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  • 301.
    Brown, Barry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Beyond recommendations: Local review websites and their impact2012Inngår i: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, ISSN 1073-0516, E-ISSN 1557-7325, Vol. 19, nr 4, 27- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Online review Web sites have enabled new interactions between companies and their customers. In this articlewe draw on interviews with users, reviewers, and establishments to explore how local review Web sitescan change interactions around local places. ReviewWeb sites such as Yelp and Tripadvisor allow customersto “previsit” establishments and areas of a city before an actual visit. The collection of a large numbers ofuser-generated reviews has also created a new genre of writing, with reviewers gaining considerable pleasurefrom passing on word of mouth and influencing others’ choices. Reviews also offer a new channel ofcommunication between establishments, customers, and competitors. We discuss how review Web sites canbe designed to cater for a broader range of interactions around reviews beyond a focus on recommendations

  • 302.
    Brown, Barry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ethnographic approaches to digital research2013Inngår i: The Sage handbook of digital technology research / [ed] Sara Price, Carey Jewitt, Barry Brown., London: Sage Publications, 2013, nr 1, 189-202 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 303.
    Brown, Barry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The Social Life of Autonomous Cars2017Inngår i: Computer, ISSN 0018-9162, E-ISSN 1558-0814, Vol. 50, nr 2, 92-96 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 304.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Barkhuus, Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Changing practices of family television watching2012Inngår i: The Connected Home: The Future of Domestic Life / [ed] Richard Harper, London: Springer , 2012, nr 1, 93-110 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 305.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Bentley, Frank
    Bakhshi, Saeideh
    Shamma, David A.
    Ephemeral Photowork: Understanding the Mobile Social Photography Ecosystem2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the Tenth International AAAI Conference onWeb and Social Media (ICWSM 2016), AAAI Press, 2016, 551-554 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, researchers have explored digital support for photographs and various methods of interaction around those photos. Services like Instagram, Facebook, and Flickr have demonstrated the value of online photographs in social media. Yet we know relatively little about these new practices of mobile social photography and in-situ sharing. Drawing on screen and audio recordings of mobile photo app use, this paper documents the ephemeral practices of social photography with mobile devices. We uncover how photo use on mobile devices is centered around social interactions both through online services, but also face-to-face around the devices themselves. We argue for a new role for the mobile photograph, supporting networks of communication through instantaneous interactions, complemented with rich, in person discussions of captured images with family and friends; photography not for careful selection and archive, but as quick social play and talk. The paper concludes by discussing the design possibilities of ephemeral communication.

  • 306.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Juhlin, Oskar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Enjoying Machines2015Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant feature of modern technology is not how productive it makes us, or how it has revolutionized the workplace, but how enjoyable it is. We take pleasure in our devices, from smartphones to personal computers to televisions. Whole classes of leisure activities rely on technology. How has technology become such an integral part of enjoyment? In this book, Barry Brown and Oskar Juhlin examine the relationship between pleasure and technology, investigating what pleasure and leisure are, how they have come to depend on the many forms of technology, and how we might design technology to support enjoyment. They do this by studying the experience of enjoyment, documenting such activities as computer gameplay, deer hunting, tourism, and television watching. They describe technologies that support these activities, including prototype systems that they themselves developed.

    Brown and Juhlin argue that pleasure is fundamentally social in nature. We learn how to enjoy ourselves from others, mastering it as a set of skills. Drawing on their own ethnographic studies and on research from economics, psychology, and philosophy, Brown and Juhlin argue that enjoyment is a key concept in understanding the social world. They propose a framework for the study of enjoyment: the empirical program of enjoyment.

  • 307.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lampinen, Airi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Acknowledge Crowdworkers in Crowdwork Research2016Inngår i: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 59, nr 11, 8-9 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 308.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lampinen, Airi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McMillan, Donald
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rostami, Asreen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Wang, Jinyi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The IKEA Catalogue: Design fiction in academic and industrial collaborations2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Supporting Group Work, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, 335-344 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an introduction to the “Future IKEA Catalogue”, enclosed here as an example of a design fiction produced from a long standing industrial-academic collaboration. We introduce the catalogue here by discussing some of our experiences using design fictionwith companies and public sector bodies, giving some background to the catalogue and the collaboration which produced it.

  • 309.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Laurier, Eric
    The Normal, Natural Troubles of Driving with GPS2012Inngår i: CHI '12 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, 1621-1630 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In-car GPS based satellite navigation systems are now a common part of driving, providing turn-by-turn navigation instructions on smartphones, portable units or in-car dash- board navigation systems. This paper uses interactional analysis of video data from fifteen naturalistically recorded journeys with GPS to understand the navigational practices deployed by drivers and passengers. The paper documents five types of ‘trouble’ where GPS systems cause issues and confusion for drivers around: destinations, routes, maps & sensors, timing and relevance and legality. The paper argues that to design GPS systems better we need to move beyond the notion of a docile driver who follows GPS command blindly, to a better understanding of how drivers, passengers and GPS systems work together. We develop this in discuss- ing how technology might better support ‘instructed action’.

  • 310.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Laurier, Eric
    The Trouble with Autopilots: Assisted and Autonomous Driving on the Social Road2017Inngår i: CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM Press , 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As self-driving cars have grown in sophistication and ability, they have been deployed on the road in both localised tests and as regular private vehicles. In this paper we draw upon publicly available videos of autonomous and assisted driving (specifically the Tesla autopilot and Google self-driving car) to explore how their drivers and the drivers of other cars interact with, and make sense of, the actions of these cars. Our findings provide an early perspective on human interaction with new forms of driving involving assisted

  • 311.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Laurier, Eric
    University of Edinburgh.
    What it means to change lanes: actions, emotions and wayfinding in the family car2012Inngår i: Semiotica, ISSN 0037-1998, E-ISSN 1613-3692, ISSN 1613-3692, Vol. 191, 117-135 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate how the sequential organization and settlement of disagreements comes to shape, and be shaped by, navigation. Using extracts of in-car interaction, we examine the gestalt of projectable aspects of road travel, car movements, and driver-navigator talk. Navigation when accomplished without maps relies on making sense of streets, landmarks, and signs, activities that are displayed through passengers and drivers giving directions to each other, alongside embodied references to passing roadside features and the movement of the vehicle. More broadly, “finding the way” is bound up with the social relationships between passengers — in particular families caring for one another and showing their epistemic and emotional stance on particular matters. To examine this we draw on existing conversation analytic work on epistemics, stance, and emotion to explore the potentially argumentative character of direction-giving and direction-receiving and how this comes to be combined with the task at hand.

  • 312.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Laurier, Eric
    Word of mouth: products, conversations and consumption2014Inngår i: Consumption, markets & culture, ISSN 1025-3866, E-ISSN 1477-223X, Vol. 17, nr 1, 29-49 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is a rich collection of studies of consumption and identity, the role of buying practices in ordinary conversations has been largely neglected. Minor items and major purchases regularly play a key role in furnishing our talk with topics, news, jokes and formulations of what kind of people we are. This paper unpacks the idea of post-purchase conversations contained within the common phrase “word of mouth.” What happens when products are examined in ordinary talk is pursued through the close analysis of a series of conversations around a significant purchase (a mountain bike). Drawing on the work of Harvey Sacks, and conversation analysis more broadly, this paper documents how products as a topic provide not only resources for small talk, but also an opportunity to consider our identity and its transformation. In conclusion, this paper argues that the knowledge and experience that circulate outside of the actual marketplace or point of purchase are part of a domain of economics as ordinary practice.

  • 313.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McGregor, Moira
    Laurier, Eric
    iPhone in vivo: video analysis of mobile device use2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2013, 1031-1040 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the widespread use of mobile devices, details of mobile technology use 'in the wild' have proven difficult to collect. This paper uses video data to gain new insight into the use of mobile computing devices. Our new method combines screen-capture of iPhone use with video recordings from wearable cameras. We use this data to analyse how mobile device use is threaded into other co-present activities, focusing on the use of maps and internet searches. Close analysis reveals novel aspects of gestures on touch screens, how they serve 'double duty' - both as interface gestures but as as resources for ongoing joint action. We go on to describe how users 'walk the blue dot' to orientate themselves, and how searches are occasioned by the local environment. In conclusion, we argue that mobile devices - rather than pushing us away from the world around us - are instead just another thread in the complex tapestry of everyday interaction.

  • 314.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McGregor, Moira
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McMillan, Donny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    100 days of iPhone use: understanding the details of mobile device use2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th international conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices & services, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, 223-232 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet connected mobile devices are an increasingly ubiquitous part of our everyday lives and we present here the results from unobtrusive audio-video recordings of iPhone use -- over 100 days of device use collected from 15 users. The data reveals for analysis the everyday, moment-by-moment use of contemporary mobile phones. Through video analysis of usage we observed how messages, social media and internet use are integrated and threaded into daily life, interaction with others, and everyday events such as transport, delays, establishment choice and entertainment. We document various aspects of end-user mobile device usage, starting with understanding how it is occasioned by context. We then characterise the temporal and sequential nature of use. Lastly, we discuss the social nature of mobile phone usage. Beyond this analysis, we reflect on how to draw these points into ideas for design.

  • 315.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McMillan, Donny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Mcgregor, Moira
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Searchable Objects: Search in Everyday Conversation2015Inngår i: CSCW, ACM Press , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 316.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Weilenmann, Alexandra
    McMillan, Donny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lampinen, Airi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Five Provocations for Ethical HCI Research2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, 852-863 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present five provocations for ethics, and ethical research, in HCI. We discuss, in turn, informed consent, the researcher-participant power differential, presentation of data in publications, the role of ethical review boards, and, lastly, corporate-facilitated projects. By pointing to unintended consequences of regulation and oversimplifications of unresolvable moral conflicts, we propose these provocations not as guidelines or recommendations but as instruments for challenging our views on what it means to do ethical research in HCI. We then suggest an alternative grounded in the sensitivities of those being studied and based on everyday practice and judgement, rather than one driven by bureaucratic, legal, or philosophical concerns. In conclusion, we call for a wider and more practical discussion on ethics within the community, and suggest that we should be more supportive of low-risk ethical experimentation to further the field.

  • 317.
    Bubenko, Janis
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Persson, Anne
    Stirna, Janis
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    An Intentional Perspective on Enterprise Modeling2010Inngår i: Intentional Perspectives on Information Systems Engineering / [ed] Selmin Nurcan, Camille Salinesi, Carine Souveyet, Jolita Ralyté, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer , 2010, 215-238 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 318.
    Bylund, Markus
    et al.
    SICS.
    Juhlin, OskarStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.Fernaeus, YlvaStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. SICS.
    Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services2011Konferanseproceedings (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 319.
    Bylund, Markus
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, , .
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Sanches, Pedro
    Swedish Institute of Computer Sciences, , .
    Collecting and Associating Data2010Patent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to a method and system for collecting human migration data into a database, comprising the steps of receiving information regarding the spatial movement, here called a path, or stationary position, here called a station, of a mobile device in a communication network, from the same communication network, and associating information or a sequence of information that represents a path or a station, here called a signal, with previously collected specific information regarding an individual associated with the mobile device. The inventive method specifically comprises the steps of de-identifying the information by deleting all information that can uniquely identify the mobile device or the individual from the signal and from the specific information, and storing the signal together with the specific information in the database, the signal and personal information thus being associated with each other and stored without any information that can uniquely identify the mobile device or the individual.

  • 320.
    Byungura, Jean Claude
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Karunaratne, Thashmee
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    User Perceptions on Relevance of a Learning Management System: An Evaluation of Behavioral Intention and Usage of SciPro System at University of Rwanda2015Inngår i: Expanding Learning Scenarios - Opening Out the Educational Landscape: Book of Abstracts / [ed] António Moreira Teixeira, András Szűcs, Ildikó Mázár, 2015, 64-64 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 321.
    Byungura, Jean Claude
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Masengesho, Kamuzinzi
    Karunaratne, Thashmee
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    ICT Capacity Building: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Rwandan Policies from Higher Education Perspective2016Inngår i: European Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, ISSN 1027-5207, Vol. 19, nr 2, 46-62 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of technology in the 21st Century, education systems attempt to integrate technology-based tools to improve experiences in pedagogy and administration. It is becoming increasingly prominent to build human and ICT infrastructure capacities at universities from policy to implementation level. Using a critical discourse analysis, this study investigates the articulation of ICT capacity building strategies from both national and institutional ICT policies in Rwanda, focusing on the higher education. Eleven policy documents were collected and deeply analyzed to understand which claims of ICT capacity building are made. The analysis shows that strategies for building ICT capacities are evidently observed from national level policies and only in two institutional policies (KIST and NUR). Among 25 components of ICT capacity building used, the ones related to human capacity are not plainly described. Additionally, neither national nor institutional policy documents include the creation of financial schemes for students to acquire ICT tools whilst learners are key stakeholders. Although there is some translation of ICT capacity building strategies from national to some institutional policies, planning for motivation and provision of incentives to innovators is not stated in any of the institutional policies and this is a key to effective technology integration.

  • 322.
    Byungura, Jean Claude
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Mazimpaka, Olivier
    Karunaratne, Thashmee
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Exploring Teacher Adoption and Use of an Upgraded eLearning Platform for ICT Capacity Building at University of Rwanda2016Inngår i: IST-Africa 2016 Conference: Proceedings / [ed] Paul Cunningham, Miriam Cunningham, IEEE Computer Society, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating technology in pedagogy is a step for ICT capacity building for higher education to meet its current demands. Therefore, the integration of eLearning systems has been problematic, albeit huge investments in ICT infrastructure. This study investigates teacher adoption of a new upgraded eLearning platform being integrated at University of Rwanda. A six-constructs model related to technology adoption was used to design questionnaire and interviews. Closed and open-ended questions seeking perceptions on the UR eLearning environment were used on 87 respondents who were purposively selected. Findings indicate that although participants find the system useful, easy and trustworthy, the intention for adopting and using it is very low due managerial support and technical support. Gaps in policy synergy, incentives, basic infrastructure, managerial and technical support were among the identified bottlenecks contributing negatively to the low degree of teacher intention. The study concludes by proposing some remedies to address the above challenges.

  • 323.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Iconic Locations in Swedish Sign Language: Mapping Form to Meaning with Lexical Databases2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics, NoDaLiDa / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, 221-225 s., 026Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe a method for mapping the phonological feature location of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) signs to the meanings in the Swedish semantic dictionary SALDO. By doing so, we observe clear differences in the distribution of meanings associated with different locations on the body. The prominence of certain locations for specific meanings clearly point to iconic mappings between form and meaning in the lexicon of SSL, which pinpoints modalityspecific properties of the visual modality.

  • 324.
    Büttner, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Cai, Tengjiao
    Uppsala University, , .
    Cramer, Henriette
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rost, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Holmquist, Lars Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Using Computer Vision Technologies to Make the Virtual Visible2011Inngår i: Mobile AR: Design Issues & Opportunities Workshop at MobileHCI’11, Stockholm, Sweden. Proceedings, Stockholm, Sweden: ACM , 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 325.
    Büttner, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Cramer, Henriette
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rost, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Belloni, Nicolas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Holmquist, Lars Erik
    φ²: Exploring physical Check-Ins for Location-Based Services2010Inngår i: UbiComp'10 -  Proceedings of the 12th ACM international conference adjunct papers on Ubiquitous computing, New York: ACM Press , 2010, 395-396 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 326. Caccamisi, A.
    et al.
    Jørgensen, L.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rosenlund, M.
    Automatic Extraction and Classification of Patients’ Smoking Status from Free Text Using Natural Language Processing2016Inngår i: Value in Health, ISSN 1098-3015, E-ISSN 1524-4733, Vol. 19, nr 7, A373Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To develop a machine learning algorithm for automatic classification of smoking status (smoker, ex-smoker, non-smoker and unknown status) in EMRs, and validate the predictive accuracy compared to a rule-based method. Smoking is a leading cause of death worldwide and may introduce confounding in research based on real world data (RWD). Information on smoking is often documented in free text fields in Electronic Medical Records (EMRs), but structured RWD on smoking is sparse.

    Methods

    32 predictive models were trained with the Weka machine learning suite, tweaking sentence frequency, classifier type, tokenization and attribute selection using a database of 85,000 classified sentences. The models were evaluated using F-Score and Accuracy based on out-of-sample test data including 8,500 sentences. The error weight matrix was used to select the best model, assigning a weight to each type of misclassification and applying it to the models confusion matrices.

    Results

    The best performing model was based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO) classifier using a polynomial kernel with parameter C equal to 6 and a combination of unigrams and bigrams as tokens. Sentence frequency and attributes selection did not improve model performance. SMO achieved 98.25% accuracy and 0.982 F-Score versus 79.32% and 0.756, respectively, for the rule-based model.

    Conclusions

    A model using machine learning algorithms to automatically classify patients smoking status was successfully developed. This algorithm would enable automatic assessment of smoking status directly from EMRs, obviating the need to extract complete case notes and manual classification.

  • 327. Caccamisi, Andrea
    et al.
    Jørgensen, Leif
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rosenlund, Mats
    Automatic extraction and translation of the patients smoking status from free text using natural language processing2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 328.
    Cakici, Baki
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The Informed Gaze: On the Implications of ICT-Based Surveillance2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technologies are not value-neutral. I examine two domains, public health surveillance and sustainability, in five papers covering: (i) the design and development of a software package for computer-assisted outbreak detection; (ii) a workflow for using simulation models to provide policy advice and a list of challenges for its practice; (iii) an analysis of design documents from three smart home projects presenting intersecting visions of sustainability; (iv) an analysis of EU-financed projects dealing with sustainability and ICT; (v) an analysis of the consequences of design choices when creating surveillance technologies. My contributions include three empirical studies of surveillance discourses where I identify the forms of action that are privileged and the values that are embedded into them. In these discourses, the presence of ICT entails increased surveillance, privileging technological expertise, and prioritising centralised forms of knowledge.

  • 329.
    Cakici, Baki
    et al.
    KTH.
    Boman, Magnus
    KTH.
    A Workflow for Software Development within Computational Epidemiology2011Inngår i: Journal of Computational Science, ISSN 1877-7503, Vol. 2, nr 3, 216-222 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical investigation into computational models developed for studying the spread of communicable disease is presented. The case in point is a spatially explicit micro-meso-macro model for the entire Swedish population built on registry data, thus far used for smallpox and for influenza-like illnesses. The lessons learned from a software development project of more than 100 person months are collected into a check list. The list is intended for use by computational epidemiologists and policy makers, and the workflow incorporating these two roles is described in detail.

  • 330.
    Cakici, Baki
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Bylund, Markus
    SICS Swedish ICT.
    Changing Behaviour to Save Energy: ICT-Based Surveillance for a Low-Carbon Economy in the Seventh Framework ProgrammeManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 331. Canova Calori, Ilaria
    et al.
    Rossitto, Chiara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Divitini, Monica
    Understanding Trajectories of Experience in Situated Learning Field Trips2012Inngår i: ICWL 2012: The 11th International Conference on Web-based Learning, Local Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Dickson Chiu, Elvira Popescu, Qing Li, Berlin, Heidelberg: Elsevier, 2012, 11-20 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the role context plays in promoting engagement and exploration in situated learning experiences during field trips. We look at field trips where children engage with the physical and social environment in order to learn about cultural and social aspects of the city they live in. By drawing on empirical data collected by means of qualitative methods, we discuss how learning unfolds along trajectories of experience towards pre-defined and emerging learning objectives. We reflect of the role technology can play in sup-porting learning experiences outside the classroom.

  • 332. Canova Calori, Ilaria
    et al.
    Rossitto, Chiara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Monica, Divitini
    Understanding Trajectories of Experience in Situated Learning Field Trips2013Inngår i: Interaction Design and Architecture(s), ISSN 2283-2998, Vol. 16, 17-26 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the role context plays in promoting engagement and exploration in situated learning experiences during field trips. We look at field trips where children engage with the physical and social environment in order to learn about cultural and social aspects of the city they live in. By drawing on empirical data collected by means of qualitative methods, we discuss how learning unfolds along trajectories of experience towards pre-defined and emerging learning objectives. We reflect of the role technology can play in supporting learning experiences outside the classroom.

  • 333.
    Cap, Fabienne
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Adesam, Yvonne
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Borin, Lars
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bouma, Gerlof
    University of Gothenburg.
    Forsberg, Markus
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kann, Viggo
    KTH.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Smith, Aaron
    Uppsala University.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Nivre, Joakim
    Uppsala University.
    SWORD: Towards Cutting-Edge Swedish Word Processing2016Inngår i: SLTC 2016: The Sixth Swedish Language Technology Conference (SLTC), SLTC , 2016, Vol. 6Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many years of research on Swedish language technology, there is still no well-documented standard for Swedish word processing covering the whole spectrum from low-level tokenization to morphological analysis and disambiguation. SWORD is a new initiative within the SWE-CLARIN consortium aiming to develop documented standards for Swedish word processing. In this paper, we report on a pilot study of Swedish tokenization, where we compare the output of six different tokenizers on four different text types. For one text type (Wikipedia articles), we also compare to the tokenization produced by six manual annotators.

  • 334.
    Carlsson, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Influence of Module Order on Rule-Based De-identification of Personal Names in Electronic Patient Records Written in Swedish2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC 2010, Valletta, Malta, May 19-21, 2010, European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2010, 3442-3446 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic patient records (EPRs) are a valuable resource for research but for confidentiality reasons they cannot be used freely. In order to make EPRs available to a wider group of researchers, sensitive information such as personal names has to be removed. Deidentification is a process that makes this possible. Both rule-based as well as statistical and machine learning based methods exist to perform de-identification, but the second method requires annotated training material which exists only very sparsely for patient names. It is therefore necessary to use rule-based methods for de-identification of EPRs. Not much is known, however, about the order in which the various rules should be applied and how the different rules influence precision and recall. This paper aims to answer this research question by implementing and evaluating four common rules for de-identification of personal names in EPRs written in Swedish: (1) dictionary name matching, (2) title matching, (3) common words filtering and (4) learning from previous modules. The results show that to obtain the highest recall and precision, the rules should be applied in the following order: title matching, common words filtering and dictionary name matching.

  • 335. Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Ahlberg, Ernst
    Boström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Linusson, Henrik
    Modifications to p-Values of Conformal Predictors2015Inngår i: Statistical Learning and Data Sciences: Third International Symposium, SLDS 2015, Egham, UK, April 20-23, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Alexander Gammerman, Vladimir Vovk, Harris Papadopoulos, Springer, 2015, 251-259 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The original definition of a p-value in a conformal predictor can sometimes lead to too conservative prediction regions when the number of training or calibration examples is small. The situation can be improved by using a modification to define an approximate p-value. Two modified p-values are presented that converges to the original p-value as the number of training or calibration examples goes to infinity.

    Numerical experiments empirically support the use of a p-value we call the interpolated p-value for conformal prediction. The interpolated p-value seems to be producing prediction sets that have an error rate which corresponds well to the prescribed significance level.

  • 336.
    Caroline Kiondo, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Kowalski, Stewart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Yngström, Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Exploring Security Risks in Virtual Economies2011Inngår i: First International Conference on Social Eco-Informatics, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A most recent, phenomenon within new socio-eco-systems is the so called Virtual Economies. This paper presents an exploratory study of information security risks that are inherent with the Virtural Economies. A Dynamic Network Analysis Tools (DNAT) was used to perform a risk analysis in the Second life virtual world. The analysis indicates that the currency and user account are the most important assets. User accounts provide access to virtual trading and are critical to the flow of currency within the virtual economy. The removal of both of these from the system will affect the dynamics of the system and defeat the whole purpose of the system. The analysis further identified selling and creation of virtual goods to be important tasks in order to maintain a successful Virtual Economy. If a threat occurs that manipulates the creation of virtual goods then it would affect the trading of virtual goods between the users of the system hence affecting the economy. It is important that users who invest in such an economy to be aware of possible risks associated with this. As the field expands and more internet communities adopt this business model all parties involved need to think of strategies to protect assets that exist within this type of environment.

  • 337.
    Carter, David
    et al.
    SRI International.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International.
    Eklund, Robert
    TeliaSonera (R & D).
    Kaja, Jaan
    TeliaSonera (R & D).
    Lyberg, Bertil
    TeliaSonera (R & D).
    Sautermeister, Per
    TeliaSonera (R & D).
    Wirén, Mats
    TeliaSonera (R& D).
    Neumeyer, Leonardo
    SRI International.
    Weng, Fuliang
    SRI International.
    Common speech/language issues2000Inngår i: The spoken language translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, David Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis, Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, 284-294 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 338.
    Carter, David
    et al.
    SRI International.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International.
    Eklund, Robert
    TeliaSonera (R & D).
    MacDermid, Catriona
    TeliaSonera (R & D).
    Wirén, Mats
    TeliaSonera (R & D).
    Evaluation2000Inngår i: The spoken language translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, David Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis, Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, 297-312 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 339.
    Casmir, Respickius
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    A Dynamic and Adaptive Information Security Awareness (DAISA) Approach2005Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems fail not only because of problems with technology used and technical incompetence of professionals administering them but also because of lack of security awareness to the end users. In addition, various research results have revealed that security and reliability of IS/IT systems is a function of technology, processes and people.

    This research has focused on the latter aiming at developing an integrated information security education, training and awareness learning continuum. Particularly, the research has focused on developing countries where a little has been done to address information security learning continuum. The research has been done in two cyclic phases in which cycle one has chiefly addressed security education and training aspects whereas cycle two has mainly focused on security awareness aspects. Based on empirical analysis of security practices in organisations; the thesis proposes a Dynamic and Adaptive Information Security Awareness (DAISA) approach. Founded on six interdependent pillars, the approach delineates high level guidelines for establishing and maintaining information security awareness programs at workplaces.

  • 340.
    Caster, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Quantitative methods to support drug benefit-risk assessment2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint evaluation of drugs’ beneficial and adverse effects is required in many situations, in particular to inform decisions on initial or sustained marketing of drugs, or to guide the treatment of individual patients. This synthesis, known as benefit-risk assessment, is without doubt important: timely decisions supported by transparent and sound assessments can reduce mortality and morbidity in potentially large groups of patients. At the same time, it can be hugely complex: drug effects are generally disparate in nature and likelihood, and the information that needs to be processed is diverse, uncertain, deficient, or even unavailable. Hence there is a clear need for methods that can reliably and efficiently support the benefit-risk assessment process. For already marketed drugs, this process often starts with the detection of previously unknown risks that are subsequently integrated with all other relevant information for joint analysis.

    In this thesis, quantitative methods are devised to support different aspects of drug benefit-risk assessment, and the practical usefulness of these methods is demonstrated in clinically relevant case studies. Shrinkage regression is adapted and implemented for large-scale screening in collections of individual case reports, leading to the discovery of a link between methylprednisolone and hepatotoxicity. This adverse effect is then considered as part of a complete benefit-risk assessment of methylpredniso­lone in multiple sclerosis relapses, set in a general framework of probabilistic decision analysis. Two methods devised in the thesis substantively contribute to this assessment: one for efficient generation of utility distributions for the considered clinical outcomes, driven by modelling of qualitative information; and one for computing risk limits for rare and otherwise non-quantifiable adverse effects, based on collections of individual case reports.

  • 341.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Edwards, I. Ralph
    Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Reflections on Attribution and Decisions in Pharmacovigilance2010Inngår i: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 33, nr 10, 805-809 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 342.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Edwards, I. Ralph
    Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Lindquist, Marie
    Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Earlier discovery of pregabalin’s dependence potential might have been possible2011Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 67, nr 3, 319-320 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 343.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Combining Second-Order Belief Distributions with Qualitative Statements in Decision Analysis2012Inngår i: Managing Safety of Heterogeneous Systems: Decisions under Uncertainties and Risks / [ed] Yuri Ermoliev, Marek Makowski, Kurt Marti, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 67-87 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is often a need to allow for imprecise statements in real-world decision analysis. Joint modeling of intervals and qualitative statements as constraint sets is one important approach to solving this problem, with the advantage that both probabilities and utilities can be handled. However, a major limitation with interval-based approaches is that aggregated quantities such as expected utilities also become intervals, which often hinders efficient discrimination. The discriminative power can be increased by utilizing second-order information in the form of belief distributions, and this paper demonstrates how qualitative relations between variables can be incorporated into such a framework. The general case with arbitrary distributions is described first, and then a computationally efficient simulation algorithm is presented for a relevant sub-class of analyses. By allowing qualitative relations, our approach preserves the ability of interval-based methods to be deliberately imprecise. At the same time, the use of belief distributions allows more efficient discrimination, and it provides a semantically clear interpretation of the resulting beliefs within a probabilistic framework.

  • 344.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Norén, G. N.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Madigan, D.
    Bate, A.
    Logistic regression in signal detection: Another Piece Added to the Puzzle2013Inngår i: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535, Vol. 94, nr 3, 312-312 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To the Editor: In their article, “Performance of Pharmacovigilance Signal-Detection Algorithms for the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System,” Harpaz et al.1 report an evaluation of signal-detection algorithms for spontaneous reports in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System against a benchmark constructed by the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

  • 345.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Edwards, I. Ralph
    Computing limits on medicine risks based on collections of individual case reports2014Inngår i: Theoretical Biology Medical Modelling, ISSN 1742-4682, E-ISSN 1742-4682, Vol. 11, 15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Quantifying a medicine's risks for adverse effects is crucial in assessing its value as a therapeutic agent. Rare adverse effects are often not detected until after the medicine is marketed and used in large and heterogeneous patient populations, and risk quantification is even more difficult. While individual case reports of suspected harm from medicines are instrumental in the detection of previously unknown adverse effects, they are currently not used for risk quantification. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how and when limits on medicine risks can be computed from collections of individual case reports. Methods: We propose a model where drug exposures in the real world may be followed by adverse episodes, each containing one or several adverse effects. Any adverse episode can be reported at most once, and each report corresponds to a single adverse episode. Based on this model, we derive upper and lower limits for the per-exposure risk of an adverse effect for a given drug. Results: An upper limit for the per-exposure risk of the adverse effect Y for a given drug X is provided by the reporting ratio of X together with Y relative to all reports on X, under two assumptions: (i) the average number of adverse episodes following exposure to X is one or less; and (ii) adverse episodes that follow X and contain Y are more frequently reported than adverse episodes in general that follow X. Further, a lower risk limit is provided by dividing the number of reports on X together with Y by the total number of exposures to X, under the assumption that exposures to X that are followed by Y generate on average at most one report on X together with Y. Using real data, limits for the narcolepsy risk following Pandemrix vaccination and the risk of coeliac disease following antihypertensive treatment were computed and found to conform to reference risk values from epidemiological studies. Conclusions: Our framework enables quantification of medicine risks in situations where this is otherwise difficult or impossible. It has wide applicability, but should be particularly useful in structured benefit-risk assessments that include rare adverse effects.

  • 346.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Edwards, I. Ralph
    Quantitative Benefit-Risk Assessment Using Only Qualitative Information on Utilities2012Inngår i: Medical decision making, ISSN 0272-989X, E-ISSN 1552-681X, Vol. 32, nr 6, E1-E15 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Utilities of pertinent clinical outcomes are crucial variables for assessing the benefits and risks of drugs, but numerical data on utilities may be unreliable or altogether missing. We propose a method to incorporate qualitative information into a probabilistic decision analysis framework for quantitative benefit-risk assessment. Objective: To investigate whether conclusive results can be obtained when the only source of discriminating information on utilities is widely agreed upon qualitative relations, for example, ''sepsis is worse than transient headache'' or ''alleviation of disease is better without than with complications.'' Method: We used the structure and probabilities of 3 published models that were originally evaluated based on the standard metric of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs): terfenadine versus chlorpheniramine for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, MCV4 vaccination against meningococcal disease, and alosetron for irritable bowel syndrome. For each model, we identified clinically straightforward qualitative relations among the outcomes. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the resulting utility distributions were then combined with the previously specified probabilities, and the rate of preference in terms of expected utility was determined for each alternative. Results: Our approach conclusively favored MCV4 vaccination, and it was concordant with the QALY assessments for the MCV4 and terfenadine versus chlorpheniramine case studies. For alosetron, we found a possible unfavorable benefit-risk balance for highly risk-averse patients not identified in the original analysis. Conclusion: Incorporation of widely agreed upon qualitative information into quantitative benefit-risk assessment can provide for conclusive results. The methods presented should prove useful in both population and individual-level assessments, especially when numerical utility data are missing or unreliable, and constraints on time or money preclude its collection.

  • 347.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring, Sweden.
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring, Sweden.
    Madigan, David
    Bate, Andrew
    Large-scale regression-based pattern discovery: The example of screening the WHO global drug safety database2010Inngår i: Statistical Analysis and Data Mining, ISSN 1932-1864, E-ISSN 1932-1872, Vol. 3, nr 4, 197-208 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most measures of interestingness for patterns of co-occurring events are based on data projections onto contingency tables for the events of primary interest. As an alternative, this article presents the first implementation of shrinkage logistic regression for large-scale pattern discovery, with an evaluation of its usefulness in real-world binary transaction data. Regression accounts for the impact of other covariates that may confound or otherwise distort associations. The application considered is international adverse drug reaction (ADR) surveillance, in which large collections of reports on suspected ADRs are screened for interesting reporting patterns worthy of clinical follow-up. Our results show that regression-based pattern discovery does offer practical advantages. Specifically it can eliminate false positives and false negatives due to other covariates. Furthermore, it identifies some established drug safety issues earlier than a measure based on contingency tables. While regression offers clear conceptual advantages, our results suggest that methods based on contingency tables will continue to play a key role in ADR surveillance, for two reasons: the failure of regression to identify some established drug safety concerns as early as the currently used measures, and the relative lack of transparency of the procedure to estimate the regression coefficients. This suggests shrinkage regression should be used in parallel to existing measures of interestingness in ADR surveillance and other large-scale pattern discovery applications.

  • 348.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Lovisa
    Bergvall, Tomas
    Watson, Sarah
    Noren, G. Niklas
    vigiRank for statistical signal detection in pharmacovigilance: First results from prospective real-world use2017Inngår i: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 26, nr 8, 1006-1010 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: vigiRank is a data-driven predictive model for emerging safety signals. In addition to disproportionate reporting patterns, it also accounts for the completeness, recency, and geographic spread of individual case reporting, as well as the availability of case narratives. Previous retrospective analysis suggested that vigiRank performed better than disproportionality analysis alone. The purpose of the present analysis was to evaluate its prospective performance. Methods: The evaluation of vigiRank was based on real-world signal detection in VigiBase. In May 2014, vigiRank scores were computed for pairs of new drugs and WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology critical terms with at most 30 reports from at least 2 countries. Initial manual assessments were performed in order of descending score, selecting a subset of drug-adverse drug reaction pairs for in-depth expert assessment. The primary performance metric was the proportion of initial assessments that were decided signals during in-depth assessment. As comparator, the historical performance for disproportionality-guided signal detection in VigiBase was computed from a corresponding cohort of drug-adverse drug reaction pairs assessed between 2009 and 2013. During this period, the requirement for initial manual assessment was a positive lower endpoint of the 95% credibility interval of the Information Component measure of disproportionality, observed for the first time. Results: 194 initial assessments suggested by vigiRank's ordering eventually resulted in 6 (3.1%) signals. Disproportionality analysis yielded 19 signals from 1592 initial assessments (1.2%; P <.05). Conclusions: Combining multiple strength-of-evidence aspects as in vigiRank significantly outperformed disproportionality analysis alone in real-world pharmacovigilance signal detection, for VigiBase.

  • 349.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Cerratto-Pargman (2014). A European strand of Sustainable HCI?2014Inngår i: NORDICHI 2014, ACM Press , 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reflects onthe topic of the workshopfrom what I have learnedduring a visit atThe Center For Research in Sustainability, Collapse-Preparedness and Information Technology (RISCIT), University of California Irvine, and from a study conducted at a Swedish ecovillage. From these experiences, Ilook forward to contributing to the discussion about a European strand of Sustainable HCI research

  • 350.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Pour une conception des technologies centrée sur l'activité du sujet: le cas de l'écriture de groupe avec collecticiel2006Inngår i: Modèles du sujet pour la conception: dialectiques activités développement / [ed] Pierre Rabardel, Pierre Pastré, Toulouse: Octarès , 2006, 157-188 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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