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  • 301. Belenky, G
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Occupational Sleep Medicine, introduction2011In: Principle and Practice of Sleep Medicine / [ed] Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, St. Louise: Elisevier Saunders , 2011, p. 1723-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 302. Belenky, Gregory
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Wasensten, Nancy J.
    Introduction. Occupational Sleep Medicin2016In: Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine / [ed] Meir H. Kryger, Thomas Roth, William C. Dement, Elsevier, 2016, 6 uppl., p. 679-681Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 303. Bell, J. Simon
    et al.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Wimmer, Barbara C.
    Wiese, Michael D.
    Multidose drug dispensing and optimising drug use in older people2013In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 556-558Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 304. Bell, Thomas J.
    et al.
    Eiríksdóttir, Emelía
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Eberwine, James
    PAIR technology: exon-specific RNA binding protein isolation in live cells2011In: Cell-penetrating peptides: Methods and Protocols / [ed] Ülo Langel, New York: Humana Press, 2011, p. 473-486Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are fundamental regulatory proteins for all forms of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of gene expression. However, isolating RBPs is technically challenging for investigators. Currently, the most widely used techniques to isolate RBPs are in vitro biochemical approaches. Although these approaches have been useful, they have several limitations. One key limitation to using in vitro biochemical approaches is that RBP–RNA interactions are isolated under nonbiological conditions. Here we review a novel experimental approach to identify RBPs called peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-assisted identification of RBPs (PAIR) technology (Zielinski et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:1557–1562, 2006). This technology has two significant advantages over traditional approaches. (1) It overcomes the in vitro limitation of biochemical approaches by allowing investigators to isolate RBP–RNA interactions under in vivo conditions. (2) This technology is highly mRNA specific; it isolates RBPs in an exon-specific manner. By selectively targeting alternatively spliced exons with PAIR technology, investigators can isolate splice variant-specific and mRNA region-specific (5-UTR and 3-UTR) RBP complexes for any mRNA of interest.

  • 305.
    Bellander, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Berggren, Rasmus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Mårtensson, Johan
    Brehmer, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany.
    Wenger, Elisabeth
    Li, Tie-Qiang
    Bodammer, Nils C.
    Shing, Yee-Lee
    Werkle-Bergner, Markus
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary2016In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 131, p. 205-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10 weeks. T-1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N = 33) compared to an active control group (N = 23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus.

  • 306.
    Bellander, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Eschen, Anne
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Martin, Mike
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Brehmer, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany.
    No Evidence for Improved Associative Memory Performance Following Process-Based Associative Memory Training in Older Adults2017In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 8, article id 326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies attempting to improve episodic memory performance with strategy instructions and training have had limited success in older adults: their training gains are limited in comparison to those of younger adults and do not generalize to untrained tasks and contexts. This limited success has been partly attributed to age-related impairments in associative binding of information into coherent episodes. We therefore investigated potential training and transfer effects of process-based associative memory training (i.e., repeated practice). Thirty-nine older adults (M-age = 68.8) underwent 6 weeks of either adaptive associative memory training or item recognition training. Both groups improved performance in item memory, spatial memory (object-context binding) and reasoning. A disproportionate effect of associative memory training was only observed for item memory, whereas no training-related performance changes were observed for associative memory. Self-reported strategies showed no signs of spontaneous development of memory-enhancing associative memory strategies. Hence, the results do not support the hypothesis that process-based associative memory training leads to higher associative memory performance in older adults.

  • 307.
    Bellavia, Andrea
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Wolk, Alicja
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol.
    Orsini, Nicola
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol.
    Sleep Duration and Survival Percentiles Across Categories of Physical Activity2014In: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 179, no 4, p. 484-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between long sleep duration and death is not fully understood. Long sleep is associated with low physical activity, which is a strong predictor of death. Our aim was to investigate the association between sleep duration and death across categories of total physical activity in a large prospective cohort of Swedish men and women. We followed a population-based cohort of 70,973 participants (37,846 men and 33,127 women), aged 45-83 years, from January 1998 to December 2012. Sleep duration and physical activity levels were assessed through a questionnaire. We evaluated the association of interest in terms of mortality rates by estimating hazard ratios with Cox regression and in terms of survival by evaluating 15th survival percentile differences with Laplace regression. During 15 years of follow-up, we recorded 14,575 deaths (8,436 men and 6,139 women). We observed a significant interaction between sleep duration and physical activity in predicting death (P < 0.001). Long sleep duration (>8 hours) was associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio = 1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.39) and shorter survival (15th percentile difference = -20 months; 95% confidence interval: -30, -11) among only those with low physical activity. The association between long sleep duration and death might be partly explained by comorbidity with low physical activity.

  • 308.
    Beltran-Pardo, Eliana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Jonsson, K. Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Tolerance to Gamma Radiation in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini from Embryo to Adult Correlate Inversely with Cellular Proliferation2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0133658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades are highly tolerant to desiccation and ionizing radiation but the mechanisms of this tolerance are not well understood. In this paper, we report studies on dose responses of adults and eggs of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini exposed to gamma radiation. In adults the LD50/48h for survival was estimated at similar to 4200 Gy, and doses higher than 100 Gy reduced both fertility and hatchability of laid eggs drastically. We also evaluated the effect of radiation (doses 50 Gy, 200 Gy, 500 Gy) on eggs in the early and late embryonic stage of development, and observed a reduced hatchability in the early stage, while no effect was found in the late stage of development. Survival of juveniles from irradiated eggs was highly affected by a 500 Gy dose, both in the early and the late stage. Juveniles hatched from eggs irradiated at 50 Gy and 200 Gy developed into adults and produced offspring, but their fertility was reduced compared to the controls. Finally we measured the effect of low temperature during irradiation at 4000 Gy and 4500 Gy on survival in adult tardigrades, and observed a slight delay in the expressed mortality when tardigrades were irradiated on ice. Since H. dujardini is a freshwater tardigrade with lower tolerance to desiccation compared to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the high radiation tolerance in adults, similar to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, is unexpected and seems to challenge the idea that desiccation and radiation tolerance rely on the same molecular mechanisms. We suggest that the higher radiation tolerance in adults and late stage embryos of H. dujardini (and in other studied tardigrades) compared to early stage embryos may partly be due to limited mitotic activity, since tardigrades have a low degree of somatic cell division (eutely), and dividing cells are known to be more sensitive to radiation.

  • 309. Benfenati, E.
    et al.
    Golbamaki, A.
    Raitano, G.
    Roncaglioni, A.
    Manganelli, S.
    Lemke, F.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Swetox, Sweden.
    Lo Piparo, Elena
    Honma, M.
    Manganaro, A.
    Gini, G.
    A large comparison of integrated SAR/QSAR models of the Ames test for mutagenicity($)2018In: SAR and QSAR in environmental research (Print), ISSN 1062-936X, E-ISSN 1029-046X, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 591-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from the Ames test are the first outcome considered to assess the possible mutagenicity of substances. Many QSAR models and structural alerts are available to predict this endpoint. From a regulatory point of view, the recommendation from international authorities is to consider the predictions of more than one model and to combine results in order to develop conclusions about the mutagenicity risk posed by chemicals. However, the results of those models are often conflicting, and the existing inconsistency in the predictions requires intelligent strategies to integrate them. In our study, we evaluated different strategies for combining results of models for Ames mutagenicity, starting from a set of 10 diverse individual models, each built on a dataset of around 6000 compounds. The novelty of our study is that we collected a much larger set of about 18,000 compounds and used the new data to build a family of integrated models. These integrations used probabilistic approaches, decision theory, machine learning, and voting strategies in the integration scheme. Results are discussed considering balanced or conservative perspectives, regarding the possible uses for different purposes, including screening of large collection of substances for prioritization.

  • 310. Bengtsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Klareskog, Lars
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Psychosocial Stress at Work and the Risk of Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results from the Swedish EIRA Study.2009In: Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, ISSN 1423-0348, Vol. 78, no 3, p. 193-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 311.
    Bengtsson, Emil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Doseplanning ocular tumors with 125I-seeds2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1986 patients with ocular malignant melanoma have been treated with Ru-106 plaques at S:t Erik Eye Hospital. In 1998 I-125 radioactive seed plaques was presented as an alternative to Ru-106 when treating tumors with an apical height greater than 7 mm. Until June 2005 the doseplanning of these plaques was based on a depth-dose curve made in the dose planning system Cadplan supplied by Varian Medical Systems. In the recent years the capabilities of computerized 3D dose planning system has increased greatly. The number of types of seeds on the market has also increased.

    In order to implement the modern 3D dose planning system Brachy Vision 7.3.10 in planning the I-125 plaques, a review of the dose planning process have been done.

    The ultra sound equipment used by the ophthalmologist to determine the apical height of the tumor has been investigated in terms of accuracy. A phantom has been developed for this task.

    As new seeds entered the market a comparision have been made comparing the Amersham 6711 seed with the Bebig I25.S06 seed. A method for measuring the activity of the single seeds has also been developed.

    The dose planning system Brachy Vision 7.3.10 have been compared to the old dose planning method, and an implementation of the plaques into Brachy Vision have been made.

    The ultra sound equipment was accurate in the regions of interest. It was also discovered that the Bebig I25.S06 seed gave slightly higher dose compared to the Amersham 6711 with the same activity. The difference between the seeds is however small. The results indicate that the old dose planning method gave a slight underdosage.

  • 312.
    Bengtsson, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    The impact of cytochrome P4501-inhibitors on aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) best known as a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates toxic responses to xenobiotics such as dioxins, is also activated by certain endogenous compounds. Activation of the AHR up-regulates transcription of a large number of genes, including those encoding members of the cytochrome P450 1 family of enzymes (CYP1s). Although the AHR has been shown to be involved in several normal processes, its physiological role remains elusive. The endogenous ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), formed from tryptophan, is present in cell culture media and biological specimens. FICZ is an excellent substrate for CYP1 enzymes and together FICZ/AHR/CYP1A1 interactions constitute an auto regulatory feedback loop that controls AHR signaling. A vast number of compounds that inhibit CYP1 enzymes have been reported to be AHR activators, even though they have little or no affinity for the receptor. We hypothesized, that their agonistic effects are dependent on the presence of background levels of FICZ. To test this, AHR signaling in different cell systems exposed to FICZ and/or inhibitors was assessed by measuring EROD activity and CYP1A1 transcription. In addition to a commercial culture medium, a medium free of background levels of FICZ was used. Activation of AHR by of a diverse set of CYP1A1 inhibitors did require FICZ in the culture medium. Furthermore, the compounds tested both prolonged and potentiated FICZ-induced receptor signaling. On the basis of these observations we propose that a compound may activate AHR signaling indirectly by inhibiting CYP1A1 and thereby attenuating the metabolism of FICZ. This mechanism was confirmed for certain polyphenols and pharmaceuticals. Surprisingly, the activating capacity and potentiating effect of two pharmaceuticals on AHR signaling could not be explained by the mechanism proposed, and we speculated that in these cases the agonistic effect might involve interactions of the cellular antioxidant response with the basic transcription machinery. Together, our observations provide a mechanistic explanation as to how compounds that inhibit CYP1A1 can activate AHR signaling. They also indicate that the general perception of the binding pocket of AHR as promiscuous, is probably wrong. The fact that indirect activation of AHR may cause sustained signaling requires further studies in vivo not least, in order to prevent toxicity.

  • 313. Bengtsson, Linus
    et al.
    Lu, Xin
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. The Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Thanh, Hoang Huy
    Thorson, Anna
    Strong propensity for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men in Vietnam: behavioural data and sexual network modelling2014In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e003526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Survey data from men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asian cities indicate ongoing and drastic increases in HIV prevalence. It is unknown which behavioural factors are most important in driving these epidemics. We aimed to analyse detailed sexual behaviour data among MSM in Vietnam and to model HIV transmission using improved assumptions on sexual network structure. Setting Vietnam. Participants Internet-using men who had ever had sex (any type) with a man, aged 18years and living in Vietnam. The study was cross-sectional, population-based and performed in 2012, using online respondent-driven sampling. The Internet-based survey instrument was completed by 982 participants, of which 857 were eligible. Questions included sociodemography and retrospective sexual behaviour, including number of unprotected anal sex (UAS) acts per partner. Primary and secondary outcome measures Estimated basic reproductive number over 3months as a function of transmission risk per UAS act; frequency distributions of number of UAS partners and UAS acts during last 3months. Results 36% (CI 32% to 42%) reported UAS at least once during the last 3months. 36% (CI 32% to 41%) had ever taken an HIV test and received the result. UAS partner numbers and number of UAS acts were both highly skewed and positively correlated. Using a weighted configuration model, taking into account partner numbers, frequency of UAS and their correlations, we estimated the basic reproductive number (R0) over 3months. The results indicated rapid transmission over a wide range of values of per-act transmissibility. Conclusions Men with multiple partners had unexpectedly high UAS frequency per partner, paired with low HIV testing rates. The study highlights the importance of collecting data on frequency of UAS acts and indicates the need to rapidly scale-up HIV prevention services and testing opportunities for MSM in Vietnam.

  • 314. Bengtsson, Linus
    et al.
    Lu, Xin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Thorson, Anna
    Garfield, Richard
    von Schreeb, Johan
    Improved Response to Disasters and Outbreaks by Tracking Population Movements with Mobile Phone Network Data: A Post-Earthquake Geospatial Study in Haiti2011In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 8, no 8, p. e1001083-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Population movements following disasters can cause important increases in morbidity and mortality. Without knowledge of the locations of affected people, relief assistance is compromised. No rapid and accurate method exists to track population movements after disasters. We used position data of subscriber identity module (SIM) cards from the largest mobile phone company in Haiti (Digicel) to estimate the magnitude and trends of population movements following the Haiti 2010 earthquake and cholera outbreak. Methods and Findings: Geographic positions of SIM cards were determined by the location of the mobile phone tower through which each SIM card connects when calling. We followed daily positions of SIM cards 42 days before the earthquake and 158 days after. To exclude inactivated SIM cards, we included only the 1.9 million SIM cards that made at least one call both pre-earthquake and during the last month of study. In Port-au-Prince there were 3.2 persons per included SIM card. We used this ratio to extrapolate from the number of moving SIM cards to the number of moving persons. Cholera outbreak analyses covered 8 days and tracked 138,560 SIM cards. An estimated 630,000 persons (197,484 Digicel SIM cards), present in Port-au-Prince on the day of the earthquake, had left 19 days post-earthquake. Estimated net outflow of people (outflow minus inflow) corresponded to 20% of the Port-au-Prince pre-earthquake population. Geographic distribution of population movements from Port-au-Prince corresponded well with results from a large retrospective, population-based UN survey. To demonstrate feasibility of rapid estimates and to identify areas at potentially increased risk of outbreaks, we produced reports on SIM card movements from a cholera outbreak area at its immediate onset and within 12 hours of receiving data. Conclusions: Results suggest that estimates of population movements during disasters and outbreaks can be delivered rapidly and with potentially high validity in areas with high mobile phone use.

  • 315. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Angelin, Martin
    Huss, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Kjellqvist, Sanela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Palmgren, Helena
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Johansson, Anders
    The Human Gut Microbiome as a Transporter of Antibiotic Resistance Genes between Continents2015In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 59, no 10, p. 6551-6560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of antibiotic resistance dissemination by travel have, by targeting only a select number of cultivable bacterial species, omitted most of the human microbiome. Here, we used explorative shotgun metagenomic sequencing to address the abundance of >300 antibiotic resistance genes in fecal specimens from 35 Swedish students taken before and after exchange programs on the Indian peninsula or in Central Africa. All specimens were additionally cultured for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria, and the isolates obtained were genome sequenced. The overall taxonomic diversity and composition of the gut microbiome remained stable before and after travel, but there was an increasing abundance of Proteobacteria in 25/35 students. The relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes increased, most prominently for genes encoding resistance to sulfonamide (2.6-fold increase), trimethoprim (7.7-fold), and beta-lactams (2.6-fold). Importantly, the increase observed occurred without any antibiotic intake. Of 18 students visiting the Indian peninsula, 12 acquired ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, while none returning from Africa were positive. Despite deep sequencing efforts, the sensitivity of metagenomics was not sufficient to detect acquisition of the low-abundant genes responsible for the observed ESBL phenotype. In conclusion, metagenomic sequencing of the intestinal microbiome of Swedish students returning from exchange programs in Central Africa or the Indian peninsula showed increased abundance of genes encoding resistance to widely used antibiotics.

  • 316.
    Benmakhlouf, Hamza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Johansson, J.
    Paddick, I.
    Andreo, Pedro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Monte Carlo calculated and experimentally determined output correction factors for small field detectors in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion beams2015In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 3959-3973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of output factors (OF) for the small photon beams generated by Leksell Gamma Knife (R) (LGK) radiotherapy units is a challenge for the physicist due to the under or over estimation of these factors by a vast majority of the detectors commercially available. Output correction factors, introduced in the international formalism published by Alfonso (2008 Med. Phys. 35 5179-86), standardize the determination of OFs for small photon beams by correcting detector-reading ratios to yield OFs in terms of absorbed-dose ratios. In this work output correction factors for a number of detectors have been determined for LGK Perfexion (TM) Co-60 gamma-ray beams by Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and measurements. The calculations were made with the MC system PENELOPE, scoring the energy deposited in the active volume of the detectors and in a small volume of water; the detectors simulated were two silicon diodes, one liquid ionization chamber (LIC), alanine and TLD. The calculated LIC output correction factors were within +/- 0.4%, and this was selected as the reference detector for experimental determinations where output correction factors for twelve detectors were measured, normalizing their readings to those of the LIC. The MC-calculated and measured output correction factors for silicon diodes yielded corrections of up to 5% for the smallest LGK collimator size of 4 mm diameter. The air ionization chamber measurements led to extremely large output correction factors, caused by the well-known effect of partial volume averaging. The corrections were up to 7% for the natural diamond detector in the 4 mm collimator, also due to partial volume averaging, and decreased to within about +/- 0.6% for the smaller synthetic diamond detector. The LIC, showing the smallest corrections, was used to investigate machine-to-machine output factor differences by performing measurements in four LGK units with different dose rates. These resulted in OFs within +/- 0.6% and +/- 0.2% for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively, providing evidence for the use of generic OFs for these LGK beams. Using the experimentally derived output correction factors, OFs can be measured using a wide range of commercially available detectors.

  • 317.
    Benmakhlouf, Hamza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sempau, Josep
    Andreo, Pedro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Output correction factors for nine small field detectors in 6 MV radiation therapy photon beams: A PENELOPE Monte Carlo study2014In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 041711-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine detector-specific output correction factors, k(Qclin,Qmsr)(fclin,fmsr) in 6 MV small photon beams for air and liquid ionization chambers, silicon diodes, and diamond detectors from two manufacturers. Methods: Field output factors, defined according to the international formalism published by Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186 (2008)], relate the dosimetry of small photon beams to that of the machine-specific reference field; they include a correction to measured ratios of detector readings, conventionally used as output factors in broad beams. Output correction factors were calculated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) system with a statistical uncertainty (type-A) of 0.15% or lower. The geometries of the detectors were coded using blueprints provided by the manufacturers, and phase-space files for field sizes between 0.5 x 0.5 cm(2) and 10 x 10 cm(2) from a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV linac used as sources. The output correction factors were determined scoring the absorbed dose within a detector and to a small water volume in the absence of the detector, both at a depth of 10 cm, for each small field and for the reference beam of 10 x 10 cm(2). Results: The Monte Carlo calculated output correction factors for the liquid ionization chamber and the diamond detector were within about +/- 1% of unity even for the smallest field sizes. Corrections were found to be significant for small air ionization chambers due to their cavity dimensions, as expected. The correction factors for silicon diodes varied with the detector type (shielded or un-shielded), confirming the findings by other authors; different corrections for the detectors from the two manufacturers were obtained. The differences in the calculated factors for the various detectors were analyzed thoroughly and whenever possible the results were compared to published data, often calculated for different accelerators and using the EGSnrc MC system. The differences were used to estimate a type-B uncertainty for the correction factors. Together with the type-A uncertainty from the Monte Carlo calculations, an estimation of the combined standard uncertainty was made, assigned to the mean correction factors from various estimates. Conclusions: The present work provides a consistent and specific set of data for the output correction factors of a broad set of detectors in a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV accelerator and contributes to improving the understanding of the physics of small photon beams. The correction factors cannot in general be neglected for any detector and, as expected, their magnitude increases with decreasing field size. Due to the reduced number of clinical accelerator types currently available, it is suggested that detector output correction factors be given specifically for linac models and field sizes, rather than for a beam quality specifier that necessarily varies with the accelerator type and field size due to the different electron spot dimensions and photon collimation systems used by each accelerator model. (C) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  • 318. Bennett, Alexander
    et al.
    Gnjidic, Danijela
    Gillett, Mark
    Carroll, Peter
    Matthews, Slade
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fastbom, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Hilmer, Sarah
    Prevalence and Impact of Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs, Polypharmacy, and Drug-Drug Interactions in Robust Versus Frail Hospitalised Falls Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study2014In: Drugs & Aging, ISSN 1170-229X, E-ISSN 1179-1969, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 225-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Several measures of medication exposure are associated with adverse outcomes in older people. Exposure to and the clinical outcomes of these measures in robust versus frail older inpatients are not known. Objective In older robust and frail patients admitted to hospital after a fall, we investigated the prevalence and clinical impact of fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs), total number of medications, and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Methods Patients >= 60 years of age admitted with a fall to a tertiary referral teaching hospital in Sydney were recruited and frailty was assessed. Data were collected at admission, discharge, and 2 months after admission. Results A total of 204 patients were recruited (mean age 80.5 +/- 8.3 years), with 101 robust and 103 frail. On admission, compared with the robust, frail participants had significantly higher mean +/- SD number of FRIDs (frail 3.4 +/- 2.2 vs. robust 1.6 +/- 1.5, P < 0.0001), total number of medications (9.8 +/- 4.3 vs. 4.4 +/- 3.3, P < 0.0001), and DDI exposure (35 vs. 5 %, P = 0.001). Number of FRIDs on discharge was significantly associated with recurrent falls [odds ratio (OR) 1.7 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.3-2.1)], which were most likely to occur with 1.5 FRIDs in the frail and 2.5 FRIDs in the robust. Number of medications on discharge was also associated with recurrent falls [OR 1.2 (1.0-1.3)], but DDIs were not. Conclusion Exposure to FRIDs and other measures of high-risk medication exposures is common in older people admitted with falls, especially the frail. Number of FRIDs and to a lesser extent total number of medicines at discharge were associated with recurrent falls.

  • 319. Benson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Glaser, Karen
    Corna, Laurie M
    Platts, Loretta G
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Di Gessa, Giorgio
    Worts, Diana
    Price, Debora
    McDonough, Peggy
    Sacker, Amanda
    Do work and family care histories predict health in older women?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1010-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social and policy changes in the last several decades have increased women's options for combining paid work with family care. We explored whether specific combinations of work and family care over the lifecourse are associated with variations in women's later life health.

    Methods: We used sequence analysis to group women in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing according to their work histories and fertility. Using logistic regression, we tested for group differences in later life disability, depressive symptomology and mortality, while controlling for childhood health and socioeconomic position and a range of adult socio-economic circumstances and health behaviours.

    Results: Women who transitioned from family care to either part-time work after a short break from the labour force, or to full-time work, reported lower odds of having a disability compared with the reference group of women with children who were mostly employed full-time throughout. Women who shifted from family care to part-time work after a long career break had lower odds of mortality than the reference group. Depressive symptoms were not associated with women's work and family care histories.

    Conclusion: Women's work histories are predictive of their later life disability and mortality. This relationship may be useful in targeting interventions aimed at improving later life health. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanisms linking certain work histories to poorer later life health and to design interventions for those affected.

  • 320.
    Beramendi, Ana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Morphologican and functional studies on the Drosophila neuromuscular system during postembryonic stages2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The nervous system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model for fundamental neuroscience as well as for biomedical research of human neurological diseases. In this thesis, two aspects of the neuromuscular system have been investigated: the role of the IkB-protein Cactus in the larval neuromuscular junction and the morphology of motor terminals throughout adult life.

    We found that cactus mutant larvae have poor locomotion, morphological abnormalities at the presynaptic site of motor terminals and impaired mechanical and electrophysiological properties, demonstrating that Cactus is clearly involved in the normal functioning of Drosophila neuromuscular system. In the adult, we show that cactus, dorsal and dif are expressed in the brain but are not redistributed between cytoplasm and nucleus in a circadian manner as expected from a previous finding in larval brain. Both Cactus and Dif immunoreactivity was strong in mushroom bodies and antennal lobes, suggesting a putative role in olfactory memory. In the rat, proteins of the same family are involved in the regulation of sleep but we found no indication of such regulation in flies subjected to 6 hrs of sleep deprivation.

    We found that neuromuscular junctions continue to change throughout adult life. Two types of long-term changes in the morphology of neuromuscular junctions are demonstrated here: a daily change in the size of synaptic boutons and long-term changes in bouton size developing over several weeks. By careful morphological studies of flight neuromuscular terminals in clock-gene mutants and wild type flies of different ages we demonstrate that the daily changes depend on the biological clock and disappear in the old fly. Moreover, we show that light is necessary for the motor neurons studied to reach maximum size of synaptic boutons. Lastly, we found that the two clock genes period and timeless are also necessary to control axonal branching.

    Transmission electron microscopy revealed several ultrastructural features distinct of the aging fly and indicative of reduced plasticity. We used a temperature-sensitive allele of shibire that rapidly and reversibly blocks vesicle recycling to investigate whether the morphological phenotype found in neuromuscular junctions of aging flies could be explained by impairment of endocytotic mechanisms. Our results show a clear reduction of the time required for complete paralysis and an increased recovery time in old flies, indicating that aging correlates with impaired endocytosis and membrane dynamics.

  • 321.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bäck, Karin
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental alcohol-related disorders and school performance in 16 year olds - a national cohort study2016In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 111, no 10, p. 1795-1803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the links between parental alcohol-related disorders and offspring school performance and, specifically, whether associations vary by gender of parent or child and whether associations are mediated by other adverse psychosocial circumstances commonly appearing together with parental alcohol problems, such as parental mental health problems or criminal behaviour.

    Register study in a national cohort.

    Setting

    Sweden.

    740 618 individuals born in Sweden in 1990-1996.

    Parental hospital admissions for alcohol-related disorders and school performance in their offspring, in the final year of compulsory school at age 15-16, was analysed in relation to sociodemographic confounders and psychosocial covariates, using linear and logistic regressions.

    Both mothers’ and fathers’ alcohol-related hospital admissions were associated with lower z-scores of grades and national mathematic tests scores. After adjustment for parental education and sociodemographic confounders, beta-coefficients of z-scores of grades were -0.42 (95% CI -0.45, -0.39) and -0.42 (95 % CI -0.43,-0.40), and beta-coefficients of mathematic tests scores were -0.36 (95% CI -0.39, -0.33) and -0.31 (95% CI -0.33, -0.29), for mothers’ and fathers’ alcohol-related disorders, respectively. Adjusted ORs for not being eligible for secondary school were 1.99 (95% CI 1.84-2.15) and 2.04 (95% CI 1.95-2.15) for mothers’ and fathers’ alcohol-related disorders, respectively. Adjusting the analyses for psychosocial factors in the family almost eradicated the statistical effects of parental alcohol-related disorders on offspring school performance to beta-coefficients of 0.03 to -0.10 and ORs of 0.89 to 1.15. The effect of a mother's alcohol-related hospital admission on school performance was stronger in girls than in boys, whereas no gender differences were seen for a father's alcohol-related hospital admission.

    Conclusions

    In Sweden, alcohol-related disorders in both mothers and fathers are associated with lower school performance in their children at age 15-16, with most of the statistical effects being attributed to psychosocial circumstances of the family, such as parental psychiatric disorders, drug use, and criminality and receipt of social or child welfare interventions.

  • 322.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barn till föräldrar med cancer – hur många berörs och vilka är konsekvenserna i ett livsloppsperspektiv?2016Report (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Barn till separerade föräldrar: Hälsa, utbildning och sociala levnadsförhållanden i ett livsloppsperspektiv2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En halv miljon barn i Sverige har föräldrar som inte bor tillsammans. Syftet med den här studien, som utförts av CHESS på uppdrag av Socialstyrelsen, är att belysa hälsa och social situation under skolåren och tidig vuxen ålder för dessa barn. Rapporten baseras på information inhämtad från nationella register och surveyundersökningar om betyg och utbildningskarriär, arbete och inkomster, kriminalitet, psykisk ohälsa, missbruk samt kronisk sjukdom och dödlighet.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar resultaten från denna studie att barn till separerade föräldrar har en ökad risk för ohälsa, skolmisslyckande och ekonomisk utsatthet under skolåren, ungdomsåren och i ung vuxen ålder. Bland dessa barn har barn som bor enbart eller mest med en förälder det största behovet av förebyggande insatser från samhället, i synnerhet om separationen sker i tidig ålder.

  • 324.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental death during childhood and depression in young adults – a national cohort study2016In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 57, no 9, p. 1092-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There are few prospective, population-based studies on childhood parental death and psychiatric disorders in adulthood, and previous findings are inconclusive. This study investigated the association between parental death from natural and external (suicides, accidents or homicides) causes before 18 years and the risk of clinical depression in young adults, in relation to age at loss and gender of both child and parent.

    Methods

    In this register-based study, a national cohort born in Sweden during 1973–1982 (n = 862,554) was followed with regard to hospital admissions and outpatient care for depression during 2006–2013. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the impact of parental death, taking sociodemographic and parental psychosocial covariates into account.

    Results

    Maternal death from natural causes was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of outpatient care for depression of 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.40] in men and 1.15 (1.01–1.31) in women, after adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, with similar effect sizes for paternal natural death. Death from external causes consistently had higher effect size compared with natural deaths, in particular in relation to risk of hospital admissions for depression where they were as high as HR 3.23 (2.38–4.38) for men, and 1.79 (1.30–2.47) for women after a loss of a mother. Losing a parent in preschool age, compared with losing a parent as a teenager, was associated with higher risks of both hospitalization (p = .006) and outpatient care (p = .001) for depression.

    Conclusions

    This study indicates that parental loss to death from natural causes during childhood is associated with a small increased risk of long-term consequences for psychological health. Children who lose their parents to death from external causes, that is suicides, accidents or homicides, and children losing a parent in young ages are, however, at particular risk and should be given priority in preventive interventions after parental loss.

  • 325.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Saarela, Jan
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental Death During Childhood and Subsequent School Performance2014In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 133, no 4, p. 682-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Parental death during childhood has been linked to increased mortality and mental health problems in adulthood. School failure may be an important mediator in this trajectory. We investigated the association between parental death before age 15 years and school performance at age 15 to 16 years, taking into account potentially contributing factors such as family socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental substance abuse, mental health problems, and criminality.

    METHODS: This was a register-based national cohort study of 772117 subjects born in Sweden between 1973 and 1981. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze school performance as mean grades (scale: 1-5; SD: 0.70) and school failure (finished school with incomplete grades). Results are presented as -coefficients and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    RESULTS: Parental death was associated with lower grades (ORs: -0.21 [95% CI: -0.23 to -0.20] and -0.17 [95% CI: -0.19 to -0.15]) for paternal and maternal deaths, respectively. Adjustment for SEP and parental psychosocial factors weakened the associations, but the results remained statistically significant. Unadjusted ORs of school failure were 2.04 (95% CI: 1.92 to 2.17) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.35 to 1.69) for paternal and maternal deaths. In fully adjusted models, ORs were 1.40 (95% CI: 1.31 to 1.49) and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.32). The higher crude impact of death due to external causes (ie, accident, violence, suicide) (OR: -0.27 [90% CI: -0.28 to -0.26]), compared with natural deaths (OR: -0.16 [95% CI: -0.17 to -0.15]), was not seen after adjustment for SEP and psychosocial situation of the family.

    CONCLUSIONS: Parental death during childhood was associated with lower grades and school failure. Much of the effect, especially for deaths by external causes, was associated with socially adverse childhood exposures.

  • 326.
    Bergander, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Formation and metabolism of the tryptophan-derived 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole - a light-induced Ah-receptor ligand2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. It is a genetically ancient protein mostly known for binding the extremely toxic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Binding to the AhR explains the variety of toxic responses of TCDD as well as the induction of several drug metabolizing enzymes. Induction of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is the most well characterized of the AhR regulated responses. The physiological functions of AhR and the endogenous ligand(s) for the receptor are under investigation but are not yet unraveled.

    Several tryptophan (TRP) derived indol-containing compounds have been reported to possess AhR affinity/CYP1A1 inducing capacity and TRP mediates CYP1A1 induction by UV light. The TRP photoproduct, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) has the highest AhR affinity described so far and it causes a rapid and transient induction of the CYP1A1 gene in human cells. A number of reports on constitutive CYP1A1 activity in cultured cells is therefore most likely explained by the presence of TRP-derived AhR ligands in cell culture media.

    The aims of the studies were to investigate the impact of FICZ and FICZ metabolism on CYP1A1 gene regulation, to explore the metabolic fate of FICZ and to identify whether normal laboratory light could lead to formation of FICZ and thereby contribute to earlier observed CYP1A1 inducing effects by cell culture media.

    Metabolic studies using fractions of Aroclor-induced and non-induced rat liver and human liver as well as heterologously expressed enzymes revealed that FICZ can be efficiently metabolized by the CYP enzymes 1A1 and 1A2 and by an unknown cytosolic enzyme, to a number of hydroxylated and other oxidized metabolites. All of the hitherto identified 11 hydroxylated metabolites of FICZ are prone to conjugation reactions by glucuronosyltranferases and sulfotransferases. The metabolites formed by human enzymes are primarily sulfated. Thus, the sulfated metabolites of FICZ will be crucial in the future analyzes of FICZ formation in vivo. FICZ was identified to be formed, not only by UV illumination, but also by normal laboratory light. The constitutive CYP1A1 activity was significantly induced through the formation of several TRP related photoproducts in light-exposed medium. One of these photoproducts was identified as FICZ. Thus, the TRP photoproduct, FICZ, fits into a model in which FICZ auto-regulates the expression of induced enzymes. It is hypothesized that FICZ might function as a chemical messenger that activates AhR in response to light and might be one of several possible endogenous AhR ligands.

  • 327. Bergandi, Loredana
    et al.
    Skorokhod, Oleksii A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Torino, Italy.
    Franzone, Federica
    La Grotta, Rosalba
    Schwarzer, Evelin
    Nuzzi, Raffaele
    Induction of oxidative stress in human aqueous and vitreous humors by Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy2018In: International journal of ophthalmology, ISSN 2222-3959, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 1145-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To evaluate whether the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment applied in routine capsulotomy elicits oxidative stress in aqueous and vitreous humors. METHODS: Thirty-six patients who had to undergo a 25 gauge pars plana vitrectomy due to vitreoretinal disorders were enrolled, 15 of them underwent a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy 7d before vitrectomy due to posterior capsule opacification (PCO) (Nd:YAG laser group) while the remaining 21 patients were not laser treated before vitrectomy (no Nd:YAG laser group). Samples of the aqueous and vitreous humors were collected during vitrectomy from all patients for the assessment of oxidative parameters which were compared between the Nd:YAG laser group and no Nd:YAG laser group. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a product of membrane lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, the antioxidative activities of SOD and catalase, the 4-HNE-protein conjugate formation, indicating structural modifications in proteins due to lipoperoxidation, were assessed in aqueous and vitreous samples. RESULTS: In the human vitreous humor TBARS levels are significantly higher in the Nd:YAG laser group compared to the no Nd:YAG laser group and importantly, there is a significant correlation between the TBARS levels and the total energy of Nd:YAG laser used during capsulotomy. Moreover the anti-oxidative activities of SOD and catalase were significantly decreased by Nd:YAG laser treatment, both in aqueous and vitreous humors. In accordance with the TBARS data and anti-oxidative enzyme activities, significantly higher levels of proteins were conjugated with the lipoperoxidation product 4-HNE in the aqueous and vitreous humors in the Nd:YAG laser-treated group in comparison to no Nd:YAG laser group. CONCLUSION: These data, clearly suggest that any change that Q-switched Nd:YAG photo disruption may cause in the aqueous and vitreous compartments, resulting in a higher level of oxidative damage might be of considerable clinical significance particularly by accelerating the aging of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye and by worsening the intraocular pressure, the uveal, the retinal (especially macular) pathologies.

  • 328. Bergdahl, Maud
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Difference in apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (APOE ɛ4) among dentate and edentulous subjects2008In: Gerodontology, ISSN 0734-0664, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 179-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of apolipoprotein (APOE) alleles and determine whether APOE type 4 allele (ɛ4) was associated with edentulousness even when certain factors were controlled.

    Background: The APOE are important in lipid homeostasis, and APOE ɛ4 has been found in many diseases and to have a negative impact on longevity. Tooth loss is more common in ill aged subjects with low income and education.

    Materials and methods: In a population-based study involving 1860 subjects between 35 and 85 years 1321 dentate (mean age = 54; 54% women, 46% men) and 539 edentulous (mean age = 72; 62% women, 38% men) subjects were studied. Logistic regression was performed with dentate/edentulous as dependent variables and years of education, socio-economic status, social network, stress level, handicap from birth, 23 various diseases and APOE ɛ4 as covariates. Thereafter, APOE ɛ4 frequencies were studied in 342 dentate and 336 edentulous subjects 50–85 years of age. The subjects were matched with regard to age, gender, years of education, living condition, stress level, handicap from birth and 23 various diseases.

    Results: APOE allele frequency in the total group was ɛ2 = 7.8%, ɛ3 = 76.4% and ɛ4 = 15.8%. Age, living condition, years of education and APOE ɛ4 were significant covariates in edentulous subjects (p ≤ 0.001). APOE ɛ4 in the matched groups revealed significant differences between the dentate group and the edentulous group (χ2 = 5.68; p = 0.017). There was no group effect (F(29,648) = 0.849; p < 0.696; Wilks' lambda = 0.963). In the dentate group, the frequencies of APOE were: ɛ2 = 8.8%, ɛ3 = 77.9% and ɛ4 = 13.3%. Corresponding frequencies of APOE in the edentulous group were: ɛ2 = 6.6%, ɛ3 = 75.4% and ɛ4 = 18.0%.

    Conclusion: Despite matching both groups with regard to different background factors, the edentulous group had a higher frequency of APOE ɛ4 than the dentate group. Thus, genetic factors might contribute to greater risk in developing complex oral diseases leading to tooth loss or just be an indication that the subjects in our study carrying APOE ɛ4 are more fragile.

  • 329. Bergendal, G.
    et al.
    Martola, J.
    Stawiarz, L.
    Kristoffersen-Wiberg, M.
    Fredrikson, S.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Callosal atrophy in multiple sclerosis is related to cognitive speed2013In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 127, no 4, p. 281-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bergendal G, Martola J, Stawiarz L, Kristoffersen-Wiberg M, Fredrikson S, Almkvist O. Callosal atrophy in multiple sclerosis is related to cognitive speed. Acta Neurol Scand: 2013: 127: 281-289. (C) 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background Long-term changes regarding corpus callosum area (CCA) and information processing speed in cognitive and sensory-motor tasks have rarely been studied in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective and methods Information processing speed in cognitive (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT), sensory (visual and auditory reaction time) and motor (finger-tapping speed, FT; right and left hand) tasks as well as auditory inter-hemispheric transfer (verbal dichotic listening, VDL) was related to CCA, measured by MRI at baseline and at follow-up after nine years in 22 patients with MS. Possible confounding by demographic (age, gender and education), clinical (symptom onset, duration, severity of disease) and relative brain volume (RBV) as well as T2 lesion load was taken into account. Results The smaller the CCA at baseline, the slower was SDMT performance at baseline. In a similar way, CCA at follow-up was associated with poor SDMT result at follow-up. Furthermore, the higher the annual rate of change in CCA, the poorer was performance in VDL on the left ear and the more pronounced was the right ear advantage. A positive relationship between performance in VDL right ear and annual rate of change in RBV was also seen. Sensory-motor tests were not significantly associated with CCA. T2 lesion load at baseline was associated with FT performance at baseline. Demographic, clinical and radiological (RBV and T2 lesion load) characteristics did not confound the significant relation between CCA and SDMT. Conclusions CCA unlike RBV and T2 lesion load was associated with SDMT, which indicated a marked cognitive rather than perceptual-motor component.

  • 330. Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Bondjers, Kristina
    Arnberg, Filip
    Nilsson, Doris
    Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Utvärdering av Barntraumateamet i Norrköping2014Report (Other academic)
  • 331. Bergkvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Klawonn, Isabell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Lavik, Gaute
    Brüchert, Volker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Ploug, Helle
    Turbulence simultaneously stimulates small-and large-scale CO2 sequestration by chain-forming diatoms in the sea2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 3046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chain-forming diatoms are key CO2-fixing organisms in the ocean. Under turbulent conditions they form fast-sinking aggregates that are exported from the upper sunlit ocean to the ocean interior. A decade-old paradigm states that primary production in chain-forming diatoms is stimulated by turbulence. Yet, direct measurements of cell-specific primary production in individual field populations of chain-forming diatoms are poorly documented. Here we measured cell-specific carbon, nitrate and ammonium assimilation in two field populations of chain-forming diatoms (Skeletonema and Chaetoceros) at low-nutrient concentrations under still conditions and turbulent shear using secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with stable isotopic tracers and compared our data with those predicted by mass transfer theory. Turbulent shear significantly increases cell-specific C assimilation compared to still conditions in the cells/chains that also form fast-sinking, aggregates rich in carbon and ammonium. Thus, turbulence simultaneously stimulates small-scale biological CO2 assimilation and large-scale biogeochemical C and N cycles in the ocean.

  • 332.
    Berglund, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Dual Targeting of Proteins to Mitochondria and Chloroplasts2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of mitochondrial and chloroplastic proteins are nuclear encoded, synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the respective organelle using an N-terminal extension, the targeting peptide (TP). After import into the organelle, the TP is cleaved off and degraded by the Presequence protease (PreP). The import process is thought to be highly specific, however there is a group of proteins that are localised to both mitochondria and chloroplasts, using an ambiguous, dual targeting peptide (dTP). The aim of this thesis was to investigate targeting properties of dTPs. Analysis of the amino acid content of all currently known dually targeted proteins revealed that the dTPs are enriched in hydroxylated, hydrophobic and positively charged residues, lacking acidic residues, whereas the content of serine, arginine and proline is intermediary in comparison to the mitochondrial and chloroplastic TPs. dTPs do not form amphiphilic a-helices, characteristic of the mitochondrial TPs, but the helical structure can be induced in membrane mimetic environment, as revealed by spectroscopic studies of a dTP of an aminoacyl- tRNA-synthetase (aaRS). In vitro and in vivo import experiments of fusion constructs containing N-terminal truncations of seven aaRS-dTPs coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) demonstrated different organisation of targeting determinants showing that the N-terminal portion of dTPs was crucial for import into both organelles or at least one organelle for different constructs. In addition, studies of targeting capacity of the TPs of PreP homologues from plant, mammal and yeast (AtPreP, hPreP and Mop112) showed species dependent intra-mitochondrial localisation of the coupled GFP and demonstrated functional complementation of an intermembrane space located Mop112 with a matrix located AtPreP. The studies presented here contribute to understanding of the intracellular and intra-mitochondrial sorting process of proteins in the eukaryotic cell.

  • 333.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Writings in remembrance of Professor Trygg Engen2012In: Olfactory Cognition: From Perception and Memory to Environmental Odours and Neuroscience / [ed] Gesualdo M. Zucco, Rachel S. Herz, and Benoist Schaal, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, p. 295-312Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Höglund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is there a measurement system for odour quality?2012In: Olfactory Cognition: From Perception and Memory to Environmental Odours and Neuroscience, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, p. 3-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although humans can discriminate a huge number of odours, the mechanisms behind the perception of odours are not well understood. The theory of the present essay and our experiments were developed with the view that odours are homogeneous perceptions (as opposed to visual objects that are heterogeneous percepts). Other typical examples of homogeneous perceptions are colours and some emotional states. Thus, through perceptual learning, which is a prerequisite for perceiving, we become aware of and may recognise odours in the environment. Typically, odours are detected at very low concentrations as compared to chemical instruments, the electronic nose inclusive. Four principles of investigating the human world of odour qualities are discussed: (i) classification and sorting according to odour-quality resemblance, (ii) using names and verbal attributes for odour sources, (iii) using odour qualities for a representative set of reference odorants, and (iv) measuring odour quality by similarity scaling of pairs of odorous stimuli. Although a huge number of odours can be discriminated, the quality of odour mixtures is intermediary among the odour qualities of their components. This applies to single chemical compounds or mixtures thereof and for very broadband mixtures like indoor air. Our perceptual world simply consists of a massive amount of odour qualities potentially attributable to sources in the environment. Their organisation is, however, still a mystery.

  • 335.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Höglund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esfandabad, Hassan Shams
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A bisensory method for odor and irritation detection of formaldehyde and pyridine2012In: CHEMOSENS PERCEPT, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 146-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bisensory method was developed for determining the psychometric functions and absolute thresholds for odor and sensory irritation of two odorous irritants. Individual and group thresholds for formaldehyde or pyridine were measured for 31 age-matched subjects (18-35 years old). P (50) absolute thresholds were for formaldehyde odor 110 ppb (range 23-505), for pyridine odor 77 ppb (range 20-613), and for pyridine irritation 620 ppb (range 90-3,656); too few subjects' formaldehyde irritation thresholds were possible to determine (human exposures limited to 1 ppm). In spite of large interindividual differences, all thresholds for irritation were higher than for odor. The average slopes of the 62 psychometric functions for odor and the 32 possible for sensory irritation were highest for formaldehyde odor (83% per log ppb) and equal for pyridine odor and irritation (68% per log ppb). The bisensory method for measuring odor and sensory irritation jointly produced detection functions and absolute thresholds compatible with those earlier published; however, a steeper slope for sensory irritation than odor was expected for pyridine. The bisensory method is intended for measuring odor and sensory irritation to broadband mixtures and dynamic exposures, like indoor air.

  • 336. Berglund, Emelie
    et al.
    Maaskola, Jonas
    Schultz, Niklas
    Friedrich, Stefanie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Marklund, Maja
    Bergenstråhle, Joseph
    Tarish, Firas
    Tanoglidi, Anna
    Vickovic, Sanja
    Larsson, Ludvig
    Salmén, Fredrik
    Ogris, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Wallenborg, Karolina
    Lagergren, Jens
    Ståhl, Patrik
    Sonnhammer, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Helleday, Thomas
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    Spatial maps of prostate cancer transcriptomes reveal an unexplored landscape of heterogeneity2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 2419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intra-tumor heterogeneity is one of the biggest challenges in cancer treatment today. Here we investigate tissue-wide gene expression heterogeneity throughout a multifocal prostate cancer using the spatial transcriptomics (ST) technology. Utilizing a novel approach for deconvolution, we analyze the transcriptomes of nearly 6750 tissue regions and extract distinct expression profiles for the different tissue components, such as stroma, normal and PIN glands, immune cells and cancer. We distinguish healthy and diseased areas and thereby provide insight into gene expression changes during the progression of prostate cancer. Compared to pathologist annotations, we delineate the extent of cancer foci more accurately, interestingly without link to histological changes. We identify gene expression gradients in stroma adjacent to tumor regions that allow for re-stratification of the tumor microenvironment. The establishment of these profiles is the first step towards an unbiased view of prostate cancer and can serve as a dictionary for future studies.

  • 337. Berglund, Linnea Hergot
    et al.
    Prytz, Hanne Sandberg
    Perski, Aleksander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Svartberg, Johan
    Testosterone levels and psychological health status in men from a general population: the Troms circle divide o study2011In: The Aging Male, ISSN 1368-5538, E-ISSN 1473-0790, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 37-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods. aEuro integral Total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were analysed and free testosterone levels was calculated in 3413 men participating in the fifth Troms circle divide o study in 2001. Self-administered questionnaires including information about education, marital status, smoking habits and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 (SCL-10, a 10-item psychological health questionnaire) were completed. The cross-sectional data were analysed with partial association and analysis of variance and covariance. Results. aEuro integral The complete SCL-10 was not associated with total or free testosterone, but symptoms of anxiety were negatively associated with both total and free testosterone (p < 0.05). Men presumed to be testosterone deficient, with testosterone levels in the lowest 10th percentile, had increased SCL-10 score compared to men with higher testosterone levels (p == 0.021), before and after adjusting for age, waist circumference, marital status, education and smoking. There was an even stronger association between men presumed to be testosterone deficient and symptoms of anxiety (p < 0.001). However, men with more pronounced symptoms indicating mental disorder did not have lower testosterone levels. Conclusions. aEuro integral Men presumed being testosterone deficient had a higher symptom score, in particularly regarding anxiety, but they did not have pathological symptoms. Thus, lower testosterone levels was only associated with subthreshold symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  • 338. Bergman, Ingvar
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The effect of age on fluid intelligence is fully mediated by physical health2013In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 100-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the extent to which the effect of age on cognitive ability is predicted by individual differences in physical health. The sample consisted of 118 volunteer subjects who were healthy and ranging in age from 26 to 91. The examinations included a clinical investigation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain neuroimaging, and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. The effect of age on fluid IQ with and without visual spatial praxis and on crystallized IQ was tested whether being fully-, partially-or non-mediated by physical health. Structural equation analyses showed that the best and most parsimonious fit to the data was provided by models that were fully mediated for fluid IQ without praxis, non-mediated for crystallized IQ and partially mediated for fluid IQ with praxis. The diseases of the circulatory and nervous systems were the major mediators. It was concluded from the pattern of findings that the effect of age on fluid intelligence is fully mediated by physical health, while crystallized intelligence is non-mediated and visual spatial praxis is partially mediated, influenced mainly by direct effects of age. Our findings imply that improving health by acting against the common age-related circulatory-and nervous system diseases and risk factors will oppose the decline in fluid intelligence with age.

  • 339.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The role of psychopathology as motivator for drug dependency—some moderating remarks2013In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 108, no 4, p. 673-674Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 340.
    Bergmark, Karin H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Internet addiction - vad är det?2016In: Tidskriften för svensk psykiatri, ISSN 1653-8579, no 1, p. 59-60Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 341.
    Bergqvist, Kersti
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Åberg Yngwe, Monica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lundberg, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Understanding the role of welfare state characteristics for health and inequalities - an analytical review2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, p. 1234-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The past decade has witnessed a growing body of research on welfare state characteristics and health inequalities but the picture is, despite this, inconsistent. We aim to review this research by focusing on theoretical and methodological differences between studies that at least in part may lead to these mixed findings. Methods: Three reviews and relevant bibliographies were manually explored in order to find studies for the review. Related articles were searched for in PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Database searches were done in PubMed and Web of Science. The search period was restricted to 2005-01-01 to 2013-02-28. Fifty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Three main approaches to comparative welfare state research are identified; the Regime approach, the Institutional approach, and the Expenditure approach. The Regime approach is the most common and regardless of the empirical regime theory employed and the amendments made to these, results are diverse and contradictory. When stratifying studies according to other features, not much added clarity is achieved. The Institutional approach shows more consistent results; generous policies and benefits seem to be associated with health in a positive way for all people in a population, not only those who are directly affected or targeted. The Expenditure approach finds that social and health spending is associated with increased levels of health and smaller health inequalities in one way or another but the studies are few in numbers making it somewhat difficult to get coherent results. Conclusions: Based on earlier reviews and our results we suggest that future research should focus less on welfare regimes and health inequalities and more on a multitude of different types of studies, including larger analyses of social spending and social rights in various policy areas and how these are linked to health in different social strata. But, we also need more detailed evaluation of specific programmes or interventions, as well as more qualitative analyses of the experiences of different types of policies among the people and families that need to draw on the collective resources.

  • 342.
    Bergström, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Sörensen, Malin H
    Boon Sing Ng, Jovice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Alberius, Peter C.A.
    Improved enzymatic activity of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase immobilized in a hydrophobic particulate mesoporous carrier2010In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 343, p. 359-365Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus has been immobilized within particulate mesoporous silica carriers, with either hydrophilic or hydrophobic supporting surfaces, produced by the newly developed emulsion and solvent evaporation (ESE) method. The Michaelis–Menten model was used to calculate the parameters related to the enzymatic activity of lipase i.e. the turnover number, kcat, and the specific activity. The specific activity was improved by immobilization of lipase onto the hydrophobic support, compared to lipase immobilized onto the hydrophilic support and lipase free in solution. The enhanced enzymatic activity of lipase onto a hydrophobic support was attributed to interfacial activation of the Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase when it is attached to a hydrophobic surface and a reduced denaturation. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM) studies, of fluorescently tagged lipase, showed that leakage of the lipase from the mesoporous particles was limited to an initial period of only a few hours. Both the rate and the amount of lipase leached were reduced when the lipase was immobilized onto the hydrophobic support.

  • 343.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fabian, Helena
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Salari, Raziye
    Preschool children living in joint physical custody arrangements show less psychological symptoms than those living mostly or only with one parent2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 294-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Joint physical custody (JPC), where children spend about equal time in both parent's homes after parental separation, is increasing. The suitability of this practice for preschool children, with a need for predictability and continuity, has been questioned.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, we used data on 3656 Swedish children aged three to five years living in intact families, JPC, mostly with one parent or single care. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, completed by parents and preschool teachers, as the outcome measure.

    Results

    Children in JPC showed less psychological problems than those living mostly (adjusted B 1.81; 95% CI [0.66 to 2.95]) or only with one parent (adjusted B 1.94; 95% CI [0.75 to 3.13]), in parental reports. In preschool teacher reports, the adjusted Betas were 1.27, 95% CI [0.14 to 2.40] and 1.41, 95% CI [0.24 to 2.58], respectively. In parental reports, children in JPC and those in intact families had similar outcomes, while teachers reported lower unadjusted symptom scores for children in intact families.

    Conclusion

    Joint physical custody arrangements were not associated with more psychological symptoms in children aged 3–5, but longitudinal studies are needed to account for potential preseparation differences.

  • 344.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fifty moves a year: is there an association between joint physical custody and psychosomatic problems in children?2015In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 769-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many Western countries, an increasing number of children with separated parents have joint physical custody, that is, live equally much in their parent's respective homes. In Sweden, joint physical custody is particularly common and concerns between 30% and 40% of the children with separated parents. It has been hypothesised that the frequent moves and lack of stability in parenting may be stressful for these children.

    Methods: We used data from a national classroom survey of all sixth and ninth grade students in Sweden (N=147839) to investigate the association between children's psychosomatic problems and living arrangements. Children in joint physical custody were compared with those living only or mostly with one parent and in nuclear families. We conducted sex-specific linear regression analyses for z-transformed sum scores of psychosomatic problems and adjusted for age, country of origin as well as children's satisfaction with material resources and relationships to parents. Clustering by school was accounted for by using a two-level random intercept model.

    Results: Children in joint physical custody suffered from less psychosomatic problems than those living mostly or only with one parent but reported more symptoms than those in nuclear families. Satisfaction with their material resources and parent–child relationships was associated with children's psychosomatic health but could not explain the differences between children in the different living arrangements.

    Conclusions: Children with non-cohabitant parents experience more psychosomatic problems than those in nuclear families. Those in joint physical custody do however report better psychosomatic health than children living mostly or only with one parent. Longitudinal studies with information on family factors before and after the separation are needed to inform policy of children's postseparation living arrangements.

  • 345.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Wells, Michael B.
    Köhler, Lennart
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Children with two homes: Psychological problems in relation to living arrangements in Nordic 2- to 9-year-olds2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Joint physical custody, children spending equal time in each parents’ respective home after a parental divorce, is particularly common in Nordic compared with other Western countries. Older children have been shown to fare well in this practice but for young children there are few existing studies. The aim of this paper is to study psychological problems in 2- to 9-year-old Nordic children in different family forms. Methods: Total symptom score according to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as well as scores showing externalizing problems were compared among 152 children in joint physical custody, 303 in single care and 3207 in nuclear families through multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Children in single care had more psychological symptoms than those in joint physical custody (B = 1.08; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.67) and those in nuclear families had the least reported symptoms (B = −0.53; 95% CI −0.89 to −0.17). Externalizing problems were also lower in nuclear families (B = −0.28, 95% CI −0.52 to −0.04) compared with joint physical custody after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions: Young children with non-cohabiting parents suffered from more psychological problems than those in intact families. Children in joint physical custody had a lower total problem score than those in single care after adjusting for covariates. Longitudinal studies with information on family factors before the separation are needed to inform policy of young children’s post-separation living arrangements.

  • 346.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Wells, Michael B.
    Köhler, Lennart
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Children with two homes: Psychological problems in relation to living arrangements in Nordic 2-9 year olds2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Joint physical custody, children spending equal time in each parents’ respective home after a parental divorce, is particularly common in Nordic compared with other Western countries. Older children have been shown to fare well in this practice but for young children there are few existing studies. The aim of this paper is to study psychological problems in 2- to 9-year-old Nordic children in different family forms. Methods: Total symptom score according to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as well as scores showing externalizing problems were compared among 152 children in joint physical custody, 303 in single care and 3207 in nuclear families through multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Children in single care had more psychological symptoms than those in joint physical custody (B = 1.08; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.67) and those in nuclear families had the least reported symptoms (B = −0.53; 95% CI −0.89 to −0.17). Externalizing problems were also lower in nuclear families (B = −0.28, 95% CI −0.52 to −0.04) compared with joint physical custody after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions: Young children with non-cohabiting parents suffered from more psychological problems than those in intact families. Children in joint physical custody had a lower total problem score than those in single care after adjusting for covariates. Longitudinal studies with information on family factors before the separation are needed to inform policy of young children’s post-separation living arrangements.

  • 347.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rajmil, Luis
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Living in two homes-a Swedish national survey of wellbeing in 12 and 15 year olds with joint physical custody2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, article id 868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The practice of joint physical custody, where children spend equal time in each parent's home after they separate, is increasing in many countries. It is particularly common in Sweden, where this custody arrangement applies to 30 per cent of children with separated parents. The aim of this study was to examine children's health-related quality of life after parental separation, by comparing children living with both parents in nuclear families to those living in joint physical custody and other forms of domestic arrangements.

    Methods Data from a national Swedish classroom study of 164,580 children aged 12 and 15-years-old were analysed by two-level linear regression modelling. Z-scores were used to equalise scales for ten dimensions of wellbeing from the KIDSCREEN-52 and the KIDSCREEN-10 Index and analysed for children in joint physical custody in comparison with children living in nuclear families and mostly or only with one parent.

    Results Living in a nuclear family was positively associated with almost all aspects of wellbeing in comparison to children with separated parents. Children in joint physical custody experienced more positive outcomes, in terms of subjective wellbeing, family life and peer relations, than children living mostly or only with one parent. For the 12-year-olds, beta coefficients for moods and emotions ranged from -0.20 to -0.33 and peer relations from -0.11 to -0.20 for children in joint physical custody and living mostly or only with one parent. The corresponding estimates for the 15-year-olds varied from -0.08 to -0.28 and from -0.03 to -0.13 on these subscales. The 15-year-olds in joint physical custody were more likely than the 12-year-olds to report similar wellbeing levels on most outcomes to the children in nuclear families.

    Conclusions Children who spent equal time living with both parents after a separation reported better wellbeing than children in predominantly single parent care. This was particularly true for the 15-year-olds, while the reported wellbeing of 12-years-olds was less satisfactory. There is a need for further studies that can account for the pre and post separation context of individual families and the wellbeing of younger age groups in joint physical custody.

  • 348. Bergvall, Tomas
    et al.
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Lindquist, Marie
    vigiGrade: A Tool to Identify Well-Documented Individual Case Reports and Highlight Systematic Data Quality Issues2014In: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual case safety reports of suspected harm from medicines are fundamental to post-marketing surveillance. Their value is directly proportional to the amount of clinically relevant information they include. To improve the quality of the data, communication between stakeholders is essential and can be facilitated by a simple score and visualisation of the results. The objective of this study was to propose a measure of completeness and identify predictors of well-documented reports, globally. The Uppsala Monitoring Centre has developed the vigiGrade completeness score to measure the amount of clinically relevant information in structured format, without reflecting whether the information establishes causality between the drug and adverse event. The vigiGrade completeness score (C) starts at 1 for reports with information on time-to-onset, age, sex, indication, outcome, report type, dose, country, primary reporter and comments. For each missing dimension, a penalty is detracted which varies with clinical relevance. We classified reports with C > 0.8 as well-documented and identified all such reports in the WHO global individual case safety report database, VigiBase, from 2007 to January 2012. We utilised odds ratios with statistical shrinkage to identify subgroups with unexpectedly high proportions of well-documented reports. Altogether, 430,000 (13 %) of the studied reports achieved C > 0.8 in VigiBase. For VigiBase as a whole, the median completeness was 0.41 with an interquartile range of 0.26-0.63. Two out of three well-documented reports come from Europe, and two out of three from physicians. Among the countries with more than 1,000 reports in total, the highest rate of well-documented reports is 65 % in Italy. Tunisia, Spain, Portugal, Croatia and Denmark each have rates above 50 %, and another 20 countries have rates above 30 %. On the whole, 24 % of the reports from physicians are well-documented compared with only 4 % for consumers/non-health professionals. Notably, Denmark and Norway have more than 50 % well-documented reports from consumers/non-health professionals and higher rates than for physicians. The rate of well-documented reports for the E2B format is 11 % compared with 22 % for the older INTDIS (International Drug Information System) format. However, for E2B reports entered via the WHO programme's e-reporting system VigiFlow, the rate is 29 %. Overall, only one report in eight provides the desired level of information, but much higher proportions are observed for individual countries. Physicians and e-reporting tools also generate greater proportions of well-documented reports overall. Reports from consumers/non-health professionals in specific regions have excellent quality, which illustrates their potential for the future. vigiGrade has already provided valuable information by highlighting data quality issues both in Italy and the USA.

  • 349. Berkman, Lisa F.
    et al.
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Working conditions and health2014In: Social epidemiology / [ed] Lisa F. Berkman, Ichiro Kawachi, and Maria Glymour, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, 2, p. 153--181Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 350. Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Biguet, Gabriele
    Stathakarou, Natalia
    Westin-Hägglöf, Beata
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Jeding, Kerstin
    McGrath, Cormac
    Zary, Nabil
    Kononowicz, Andrzej A.
    Virtual Patients in a Behavioral Medicine Massive Open Online Course (MOOC): A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Participants' Perceptions2017In: Academic Psychiatry, ISSN 1042-9670, E-ISSN 1545-7230, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 631-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The purpose of this article is to explore learners' perceptions of using virtual patients in a behavioral medicine Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) and thereby describe innovative ways of disseminating knowledge in health-related areas. Methods A 5-week MOOC on behavioral medicine was hosted on the edX platform. The authors developed two branched virtual patients consisting of video recordings of a live standardized patient, with multiple clinical decision points and narration unfolding depending on learners' choices. Students interacted with the virtual patients to treat stress and sleep problems. Answers to the exit survey and participant comments from the discussion forum were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results In total, 19,236 participants enrolled in the MOOC, out of which 740 received the final certificate. The virtual patients were completed by 2317 and 1640 participants respectively. Among survey respondents (n = 442), 83.1% agreed that the virtual patient exercise was helpful. The qualitative analysis resulted in themes covering what it was like to work with the virtual patient, with subthemes on learner-centered education, emotions/eustress, game comparisons, what the participants learned, what surprised them, how confident participants felt about applying interventions in practice, suggestions for improvement, and previous experiences of virtual patients. Conclusions Students were enthusiastic about interacting with the virtual patients as a means to apply new knowledge about behavioral medicine interventions. The most common suggestion was to incorporate more interactive cases with various levels of complexity. Further research should include patient outcomes and focus on interprofessional aspects of learning with virtual patients in a MOOC.

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