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  • 301.
    Moilanen, Inka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    The Concept of the Three Orders of Society and Social Mobility in Eleventh-Century England2016In: English Historical Review, ISSN 0013-8266, E-ISSN 1477-4534, Vol. 131, no 553, p. 1331-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the concept of the three orders of society (oratoresbellatoreslaboratores) in the works of Ælfric of Eynsham (d. c.1010) and Wulfstan of York (d. 1023). Paying attention to the immediate contexts in which Ælfric and Wulfstan formulated their views on social order, the article contrasts the varying uses of the metaphor with the discussion on social change and social mobility current around the turn of the first millennium. The reiteration of these categories seems to have surfaced in situations of particular political turbulence, as a means of convincing audiences that contemporary society was in a state of disorder which had to be remedied. The article incorporates analysis of a text previously excluded from discussions of the concept, Napier 50, and reviews some interpretations according to which the three orders functioned as part of criticism of extensive upward social mobility at the beginning of the eleventh century.

  • 302.
    Moilanen, Inka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Thom Mertens, Maria Sherwood-Smith,
 Michael Mecklenburg & Hans-Jochen Schiewer (red.), The Last Judgement in Medieval Preaching
. Sermo: Studies on Patristic, Medieval, and Reformation Sermons and Preaching 3. Turnhout: Brepols, 20132015In: Svenskt gudtjänstliv, ISSN 0280-9133, Vol. 90, p. 224-229Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 303.
    Moilanen, Inka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Virtues, Vices, and Vectors: Digital Tools and the Study of Medieval Sermons2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In May 2018, a workshop was held at Malmö University on the subject of Digital History, bringing together Scandinavian scholars from a number of history disciplines. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss ontologies of digital history from different perspectives and can be seen as a first step taken in order to engage critically with this growing field and to create an inter-Scandinavian network. These scholars are active within, for instance, digital pedagogy, public history, history, and literary history.

    In order to share the results of this workshop with a wider audience, a series of academic blog posts will be published every Friday for the next six weeks. These posts all engage with various aspects of the ontology of the digital and the “digital turn”: from a more general overview of the opportunities it provides, to its potential to bridge divides between disciplines and promote further understanding, and examples of practical applications in terms of new research methodologies. Questions are raised such as: how can digital media enable other forms of research communication than the book or article? How is the way scholars communicate their research shifting in response to new forms of digital media? Can digital methods promote cooperation between academic disciplines?

    This text focuses on the methodological, theoretical and critical aspects of using digital tools in the study of medieval source material. With the increase of digitized historical texts, databases with user-friendly search functions, and digital projects (or TRCs, Thematic Research Collections) with a mixture of research tools and a variety of archival material, the possibilities for historians have multiplied. That so many medieval texts have been transferred into digital formats in the past few years is an obvious advantage for medieval studies. Everyone is grateful that we can now find critical editions and high-resolution manuscript images straight from our own computer screens, and do the time-consuming research right at home, instead of travelling to different libraries and archives across the world. Not only can we now download a text and do the traditional close reading (often) for free, but we can now also manipulate the data that would have been near impossible with printed texts. This is what brings us to using digital databases as tools in the study of medieval sermons – not just as a deposit for texts in an electronic format.

    The digitized text itself allows for a re-evaluation of how we pose our research questions and calls for a critical discussion of the nature of our sources and the knowledge we gain from them. Although the process of making medieval texts available in a digital format is not complete (will it ever be?), [1] great accomplishments have been achieved in recent times that have made it possible to shift from the phase of reassembling and collation to one where scholars can use this new material in analyses that differ from ‘traditional’ methods of close-reading. In this respect, the methods that have been developed within Digital Humanities (reaching back to 1960s humanities computing, with its roots in the late 1940s) offer new and promising prospects for historians.

  • 304.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    A Study of Punctuality: Using typo-chronology as Barthes’ studium and punctum2012In: Matters of Scale: Processes and courses of events in the past and the present / [ed] Nanouschka Myrberg Burström, Fredrik Fahlander, Stockholm: Department of archaeology and classical studies, Stockholm university , 2012, p. 75-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 305.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    A tale of buried treasure, some good estimations, and golden unicorns: The numismatic connections of Alan Turing.2015In: Myntstudier: Festskrift till Kenneth Jonsson. / [ed] Talvio, Tuukka and Wijk, Magnus, Stockholm: Svenska Numismatiska Föreningen , 2015, p. 226-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1940 a man decided to take some precautionary measures to protect his savings against the imminent threat of the Battle of Britain. To avoid being left without means in the event of a German invasion, prevent devaluation of his savings and possibly also to speculate in rising silver prices he bought two large silver ingots, worth £250 and weighing about 90 kilograms, loaded them into a pram, and went out to bury them in a small wood nearby. The man was Alan Turing (1912–1954), famous for his wartime success in breaking the German Enigma code with his team, and for his groundbreaking work on electric machines which were to develop into the first real computers. Turing is also well-known to many who work with coins as one of the scholars behind the Good-Turing frequency estimation formula, used within numismatics to calculate the number of coins of a specific type produced from an identified number of dies. This paper meanders from Alan Turing's hidden treasure on to his scientific work and to his various connections with numismatics: the Good-Turing formula, Joan Clarke, and commemorative coins.

  • 306.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Brita Ingrid Maria Malmer2018In: Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Divina Moneta: coin finds in religious contexts2017In: XV International Numismatic Congress, Taormina, 2015, volume 2: proceedings / [ed] Maria Caccamo Cantalbiano, Roma: Arbor Sapientae , 2017, p. 1309-1316Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coin finds in religious contexts raised a significant number of questions concerning the conception and use of coins and money in different geographical and temporal settings. Votive offerings, ritual minting and donations are but a few examples of how coins were, and still are, used as material mediators between humans and gods. In the Divina Moneta Round Table, the use of coins and money for religious purposes was discussed from an understanding of the particular material qualities of coins (such as metal, size or iconography) in combination with their connotations in the light of different socio-cultural phenomena (such as abundance, kingship or protection). These material and ideological aspects were related to patterns of deposition in religious contexts and to detailed numismatic evidence, drawing on cases of coins from various historical, geographical and numismatic contexts.

  • 308.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Divina Moneta: Coin finds in religious contexts2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Elina Screen, Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles, Nor­wegian Collections, part I (vol. 65) & II (vol. 66), Oxford 2013 & 20152016In: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 66-68Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 310.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Eva Marie Ulla Margareta Ehrensvärd2018In: Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 311.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Florent Audy har disputerat2018In: Nordisk Numismatisk Unions medlemsblad, ISSN 0025-8539, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 312.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Florent Audy har disputerat2018In: Svensk numismatisk tidskrift, ISSN 0283-071X, no 5, p. 121-121Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 313.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Händelser vid vatten: Maritima studier med allmänarkeologisk relevans2012In: Marinarkeologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1100-9632, no 3, p. 11-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Är den maritima arkeologin fast i ”specialiseringens dilemma”? På vilket kulturhistoriskt område kan maritim arkeologi säga något väsentligt som inte kan belysas utifrån andra premisser? Här föreslås en ökad, snarare än minskad, närhet till det empiriska materialet, men även till allmänarkeologisk teori och problemformuleringar. I skärningspunkten mellan människa, vatten och ting finns den maritima arkeologins särskilda förutsättningar och unika kvalitéer att förvalta och utveckla.

  • 314.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Imitation as citation: coin imitation as rhetoric and discourse2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coinage began to be used from around AD 995 in Scandinavia. These early coins imitated contemporary Anglo-Saxon coins but not in a passive or unquestioning way, but as part of complex chain of citations by which imported artefacts were adapted and re-contextualized. For more than thirty years the English and Scandinavian coinages were closely connected through a network of humans and objects that moved, physically and conceptually, between mints and kingdoms. Different iconographical models were used in a strategic/rhetorical way by commissioners and artisans to create relations between cognitive nodes through association, referencing, paraphrasing and appropriation. When circulating, the coins linked users to an official and shared discourse, and maintained the created relations through the impact of their materiality. While many re-contextualizing practices in the Viking Age seem to deal with reconnection with the past, the coin-imitation practice apparently worked mainly within a contemporary conceptual framework, although there are components of ‘ancientness’ as well. Object agency and the hybrid, creative, characters of these coins provide starting points for a deeper understanding of the coins’ wider connotations and meanings, as well as for the imitative practice itself.

  • 315.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Introduction: Faith and Ritual Materialised: Coin Finds in Religious Contexts2018In: Divina Moneta: Coins in Religion and Ritual / [ed] Nanouschka Myrberg Burström, Gitte Tarnew Ingvardson, Abingdon: Routledge, 2018, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coins have played an important role in religious and ritual practice ever since they started to be produced. The claim is sustained by numerous sources: coin finds in archaeological contexts,written sources and images. Why people deposit coins is therefore a fundamental question for understanding both the use of the material object and the conceptual framework within which ritual activity occurred.

  • 316.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Jonathan Lindström, Biskopen och korståget 1206. Om krig, kolonisation och Guds man i Norden (Stockholm: Norstedts 2015)2017In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 317.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Linn Eikje Ramberg har disputerat2018In: Svensk numismatisk tidskrift, ISSN 0283-071X, no 1, p. 21-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 318.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Linn Eikje Ramberg har disputerat2018In: Nordisk Numismatisk Unions medlemsblad, ISSN 0025-8539, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 319.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Money, Coins and Archaeology2018In: Money and Coinage in the Middle Ages / [ed] Rory Naismith, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2018, p. 231-263Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter focuses on three themes: conceptions of "money" and "coins" within archaeology, coins as archaeological material, and coins as part of archaeological research history. The argument builds on many illuminating cases and examples from old and recent research within archaeology and numismatics, and theory and method are emphasised.

  • 320.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Shared values: Creative links and hybridity in an Anglo-Scandinavian techno-web2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In present-day Denmark, Norway and Sweden a coinage was initiated about AD 995, which imitated contemporary Anglo-Saxon coins. For more than 30 years the English and Scandinavian coinages were closely connected. Individuals (commissioners, moneyers, artisans) as well as objects (e.g. coin-dies) moved between the mints. Coinage is often perceived of as expressing sovereign rights in a certain area. Instead, the Anglo-Scandinavian coinage network was not limited by realms and borders, but cut across kingdoms from west (England) to east (Byzantium) through Scandinavia and the Southern Baltic. Despite the ongoing “state-formation processes” and competition between the areas, values like artisans and dies were shared within the network.

    The material underlines how “social” technology is; dependent on choices, cooperative skills, talent, capital, etc. The coin images, inscriptions and links offer unique openings for a situated study of a process of change in the past, of different levels and actors in the network, of patterns of movement, and of ideological and historical contexts. Imitations are often depreciated out from our contemporary notions of authenticity. Here, the creative and hybrid character of the material is instead underlined, opening up for a deeper understanding of the wider connotations and meanings of the objects.

  • 321.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Shared Values: Links and hybridity in the Anglo-Scandinavian coin-web2017In: 18th Viking Congress, Denmark, 6–12 August 2017: Abstracts – Papers and Posters, 2017, p. 13-13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In present-day Scandinavia a coinage was initiated about AD 995, which imitated contemporary Anglo-Saxon coins. For more than thirty years the English and Scandinavian coinages were closely connected through a network of humans and objects that moved, physically and conceptually, between mints and kingdoms. Coinage is often seen as articulating sovereign rights in a certain area, but the Anglo-Scandinavian coinage network instead cut across kingdoms from west to east. Despite ongoing state-formation processes, key valuables like artisans and dies were shared in the network, causing change in power relations and conceptions of value.

    Different iconographical models were used in a strategic/rhetorical way by commissioners and artisans to create relations between cognitive nodes through association, referencing, paraphrasing and appropriation. When circulating, the coins linked users to an official and shared discourse, and maintained the created relations through the impact of their materiality. While many re-contextualizing practices in the Viking Age seem to deal with reconnection with the past, the coin-imitation practice apparently worked mainly within a contemporary conceptual framework, although there are components of ‘ancientness’ as well. Die-link studies here provide a source of theoretical inspiration for how to study linear as well as non-linear connections and networks in the past. Through the repetitive practices of coin-making, artefact types experience gradual changes and thus new categories and articulations are created. Object agency and the hybrid character of these coins provide starting points for a deeper understanding of the coins’ wider connotations and meanings, as well as for the imitative practice itself.

  • 322.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Sture Bolin, medeltidsforskare mellan historia och arkeologi2012In: Nordisk Numismatisk Unions medlemsblad, ISSN 0025-8539, no 4, p. 64-69Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles, British Museum Anglo-Saxon Coins. Part I: Early Anglo-Saxon Gold and Anglo-Saxon and Continental Silver Coinage of the North Sea Area, c.600–760 (Vol. 63), by Anna Gannon; Part II: Southern English Coinage from Offa to Alfred, c.760–880 (Vol. 67), by Rory Naismith2018In: English Historical Review, ISSN 0013-8266, E-ISSN 1477-4534, Vol. 133, no 564, p. 1274-1277Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest volume in the series Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles (Vol. 67) deals with the substantial and high-quality collections held by the British Museum. It is here reviewed jointly with the first part dedicated to the same collection (Vol. 63). The two volumes provide an important summary and update on the research on Anglo-Saxon coinage, and make it available and accessible to a general audience, collectors and scholars.

  • 324.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles, Norwegian Collections, Parts I (Vol. 65) and II (Vol. 66), by Elina Screen2017In: English Historical Review, ISSN 0013-8266, E-ISSN 1477-4534, Vol. 132, no 554, p. 102-103Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 325.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    The Chair: Situating knowledge and authority in Viking and Medieval Scandinavia2019In: Tidens landskap: En vänbok till Anders Andrén / [ed] Cecilia Ljung, Anna Andreasson Sjögren, Ingrid Berg, Elin Engström, Ann-Mari Hållans Stenholm, Kristina Jonsson, Alison Klevnäs, Linda Qviström, Torun Zachrisson, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2019, p. 153-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientia potentia est — knowledge is power. Few things embody this sentence better than the chair. We will explore it through an amulet from the Eketorp hoard (Närke, Sweden), deposited in a wetland in the 960s.

  • 326.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    The Hatched Cross: Gotlandic Coins of the 13th century Baltic Sea area2012In: Monetary History of the Baltic in the Middle Ages (12-16th C.) / [ed] Ivar Leimus, Tallinn: Eesti Ajaloomuuseum , 2012, p. 180-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 12th century, some authority on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea started off a coinage, the first ever on Gotland and the first medieval coinage of Sweden as a whole. Quite remarkably, these and any following coins minted on the island never adjusted to the Swedish mainland royal coins in weights or iconography, but seem to have been independently administered even though the island was within Swedish power (for any period when it was not under somebody else’s control). In the 12th century and well into the 13th, Gotlandic coins had a strong impact on certain areas of the mainland, and in the 13th century they were even used as a model for new coinages in the Baltic Sea area. Interestingly, these first Gotlandic coins in several ways show where their inspiration came from, and thus perhaps who or what motivated their coming into being: trading partners and other guests from the southwestern parts of the Baltic and North Sea.

  • 327.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Ingvardson, Gitte Tarnow
    Divina moneta: Coins in Religion and Ritual2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited collection analyses the phenomenon of coin use for religious and ritual purposes in different cultures and across different periods of time. It proposes an engagement with the theory and interpretation of the ‘material turn’ with numismatic evidence, and an evidence-based series of discussions to offer a fuller, richer and fresh account of coin use in ritual contexts. No extensive publication has previously foregrounded coins in such a model, despite the fact that coins constitute an integrated part of the material culture of most societies today and of many in the past. Here, interdisciplinary discussions are organised around three themes: coin deposit and ritual practice, the coin as economic object and divine mediator, and the value and meaning of coin offering. Although focusing on the medieval period in Western Europe, the book includes instructive cases from the Roman period until today. The collection brings together well-established and emerging scholars from archaeology, art history, ethnology, history and numismatics, and great weight is given to material evidence which can complement and contradict the scarce written sources.

  • 328.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Ingvardson, Gitte Tarnow
    Preface2018In: Divina Moneta: Coins in Religion and Ritual / [ed] Nanouschka Myrberg Burström, Gitte Tarnow Ingvardson, Abingdon: Routledge, 2018, p. xvii-xviiiChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Williams, Howard
    University of Chester.
    Chains of citations: Re-contextualization in the Viking Age.2013In: The European Archaeologist, ISSN 1022-0135, no 40, p. 84-88Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For Scandinavia and regions subject to Norse contact and settlement across northern and western Europe, the Viking Age heralded new patterns and processes by which material culture circulated through plunder, trade and exchange, but also through imitation, influence and adaptation. The theme of citation draws upon research into the agency and the social and mnemonic affects of material culture and monuments in instigating social change. Citation provides a useful pivot around which to consider the active reconfiguring and vocation of previous landscapes, monuments and material culture in the creation of new social and religious worlds by Viking-period communities and individuals. There are a number of reasons for adopting the original theme of citation, as an alternative to considering the cultural biography of things, monuments and landscapes, which is otherwise often investigated when approaching the phenomenon of re-contextualization. Citation helps us to think of the active roles of enmeshed networks of people and things in the emergence of creolizing cultures of the Viking Age. This network-based approach has numerous advantages in understanding socio-economic, political and religious change. Through networks linking together the Viking world, citations provided a distinctive medium for social communication, identity-creation and commemoration including how things and places were imitated, adapted, reinvented, depicted, denoted, displayed, combined, fragmented, recycled and/or deposited alongside the biographical emphasis upon curation and reuse. Thus, exploring citational strategies equips archaeologists with the conceptual tools to adequately understand the shifting and not always linear linkages between different artefact types and assemblages in the construction of identities and memories in the Viking world.

  • 330.
    Myrberg, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    A worth of their own: on Gotland in the Baltic Sea, and its 12th-century coinage2010In: Medieval Archaeology, ISSN 0076-6097, E-ISSN 1745-817X, Vol. 54, p. 158-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In about AD 1140, the island of Gotland initiated what was to become one of the most influential coinages of the medieval Baltic Sea area. This was part of a strategy to meet the impact and pressure from the world outside in a period characterised by large-scale political and ideological changes. In this situation, old and new networks were important to maintain autonomy from those aiming for dominance over the island. The coins, with an independent weight standard and an iconography inspired by NW German and Frisian coins, were one way of attracting partners to the island’s main harbour, where its inhabitants could maintain control and trading peace.

    Coins incorporate in them the dimensions of object, text and picture. A historical archaeology of coins needs not only focus on large-scale perspectives and formal power, but must also give weight to the archaeological context, the life biography of the coins and the social negotiations behind their production and use. Thus intention and reality, symbolism and social practice may be studied to find openings to the stories behind the objects. The different dimensions of the coins together with historical sources give away plenty of information on several levels: about the networks, ideological framework, artisanship and changing loyalties of this time and area.

  • 331.
    Myrberg, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    An island in the middle of an island: On cult, laws and authority in Viking Age Gotland2009In: From Ephesos to Dalecarlia: Reflections on body, space and time in medieval and early modern Europe, Stockholm: Statens historiska museum , 2009, p. 101-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present-day small village of Roma on Gotland in the Baltic Sea was the physical and symbolic centre of the island in the Iron Age and into Medieval times. The Cistercian monastery and the meeting place of the island’s assembly, the All-thing, two well-known features of medieval Roma, have often been taken as indications of an egalitarian and non-stratified society on Gotland during the Viking Age and Middle Ages. It is here proposed, however, that an older Iron Age cult site at Roma eventually came under the control of a chieftain or major landowner who introduced Christianity, founded a monastery and inaugurated the thing in Roma in Viking or early medieval times, just as his equals did elsewhere in Scandinavia. While the later medieval thing was probably located near the monastery, an alternative site on a small island is suggested for the older All-thing.

  • 332.
    Myrberg, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Botulf - helgon eller frifräsare?2010In: Gotländskt Arkiv, ISSN 0434-2429, Vol. 82, p. 34-45Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Botulf – Saint or Free Mover? (summary)

    “For Botulf ”. A cryptic inscription on a series of Gotlandic coins from c. 1210 is discussed in this article in relation to different types of references to the name Botulf on Gotland. Gravestones, farmsteads, mural paintings, toll lists and numismatic evidence all provide clues as to what or whom the inscription may be alluding to. Was Botulf, the English saint, popular on Gotland to the point of having dedication coins minted in his honour? Or was Botulf, the Gotlandic tradesman, taking advantage of a temporary change of powers on the island to gain a reputation for himself? Enigmatic and fortified Västergarn on Gotland’s west coast, the German Bishop Albert’s Riga, and the Hanseatic Steelyard of London all play roles in the story of Botulf of Gotland.

  • 333.
    Myrberg, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Det gotländska myntet från Bårarp2008In: Nordisk numismatisk unions medlemsblad, ISSN 0025-8539, no 1, p. 30-36Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 1932 gjordes ett mynt fynd i Bårarp, Halland, som kunde dateras till ca 1153-55 (mynt från Svend Grate) (Jensen 1983). Med utgångspunkt från detta fynd kunde en serie gotländska 1100-talsmynt 25 år senare tidfästas vilket blev en viktig hållpunkt i arbetet med den gotlåndksa myntningen.

  • 334.
    Myrberg, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    PAX PORTA NY: Gotländsk uttolkning av ett fridskoncept2009In: Samlad Glädje II: Numismatiska Klubben i Uppsala 40 år / [ed] Ekström, Curt & Holmberg, Kjell, Uppsala: Numismatiska klubben i Uppsala , 2009, p. 149-154Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In about 1140 AD, the island of Gotland, off the Swedish coast, initiated what was to become one of the most influential coinages of the medieval Baltic Sea Area. One of the types minted was inscribed PAX PORTA NY. The paper argues that these coins were part of a strategy adopted by the Gotlanders in the 1160s, to proclaim peace in the town of Visby and to direct their international partners to where control and trading peace could be maintained. The different dimensions of the coins (object, text and picture) give away plenty of information on several levels when combined with historical sources, and tell us about the networks, ideological framework, artisanship, and changing loyalties of this time and area.

  • 335.
    Myrberg, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Room for all? Spaces and places for thing assemblies: the case of the All-thing on Gotland, Sweden2008In: Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, ISSN 1782-7183, E-ISSN 2030-9902, Vol. 4, p. 133-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roma on Gotland in the Baltic Sea was an important place at the physical and symbolic centre of Iron-Age and Medieval Gotland. Roma has two particularly well-known historical features: the Cistercian monastery and the gathering-place of the Gotlandic all-thing. This article will consider the nature of the place, the foundation of the monastery, and the character of the thing, and will point to an alternative site for the all-thing. It will be suggested that an older Iron-Age cult site came under the control of a chieftain in the later Iron Age, and that in the Viking and early medieval phases a major landowner or chieftain/petty king may have introduced Christianity, established connections with the continental Church, founded a monastery and inaugurated a thing-place in Roma, just as his equals did in other areas of Scandinavia. The monastery and the all-thing have in the past been thought to indicate the existence of a particularly egalitarian and non-stratified society on Gotland in the Viking Age and Middle Ages. I propose that this was not the case. Through historical circumstance, Gotland never developed a noble class as on the mainland; this however does not mean there were not Viking-Age or early medieval lords with such aspirations.

  • 336.
    Myrberg, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    The colour of money: crusaders and coins in the thirteenth-century Baltic Sea 2010In: Making sense of things: archaeologies of sensory perception / [ed] Fredrik Fahlander & Anna Kjellström, Stockholm: Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies , 2010, 1, p. 83-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how colour was perceived differently in the European Middle Ages and carried significance beyond what we ascribe it today. It also considers how the various colours worked as important carriers of values and concepts in this context, where pigments were rare and expensive.

    A way to access the medieval understanding of colour is through heraldry and its colours, the tinctures, which combine hard and soft materials, even and three-dimensional surfaces, in a way that evades present-day definitions of colour. Medieval people used their senses in a cross-modal way to perceive colour and connect it to an intricate world of symbolism and values. To them, it is argued, colour was a texture just as much as a hue.

    The aim of the paper is to investigate this relationship between colour, ideas and materiality, filtered through the senses, and made manifest in a group of thirteenth-century Scandinavian coins. Were coins actually perceived as coloured?

  • 337.
    Myrberg, Nanouschka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    The social identity of coin hoards: An example of theory and practice in the space between numismatics and archaeology2009In: Coins in context I: New perspectives for the interpretation of coin finds / [ed] von Kaenel, H-M. & Kemmers, F., Mainz: Philipp von Zabern , 2009, p. 157-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver coin hoarding is a distinct feature of the Viking Age in some northern European areas, and these hoards convey much information about coin types and chronologies to numismatists. However, there is still no explanation of the custom itself. I argue that hoards should be considered in terms of social categories or genders as a means to understand the specific reasons behind their deposition. This contribution provides examples of this approach through contextualizing hoards and their contents.

    I also propose some theoretical premises regarding the role of numismatics in the space between archaeology, history, economic history and art history. Numismatics as a discipline must develop an explicit research agenda of its own in order to benefit equally from the numismatist's knowledge of a coin's primary context (origin), as well as secondary (use and reuse) and tertiary contexts (deposition). Coins do not belong to one single context; neither the one of primary interest to the historian, nor just that which the archaeologist encounters. A numismatic approach sensitive to all contexts opens a wealth of information in terms of the life biography of objects, social relationships, and the routines and cognitive patterns of the society which produced, used and deposited coins.

  • 338.
    Myrberg, Nanouschka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Kemmers, Fleur
    JW Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main.
    Re-thinking numismatics: The archaeology of coins2011In: Archaeological Dialogues, ISSN 1380-2038, E-ISSN 1478-2294, no 2, p. 87-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets out to re-member coins into archaeological discourse. It is argued that coins, as part of material culture, need to be examined within the theoretical framework of historical archaeology and material-culture studies. Through several case studies we demonstrate how coins, through their integration of text, image and existence as material objects, offer profound insights not only into matters of economy and the ‘big history’ of issuers and state organization but also into ‘small histories’, cultural values and the agency of humans and objects. In the formative period of archaeology in the 19th century the study of coins played an important role in the development of new methods and concepts. Today, numismatics is viewed as a field apart. The mutual benefits of our approach to the fields of archaeology and numismatics highlight the need for a new and constructive dialogue between the disciplines.

  • 339.
    Odelman, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, Classical Languages. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    En bukett från kyrkofädernas trädgård: en medeltida latinsk text om der himmelska fäderneslandets beskaffenhet2008In: Signum, ISSN 0347-0423, no 9, p. 37-42Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Odelman, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, Classical Languages. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Glossarium till medeltidslatinet i Sverige = Glossarium mediae latinitatis Sueciae: Supplement, a-Zweuicus 2009Book (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Oen, Maria H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    A Companion to Birgitta of Sweden and Her Legacy in the Later Middle Ages2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    St Birgitta of Sweden (d. 1373) is one of the most celebrated female visionaries and authors of the Middle Ages and a central figure in the history of late-medieval religion. An aristocratic widow, Birgitta left her native country in 1349 and settled in Rome, where she established herself as an outspoken critic of the Avignon Papacy and an advocate of spiritual and ecclesiastical reform. Birgitta founded a new monastic order, and her major work, The Heavenly Book of Revelations, circulated widely in a variety of monastic, reformist, and intellectual milieus following her death. This volume offers an introduction to the saint and the reception of her work written by experts from various disciplines. In addition to acquainting the reader with the state of the scholarship, the study also presents fresh interpretations and new perspectives on Birgitta and the sources for her life and writings.

  • 342.
    Oen, Maria H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Ambivalent Images of Authorship2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the question of Birgitta’s and Catherine’s status as authors and examines the visual representations of the two women, notably in the context of the books containing their texts. In the images of the two women found in the illuminated manuscripts, which began circulating just after their deaths in 1373 and 1380 respectively, and in the early printed copies dating to around 1500, Birgitta is generally represented with a pen in her hand, whereas Catherine is never depicted in the act of writing. This visual material emerges as a paradox when compared to the way the two women are presented in the texts. In the Revelations, Birgitta claims to be a medium and not an author, and she generally refers to herself in third person, or simply as “a person.” Catherine, by contrast, is constantly present in the first person in her letters which frequently open with “I, Catherine, write to you.” By focusing on the tension between the images of the two women and the way they are presented in their respective texts, this chapter will explore the role of the visual in shaping the notions of Birgitta and Catherine as female authors in a time when female authority was still highly controversial. The conflicting representations of their authorial role will also be connected to contemporary debates about their sanctity, where questions concerning human and divine authorship as well as ecclesiastical mediation and approval of the texts of these lay visionaries were of paramount importance. 

  • 343.
    Oen, Maria H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Iconography and Visions: St. Birgitta’s Revelation of the Nativity of Christ2018In: The Locus of Meaning in Medieval Art: Iconography, Iconology, and Interpreting the Visual Imagery of the Middle Ages / [ed] Lena Eva Liepe, Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Oen, Maria H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Introduction: Birgitta Birgersdotter and the Liber celestis revelacionum2019In: A Companion to Birgitta of Sweden and Her Legacy in the Later Middle Ages / [ed] Maria H. Oen, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 1-24Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 345.
    Oen, Maria H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Jerusalem and the Authority of Birgitta of Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 346.
    Oen, Maria H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Rome and the Sanctity of Saint Birgitta2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A year before the Jubilee of 1350, the Swedish noblewoman Birgitta Birgersdotter left her home country for Rome never to return. After having become a widow in her mid-forties, Birgitta had converted to a religious life. The past three years before setting off on her Roman pilgrimage, she had been a lay affiliate of the Cistercian monastery of Alvastra, where she had gained the support of the prior Petrus Olavi. In this paper I shall argue that the city of Rome plays a significant role, both for Birgitta and for Prior Peter, who among others would later campaign for her sanctity, in transforming her from a mulier religiosainto a mulier sancta. It was during the period of more than two decades that Birgitta’s lived in Rome that the Liber coelestis Revelacionum, which would soon represent her primary claim to sanctity,took shape. By analysing the Revelacionesand the proceedings from Birgitta’s canonization process, initiated in Italy immediately after her death in Rome in 1373, I shall demonstrate that the sacred topography of the city, its concrete buildings, relics and artworks, not only provides the contents, protagonists and the mise-en-scène of a number of Birgitta’s visions, but her physical presence at the specific Roman shrines is also employed by her supporters as an effective argument in favour of her sanctity.

  • 347.
    Oen, Maria H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies. University of Oslo, Norway.
    The Authority of Birgitta’s Heavenly Revelations: The Image of the Saint and Her Work in Quattrocento Manuscripts2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 348.
    Oen, Maria H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    The Iconography of Birgitta in Liber celestis revelacionum2019In: A Companion to Birgitta of Sweden and Her Legacy in the Later Middle Ages / [ed] Maria H. Oen, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 186-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 349.
    Oen, Maria H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    The Iconography of Birgitta of Sweden: Author, Prophet, and Saint2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the reputed author of Liber celestis revelacionum, an eight-volume literary corpus with a highly political content, Birgitta Birgersdotter stands out among the many laywomen who were venerated as saints in the later Middle Ages. In the canonization process, initiated immediately after her death in Rome in 1373, Birgitta’s assumed role as a divinely appointed prophet formed her primary claim to sainthood, and the textual work served as the principal evidence. The oldest extant images of Birgitta all derive from the first years of the canonization process when panel paintings and illuminations decorating the manuscripts containing the Liber celestiswere produced in Naples. Highly original iconographical formulas were developed for the two media respectively, most likely under the direct supervision of Birgitta’s confessors who had assisted her in the production and dissemination of her revelations. 

    This paper will explore the form and purpose of the iconography developed for the promotion of Birgitta’s sanctity. Special attention will be given to the visual strategies by which the images seeks to negotiate her role as an outspoken public figure, an author, and an active political agent in a time when women were prohibited from instructing men in public, in both speech and text. The paper will also examine how the meaning of the original iconography of Birgitta developed as it spread from one medium to another, and in various social, religious, and linguistic contexts in Europe after the visionary had been elevated to sainthood only 18 years after her death.

  • 350.
    Oen, Maria H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    The Iconography of the Revelations2018Conference paper (Refereed)
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