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  • 301. Lepic, Ryan
    et al.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Belsitzman, Gal
    Sandler, Wendy
    Taking meaning in hand: Iconic motivations in two-handed signs2016In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 37-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally in sign language research, the issue of whether a lexical sign is articulated with one hand or two has been treated as a strictly phonological matter. We argue that accounting for two-handed signs also requires considering meaning as a motivating factor. We report results from a Swadesh list comparison, an analysis of semantic patterns among two-handed signs, and a picture-naming task. Comparing four unrelated languages, we demonstrate that the two hands are recruited to encode various relationship types in sign language lexicons. We develop the general principle that inherently "plural" concepts are straightforwardly mapped onto our paired human hands, resulting in systematic use of the two hands across sign languages. In our analysis, "plurality" subsumes four primary relationship types — interaction, location, dimension, and composition — and we predict that signs with meanings that encompass these relationships — such as 'meet', 'empty', 'large', or 'machine' — will preferentially be two-handed in any sign language.

  • 302.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Profiling Indo-Aryan in the Hindukush-Karakoram: A preliminary study of micro-typological patterns2017In: Journal of South Asian languages and linguistics, ISSN 2196-0771, E-ISSN 2196-078X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 107-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a typological profile of 31 Indo-Aryan (IA) languages in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Western Himalayan region (covering NE Afghanistan, N Pakistan, and parts of Kashmir). Native speakers were recruited to provide comparative data. This data, supplemented by reputable descriptions or field notes, was evaluated against a number of WALS- or WALS-like features, enabling a fine-tuned characterization of each language, taking different lin-guistic domains into account (phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon). The emerging patterns were compared with global distributions as well as with characteristic IA features and well-known areal patterns. Some features, mainly syntactic, turned out to be shared with IA in general, whereas others do have scattered reflexes in IA outside of the region but are especially prevalent in the region: large consonant inventories, tripartite pronominal case alignment, a high frequency of left-branching constructions, and multi-degree deictic sys-tems. Yet other features display a high degree of diversity, often bundling subareally. Finally, there was a significant clustering of features that are not characterizing IA in general: tripartite affricate differentiation, retroflexion across several subsets, aspiration contrasts involving voiceless consonants only, tonal contrasts and 20-based numerals. This clustering forms a “hard core” at the centre of the region, gradually fading out toward its peripheries.

  • 303.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review: A Grammar of the Shina Language of Indus Kohistan by Ruth Laila Schmidt and Razwal Kohistani: (Beiträge zur Kenntnis südasiatischer Sprachen and Literaturen, 17. Herausgeben von Dieter B. Kapp)2008In: Himalayan Linguistics, ISSN 1544-7502, E-ISSN 1544-7502, no 6, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 304.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Dangari Tongue of Choke and Machoke: Tracing the proto-language of Shina enclaves in the Hindu Kush2009In: Acta Orientalia, ISSN 0001-6438, E-ISSN 1600-0439, no 70, p. 7-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from four little-studied varieties of Indo-Aryan (Southern Palula, Northern Palula, Sawi and Kalkoti) spoken in the Hindu Kush is analyzed and discussed from a historical-comparative perspective. Evidence is presented showing that Kalkoti, until recently only tentatively classified, is part of this particular cluster of closely-related Shina varieties. An attempt is made at reconstructing some phonological and grammatical features of a common source speech, here named Proto-Dangari, and the order in which the present-day varieties may have split off. An important conclusion drawn is that Southern and Northern Palula probably are more distantly related than present-day similarities seem to indicate, the high degree of synchronic similarity instead being due to relatively recent convergence taking place in southern Chitral. It is hypothesized that the present speech communities are the result of two different westward routes of migration, one geographically linking Southern Palula (Ashreti) and Sawi with Chilas, the other linking Northern Palula (Biori) and Kalkoti with Tangir, both located in the same general area of the main Indus Valley.

  • 305.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Where have all the verbs gone? On verb stretching and semi-words in Indo-Aryan Palula.2010In: Himalayan Linguistics, ISSN 1544-7502, E-ISSN 1544-7502, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 51-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of complex predicates consisting of a verb component (verbalizer) and a non-verb component (host) is well-known from descriptions of languages in large parts of West and South Asia. Looking particularly at data from the hitherto less-studied Indo-Aryan Palula (Chitral Valley, Pakistan), we will explore their position within the total verb lexicon. Instead of regarding the verbalizers and hosts as building blocks that due to their respective properties license particular argument structures, as has been done in some previous descriptions, I propose that it is the construction as a whole, and its semantics, that assigns case and selects arguments. Rather than seeing a strict dichotomy between verbalizers (also called “light verbs”) used in complex predicates and the corresponding simple verbs, a few highly generic verbs (BECOME, DO, GIVE) seem to be exposed to a high degree of “stretching”. As such they stand as syntactic models – basic argument templates (BAT) – when forming novel complexes, sometimes involving host elements that lack a lexical identity of their own (hence semi-words) in the language as of today.

  • 306.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Akhunzada, Fakhruddin
    Linguistic diversity, vitality and maintenance: A case study on the language situation in northern Pakistan2017In: Multiethnica. Meddelande från Centrum för multietnisk forskning, Uppsala universitet, ISSN 0284-396X, no 36-37, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multilingual and multicultural region of northern Pakistan, which has approximately 30 distinct languages, is described and evaluated from the perspective of language vitality, revealing the diverse and complex interplay of language policies, community attitudes and generational transmission. Based on the experience of conscious language maintenance efforts carried out in the area, some conclusions are offered concerning the particular effectiveness of regional networking and non-governmental institution support to promote local languages and sustain their vitality in times of great change.

  • 307.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Forum for Language Initiatives, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Palula: Illustrations of the IPA2009In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Khan, Afsar Ali
    Khowar: Illustrations of the IPA2017In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Khowar (ISO 639-3: khw) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 200,000–300,000 (Decker 1992: 31–32; Bashir 2003: 843) people in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (formerly North-West Frontier Province). The majority of the speakers are found in Chitral (a district and erstwhile princely state bordering Afghanistan, see Figure 1), where the language is used as a lingua franca, but there are also important pockets of speaker groups in adjacent areas of Gilgit-Baltistan and Swat District as well as a considerable number of recent migrants to larger cities such as Peshawar and Rawalpindi (Decker 1992: 25–26). Its closest linguistic relative is Kalasha, a much smaller language spoken in a few villages in southern Chitral (Morgenstierne 1961: 138; Strand 1973: 302, 2001: 252). While Khowar has preserved a number of features (phonological, morphological as well as lexical) now lost in other Indo-Aryan languages of the surrounding Hindukush-Karakoram mountain region, it has, over time, incorporated a massive amount of lexical material from neighbouring or influential Iranian languages (Morgenstierne 1936) – and with it, new phonological distinctions. Certain features might also be attributable to formerly dominant languages (e.g. Turkic), or to linguistic substrates, either in the form of, or related to, the language isolate Burushaski, or other, now extinct, languages previously spoken in the area (Morgenstierne 1932: 48, 1947: 6; Bashir 2007: 208–214). There is relatively little dialectal variation among the speakers in Chitral itself, probably attributable to the relative recency of the present expansion of the language (Morgenstierne 1932: 50).

  • 309.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bisyndetic Contrast Marking in the Hindukush: Additional Evidence of a Historical Contact Zone2017In: Journal of Language Contact : Evolution of Languages, ISSN 1877-4091, E-ISSN 1955-2629, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 450-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contrastive (or antithetical) construction which makes simultaneous use of two separate particles is identified through a mainly corpus-based study as a typical feature of a number of lesser-described languages spoken in the Afghanistan-Pakistan borderland in the high Hindukush. The feature encompasses Nuristani languages (Waigali, Kati) as well as the Indo-Aryan languages found in their close vicinity (Palula, Kalasha, Dameli, Gawri), while it is not shared by more closely related Indo-Aryan languages spoken outside of this geographically delimited area. Due to a striking (although not complete) overlap with at least two other (unrelated) structural features, pronominal kinship suffixes and retroflex vowels, we suggest that a linguistic and cultural diffusion zone of considerable age is centred in the mountainous Nuristan-Kunar-Panjkora area.

  • 310.
    Lim Falk, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    English and Swedish in CLIL student texts2015In: Language learning journal, ISSN 0957-1736, E-ISSN 1753-2167, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 304-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates Swedish students’ ability to produce the discourse of the subject history, in a situation where they had to demonstrate historical knowledge in written explanations, and where both English and Swedish were involved. The students attend a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programme at the upper secondary school level. The study highlights the roles of both languages in CLIL, thus including both English and the L1 Swedish. The research questions concern language choice, field-specific lexis and genre. These variables were related to the teacher’s assessment in terms of grading, in order to discover possible connections between linguistic choices on the part of the students and the degree of success in terms of grades. While the students had quite a lot of input in English during the history course, they mainly choose to write the exam in Swedish. The elements of English in the texts were primarily used for field-specific lexis. Texts with elements of English also tend to be slightly less successful than texts written in Swedish only. The overall achievements in this exam were quite low, even though the students used their strongest language. Few students display the significant linguistic resources needed in the production of successful historical explanations. Texts assessed with high grades represent content by means of linguistic choices that correspond to the typical patterns of the field, more than the texts with lower grades. The results confirm the importance of paying attention to both languages in CLIL education. 

  • 311.
    Lindblom, Bjorn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sussman, Harvey M.
    Agwuele, Augustine
    A Duration-Dependent Account of Coarticulation for Hyper- and Hypoarticulation2009In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 188-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies investigating anticipatory coarticulation in emphatically stressed CV sequences and during fast speaking rates reported that three factors contributed to the overall extent of the documented coarticulation. These factors were: (1) vowel identity, (2) vowel space expansion (emphasis) or reduction (fast rate), and a hypothesized (3) 'deeper' and 'shallower' stop closure contact in emphatic and faster speech, respectively. The objective of the current research was to conceptually and quantitatively unify these two studies. This was accomplished by showing that the opposite changes to frequency onsets of F2 transitions due to emphatic and rapid speech systematically vary as a function of the durational changes in the stop closure interval. Specifically, the decrease in coarticulation in emphatic speech is characterized by increases in F2 onsets and longer stop closures (relative to a normal baseline); the increase in coarticulation due to rapid speech shows concomitant decreases in F2 onsets coinciding with shorter stop closure intervals. Vocal tract area function simulations corresponding to emphatic and reduced speech implicitly support 'deeper' and 'shallower' closure contacts as a third factor contributing to the overall extent of anticipatory CV coarticulation. 

  • 312.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Laryngeal mechanisms in speech: The contributions of Jan Gauffin2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 149-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jan Gauffin was an early user of fiber optics which allowed him to discover that laryngeal structures above the glottal level are involved in speech. His research led him to postulate three independently controlled mechanisms: fundamental frequency control, glottal adduction/abduction, and laryngealization,the latter derived from the protective closure function. He argued that phonetic theory must be revised to account for the main phonation types of the world's languages. He saw them as combinations of two interacting dimensions: adduction/abduction and laryngealization. Secondly he gave the aryepiglottic sphincter an explanatory role in accounting for the production of low pitch and downward pitch inflections. During his lifetime his work received limited attention. However, later laryngoscopic research has confirmed and extended his thinking and findings. His contribution was a pioneering one.

  • 313.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Rejecting the phonetics/phonology split2006In: Theoretical Linguistics, ISSN 0301-4428, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 237-243Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Deduce sound structure from language use. Anchor theory construction in the universal conditions under which all speech communication must take place. Start from ‘first principles’ and not circularly from the data to be explained (cf ‘markedness’). At the level of the individual user, model phonological structure, not as autonomous form, but as an emergent organization of phonetic substance acquired by each native speaker in the context of socially shared, ambient knowledge. At the population level, model this knowledge as a use- & user-dependent process that undergoes change along the historical time scale. Get rid of the distinction between “phonological” and “extra-phonological”. Here is a key step: Make the ‘intrinsic content’ an integral part of the theory from scratch. Treat ‘intrinsic content’ as the source that helps generate discrete structure and that constrains both synchronic and diachronic phonological patterning.

  • 314.
    Lindblom, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Agwuele, Augustine
    Department of Anthropology, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666.
    Sussman, Harvey M.
    Departments of Linguistics and Communication Sciences & Disorders, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The effect of emphatic stress on consonant vowel coarticulation2007In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 121, no 6, p. 3802-3813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the acoustic coarticulatory effects of phrasal accent on [V1.CV2] sequences, when separately applied to V1 or V2, surrounding the voiced stops [b], [d], and [g]. Three adult speakers each produced 360 tokens (six V1 contexts x ten V2 contexts x three stops x two emphasis conditions). Realizing that anticipatory coarticulation of V2 onto the intervocalic C can be influenced by prosodic effects, as well as by vowel context effects, a modified locus equation regression metric was used to isolate the effect of phrasal accent on consonantal F2 onsets,independently of prosodically induced vowel expansion effects. The analyses revealed two main emphasis-dependent effects: systematic differences in F2 onset values and the expected expansion of vowel space. By accounting for the confounding variable of stress-induced vowel space expansion, a small but consistent coarticulatory effect of emphatic stress on the consonant was uncovered in lingually produced stops, but absent in labial stops. Formant calculations based on tube models indicated similarly increased F2 onsets when stressed /d/ and /g/ were simulated with deeper occlusions resulting from more forceful closure movements during phrasal accented speech.

  • 315.
    Lindblom, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Diehl, Randy
    Park, Sang-Hoon
    Salvi, Giampiero
    (Re)use of place features in voiced stop systems:: Role of phonetic constraints2008In: Proceedings FONETIK 2008Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Computational experiments focused on place of articulation in voiced stops were designed to

    generate ‘optimal’ inventories of CV syllables from a larger set of ‘possible CV:s’ in the presence

    of independently and numerically defined articulatory, perceptual and developmental

    constraints. Across vowel contexts the most salient places were retroflex, palatal and uvular.

    This was evident from acoustic measurements and perceptual data. Simulation results using

    the criterion of perceptual contrast alone failed to produce systems with the typologically widely

    attested set [b] [d] [g], whereas using articulatory cost as the sole criterion produced inventories

    in which bilabial, dental/alveolar and velar onsets formed the core. Neither perceptual

    contrast, nor articulatory cost, (nor the two combined), produced a consistent re-use of

    place features (‘phonemic coding’). Only systems constrained by ‘target learning’ exhibited

    a strong recombination of place features.

  • 316.
    Lindblom, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Moon, S-J
    Can the energy costs of speech movements be measured? A preliminary feasibility study2000In: Journal Acoustical Society of Korea, Vol. 19, no 19, p. 25-32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 317.
    Lindblom, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Sussman, Harvey M.
    Dissecting coarticulation: How locus equations happen2012In: Journal of Phonetics, ISSN 0095-4470, E-ISSN 1095-8576, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A programmatic series of studies aimed at expanding our understanding of coarticulation in V(1) . CV(2) sequences is presented. The common thread was examining coarticulatory dynamics through the prism of locus equations (LEs). Multiple experimental methodologies (articulatory synthesis, X-ray film, Principal Component Analysis, and extraction of time constants for F2 transitions), guided by a few theoretical assumptions about speech motor planning and control, were used to uncover the articulatory underpinnings responsible for the trademark acoustic form of LE scatterplots. Specific findings were: (1) the concept of a stop consonantal 'target' was quantitatively derived as a vowel-neutral, 'deactivated,' tongue contour; (2) the linearity of LEs is significantly enhanced by the uniformity of F2 transition time constants, which normalize with respect to F2 transition extents, and an inherent linear bias created by the smaller frequency range of [F2(onset) - F2(vowel)] relative to F2(vowel) frequencies; (3) realistic LE slopes and y-intercepts were derived by modeling different extents of V(2) overlap onto stop consonantal target shapes at closure; and (4) a conceptually simple model, viz. interpolation between successive articulatory target shapes, followed by derivation of their formant values expressed as LEs, came surprisingly close to matching actual LEs obtained from our speaker.

  • 318.
    Lindblom, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Sussman, Harvey
    Modarresi, Golnaz
    Burlingame, E
    The trough effect: Implications for speech motor programming2002In: Phonetica, Vol. 59, p. 245-262Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 319.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Inter- and intralingual lexical influences in advanced learners' French L3 oral production2010In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 48, no 2-3, p. 131-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates lexical inter- and intralingual influences in the oral production of 14 very advanced learners of French L3. Lexical deviances are divided into two main categories: formal influence and meaning-based influence. The results show that, as predicted with respect to advanced learners, meaning-based influence is the most important category, especially semantic extensions. Furthermore, only the languages in which the learners are highly proficient (Swedish L1, English L2 and French L3) are used in cases of meaning-based influence. By contrast, no use is made of closely related languages (Spanish and Italian). These results indicate that the proficiency factor is decisive for lexical inter- and intralingual influences to occur in advanced learners.

  • 320.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    La richesse lexicale dans la production orale de l'apprenant avancé de français2010In: Canadian modern language review, ISSN 0008-4506, E-ISSN 1710-1131, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 393-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to compare the lexical richness of the oral production of Swedish learners of French as a second language using the Lexical Frequency Profile method and the Vocabprofile program, elaborated by Laufer and Nation (1995) for written English. The French version of Vocabprofile is designed for written language; however, the study used oral data. The analysis focuses mainly on the use of infrequent words, which is supposed to indicate an advanced vocabulary. The comparison of two groups of advanced Swedish learners of French with a group of native speakers of French shows that the proportion of infrequent words increases with proficiency level. Moreover, the most advanced group has a lexical profile similar to that of the native speakers. However, using a database of written language to analyze spoken language does not seem entirely reliable, because of differences in frequency of certain words in oral and written language.  [

  • 321.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    The use of the L1 and the L2 in French L3: examining cross-linguistic lexemes in multilingual learners’ oral production2009In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 281-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates to what degree, and in what manner, the L1 and L2(s) influence spoken French L3. The analysis is divided in two parts. The first examines the cross-linguistic lexemes of 30 Swedish learners, divided into three groups according to previous exposure to French. The results show that proficiency in the L3 is crucial: the least advanced learners produce the highest number of cross-linguistic lexemes, whereas the most advanced learners produce the lowest number. Moreover, the lower the proficiency in the L3, the more background languages are used, and vice versa. Overall, there is a clear dominance of L1 influences. The second part contains six case studies of learners with partly different L1s and L2s. It examines the roles of the L1 and L2(s) in L3 oral production and the decisive factors for these roles. The main result is the use of Swedish L1/L2 and English L1 as instrumental languages, i.e. with clearly communicative purposes, in eliciting and metalinguistic functions. This is due to the interlocutors' common access to these languages. It does not seem to matter if the instrumental language represents a learner's L1 or L2. The fact that there is mutual comprehension seems to outweigh other factors.

  • 322.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Education in Languages and Language Development.
    Approaches to third language acquisition: Introduction2010In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 48, no 2-3, p. 87-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about several papers discussed at a conference titled The Role of the Background Languages in Third Language Acquisition. Romance Languages as L1, L2 or L3 which was held in Stockholm, Sweden on February 5, 2009 on third language (L3) acquisition is presented. Topics include Romance languages as background languages, research on vocabulary and syntax. The conference presented the works several language researchers including Christina Lindqvist, Rebekah Rast, and Jason Rothman.

  • 323.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Literacy in a Dying Language: The Case of Kuot, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea2005In: Current Issues in Language Planning, ISSN 1466-4208, E-ISSN 1747-7506, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 200-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kuot is a language in a critical situation. Most adults of lower middle age and older are full speakers but children are not learning it. In other words, it will become extinct in a few decades if nothing is done; but it is not too late if the community decides to turn it around, and do so fast. Thus far, the community has shown little interest. Into this situation, vernacular elementary education was introduced. While the community expects this to work for language survival, the aim of the education policy is the eventual transfer of literacy skills to English. This paper describes the tensions between these conflicting goals, and the various components that make up the specific situation of Kuot, including vernacular literacy, orthographic considerations arising from the language’s precarious situation, and the eventual extension of the internet era to Melanesia.

  • 324.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Påminnande: en funktion av demonstrativer i samtalssvenska2000In: ASLA Information: Denna – den här – den där. Om demonstrativer i tvärspråklig belysning. En minnesskrift till Elsie Wijk-Andersson, ISSN 1100-5629, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta bidrag redovisar några av resultaten från en studie av demonstrativerna den här/den där (etc) i svenska samtal. Ett lite förvånande resultat av studien var att mer än en tredjedel av förekomsterna av dessa demonstrativer utgjorde förstaomnämnanden. Detta finner sin främsta förklaring i deras funktion att påminna; att signalera att en viss referent förväntas vara bekant för lyssnaren.

    Svenska demonstrativer har tre formtyper: den/det/de, denna/detta/dessa, och den/det/de här/där. Den senare typen är som grupp föremål för den studie som redovisas här. (Proximitetsskillnaden i uttrycken kommer inte att behandlas, och inte heller faktorer som har med genus eller numerus att göra.) De förekommer framför allt i talspråket och är inte så väl representerade i skriven svenska (se Fraurud, denna volym).

    Med ”påminnande” menas här att talaren signalerar att lyssnaren förväntas kunna identifiera en icke-topikal referent via kunskap som inte nödvändigtvis förmedlats i det aktuella samtalet. Exempel (1) illustrerar principen:

    (1) A ja ja just det vi pratar den här killen som var hos oss i somras som [ohörbart] konstitutionen

    B amerikanen

    Det är tydligt att A väntar sig att B känner till referenten, vilket bekräftas i Bs yttrande, och det är också klart att referenten inte är aktiverad för B.

    Påminnande visar sig vara en typisk funktion för den aktuella gruppen demonstrativer. Denna funktion är mig veterligen inte tidigare beskriven för svenska. Funktionen har också en koppling till sökande efter ord och avbrutna eller reparerade yttranden.

  • 325.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Body in Expressions of Emotion: Kuot2002In: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, Vol. 10, no 1-2, p. 159-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution examines the use of body terms in expressions of emotion in Kuot, a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. It is found that expressions involving the word for ‘stomach’, daləp, correspond mainly to what we would consider to be psychological states, while expressions making use of neip ‘skin; body’ are largely concerned with physical states. Some other body parts also form part of emotive expressions.

  • 326.
    Lindström, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Remijsen, Bert
    Aspects of the prosody of Kuot, a language where intonation ignores stress2005In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 839-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the basic system of intonation and lexical stress in Kuot, a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Kuot employs pitch (F0 variation) primarily to express structural information about the clause. Some intonation contours express functions that are commonly expressed by intonation crosslinguistically, such as final vs. nonfinal clauses and parts of clauses, and yes/no questions. In addition, Kuot has particular contours (or tunes) for question-word questions and negated sentences. Word stress, on the other hand, does not interact with intonation in terms of its encoding. It displays a very stable correlation with duration but no association with F0; in other words, there is no consistent marking of stress by means of F0 in Kuot. The position of Kuot word stress is lexically determined, yielding minimal stress pairs.

    In this article, we present a description of Kuot intonation on the basis of pitch extractions made from spontaneous speech. The results reveal that intonation in Kuot is anchored only at the boundaries of intonational phrases. A phonetic analysis of minimal stress pairs recorded in controlled environments demonstrates that lexically stressed syllables do not correlate with pitch.

    The findings are discussed against a background of prosodic typology.

  • 327. Lindström, Jan K.
    et al.
    Norrby, Catrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Wide, Camilla
    Nilsson, Jenny
    Intersubjectivity at the counter: Artefacts and multimodal interaction in theatre box office encounters2017In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 108, p. 81-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the interplay between language, material and embodied resources in one specific type of service encounters: interactions at theatre box offices. The data consist of video recorded interactions in Swedish at three box offices, two in Sweden and one in Finland. Cases representative of the interactions are selected for a multimodal micro-analysis of the customer--seller interactions involving artefacts from the institutional and personal domain. The study specifically aims at advancing our understanding of the role of artefacts for structuring and facilitating communicative events in (institutional) interaction. In this way, it contributes to the growing research interest in the interactional importance of the material world. Our results show that mutual interactional focus is reached through mutual gaze in strategic moments, such as formulation of the reason for the visit. Artefacts are central in enhancing intersubjectivity and mutual focus in that they effectively invite the participants for negotiation, for example, about a seating plan which can be made visually accessible in different ways. Verbal language can be sparse and deictic in these moments while gaze and pointing to an artefact does more specific referential work. Artefacts are also a resource for signalling interactional inaccessibility, the seller orienting to the computer in order to progress a request and the customer orienting to a personal belonging (like a bag) to mirror and accept such a temporary non-accessibility. We also observe that speech can be paced to match the deployment of an artefact so that a focal verbal item is produced without competing, simultaneous physical activity.

  • 328. Lindström, Jan
    et al.
    Norrby, Catrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Nog är det tillräckligt!2016In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 8, p. 26-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 329.
    Lindström Tiedemann, Therese
    University of Sheffield.
    Grammaticalisation – past and present2005In: Logos and Language. Journal of General Linguistics and Language Theory, Vol. VI, no 2, p. 19-35Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 330.
    Lindström Tiedemann, Therese
    University of Sheffield.
    Grammaticalisation and Exaptation vs Coalescence and Secretion2004In: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft, ISSN 0939-2815, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 251-284Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 331.
    Lindström Tiedemann, Therese
    University of Sheffield.
    The First, or one of the First, Treatments of Grammaticalisation in Britain2003In: Bulletin of the Henry Sweet Society for the history of linguistic ideas, no 40, p. 10-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Linell, Per
    et al.
    Universitetet i Linköping.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    Universitetet i Linköping.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Stockholm University.
    Interactional dominance in dyadic communication: a  presentation of initiative-response analysis.1988In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, no 26, p. 415-442Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 333.
    Ljung, Magnus
    Engelska institutionen Göteborgs universitet.
    Principles of a Stratificational Analysis of the Plains Indians Sign Language1965In: International Journal of American Linguistics, ISSN 0020-7071, E-ISSN 1545-7001, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Ljung, Magnus
    Engelska institutionen Göteborgs universitet.
    Some Remarks on Antonymy1974In: Language, ISSN 0097-8507, E-ISSN 1535-0665, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 74-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 335.
    Lubińska, Dorota
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Inte utan grammatik2016In: Lisetten, ISSN 1101-5128, no 3/4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 336.
    Lundell, Fanny Forsberg
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Lexical Aspects of Very Advanced L2 French2014In: Canadian modern language review, ISSN 0008-4506, E-ISSN 1710-1131, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 28-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the possibilities for adult learners to attain nativelikeness in the domain of lexis. Aspects investigated are general lexical knowledge (C-test), receptive deep knowledge, productive collocation knowledge, and productive lexico-pragmatic knowledge in a group of longresidency Swedish French second language (L2) users in France and a matched native control group. The analysis includes correlations between these different vocabulary aspects as well as their relation to the length of residence in the target-language (TL) community. The study reveals that it is possible for L2 learners to attain nativelikeness in general lexical knowledge and lexicopragmatic knowledge, whereas deep knowledge and collocations are especially difficult for L2 learners, supporting earlier research findings. Furthermore, a strong correlation is found between general lexical knowledge and collocations, but surprisingly not between any of the other aspects, or between vocabulary aspects and length of residence. The results are discussed in light of individual differences in research.

  • 337. Luphondo, Nobuhle
    et al.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Deconstructing gender and sexuality discourses in "Brothers for Life": A critical look at chronotopes of consumption in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns2012In: Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus, ISSN 2224-3380, Vol. 41, p. 41-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite batteries of interventions to change the dynamics of HIV in South African communities, increasing HIV prevalence suggests that much more needs to be done to stem the tides of infection. Specifically issues of language and communication around HIV/AIDS merit more attention. One aspect of the efficacy of HIV/AIDS discourses is the question of what extent they may serve to (inadvertently) reproduce sexual practices and mores inimical to HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper conducts a chronotopic and multimodal analysis of a popular South African campaign "Brothers for Life" from this perspective. The campaign is an attempt to promote 'new' role models for South African men in order to get to grips with one of the most serious factors behind the spread of HIV/AIDS, namely male violence against women and children. The analysis suggests that past ideals of masculinity continue to find resonance in masculinities of the present, although framed, mediated and reindexicalized in late modern discourses of consumerism. Thus foundational assumptions on figurations of masculinity and male sexuality appear to remain largely consistent across generations.

  • 338. Luphondo, Nobuhle
    et al.
    Stroud, Christpher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Introduction: (Super) Diversities & HIV/AIDS: Multilingualism in Multiple Modalities2012In: Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus, ISSN 2224-3380, Vol. 41, p. i-viiArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 339.
    Magnusson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Grammatical metaphor in Swedish monolingual and multilingual upper secondary school students' writing2013In: Functions of language, ISSN 0929-998X, E-ISSN 1569-9765, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 250-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This partly longitudinal study applies the theoretical framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics to second language writing to investigate the use of grammatical metaphor (GM; non-congruent realizations of meaning, e. g. nominalizations) in 365 texts written by Swedish mono- and multilingual students in grades 9 and 11. According to the analysis, older students and monolingual students make greater use of GM than younger students and multilingual students. Multilingual students with early and late ages of onset use GM more than multilingual students with onset ages between these two extremes. A relation was found between the occurrence of GM and the use of the potential functions of GM, e. g. expansion of the nominal phrase, which was used more frequently in texts with a higher GM density, contributing to the construction of specialized, educational knowledge. The occurrence of GM was compared to the occurrence of L2 deviations in a subcorpus. These results are interpreted in relation to the Interdependence Hypothesis formulated by Cummins (1979).

  • 340. Malisz, Zofia
    et al.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Buschmeier, Hendrik
    Skubisz, Joanna
    Kopp, Stefan
    Wagner, Petra
    The ALICO corpus: analysing the active listener2016In: Language resources and evaluation, ISSN 1574-020X, E-ISSN 1574-0218, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 411-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Active Listening Corpus(ALICO) is a multimodal data set ofspontaneous dyadic conversations in German with diverse speech and gesturalannotations of both dialogue partners. The annotations consist of short feedbackexpression transcriptions with corresponding communicative function interpreta-tions as well as segmentations of interpausal units, words, rhythmic prominenceintervals and vowel-to-vowel intervals. Additionally, ALICO contains head gestureannotations of both interlocutors. The corpus contributes to research on spontaneoushuman–human interaction, on functional relations between modalities, and timingvariability in dialogue. It also provides data that differentiates between distractedand attentive listeners. We describe the main characteristics of the corpus andbriefly present the most important results obtained from analyses in recent years

  • 341.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Using rotated speech to approximate the acoustic mismatch negativity response to speech2018In: Brain and Language, ISSN 0093-934X, E-ISSN 1090-2155, Vol. 176, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) response is influenced by the magnitude of the acoustic difference between standard and deviant, and the response is typically larger to linguistically relevant changes than to linguistically irrelevant changes. Linguistically relevant changes between standard and deviant typically co-occur with differences between the two acoustic signals. It is therefore not straightforward to determine the contribution of each of those two factors to the MMN response. This study investigated whether spectrally rotated speech can be used to determine the impact of the acoustic difference on the MMN response to a combined linguistic and acoustic change between standard and deviant. Changes between rotated vowels elicited an MMN of comparable amplitude to the one elicited by a within-category vowel change, whereas the between-category vowel change resulted in an MMN amplitude of greater magnitude. A change between rotated vowels resulted in an MMN ampltude more similar to that of a within-vowel change than a complex tone change did. This suggests that the MMN amplitude reflecting the acoustic difference between two speech sounds can be well approximated by the MMN amplitude elicited in response to their rotated counterparts, in turn making it possible to estimate the part of the response specific to the linguistic difference.

  • 342.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Mismatch negativity at Fz in response to within-category changes of the vowel /i/2014In: NeuroReport, ISSN 0959-4965, E-ISSN 1473-558X, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 756-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amplitude of the mismatch negativity response for acoustic within-category deviations in speech stimuli was investigated by presenting participants with different exemplars of the vowel /i/ in an odd-ball paradigm. The deviants differed from the standard either in terms of fundamental frequency, the first formant, or the second formant. Changes in fundamental frequency are generally more salient than changes in the first formant, which in turn are more salient than changes in the second formant. The mismatch negativity response was expected to reflect this with greater amplitude for more salient deviations. The fundamental frequency deviants did indeed result in greater amplitude than both first formant deviants and second formant deviants, but no difference was found between the first formant deviants and the second formant deviants. It is concluded that greater difference between standard and within-category deviants across different acoustic dimensions results in greater mismatch negativity amplitude, suggesting that the processing of linguistically irrelevant changes in speech sounds may be processed similar to nonspeech sound changes.

  • 343.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Pause and utterance duration in child-directed speech in relation to child vocabulary size2015In: Journal of Child Language, ISSN 0305-0009, E-ISSN 1469-7602, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1158-1171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares parental pause and utterance duration in conversations with Swedish speaking children at age 1;6 who have either a large, typical, or small expressive vocabulary, as measured by the Swedish version of the McArthur-Bates CDI. The adjustments that parents do when they speak to children are similar across all three vocabulary groups; they use longer utterances than when speaking to adults, and respond faster to children than they do to other adults. However, overall pause duration varies with the vocabulary size of the children, and as a result durational aspects of the language environment to which the children are exposed differ between groups. Parents of children in the large vocabulary size group respond faster to child utterances than do parents of children in the typical vocabulary size group, who in turn respond faster to child utterances than do parents of children in the small vocabulary size group.

  • 344.
    Marttinen Larsson, Matti
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    ‘Delante suyo’ vs. ‘delante de él’: el uso de las locuciones adverbiales locativas desde una perspectiva diacrónica y diatópica2017In: Signo et seña, ISSN 0327-8956, E-ISSN 2314-2189, Vol. 31, p. 85-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    El presente artículo estudia el uso de la construcción morfosintáctica adverbio locativo + pronombre posesivo (“delante suyo”), que alterna con adverbio locativo + [preposición de + pronombre personal] (“delante de él”). El análisis proporciona un panorama de la distribución histórica y geográfica de tal construcción, un tema que no ha sido abordado con profundidad en estudios anteriores. El material analizado consiste en los tres corpus principales de la lengua española: CORDE, CREA y CORPES XXI. Se parte de la hipótesis de que, en el caso del uso del posesivo, se trata de un fenómeno que se extiende por todo el mundo hispánico y que, más recientemente, ha ido difundiéndose y compite con la construcción preposicional. Con base en los datos empíricos, y considerando estudios anteriores, se comprueba que la forma posesiva se registra en casi todo el mundo hispánico, pero que presenta una tradición de uso más larga en España y tiene la frecuencia de uso más alta en la región del Plata. 

  • 345.
    McGrath, Lisa
    Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom.
    Open-access writing: An investigation into the online drafting and revision of a research article in pure mathematics2016In: English for specific purposes (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 0889-4906, E-ISSN 1873-1937, Vol. 43, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ESP research has provided an account of research articles (RAs) across disciplines using both text-analytical methods and ethnographically-oriented approaches. This study explores what additional insights are gained into the genre from the study of a collaboratively produced RA in pure mathematics, negotiated via an open-access research blog. The data consists of 659 thread comments posted by blog participants as they engage with the research and writing up process. Facets of research-based writing that preoccupy the blog participants are revealed, as well as how decisions pertaining to genre and dissemination outlets are made. In addition, blog posts point to how the RA is adjusted to cater for the more diverse readership that open-access knowledge dissemination may entail. The findings provide support for results of existing genre analyses of RAs in pure mathematics, and offer new insights into writing for publication practices in the discipline. Potential pedagogical applications of the findings are proposed.

  • 346.
    McGrath, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Kuteeva, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Stance and engagement in pure mathematics research articles: Linking discourse features to disciplinary practices2012In: English for specific purposes (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 0889-4906, E-ISSN 1873-1937, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 161-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent ESP research into academic writing has shown how writers convey their stance and interact with readers across different disciplines. However, little research has been carried out into the disciplinary writing practices of the pure mathematics academic community from an ESP genre analysis perspective. This study begins to address this gap by applying Hyland’s stance and engagement framework to pure mathematics research articles. The data consists of a corpus of 25 articles collected from five authors and semi-structured interviews with the same authors. The results of the corpus analysis reveal a low number of hedges and attitude markers compared to other hard and soft disciplines, but higher than expected shared knowledge and reader references. Furthermore, triangulation with interview data suggests that the epistemology and research practices of the discourse community can account for these frequency patterns, and that writers are conscious of the need to situate oneself within the norms of the discourse community by adhering to disciplinary writing conventions. The study also confirms that Hyland’s framework can be usefully applied to pure mathematics research articles, although the boundaries between categories in the taxonomy are fuzzier than a stance/engagement dichotomy might suggest.

  • 347. McWhorter, John
    et al.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Pas tout à fait du français: Une étude créole2002In: Études créoles, ISSN 0708-2398, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 179-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 348.
    Meibauer, Jörg
    Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany.
    A truth that’s told with bad intent: Lying and implicit content2014In: Belgian Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0774-5141, E-ISSN 1569-9676, Vol. 28, p. 97-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a lively debate has emerged about the question of correctly defining lying. Two strands of argumentation have evolved in the philosophy of language: First, the idea that lying is not necessarily connected to an intention of the speaker to deceive the hearer (e.g., Carson 2010); second, the idea that there is a fundamental distinction between lying and mere misleading (e.g., Saul 2012). This paper deals with both assumptions from the vantage point of the semantics-pragmatics interface and relates them to the question of how it is possible to lie while drawing on implicit content of an utterance. It is argued that lying necessarily involves an intention to deceive and that many cases of misleading are either cases of misunderstanding or cases of untruthful implicature (Meibauer 2014a).

  • 349.
    Meibauer, Jörg
    Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany.
    Bald-faced lies as acts of verbal aggression2014In: Journal of language aggression and conflict, ISSN 2213-1272, Vol. 2, no 2.1, p. 127-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several philosophy of language scholars have recently argued that the intention to deceive is not part of a well-defined concept of lying. So-called bald-faced lies, i.e., asserting what is false while speaker and hearer both understand that the speaker does not believe what s/he asserts are provided as evidence. In contrast to these proposals, it is pointed out in this article that lying is necessarily connected to an intention to deceive. Consequently, it is argued that so-called bald-faced lies are not proper lies but acts of verbal aggression. Since bald-faced lies attack the face of the addressee and the viability of the Cooperative Principle (Grice 1989a), they are analyzed as insults. Thus, the traditional idea that lying is connected to the intention to deceive is upheld.

  • 350.
    Meibauer, Jörg
    Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany.
    Einfachheit, Anpassung und Early Literacy2014In: LiLi. Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik, ISSN 0049-8653, no 174, p. 9-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the notions of ‘simplicity’ and ‘complexity’ as well as ‘accommodation’ and ‘transgression’ with respect to child developments in language acquisition and literature acquisition. Focusing on the period of ‘Early Literacy’, it is argued that language development and children’s literature both start with simple patterns and gradually gain complexity. It is shown that children’s literature is a specific input in language acquisition which is accommodated to the needs of children. Both in language acquisition and in literary input, one finds also transgressions of rules.

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