti
    Testing the Stem Dominance Hypothesis: Meaning Analysis of Inflected Words and Prepositional Phrases2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. e93136-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like from the house. To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem) or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem). Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the dominant unit in meaning access of inflected words.

  • 335.
    Lemmouh, Zakaria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. Lingvistik.
    The Relationship Between Grades and the Lexical Richness of Student Essays2008In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 163-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between lexical richness and the grades on essays produced by Swedish university students of English in order to shed light on the extent to which lexical richness is a predictor of overall essay quality. To this end, essays produced by 37 advanced learners of English were analyzed using a lexical richness measure that calculates the proportion of advanced vocabulary. The lexical

    richness score of the student essays were related to the following three variables: essay grade, course grade and vocabulary knowledge as measured by three discrete-item tests.

    In addition, a 14-item questionnaire administered to the teachers at the English department eliciting information about their essay assessment procedures was analyzed, in order to shed light on the relationship between the weight teachers put on lexical

    richness and the grade they award essays with different lexical richness profiles. The results show that there is a relationship between use of advanced vocabulary in student essays and the overall course grade. However, no relationship was found between lexical richness and overall essay quality as reflected by faculty teachers’ ratings. A possible explanation is that a majority of the surveyed faculty teachers state that their assessment of essay quality is primarily based on content and grammar features rather than lexical

    features.

  • 336. Lepic, Ryan
    et al.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Belsitzman, Gal
    Sandler, Wendy
    Taking meaning in hand: Iconic motivations in two-handed signs2016In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 37-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally in sign language research, the issue of whether a lexical sign is articulated with one hand or two has been treated as a strictly phonological matter. We argue that accounting for two-handed signs also requires considering meaning as a motivating factor. We report results from a Swadesh list comparison, an analysis of semantic patterns among two-handed signs, and a picture-naming task. Comparing four unrelated languages, we demonstrate that the two hands are recruited to encode various relationship types in sign language lexicons. We develop the general principle that inherently "plural" concepts are straightforwardly mapped onto our paired human hands, resulting in systematic use of the two hands across sign languages. In our analysis, "plurality" subsumes four primary relationship types — interaction, location, dimension, and composition — and we predict that signs with meanings that encompass these relationships — such as 'meet', 'empty', 'large', or 'machine' — will preferentially be two-handed in any sign language.

  • 337.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Profiling Indo-Aryan in the Hindukush-Karakoram: A preliminary study of micro-typological patterns2017In: Journal of South Asian languages and linguistics, ISSN 2196-0771, E-ISSN 2196-078X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 107-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a typological profile of 31 Indo-Aryan (IA) languages in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Western Himalayan region (covering NE Afghanistan, N Pakistan, and parts of Kashmir). Native speakers were recruited to provide comparative data. This data, supplemented by reputable descriptions or field notes, was evaluated against a number of WALS- or WALS-like features, enabling a fine-tuned characterization of each language, taking different lin-guistic domains into account (phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon). The emerging patterns were compared with global distributions as well as with characteristic IA features and well-known areal patterns. Some features, mainly syntactic, turned out to be shared with IA in general, whereas others do have scattered reflexes in IA outside of the region but are especially prevalent in the region: large consonant inventories, tripartite pronominal case alignment, a high frequency of left-branching constructions, and multi-degree deictic sys-tems. Yet other features display a high degree of diversity, often bundling subareally. Finally, there was a significant clustering of features that are not characterizing IA in general: tripartite affricate differentiation, retroflexion across several subsets, aspiration contrasts involving voiceless consonants only, tonal contrasts and 20-based numerals. This clustering forms a “hard core” at the centre of the region, gradually fading out toward its peripheries.

  • 338.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review: A Grammar of the Shina Language of Indus Kohistan by Ruth Laila Schmidt and Razwal Kohistani: (Beiträge zur Kenntnis südasiatischer Sprachen and Literaturen, 17. Herausgeben von Dieter B. Kapp)2008In: Himalayan Linguistics, ISSN 1544-7502, E-ISSN 1544-7502, no 6, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Dangari Tongue of Choke and Machoke: Tracing the proto-language of Shina enclaves in the Hindu Kush2009In: Acta Orientalia, ISSN 0001-6438, E-ISSN 1600-0439, no 70, p. 7-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from four little-studied varieties of Indo-Aryan (Southern Palula, Northern Palula, Sawi and Kalkoti) spoken in the Hindu Kush is analyzed and discussed from a historical-comparative perspective. Evidence is presented showing that Kalkoti, until recently only tentatively classified, is part of this particular cluster of closely-related Shina varieties. An attempt is made at reconstructing some phonological and grammatical features of a common source speech, here named Proto-Dangari, and the order in which the present-day varieties may have split off. An important conclusion drawn is that Southern and Northern Palula probably are more distantly related than present-day similarities seem to indicate, the high degree of synchronic similarity instead being due to relatively recent convergence taking place in southern Chitral. It is hypothesized that the present speech communities are the result of two different westward routes of migration, one geographically linking Southern Palula (Ashreti) and Sawi with Chilas, the other linking Northern Palula (Biori) and Kalkoti with Tangir, both located in the same general area of the main Indus Valley.

  • 340.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Where have all the verbs gone? On verb stretching and semi-words in Indo-Aryan Palula.2010In: Himalayan Linguistics, ISSN 1544-7502, E-ISSN 1544-7502, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 51-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of complex predicates consisting of a verb component (verbalizer) and a non-verb component (host) is well-known from descriptions of languages in large parts of West and South Asia. Looking particularly at data from the hitherto less-studied Indo-Aryan Palula (Chitral Valley, Pakistan), we will explore their position within the total verb lexicon. Instead of regarding the verbalizers and hosts as building blocks that due to their respective properties license particular argument structures, as has been done in some previous descriptions, I propose that it is the construction as a whole, and its semantics, that assigns case and selects arguments. Rather than seeing a strict dichotomy between verbalizers (also called “light verbs”) used in complex predicates and the corresponding simple verbs, a few highly generic verbs (BECOME, DO, GIVE) seem to be exposed to a high degree of “stretching”. As such they stand as syntactic models – basic argument templates (BAT) – when forming novel complexes, sometimes involving host elements that lack a lexical identity of their own (hence semi-words) in the language as of today.

  • 341.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Akhunzada, Fakhruddin
    Linguistic diversity, vitality and maintenance: A case study on the language situation in northern Pakistan2017In: Multiethnica. Meddelande från Centrum för multietnisk forskning, Uppsala universitet, ISSN 0284-396X, no 36-37, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multilingual and multicultural region of northern Pakistan, which has approximately 30 distinct languages, is described and evaluated from the perspective of language vitality, revealing the diverse and complex interplay of language policies, community attitudes and generational transmission. Based on the experience of conscious language maintenance efforts carried out in the area, some conclusions are offered concerning the particular effectiveness of regional networking and non-governmental institution support to promote local languages and sustain their vitality in times of great change.

  • 342.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Forum for Language Initiatives, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Palula: Illustrations of the IPA2009In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Khan, Afsar Ali
    Khowar: Illustrations of the IPA2017In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Khowar (ISO 639-3: khw) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 200,000–300,000 (Decker 1992: 31–32; Bashir 2003: 843) people in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (formerly North-West Frontier Province). The majority of the speakers are found in Chitral (a district and erstwhile princely state bordering Afghanistan, see Figure 1), where the language is used as a lingua franca, but there are also important pockets of speaker groups in adjacent areas of Gilgit-Baltistan and Swat District as well as a considerable number of recent migrants to larger cities such as Peshawar and Rawalpindi (Decker 1992: 25–26). Its closest linguistic relative is Kalasha, a much smaller language spoken in a few villages in southern Chitral (Morgenstierne 1961: 138; Strand 1973: 302, 2001: 252). While Khowar has preserved a number of features (phonological, morphological as well as lexical) now lost in other Indo-Aryan languages of the surrounding Hindukush-Karakoram mountain region, it has, over time, incorporated a massive amount of lexical material from neighbouring or influential Iranian languages (Morgenstierne 1936) – and with it, new phonological distinctions. Certain features might also be attributable to formerly dominant languages (e.g. Turkic), or to linguistic substrates, either in the form of, or related to, the language isolate Burushaski, or other, now extinct, languages previously spoken in the area (Morgenstierne 1932: 48, 1947: 6; Bashir 2007: 208–214). There is relatively little dialectal variation among the speakers in Chitral itself, probably attributable to the relative recency of the present expansion of the language (Morgenstierne 1932: 50).

  • 344.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bisyndetic Contrast Marking in the Hindukush: Additional Evidence of a Historical Contact Zone2017In: Journal of Language Contact : Evolution of Languages, ISSN 1877-4091, E-ISSN 1955-2629, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 450-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contrastive (or antithetical) construction which makes simultaneous use of two separate particles is identified through a mainly corpus-based study as a typical feature of a number of lesser-described languages spoken in the Afghanistan-Pakistan borderland in the high Hindukush. The feature encompasses Nuristani languages (Waigali, Kati) as well as the Indo-Aryan languages found in their close vicinity (Palula, Kalasha, Dameli, Gawri), while it is not shared by more closely related Indo-Aryan languages spoken outside of this geographically delimited area. Due to a striking (although not complete) overlap with at least two other (unrelated) structural features, pronominal kinship suffixes and retroflex vowels, we suggest that a linguistic and cultural diffusion zone of considerable age is centred in the mountainous Nuristan-Kunar-Panjkora area.

  • 345.
    Lim Falk, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    English and Swedish in CLIL student texts2015In: Language learning journal, ISSN 0957-1736, E-ISSN 1753-2167, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 304-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates Swedish students’ ability to produce the discourse of the subject history, in a situation where they had to demonstrate historical knowledge in written explanations, and where both English and Swedish were involved. The students attend a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programme at the upper secondary school level. The study highlights the roles of both languages in CLIL, thus including both English and the L1 Swedish. The research questions concern language choice, field-specific lexis and genre. These variables were related to the teacher’s assessment in terms of grading, in order to discover possible connections between linguistic choices on the part of the students and the degree of success in terms of grades. While the students had quite a lot of input in English during the history course, they mainly choose to write the exam in Swedish. The elements of English in the texts were primarily used for field-specific lexis. Texts with elements of English also tend to be slightly less successful than texts written in Swedish only. The overall achievements in this exam were quite low, even though the students used their strongest language. Few students display the significant linguistic resources needed in the production of successful historical explanations. Texts assessed with high grades represent content by means of linguistic choices that correspond to the typical patterns of the field, more than the texts with lower grades. The results confirm the importance of paying attention to both languages in CLIL education. 

  • 346.
    Lindblom, Bjorn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sussman, Harvey M.
    Agwuele, Augustine
    A Duration-Dependent Account of Coarticulation for Hyper- and Hypoarticulation2009In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 188-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies investigating anticipatory coarticulation in emphatically stressed CV sequences and during fast speaking rates reported that three factors contributed to the overall extent of the documented coarticulation. These factors were: (1) vowel identity, (2) vowel space expansion (emphasis) or reduction (fast rate), and a hypothesized (3) 'deeper' and 'shallower' stop closure contact in emphatic and faster speech, respectively. The objective of the current research was to conceptually and quantitatively unify these two studies. This was accomplished by showing that the opposite changes to frequency onsets of F2 transitions due to emphatic and rapid speech systematically vary as a function of the durational changes in the stop closure interval. Specifically, the decrease in coarticulation in emphatic speech is characterized by increases in F2 onsets and longer stop closures (relative to a normal baseline); the increase in coarticulation due to rapid speech shows concomitant decreases in F2 onsets coinciding with shorter stop closure intervals. Vocal tract area function simulations corresponding to emphatic and reduced speech implicitly support 'deeper' and 'shallower' closure contacts as a third factor contributing to the overall extent of anticipatory CV coarticulation. 

  • 347.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Laryngeal mechanisms in speech: The contributions of Jan Gauffin2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 149-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jan Gauffin was an early user of fiber optics which allowed him to discover that laryngeal structures above the glottal level are involved in speech. His research led him to postulate three independently controlled mechanisms: fundamental frequency control, glottal adduction/abduction, and laryngealization,the latter derived from the protective closure function. He argued that phonetic theory must be revised to account for the main phonation types of the world's languages. He saw them as combinations of two interacting dimensions: adduction/abduction and laryngealization. Secondly he gave the aryepiglottic sphincter an explanatory role in accounting for the production of low pitch and downward pitch inflections. During his lifetime his work received limited attention. However, later laryngoscopic research has confirmed and extended his thinking and findings. His contribution was a pioneering one.

  • 348.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Rejecting the phonetics/phonology split2006In: Theoretical Linguistics, ISSN 0301-4428, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 237-243Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Deduce sound structure from language use. Anchor theory construction in the universal conditions under which all speech communication must take place. Start from ‘first principles’ and not circularly from the data to be explained (cf ‘markedness’). At the level of the individual user, model phonological structure, not as autonomous form, but as an emergent organization of phonetic substance acquired by each native speaker in the context of socially shared, ambient knowledge. At the population level, model this knowledge as a use- & user-dependent process that undergoes change along the historical time scale. Get rid of the distinction between “phonological” and “extra-phonological”. Here is a key step: Make the ‘intrinsic content’ an integral part of the theory from scratch. Treat ‘intrinsic content’ as the source that helps generate discrete structure and that constrains both synchronic and diachronic phonological patterning.

  • 349.
    Lindblom, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Agwuele, Augustine
    Department of Anthropology, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666.
    Sussman, Harvey M.
    Departments of Linguistics and Communication Sciences & Disorders, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The effect of emphatic stress on consonant vowel coarticulation2007In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 121, no 6, p. 3802-3813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the acoustic coarticulatory effects of phrasal accent on [V1.CV2] sequences, when separately applied to V1 or V2, surrounding the voiced stops [b], [d], and [g]. Three adult speakers each produced 360 tokens (six V1 contexts x ten V2 contexts x three stops x two emphasis conditions). Realizing that anticipatory coarticulation of V2 onto the intervocalic C can be influenced by prosodic effects, as well as by vowel context effects, a modified locus equation regression metric was used to isolate the effect of phrasal accent on consonantal F2 onsets,independently of prosodically induced vowel expansion effects. The analyses revealed two main emphasis-dependent effects: systematic differences in F2 onset values and the expected expansion of vowel space. By accounting for the confounding variable of stress-induced vowel space expansion, a small but consistent coarticulatory effect of emphatic stress on the consonant was uncovered in lingually produced stops, but absent in labial stops. Formant calculations based on tube models indicated similarly increased F2 onsets when stressed /d/ and /g/ were simulated with deeper occlusions resulting from more forceful closure movements during phrasal accented speech.

  • 350.
    Lindblom, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Diehl, Randy
    Park, Sang-Hoon
    Salvi, Giampiero
    (Re)use of place features in voiced stop systems:: Role of phonetic constraints2008In: Proceedings FONETIK 2008Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Computational experiments focused on place of articulation in voiced stops were designed to

    generate ‘optimal’ inventories of CV syllables from a larger set of ‘possible CV:s’ in the presence

    of independently and numerically defined articulatory, perceptual and developmental

    constraints. Across vowel contexts the most salient places were retroflex, palatal and uvular.

    This was evident from acoustic measurements and perceptual data. Simulation results using

    the criterion of perceptual contrast alone failed to produce systems with the typologically widely

    attested set [b] [d] [g], whereas using articulatory cost as the sole criterion produced inventories

    in which bilabial, dental/alveolar and velar onsets formed the core. Neither perceptual

    contrast, nor articulatory cost, (nor the two combined), produced a consistent re-use of

    place features (‘phonemic coding’). Only systems constrained by ‘target learning’ exhibited

    a strong recombination of place features.

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