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  • 301. Crawford, Jarret T.
    et al.
    Duarte, Jose L.
    Haidt, Jonathan
    Jussim, Lee
    Stern, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Tetlock, Philip E.
    It may be harder than we thought, but political diversity will (still) improve social psychological science2015In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 38, article id e164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our target article, we made four claims: (1) Social psychology is now politically homogeneous; (2) this homogeneity sometimes harms the science; (3) increasing political diversity would reduce this damage; and (4) some portion of the homogeneity is due to a hostile climate and outright discrimination against non-liberals. In this response, we review these claims in light of the arguments made by a diverse group of commentators. We were surprised to find near-universal agreement with our first two claims, and we note that few challenged our fourth claim. Most of the disagreements came in response to our claim that increasing political diversity would be beneficial. We agree with our critics that increasing political diversity may be harder than we had thought, but we explain why we still believe that it is possible and desirable to do so. We conclude with a revised list of 12 recommendations for improving political diversity in social psychology, as well as in other areas of the academy.

  • 302.
    Dadgar, Iman
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Short-term and long-term effects of GDP on traffic deaths in 18 OECD countries, 1960-20112017In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 146-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Research suggests that increases in gross domestic product (GDP) lead to increases in traffic deaths plausibly due to the increased road traffic induced by an expanding economy. However, there also seems to exist a long-term effect of economic growth that is manifested in improved traffic safety and reduced rates of traffic deaths. Previous studies focus on either the short-term, procyclical effect, or the long-term, protective effect. The aim of the present study is to estimate the short-term and long-term effects jointly in order to assess the net impact of GDP on traffic mortality. Methods We extracted traffic death rates for the period 1960-2011 from the WHO Mortality Database for 18 OECD countries. Data on GDP/capita were obtained from the Maddison Project. We performed error correction modelling to estimate the short-term and long-term effects of GDP on the traffic death rates. Results The estimates from the error correction modelling for the entire study period suggested that a one-unit increase (US$1000) in GDP/capita yields an instantaneous short-term increase in the traffic death rate by 0.58 (p<0.001), and a long-term decrease equal to -1.59 (p<0.001). However, period-specific analyses revealed a structural break implying that the procyclical effect outweighs the protective effect in the period prior to 1976, whereas the reverse is true for the period 1976-2011. Conclusions An increase in GDP leads to an immediate increase in traffic deaths. However, after the mid-1970s this short-term effect is more than outweighed by a markedly stronger protective long-term effect, whereas the reverse is true for the period before the mid-1970s.

  • 303. Dahl, Gordon B.
    et al.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Does integration change gender attitudes? The effect of randomly assigning women to traditionally male teams2018Report (Other academic)
  • 304. Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Edmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Berg, Heléne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Revisiting the Relationship between Ethnic Diversity and Preferences for Redistribution: Reply2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 288-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we respond to the comments raised by Nekby and Pettersson-Lidbom on our paper Dahlberg et al. (2012, Journal of Political Economy 120, 41-76). We argue that our estimates are internally valid, but we acknowledge that the external validity could have been discussed more thoroughly.

  • 305. Dal Bó, Ernesto
    et al.
    Finan, Frederico
    Folke, Olle
    Persson, Torsten
    Rickne, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kompetens och klassbakgrund bland svenska politiker2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 5-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie kartlägger kompetens och klassbakgrund bland svenska politiker. Kartläggningen täcker alla kommunal- och riksdagsval under de senaste 30 åren. Vi mäter kompetens genom prestationer på militära mönstringsprov och politikerns framgångar på den privata arbetsmarknaden. Vi mäter klassbakgrund genom inkomster och yrken hos politikerns föräldrar. Kartläggningen visar att politiker på både kommun- och riksnivå är mer kompetenta än befolkningen i övrigt. Samtidigt rekryterar politiska partier medborgare med olika klassbakgrund, vilket gör att politikerkåren som helhet nära återspeglar befolkningens sammansättning. Vi kallar kombinationen av hög kompetens och god social representation för ”meritokratiskt folkstyre”. Artikeln resonerar också kring faktorer som bidrar till detta rekryteringsmönster.

  • 306. Dal Bó, Ernesto
    et al.
    Finan, Frederico
    Folke, Olle
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Rickne, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Uppsala University, Sweden; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Who Becomes A Politician?2017In: Quarterly Journal of Economics, ISSN 0033-5533, E-ISSN 1531-4650, Vol. 132, no 4, p. 1877-1914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can a democracy attract competent leaders, while attaining broad representation? Economicmodels suggest that free-riding incentives and lower opportunity costs give the less competent a comparative advantage at entering political life. Moreover, if elites have more human capital, selecting on competence may lead to uneven representation. This article examines patterns of political selection among the universe of municipal politicians and national legislators in Sweden, using extraordinarily rich data on competence traits and social background for the entire population. We document four new facts that together characterize an inclusive meritocracy. First, politicians are on average significantly smarter and better leaders than the population they represent. Second, this positive selection is present even when conditioning on family (and hence social) background, suggesting that individual competence is key for selection. Third, the representation of social background, whether measured by parental earnings or occupational social class, is remarkably even. Fourth, there is at best a weak trade-off in selection between competence and social representation, mainly due to strong positive selection of politicians of low (parental) socioeconomic status. A broad implication of these facts is that it is possible for democracy to generate competent and socially representative leadership.

  • 307. D'Ambrosio, Conchita
    et al.
    Frick, Joachim R.
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Satisfaction with life and economic well-being: Evidence from Germany2009In: Schmollers Jahrbuch (Journal of Applied Social Science Studies), ISSN 1439-121X, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 283-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between an individual's economic well-being and satisfaction with own life has been the focus of many studies both within and across countries, in one period of time and over time. As a proxy of economic well-being household income both adjusted and unadjusted for household needs has been generally used. The aim of the present paper is to propose a more comprehensive measure of well-being considering the role that wealth and permanent income play in simultaneously determining satisfaction with life. The results, based on representative microdata from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), suggest that both income and wealth increase satisfaction, that long-run income is more appropriate than short-term income and that satisfaction with life is particularly high for those who are at the top of both the income and wealth distributions.

  • 308. De Grip, Andries
    et al.
    Sauermann, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Maastricht University, Netherlands; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Germany.
    Sieben, Inge
    The Role of Peers in Estimating Tenure-Performance Profiles: Evidence from Personnel Data2016In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 126, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how newly hired workers learn on the job and the extent to which this learning is affected by their co-workers’ tenure. We estimate tenure-performance profiles using weekly panel data on individual workers’ performance. The results show a performance increase of 64% in the first year of the employment. We show that, during the first three months, workers placed in teams with more experienced peers have significantly steeper tenure-performance profiles than those employed in teams with less experienced peers. Our results suggest that placing new workers in more experienced teams reduces the time new hires need to become equally productive as an experienced worker by 36%, compared to being placed in less experienced teams.

  • 309. De Luna, Xavier
    et al.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Can Adult Education Delay Retirement from the Labour Market?2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have suggested that education is associated with later retirement from the labour market. In this paper, we examine whether adult education, involving enrolees aged 42 or above, delays retirement to potentially increase labour force participation among the elderly. With Swedish register data of transcripts from adult education and annual earnings, which encompasses 1979-2004 and 1982-2004 respectively, we exploit the fact that adult education is a large-scale phenomenon in Sweden and construct a measure of the timing of the transition from being self-supported by productive work to being supported by pension transfers. We match samples of treated and controls on the propensity score and use non-parametric estimation of survival rates. The results indicate that adult education has no effect on the timing of the retirement from the labour force. This can be contrasted with the fact that adult education is one of the cornerstones of the OECD strategy for “active ageing” and the European Union’s “Lisbon strategy” for growth and jobs.

  • 310.
    Doctrinal, Laure
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fredriksson, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sirén, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Inventory on core social policy databases and indicators for comparative research: Deliverable 22.12017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This InGRID deliverable is part of Work Package 22 on ‘Innovative solutions for comparative policy indicators and analysis'. The purpose is to provide an inventory of core social policy databases and indicators for comparative research. We map 26 databases and infrastructures that fruitfully can be used in comparative research to analyse the causes and consequences of social policy. Each database is compared according to a set of characteristics, including type of data (expenditures, institutional indicators, beneficiary statistics, socio-economic/income surveys, microsimulation), policy areas included (cash benefits: family benefits, unemployment benefits, sickness benefits, pensions, work-accidents, social assistance, and disability/invalidity/survivors benefits; publicservices: child care, health care, elder care, and active labour market policy), countries and years covered, as well as interval for updating of data. Nearly all databases specialise on distinct parts of social policy, and data on cash benefits are some what more frequent than data on public services, particularly when institutional indicators are in focus. Compared with data on social expenditures and beneficiaries, institutional indicators are based on social policy legislation and thus independent of changes in social needs and population characteristics.

  • 311.
    Doctrinal, Laure
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sirén, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Comprehensive Indicators for the Analysis of Out-of-Work Benefits: Introducing the Out-of-Work Benefits Dataset2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this InGRID deliverable we develop a new approach to the measurement of income replacement in out-of-work benefits. We present the Out-of-Work Benefits (OUTWB) dataset, which is part of the SPIN database at the Swedish institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University. The OUTWB dataset includes new synthesise d measures on overall net replacement rates and progres-siveness of income replacement in out-of-work benefits. Our synthesised measures of income replacement are based on data from the OECD Benefits and Wages project

  • 312. Dohmen, Thomas
    et al.
    Sauermann, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Referee Bias2016In: Journal of economic surveys (Print), ISSN 0950-0804, E-ISSN 1467-6419, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 679-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper surveys the empirical literature on the behavior of referees in professionalfootball and other sports. Referees are typically appointed by a principal to be impartial, especiallywhen unbiased referee judgment is vital for the accomplishment of the principal’s objective.Answering whether referees make biased decisions and understanding the causes that lead refereesto digress from their principal duty of impartiality is therefore fundamental from a theoretical pointof view. At the same time, assessing the prevalence and origin of referee bias is germane to variousdomains of life. Referee bias is particularly relevant in sports, where partial decision-making candetermine competition outcomes, which can have strong repercussions on athletes’ careers andsupporters’ well-being.

  • 313. Dreber, A.
    et al.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gränsmark, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Little, A. C.
    Facial masculinity predicts risk and time preferences in expert chess players2013In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 20, no 16, p. 1477-1480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine the relationship between risk-taking, impatience and facial masculinity in expert chess players. We combine a large panel data set from high-level chess games with measures of both risk-taking and impatience in chess with facial masculinity, a proxy for testosterone exposure in puberty. We find that male players with high pubertal testosterone exposure are more impatient by playing shorter chess games. For female players, we find that facial masculinity is negatively correlated with risk-taking.

  • 314. Dreber, Anna
    et al.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gränsmark, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Beauty queens and battling knights: Risk taking and attractiveness in chess2013In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 90, no June, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the relationship between attractiveness and risk taking in chess. We use a large international panel dataset on high-level chess competitions which includes a control for the players’ skill in chess. This data is combined with results from a survey on an online labor market where participants were asked to rate the photos of 626 expert chess players according to attractiveness. Our results suggest that male chess players choose significantly riskier strategies when playing against an attractive female opponent, even though this does not improve their performance. Women's strategies are not affected by the attractiveness of the opponent.

  • 315.
    Dryler, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Educational Choice in Sweden: Studies on the Importance of Gender and Social Contexts1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis comprises four empirical studies dealing with different aspects of educational choice in Sweden. Two studies focus on the hierarchical outcome, namely level of education. The other two are concerned with the horizontal outcome field of study. Large-scale quantitative data from surveys and registers were used to examine the influence of gender, family of origin, and other social contexts on individuals' educational choice.>P> In paper I, Childhood Conditions and Educational Careers two general questions are addressed: 1) To what extent can differences in childhood conditions account for the fact that children from various social class origins choose academic upper secondary school programmes to such differing degrees? 2) Which changes in educational attainment during this century have resulted from the effects of class background and other childhood conditions? Regarding the first question, the parents' level of education, as an indicator of the teaching and cultural environment in the home, proved to be the most important childhood condition in accounting for class differences. Financial difficulties during childhood were less important in comparison. Regarding the second question the results showed that the influence of the parents' social class and educational level, and the number of siblings (as a partial indicator of financial difficulties) were weaker for younger cohorts (1930-1949 and 1950-1973) than for older ones (1892-1929). However, the effects of several childhood conditions examined had not decreased.

    Starting in the late sixties Sweden experienced an extensive geographical dispersion of university and college education. Whether these new establishments have had any reducing effect on the social selection into higher education is evaluated in paper II, The Establishment of New Institutes of Higher Education: A Means of Reducing Educational Inequality? The results clearly give a negative answer. The interpretation is that 1) people from different social backgrounds do not differ in their sensitivity to geographical distance to university sites, and 2) the new colleges and universities have not been established in regions with a high proportion of disadvantaged social classes (working classes for example), nor have they managed, on the whole, to increase the number of students from the newly established university and college regions in relation to the rest of the country.

    Can family background account for intra-gender differences in the heavily gender-typed choice of study field? Paper III, Parental Role Models, Gender, and Educational Choice, describes several relationships on this topic from a socialization perspective where parents are regarded as role models for their children. It was found that the parents' educational as well as occupational sector increased the likelihood of both boys and girls choosing a similar field of study (vocational and academic programmes in upper secondary school), and that both the mother's and the father's occupation and education were important in this respect. This so- called same-sector effect was somewhat stronger for fathers and sons, while no such same-sex influence was confirmed for girls. Further, a "high" social origin ( measured by class and level of education - was positively associated with gender-atypical choices.

    In paper IV, A Multilevel Approach to Gender-Typical and Gender-Atypical Educational Choices: Do Schools and Classrooms Matter? the questions asked in the third paper were extended to include any influences from social contexts above the level of the family, more specifically, classrooms and schools. Logistic multilevel models were used to show significant school and classroom variations in the choice of study field. However, the contextual characteristics that were used in an attempt to account for these (mainly aggregate variables based on pupil characteristics) left the variances unchanged to the greatest extent. For example, the girl/boy ratio in the classroom does not seem to influence gender-typical or gender-atypical educational choices. One classroom effect showed a systematic influence however: the better classmates performed in mathematics and natural science subjects, the lower the propensity to choose the engineering programme, and further, the better classmates performed in language and social sciences subjects, the less probability that a girl or a boy would choose the humanities/social sciences programme.

  • 316. Duarte, Jose L.
    et al.
    Crawford, Jarret T.
    Stern, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Haidt, Jonathan
    Jussim, Lee
    Tetlock, Philip E.
    Political diversity will improve social psychological science2015In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 38, article id e130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity - particularly diversity of viewpoints - for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  • 317.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Couples in Sweden: studies on family and work2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contains four separate studies that in various ways focus on family and work in Sweden. The studies address different dimensions of how family and work are connected, which is increasingly important as most men and women today participate in both spheres. All studies are studies of couples, which is useful as a large part of the interplay between work and family takes place in couples. An introductory essay discusses the findings.

    The transition from cohabitation to marriage. A longitudinal study of the propensity to marry in Sweden in the early 1990s. In Sweden cohabitation is the norm before marriage, and it is in many ways equal to marriage. By investigating the transition from cohabitation to marriage this study seeks to clarify how those who marry differ from those who do not. The study uses the Swedish Family Survey of 1992 together with register data of marriages and births for the following two years. Information on partners' attitudes and marriage plans is obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. The risk of marriage for women who were cohabiting at the time of interview is analyzed with event history analysis. The results show that life course stage, economic gains in marriage, and family socialization predict whether cohabiting women will turn their unions into marriages. In addition, attitudes toward leisure and parenthood influence marriage propensities. Marriage plans explain some, but not all of those effects.

    Do country-specific skills lead to improved labor market positions? An analysis of unemployment and labor market returns to education among immigrants in Sweden. The gap in labor market rewards between immigrants and the native-born is sometimes explained with reference to immigrants' lack of country-specific skills. This study investigates whether speaking and understanding Swedish well, having an education obtained in Sweden and living with a Swedish partner improve immigrants' positions in the labor market. The findings show that these characteristics do not substantially reduce the risk of unemployment, and the risk remains clearly above the level of native-born Swedes. However, employed immigrants with a Swedish education and very good language skills are not more likely than Swedes to be educationally over-qualified for their job. In sum, country-specific skills are helpful in the process of reward attainment, but do not go all the way in accounting for the labor market disadvantage of immigrants. The residual may be due to discrimination.

    Family division of childcare and the sharing of parental leave among new parents in Sweden. This paper uses register data on days of parental-leave used by mothers and fathers of Swedish children born in 1994, including information on earnings of mothers and fathers, to analyze the determinants of fathers' participation in child care. In 1994 parents were entitled to 15 months of parental leave of which 12 months were compensated at 90 percent of prior earnings. Our major finding is that while both fathers' and mothers' earnings had positive effects on fathers' leave use, smaller at higher earnings, fathers' earnings had a greater impact than mothers'. Fathers used more leave if they or the mother had more schooling and if they were established in the labor market, but used less leave if the mother was established in the labor market.

    Marriage choice and earnings. A study of how spouses' relative resources influence their income development. This study investigates how spouses in dual earner couples influence each other's labor market careers. This is done by analyzing the influence of spouses' relative resources on the income development of wives and husbands. Resourcesare measured by kind of education, educational level, age and income. The most consistent finding is that homogamy of kind of education influences both men's and women's income development positively. Furthermore, at low levels of resources, both men and women credit from having a spouse with higher levels of resources. Men with high levels of resources credit from having a spouse with lower levels of resources, and women at high levels of resources credit from having a spouse with the same level of resources.

  • 318. Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Thalberg, Sara
    Towards a new family-policy model2008In: Framtider: The Swedish Model, International edition, p. 18-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 319.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Marie, Evertsson
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Föräldraledighet och arbetlivskarriär. En studie av mammors olika vägar i arbetslivet2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 320. Dølvik, Jon-Erik
    et al.
    Herzfeld Olsson, Petra
    Malmberg, Jonas
    Sjödin, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    EU och gränsöverskridande arbete – mer än bara utstationering 2016In: Sui Generis - Festskrift til Stein Evju / [ed] Bernard Johann Mulder, Marianne Jenum Hotvedt, Marie Nesvik, Tron Løkken Sundet, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2016, p. 129-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 321.
    Edmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Location choices of Swedish independent schools – how does allowing for private provision affect the geography of the education market?2018Report (Other academic)
  • 322.
    Edmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Location choices of Swedish independent schools – how does allowing for private provision affect the geography of the education market?2018Report (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Edmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Skolval och friskolor – är det ett bra recept för att förbättra skolan?2017In: Nationalekonomins frågor, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2017, p. 221-242Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Edmark, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Liang, Che-Yuan
    Mörk, Eva
    Selin, Håkan
    The Swedish Earned Income Tax Credit: Did It Increase Employment?2016In: Finanzarchiv, ISSN 0015-2218, E-ISSN 1614-0974, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 475-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the extensive-margin labor-supply effects of a Swedish earned income tax credit introduced in 2007. The reform was one of the government’s flagship reforms to boost employment, but its actual effects have been widely debated. We exploit the fact that the size of the tax credit is a function of the municipality of residence and income if working, which yields two sources of quasi-experimental variation. The identifying variation, however, turns out to be small and potentially endogenous, which means that the question of whether the reform has delivered the hoped-for effects cannot be credibly answered.

  • 325. Egebark, Johan
    et al.
    Kaunitz, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Payroll taxes and youth labor demand2018In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 55, p. 163-177Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 326. Ekberg, John
    et al.
    Eriksson, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Friebel, Guido
    Parental leave: a policy evaluation of the Swedish "Daddy-month reform"2013In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, no 97, p. 131-143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 327.
    Eklund, Ronnie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Sjödin, ErikStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Rättsfallssamling i arbetsrätt2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 328.
    Engeman, Cassandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Time for care: A history of state leave legislation in the United States2018Report (Other academic)
  • 329. Englund, Peter
    et al.
    Becker, Bo
    Becker, Torbjörn
    Bos, Marieke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wissén, Pehr
    Den svenska skulden2015Report (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Englund, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Skuldsaneringslagen ur ett gäldenärsperspektiv2000Report (Other academic)
  • 331. Engström, Per
    et al.
    Hägglund, Pathric
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). The Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate (ISF), Sweden.
    Johansson, Per
    Early Interventions and Disability Insurance: Experience from a Field Experiment2017In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 127, p. 363-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effects of early assessments of an individual's need for vocational rehabilitation in the Swedish sickness insurance system using a field experiment. One of the interventions increases the flow to disability benefits by 20%. The effect is larger for unemployed individuals, who also are covered by the sickness insurance scheme. This result is in line with a theoretical model with moral hazard and asymmetric information in which individuals with low work incentives communicate worse health in response to the assessment for rehabilitation which then increases the hazard to disability benefits.

  • 332.
    Engzell, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Second Generation Success: What Do Positively Selected, Low-Status Immigrants Transmit to their Children?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Engzell, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    What Do Books in the Home Proxy For?: A Cautionary TaleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of work in the social sciences relies on proxy variables to capture the influence of an unobserved regressor. Assuming that measurement error is well approximated by a classical model implying bias toward the null, proxies that explain a larger amount of variance in the regression are routinely preferred. I show how this reasoning can mislead, examining a widely used predictor of student achievement: the self-reported number of books at home. Underreporting by low achievers and endogeneity of parental inputs both contribute an upward bias, large enough to overturn the classical attenuation result and lead to spurious inferences. The findings serve as a caution against overreliance on standard assumptions and cast doubt on predictive power as a criterion for proxy selection. 

  • 334.
    Engzell, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    What Do Books in the Home Proxy For?: A Cautionary Tale2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of work in the social sciences relies on proxy variables to capture the influence of an unobserved regressor. Assuming that measurement error is well approximated by a classical model implying bias toward the null, proxies that explain a larger amount of variance in the regression are routinely preferred. I show how this reasoning can mislead, examining a widely used predictor of student achievement: the self-reported number of books at home. Underreporting by low achievers and endogeneity of parental inputs both contribute an upward bias, large enough to overturn the classical attenuation result and lead to spurious inferences. The findings serve as a caution against overreliance on standard assumptions and cast doubton predictive power as a criterion for proxy selection.

  • 335.
    Engzell, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ichou, Mathieu
    Unto a Better Land?: Immigrant Selectivity, Transnational Status Loss, and Subjective Economic Well-BeingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is mounting interest in immigrant “selectivity”—how migrants differ from non-migrants— and how this might impact their host country assimilation. The authors argue that observed selection as proxied by education level is largely explained by access to social and economic resources in the source country, and discuss implications of this proposition. In particular, much of the “drive” or “optimism” commonly attributed to immigrant minorities may stem not so much from self-selection on innate traits—a frequent speculation—as from a desire to recuperate social status held prior to migration. To assess this possibility, an empirical analysis taps the subjective economic well-being of over 5,000 immigrants from 140 national origins in 20 destination countries using European Social Survey data. As predicted, those higher educated by origin country than host country standards make more dismal assessments of their current social status and financial situation than do other immigrants in otherwise similar circumstances.

  • 336.
    Engzell, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). University of Oxford, England .
    Estimating Social and Ethnic Inequality in School Surveys: biases from Child Misreporting and Parent Nonresponse2015In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 312-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the biases that arise in estimates of social inequalities in children's cognitive ability test scores due to (i) children's misreporting of socio-economic origin and (ii) parents' nonresponse. Unlike most previous studies, we are able to draw on linked register data with high reliability and almost no missingness and thereby jointly consider the impact of measurement error and nonresponse. Using data on 14-year-olds (n = 18,716) from a new survey conducted in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden (Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries), we find that child reports on parental occupation are well aligned with parents' reports in all countries, but reports on parental education less so. This leads to underestimation of socio-economic disparities when child reports of education are used, but not occupation. Selective nonresponse among parents turns out to be a real problem, resulting in similar underestimation. We also investigate conditional estimates of immigrant-non-immigrant disparities, which are surprisingly little affected by measurement error or nonresponse in socio-economic control variables. We conclude that school-based surveys on teenagers are well advised to include questions on parental occupation, while the costs for carrying out parental questionnaires may outweigh the gains.

  • 337.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Affluence, Happiness, Meaningfulness or Freedom of Action? On Measuring Quality of Life to Assess Societal Development2018In: Nova Acta Leopoldina, ISSN 0369-5034, Vol. 417, p. 127-142Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Den sociala selektionen till högre utbildning - restriktioner och val2010In: Lärande Skola Bildning / [ed] Ulf P. Lundgren, Roger Säljö, Caroline Liberg, Stockholm: Natur och Kultur , 2010, p. 365-394Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 339.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Educational institutions and social selection in education2013In: Chancen bilden: Wege zu einer gerechteren Bildung - ein internationaler Erfahrungsaustausch / [ed] David Deißner, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2013, p. 111-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Is it enough to be bright? Parental background, cognitive ability and educational attainment2016In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 117-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do separate factors of the social background – parental education, social class, social status and earnings – affect educational attainment independently of each other and to what extent is the association between these background factors and educational attainment transmitted via cognitive ability? Close to 28,000 randomly selected Swedish school children participated in a test of cognitive ability at age 13. Information on the four origin factors and on the children’s highest level of education was collected from Swedish registers with few missing data. The data were analysed by means of ordinary least squares regression. Parental education and social class are more highly associated with educational attainment than parental status and earnings, but all four factors have an effect on level of education independently of each other and of cognitive ability at age 13. Between 16 and 19 percent of the variance in education is accounted for by the social origin factors. Around one third of the effects of the origin factors is transmitted via cognitive ability. The paper ends with a short discussion of possible mechanisms, other than cognitive ability, that link social background with education.

  • 341.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    LNU från utredning till forskning. Ett historiskt perspektiv2014In: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Evertsson M. och C. Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, p. 30-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Soaring in the best of times2007In: Best of Times? The Social Impact of the Celtic Tiger, IPA, Dublin , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 343.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Social selection in Stockholm schools: primary and secondary effects on the transition to upper secondary education2007In: From Origin to Destination.: Trends and Mechanisms in Social Stratification Research, Campus, Frankfurt a.M. and New York , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Erikson, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Andersson Rydell, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nationell samordning av frågeunder­sökningar och längdsnittsstudier2014Report (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Erikson, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Blanck, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Får vi det bättre? om mått på livskvalitet: betänkande av Utredningen om mått på livskvalitet2015Report (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Erikson, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Goldthorpe, J.H.
    Social class, family background, and intergenerational mobility: A comment on Mcintosh and Munk2009In: European Economic Review, ISSN 0014-2921, E-ISSN 1873-572X, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 118-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    McIntosh and Munk claim that the class schema developed by Erikson and Goldthorpe lacks validity and should not be taken as a basis for studies of intergenerational social mobility. Their paper is founded on a serious misconception of why the schema is in fact used by sociologists in mobility research and, for this reason, their test of its validity is essentially misdirected. In addition, the test itself is not carried out in an appropriate way nor, it would seem, with data of adequate quality.

  • 347.
    Erikson, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Goldthorpe, John H.
    Has social mobility in Britain decreased? Reconciling divergent findings on income and class mobility2010In: British Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0007-1315, E-ISSN 1468-4446, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 211-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social mobility has become a topic of central political concern. In political and also media circles it is widely believed that in Britain today mobility is in decline. However, this belief appears to be based on a single piece of research by economists that is in fact concerned with intergenerational income mobility: specifically, with the relation between family income and children's later earnings. Research by sociologists using the same data sources – the British birth cohort studies of 1958 and 1970 – but focusing on intergenerational class mobility does not reveal a decline either in total mobility rates or in underlying relative rates. The paper investigates these divergent findings. We show that they do not result from the use of different subsets of the data or of different analytical techniques. Instead, given the more stable and generally less fluid class mobility regime, it is the high level of income mobility of the 1958 cohort, rather than the lower level of the 1970 cohort, that is chiefly in need of explanation. Further analyses – including ones of the relative influence of parental class and of family income on children's educational attainment – suggest that the economists' finding of declining mobility between the two cohorts may stem, in part at least, from the fact that the family income variable for the 1958 cohort provides a less adequate measure of ‘permanent income’ than does that for the 1970 cohort. But, in any event, it would appear that the class mobility regime more fully captures the continuity in economic advantage and disadvantage that persists across generations.

  • 348.
    Erikson, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Goldthorpe, John H.
    Income and Class Mobility Between Generations in Great Britain: The Problem of Divergent Findings from the Data-sets of Birth Cohort Studies2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses based on the data-sets of British birth cohort studies have produced differing findings on trends in intergenerational income and intergenerational class mobility. As between a cohort born in 1958 and one born in 1970, income mobility appears to show a sharp decline, while class mobility remains essentially constant. We investigate how this divergence might be explained. We find no evidence that it results from the differing subsets of data that have been used. However, we show that for both birth cohorts a stronger association exists between father’s class and child’s class than between family income and child’s earnings (and likewise between father’s class and child’s educational qualifications than between family income and child’s qualifications) - and that these differences are especially marked in the case of the 1958 cohort. We therefore argue that it is the surprisingly weak influence exerted by the family income variable for this cohort in these - and other - respects that must be seen as crucial in accounting for the inter-cohort decrease in income mobility that shows up. We point to evidence that as between 1974 and 1986, the years when the family incomes of children in the two cohorts were determined, the transitory component of earnings fell, so that the one-shot measure of such income made at the earlier date will be a less good measure of permanent income than that made at the later date. We therefore suggest that, at least to some extent, the apparent decrease in income mobility may come about in this way. But even if the finding is taken at face value, it would still appear the case that the class mobility regime, as well as having greater temporal stability than the income mobility regime, tends also to be stricter in the sense of entailing a stronger intergenerational association between origins and destinations and one that thus more fully captures continuities in economic advantage and disadvantage.

  • 349.
    Erikson, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Goldthorpe, John H.
    McIntosh and Munk's Supposed Test of the Validity of the E-G Class Schema: A Comment2007Report (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Erikson, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Goldthorpe, John H.
    Hällsten, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    No way back up from ratcheting down? A critique of the 'microclass' approach to the analysis of social mobility2012In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 211-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'Microclasses', detailed occupational groups, have recently been suggested as being the basis of research in social stratification; occupations represent 'real' social groups in contrast to the purely 'nominal' categories of either 'big class' schemata or socio-economic status scales. The microclass approach in social mobility research has been applied in a recent paper, the authors claiming to show that a strong propensity exists for intergenerational occupational inheritance, and that such inheritance is the dominant factor in social reproduction and limits equality of opportunity. We model a larger version of the same Swedish dataset as used by these authors. We show: (i) that while with many occupational groups a marked degree of intergenerational inheritance occurs among men, such inheritance is far less apparent among women, and, for both men and women, accounts for less than half of the total association in the occupational mobility table; (ii) that the microclass approach does not deal in a theoretically consistent way with the remaining associational underlying patterns of occupational mobility, since appeal is made to the theoretically alien idea of 'socio-economic closeness'; and (iii) that a standard class approach, modified to account for occupational inheritance, can provide a more integrated understanding of patterns of immobility and mobility alike. We also give reasons for doubting whether it will prove possible to establish a theoretically consistent microclass approach to explaining intergenerational mobility propensities. Finally, on the basis of our empirical results and of the relevant philosophical literature, we argue that the microclass approach is unlikely to be helpful in addressing normative questions of equality of opportunity.

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