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  • 301.
    Bengtsson, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    The impact of cytochrome P4501-inhibitors on aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) best known as a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates toxic responses to xenobiotics such as dioxins, is also activated by certain endogenous compounds. Activation of the AHR up-regulates transcription of a large number of genes, including those encoding members of the cytochrome P450 1 family of enzymes (CYP1s). Although the AHR has been shown to be involved in several normal processes, its physiological role remains elusive. The endogenous ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), formed from tryptophan, is present in cell culture media and biological specimens. FICZ is an excellent substrate for CYP1 enzymes and together FICZ/AHR/CYP1A1 interactions constitute an auto regulatory feedback loop that controls AHR signaling. A vast number of compounds that inhibit CYP1 enzymes have been reported to be AHR activators, even though they have little or no affinity for the receptor. We hypothesized, that their agonistic effects are dependent on the presence of background levels of FICZ. To test this, AHR signaling in different cell systems exposed to FICZ and/or inhibitors was assessed by measuring EROD activity and CYP1A1 transcription. In addition to a commercial culture medium, a medium free of background levels of FICZ was used. Activation of AHR by of a diverse set of CYP1A1 inhibitors did require FICZ in the culture medium. Furthermore, the compounds tested both prolonged and potentiated FICZ-induced receptor signaling. On the basis of these observations we propose that a compound may activate AHR signaling indirectly by inhibiting CYP1A1 and thereby attenuating the metabolism of FICZ. This mechanism was confirmed for certain polyphenols and pharmaceuticals. Surprisingly, the activating capacity and potentiating effect of two pharmaceuticals on AHR signaling could not be explained by the mechanism proposed, and we speculated that in these cases the agonistic effect might involve interactions of the cellular antioxidant response with the basic transcription machinery. Together, our observations provide a mechanistic explanation as to how compounds that inhibit CYP1A1 can activate AHR signaling. They also indicate that the general perception of the binding pocket of AHR as promiscuous, is probably wrong. The fact that indirect activation of AHR may cause sustained signaling requires further studies in vivo not least, in order to prevent toxicity.

  • 302. Bengtsson, Linus
    et al.
    Lu, Xin
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. The Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Thanh, Hoang Huy
    Thorson, Anna
    Strong propensity for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men in Vietnam: behavioural data and sexual network modelling2014Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikkel-id e003526Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Survey data from men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asian cities indicate ongoing and drastic increases in HIV prevalence. It is unknown which behavioural factors are most important in driving these epidemics. We aimed to analyse detailed sexual behaviour data among MSM in Vietnam and to model HIV transmission using improved assumptions on sexual network structure. Setting Vietnam. Participants Internet-using men who had ever had sex (any type) with a man, aged 18years and living in Vietnam. The study was cross-sectional, population-based and performed in 2012, using online respondent-driven sampling. The Internet-based survey instrument was completed by 982 participants, of which 857 were eligible. Questions included sociodemography and retrospective sexual behaviour, including number of unprotected anal sex (UAS) acts per partner. Primary and secondary outcome measures Estimated basic reproductive number over 3months as a function of transmission risk per UAS act; frequency distributions of number of UAS partners and UAS acts during last 3months. Results 36% (CI 32% to 42%) reported UAS at least once during the last 3months. 36% (CI 32% to 41%) had ever taken an HIV test and received the result. UAS partner numbers and number of UAS acts were both highly skewed and positively correlated. Using a weighted configuration model, taking into account partner numbers, frequency of UAS and their correlations, we estimated the basic reproductive number (R0) over 3months. The results indicated rapid transmission over a wide range of values of per-act transmissibility. Conclusions Men with multiple partners had unexpectedly high UAS frequency per partner, paired with low HIV testing rates. The study highlights the importance of collecting data on frequency of UAS acts and indicates the need to rapidly scale-up HIV prevention services and testing opportunities for MSM in Vietnam.

  • 303. Bengtsson, Linus
    et al.
    Lu, Xin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Thorson, Anna
    Garfield, Richard
    von Schreeb, Johan
    Improved Response to Disasters and Outbreaks by Tracking Population Movements with Mobile Phone Network Data: A Post-Earthquake Geospatial Study in Haiti2011Inngår i: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 8, nr 8, s. e1001083-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Population movements following disasters can cause important increases in morbidity and mortality. Without knowledge of the locations of affected people, relief assistance is compromised. No rapid and accurate method exists to track population movements after disasters. We used position data of subscriber identity module (SIM) cards from the largest mobile phone company in Haiti (Digicel) to estimate the magnitude and trends of population movements following the Haiti 2010 earthquake and cholera outbreak. Methods and Findings: Geographic positions of SIM cards were determined by the location of the mobile phone tower through which each SIM card connects when calling. We followed daily positions of SIM cards 42 days before the earthquake and 158 days after. To exclude inactivated SIM cards, we included only the 1.9 million SIM cards that made at least one call both pre-earthquake and during the last month of study. In Port-au-Prince there were 3.2 persons per included SIM card. We used this ratio to extrapolate from the number of moving SIM cards to the number of moving persons. Cholera outbreak analyses covered 8 days and tracked 138,560 SIM cards. An estimated 630,000 persons (197,484 Digicel SIM cards), present in Port-au-Prince on the day of the earthquake, had left 19 days post-earthquake. Estimated net outflow of people (outflow minus inflow) corresponded to 20% of the Port-au-Prince pre-earthquake population. Geographic distribution of population movements from Port-au-Prince corresponded well with results from a large retrospective, population-based UN survey. To demonstrate feasibility of rapid estimates and to identify areas at potentially increased risk of outbreaks, we produced reports on SIM card movements from a cholera outbreak area at its immediate onset and within 12 hours of receiving data. Conclusions: Results suggest that estimates of population movements during disasters and outbreaks can be delivered rapidly and with potentially high validity in areas with high mobile phone use.

  • 304. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Angelin, Martin
    Huss, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Kjellqvist, Sanela
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Palmgren, Helena
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Johansson, Anders
    The Human Gut Microbiome as a Transporter of Antibiotic Resistance Genes between Continents2015Inngår i: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 59, nr 10, s. 6551-6560Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of antibiotic resistance dissemination by travel have, by targeting only a select number of cultivable bacterial species, omitted most of the human microbiome. Here, we used explorative shotgun metagenomic sequencing to address the abundance of >300 antibiotic resistance genes in fecal specimens from 35 Swedish students taken before and after exchange programs on the Indian peninsula or in Central Africa. All specimens were additionally cultured for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria, and the isolates obtained were genome sequenced. The overall taxonomic diversity and composition of the gut microbiome remained stable before and after travel, but there was an increasing abundance of Proteobacteria in 25/35 students. The relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes increased, most prominently for genes encoding resistance to sulfonamide (2.6-fold increase), trimethoprim (7.7-fold), and beta-lactams (2.6-fold). Importantly, the increase observed occurred without any antibiotic intake. Of 18 students visiting the Indian peninsula, 12 acquired ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, while none returning from Africa were positive. Despite deep sequencing efforts, the sensitivity of metagenomics was not sufficient to detect acquisition of the low-abundant genes responsible for the observed ESBL phenotype. In conclusion, metagenomic sequencing of the intestinal microbiome of Swedish students returning from exchange programs in Central Africa or the Indian peninsula showed increased abundance of genes encoding resistance to widely used antibiotics.

  • 305.
    Benmakhlouf, Hamza
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Johansson, J.
    Paddick, I.
    Andreo, Pedro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Monte Carlo calculated and experimentally determined output correction factors for small field detectors in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion beams2015Inngår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 60, nr 10, s. 3959-3973Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of output factors (OF) for the small photon beams generated by Leksell Gamma Knife (R) (LGK) radiotherapy units is a challenge for the physicist due to the under or over estimation of these factors by a vast majority of the detectors commercially available. Output correction factors, introduced in the international formalism published by Alfonso (2008 Med. Phys. 35 5179-86), standardize the determination of OFs for small photon beams by correcting detector-reading ratios to yield OFs in terms of absorbed-dose ratios. In this work output correction factors for a number of detectors have been determined for LGK Perfexion (TM) Co-60 gamma-ray beams by Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and measurements. The calculations were made with the MC system PENELOPE, scoring the energy deposited in the active volume of the detectors and in a small volume of water; the detectors simulated were two silicon diodes, one liquid ionization chamber (LIC), alanine and TLD. The calculated LIC output correction factors were within +/- 0.4%, and this was selected as the reference detector for experimental determinations where output correction factors for twelve detectors were measured, normalizing their readings to those of the LIC. The MC-calculated and measured output correction factors for silicon diodes yielded corrections of up to 5% for the smallest LGK collimator size of 4 mm diameter. The air ionization chamber measurements led to extremely large output correction factors, caused by the well-known effect of partial volume averaging. The corrections were up to 7% for the natural diamond detector in the 4 mm collimator, also due to partial volume averaging, and decreased to within about +/- 0.6% for the smaller synthetic diamond detector. The LIC, showing the smallest corrections, was used to investigate machine-to-machine output factor differences by performing measurements in four LGK units with different dose rates. These resulted in OFs within +/- 0.6% and +/- 0.2% for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively, providing evidence for the use of generic OFs for these LGK beams. Using the experimentally derived output correction factors, OFs can be measured using a wide range of commercially available detectors.

  • 306.
    Benmakhlouf, Hamza
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sempau, Josep
    Andreo, Pedro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Output correction factors for nine small field detectors in 6 MV radiation therapy photon beams: A PENELOPE Monte Carlo study2014Inngår i: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 041711-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine detector-specific output correction factors, k(Qclin,Qmsr)(fclin,fmsr) in 6 MV small photon beams for air and liquid ionization chambers, silicon diodes, and diamond detectors from two manufacturers. Methods: Field output factors, defined according to the international formalism published by Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186 (2008)], relate the dosimetry of small photon beams to that of the machine-specific reference field; they include a correction to measured ratios of detector readings, conventionally used as output factors in broad beams. Output correction factors were calculated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) system with a statistical uncertainty (type-A) of 0.15% or lower. The geometries of the detectors were coded using blueprints provided by the manufacturers, and phase-space files for field sizes between 0.5 x 0.5 cm(2) and 10 x 10 cm(2) from a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV linac used as sources. The output correction factors were determined scoring the absorbed dose within a detector and to a small water volume in the absence of the detector, both at a depth of 10 cm, for each small field and for the reference beam of 10 x 10 cm(2). Results: The Monte Carlo calculated output correction factors for the liquid ionization chamber and the diamond detector were within about +/- 1% of unity even for the smallest field sizes. Corrections were found to be significant for small air ionization chambers due to their cavity dimensions, as expected. The correction factors for silicon diodes varied with the detector type (shielded or un-shielded), confirming the findings by other authors; different corrections for the detectors from the two manufacturers were obtained. The differences in the calculated factors for the various detectors were analyzed thoroughly and whenever possible the results were compared to published data, often calculated for different accelerators and using the EGSnrc MC system. The differences were used to estimate a type-B uncertainty for the correction factors. Together with the type-A uncertainty from the Monte Carlo calculations, an estimation of the combined standard uncertainty was made, assigned to the mean correction factors from various estimates. Conclusions: The present work provides a consistent and specific set of data for the output correction factors of a broad set of detectors in a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV accelerator and contributes to improving the understanding of the physics of small photon beams. The correction factors cannot in general be neglected for any detector and, as expected, their magnitude increases with decreasing field size. Due to the reduced number of clinical accelerator types currently available, it is suggested that detector output correction factors be given specifically for linac models and field sizes, rather than for a beam quality specifier that necessarily varies with the accelerator type and field size due to the different electron spot dimensions and photon collimation systems used by each accelerator model. (C) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  • 307. Bennett, Alexander
    et al.
    Gnjidic, Danijela
    Gillett, Mark
    Carroll, Peter
    Matthews, Slade
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Fastbom, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Hilmer, Sarah
    Prevalence and Impact of Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs, Polypharmacy, and Drug-Drug Interactions in Robust Versus Frail Hospitalised Falls Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study2014Inngår i: Drugs & Aging, ISSN 1170-229X, E-ISSN 1179-1969, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 225-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Several measures of medication exposure are associated with adverse outcomes in older people. Exposure to and the clinical outcomes of these measures in robust versus frail older inpatients are not known. Objective In older robust and frail patients admitted to hospital after a fall, we investigated the prevalence and clinical impact of fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs), total number of medications, and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Methods Patients >= 60 years of age admitted with a fall to a tertiary referral teaching hospital in Sydney were recruited and frailty was assessed. Data were collected at admission, discharge, and 2 months after admission. Results A total of 204 patients were recruited (mean age 80.5 +/- 8.3 years), with 101 robust and 103 frail. On admission, compared with the robust, frail participants had significantly higher mean +/- SD number of FRIDs (frail 3.4 +/- 2.2 vs. robust 1.6 +/- 1.5, P < 0.0001), total number of medications (9.8 +/- 4.3 vs. 4.4 +/- 3.3, P < 0.0001), and DDI exposure (35 vs. 5 %, P = 0.001). Number of FRIDs on discharge was significantly associated with recurrent falls [odds ratio (OR) 1.7 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.3-2.1)], which were most likely to occur with 1.5 FRIDs in the frail and 2.5 FRIDs in the robust. Number of medications on discharge was also associated with recurrent falls [OR 1.2 (1.0-1.3)], but DDIs were not. Conclusion Exposure to FRIDs and other measures of high-risk medication exposures is common in older people admitted with falls, especially the frail. Number of FRIDs and to a lesser extent total number of medicines at discharge were associated with recurrent falls.

  • 308. Benson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Glaser, Karen
    Corna, Laurie M
    Platts, Loretta G
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Di Gessa, Giorgio
    Worts, Diana
    Price, Debora
    McDonough, Peggy
    Sacker, Amanda
    Do work and family care histories predict health in older women?2017Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 1010-1015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social and policy changes in the last several decades have increased women's options for combining paid work with family care. We explored whether specific combinations of work and family care over the lifecourse are associated with variations in women's later life health.

    Methods: We used sequence analysis to group women in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing according to their work histories and fertility. Using logistic regression, we tested for group differences in later life disability, depressive symptomology and mortality, while controlling for childhood health and socioeconomic position and a range of adult socio-economic circumstances and health behaviours.

    Results: Women who transitioned from family care to either part-time work after a short break from the labour force, or to full-time work, reported lower odds of having a disability compared with the reference group of women with children who were mostly employed full-time throughout. Women who shifted from family care to part-time work after a long career break had lower odds of mortality than the reference group. Depressive symptoms were not associated with women's work and family care histories.

    Conclusion: Women's work histories are predictive of their later life disability and mortality. This relationship may be useful in targeting interventions aimed at improving later life health. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanisms linking certain work histories to poorer later life health and to design interventions for those affected.

  • 309.
    Beramendi, Ana
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Morphologican and functional studies on the Drosophila neuromuscular system during postembryonic stages2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The nervous system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model for fundamental neuroscience as well as for biomedical research of human neurological diseases. In this thesis, two aspects of the neuromuscular system have been investigated: the role of the IkB-protein Cactus in the larval neuromuscular junction and the morphology of motor terminals throughout adult life.

    We found that cactus mutant larvae have poor locomotion, morphological abnormalities at the presynaptic site of motor terminals and impaired mechanical and electrophysiological properties, demonstrating that Cactus is clearly involved in the normal functioning of Drosophila neuromuscular system. In the adult, we show that cactus, dorsal and dif are expressed in the brain but are not redistributed between cytoplasm and nucleus in a circadian manner as expected from a previous finding in larval brain. Both Cactus and Dif immunoreactivity was strong in mushroom bodies and antennal lobes, suggesting a putative role in olfactory memory. In the rat, proteins of the same family are involved in the regulation of sleep but we found no indication of such regulation in flies subjected to 6 hrs of sleep deprivation.

    We found that neuromuscular junctions continue to change throughout adult life. Two types of long-term changes in the morphology of neuromuscular junctions are demonstrated here: a daily change in the size of synaptic boutons and long-term changes in bouton size developing over several weeks. By careful morphological studies of flight neuromuscular terminals in clock-gene mutants and wild type flies of different ages we demonstrate that the daily changes depend on the biological clock and disappear in the old fly. Moreover, we show that light is necessary for the motor neurons studied to reach maximum size of synaptic boutons. Lastly, we found that the two clock genes period and timeless are also necessary to control axonal branching.

    Transmission electron microscopy revealed several ultrastructural features distinct of the aging fly and indicative of reduced plasticity. We used a temperature-sensitive allele of shibire that rapidly and reversibly blocks vesicle recycling to investigate whether the morphological phenotype found in neuromuscular junctions of aging flies could be explained by impairment of endocytotic mechanisms. Our results show a clear reduction of the time required for complete paralysis and an increased recovery time in old flies, indicating that aging correlates with impaired endocytosis and membrane dynamics.

  • 310.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bäck, Karin
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental alcohol-related disorders and school performance in 16 year olds - a national cohort study2016Inngår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 111, nr 10, s. 1795-1803Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the links between parental alcohol-related disorders and offspring school performance and, specifically, whether associations vary by gender of parent or child and whether associations are mediated by other adverse psychosocial circumstances commonly appearing together with parental alcohol problems, such as parental mental health problems or criminal behaviour.

    Register study in a national cohort.

    Setting

    Sweden.

    740 618 individuals born in Sweden in 1990-1996.

    Parental hospital admissions for alcohol-related disorders and school performance in their offspring, in the final year of compulsory school at age 15-16, was analysed in relation to sociodemographic confounders and psychosocial covariates, using linear and logistic regressions.

    Both mothers’ and fathers’ alcohol-related hospital admissions were associated with lower z-scores of grades and national mathematic tests scores. After adjustment for parental education and sociodemographic confounders, beta-coefficients of z-scores of grades were -0.42 (95% CI -0.45, -0.39) and -0.42 (95 % CI -0.43,-0.40), and beta-coefficients of mathematic tests scores were -0.36 (95% CI -0.39, -0.33) and -0.31 (95% CI -0.33, -0.29), for mothers’ and fathers’ alcohol-related disorders, respectively. Adjusted ORs for not being eligible for secondary school were 1.99 (95% CI 1.84-2.15) and 2.04 (95% CI 1.95-2.15) for mothers’ and fathers’ alcohol-related disorders, respectively. Adjusting the analyses for psychosocial factors in the family almost eradicated the statistical effects of parental alcohol-related disorders on offspring school performance to beta-coefficients of 0.03 to -0.10 and ORs of 0.89 to 1.15. The effect of a mother's alcohol-related hospital admission on school performance was stronger in girls than in boys, whereas no gender differences were seen for a father's alcohol-related hospital admission.

    Conclusions

    In Sweden, alcohol-related disorders in both mothers and fathers are associated with lower school performance in their children at age 15-16, with most of the statistical effects being attributed to psychosocial circumstances of the family, such as parental psychiatric disorders, drug use, and criminality and receipt of social or child welfare interventions.

  • 311.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Barn till föräldrar med cancer – hur många berörs och vilka är konsekvenserna i ett livsloppsperspektiv?2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 312.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Barn till separerade föräldrar: Hälsa, utbildning och sociala levnadsförhållanden i ett livsloppsperspektiv2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En halv miljon barn i Sverige har föräldrar som inte bor tillsammans. Syftet med den här studien, som utförts av CHESS på uppdrag av Socialstyrelsen, är att belysa hälsa och social situation under skolåren och tidig vuxen ålder för dessa barn. Rapporten baseras på information inhämtad från nationella register och surveyundersökningar om betyg och utbildningskarriär, arbete och inkomster, kriminalitet, psykisk ohälsa, missbruk samt kronisk sjukdom och dödlighet.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar resultaten från denna studie att barn till separerade föräldrar har en ökad risk för ohälsa, skolmisslyckande och ekonomisk utsatthet under skolåren, ungdomsåren och i ung vuxen ålder. Bland dessa barn har barn som bor enbart eller mest med en förälder det största behovet av förebyggande insatser från samhället, i synnerhet om separationen sker i tidig ålder.

  • 313.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental death during childhood and depression in young adults – a national cohort study2016Inngår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 57, nr 9, s. 1092-1098Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There are few prospective, population-based studies on childhood parental death and psychiatric disorders in adulthood, and previous findings are inconclusive. This study investigated the association between parental death from natural and external (suicides, accidents or homicides) causes before 18 years and the risk of clinical depression in young adults, in relation to age at loss and gender of both child and parent.

    Methods

    In this register-based study, a national cohort born in Sweden during 1973–1982 (n = 862,554) was followed with regard to hospital admissions and outpatient care for depression during 2006–2013. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the impact of parental death, taking sociodemographic and parental psychosocial covariates into account.

    Results

    Maternal death from natural causes was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of outpatient care for depression of 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.40] in men and 1.15 (1.01–1.31) in women, after adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, with similar effect sizes for paternal natural death. Death from external causes consistently had higher effect size compared with natural deaths, in particular in relation to risk of hospital admissions for depression where they were as high as HR 3.23 (2.38–4.38) for men, and 1.79 (1.30–2.47) for women after a loss of a mother. Losing a parent in preschool age, compared with losing a parent as a teenager, was associated with higher risks of both hospitalization (p = .006) and outpatient care (p = .001) for depression.

    Conclusions

    This study indicates that parental loss to death from natural causes during childhood is associated with a small increased risk of long-term consequences for psychological health. Children who lose their parents to death from external causes, that is suicides, accidents or homicides, and children losing a parent in young ages are, however, at particular risk and should be given priority in preventive interventions after parental loss.

  • 314.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Saarela, Jan
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Parental Death During Childhood and Subsequent School Performance2014Inngår i: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 133, nr 4, s. 682-689Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Parental death during childhood has been linked to increased mortality and mental health problems in adulthood. School failure may be an important mediator in this trajectory. We investigated the association between parental death before age 15 years and school performance at age 15 to 16 years, taking into account potentially contributing factors such as family socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental substance abuse, mental health problems, and criminality.

    METHODS: This was a register-based national cohort study of 772117 subjects born in Sweden between 1973 and 1981. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze school performance as mean grades (scale: 1-5; SD: 0.70) and school failure (finished school with incomplete grades). Results are presented as -coefficients and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    RESULTS: Parental death was associated with lower grades (ORs: -0.21 [95% CI: -0.23 to -0.20] and -0.17 [95% CI: -0.19 to -0.15]) for paternal and maternal deaths, respectively. Adjustment for SEP and parental psychosocial factors weakened the associations, but the results remained statistically significant. Unadjusted ORs of school failure were 2.04 (95% CI: 1.92 to 2.17) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.35 to 1.69) for paternal and maternal deaths. In fully adjusted models, ORs were 1.40 (95% CI: 1.31 to 1.49) and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.32). The higher crude impact of death due to external causes (ie, accident, violence, suicide) (OR: -0.27 [90% CI: -0.28 to -0.26]), compared with natural deaths (OR: -0.16 [95% CI: -0.17 to -0.15]), was not seen after adjustment for SEP and psychosocial situation of the family.

    CONCLUSIONS: Parental death during childhood was associated with lower grades and school failure. Much of the effect, especially for deaths by external causes, was associated with socially adverse childhood exposures.

  • 315.
    Bergander, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Formation and metabolism of the tryptophan-derived 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole - a light-induced Ah-receptor ligand2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. It is a genetically ancient protein mostly known for binding the extremely toxic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Binding to the AhR explains the variety of toxic responses of TCDD as well as the induction of several drug metabolizing enzymes. Induction of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is the most well characterized of the AhR regulated responses. The physiological functions of AhR and the endogenous ligand(s) for the receptor are under investigation but are not yet unraveled.

    Several tryptophan (TRP) derived indol-containing compounds have been reported to possess AhR affinity/CYP1A1 inducing capacity and TRP mediates CYP1A1 induction by UV light. The TRP photoproduct, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) has the highest AhR affinity described so far and it causes a rapid and transient induction of the CYP1A1 gene in human cells. A number of reports on constitutive CYP1A1 activity in cultured cells is therefore most likely explained by the presence of TRP-derived AhR ligands in cell culture media.

    The aims of the studies were to investigate the impact of FICZ and FICZ metabolism on CYP1A1 gene regulation, to explore the metabolic fate of FICZ and to identify whether normal laboratory light could lead to formation of FICZ and thereby contribute to earlier observed CYP1A1 inducing effects by cell culture media.

    Metabolic studies using fractions of Aroclor-induced and non-induced rat liver and human liver as well as heterologously expressed enzymes revealed that FICZ can be efficiently metabolized by the CYP enzymes 1A1 and 1A2 and by an unknown cytosolic enzyme, to a number of hydroxylated and other oxidized metabolites. All of the hitherto identified 11 hydroxylated metabolites of FICZ are prone to conjugation reactions by glucuronosyltranferases and sulfotransferases. The metabolites formed by human enzymes are primarily sulfated. Thus, the sulfated metabolites of FICZ will be crucial in the future analyzes of FICZ formation in vivo. FICZ was identified to be formed, not only by UV illumination, but also by normal laboratory light. The constitutive CYP1A1 activity was significantly induced through the formation of several TRP related photoproducts in light-exposed medium. One of these photoproducts was identified as FICZ. Thus, the TRP photoproduct, FICZ, fits into a model in which FICZ auto-regulates the expression of induced enzymes. It is hypothesized that FICZ might function as a chemical messenger that activates AhR in response to light and might be one of several possible endogenous AhR ligands.

  • 316. Bergdahl, Maud
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Difference in apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (APOE ɛ4) among dentate and edentulous subjects2008Inngår i: Gerodontology, ISSN 0734-0664, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 179-186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of apolipoprotein (APOE) alleles and determine whether APOE type 4 allele (ɛ4) was associated with edentulousness even when certain factors were controlled.

    Background: The APOE are important in lipid homeostasis, and APOE ɛ4 has been found in many diseases and to have a negative impact on longevity. Tooth loss is more common in ill aged subjects with low income and education.

    Materials and methods: In a population-based study involving 1860 subjects between 35 and 85 years 1321 dentate (mean age = 54; 54% women, 46% men) and 539 edentulous (mean age = 72; 62% women, 38% men) subjects were studied. Logistic regression was performed with dentate/edentulous as dependent variables and years of education, socio-economic status, social network, stress level, handicap from birth, 23 various diseases and APOE ɛ4 as covariates. Thereafter, APOE ɛ4 frequencies were studied in 342 dentate and 336 edentulous subjects 50–85 years of age. The subjects were matched with regard to age, gender, years of education, living condition, stress level, handicap from birth and 23 various diseases.

    Results: APOE allele frequency in the total group was ɛ2 = 7.8%, ɛ3 = 76.4% and ɛ4 = 15.8%. Age, living condition, years of education and APOE ɛ4 were significant covariates in edentulous subjects (p ≤ 0.001). APOE ɛ4 in the matched groups revealed significant differences between the dentate group and the edentulous group (χ2 = 5.68; p = 0.017). There was no group effect (F(29,648) = 0.849; p < 0.696; Wilks' lambda = 0.963). In the dentate group, the frequencies of APOE were: ɛ2 = 8.8%, ɛ3 = 77.9% and ɛ4 = 13.3%. Corresponding frequencies of APOE in the edentulous group were: ɛ2 = 6.6%, ɛ3 = 75.4% and ɛ4 = 18.0%.

    Conclusion: Despite matching both groups with regard to different background factors, the edentulous group had a higher frequency of APOE ɛ4 than the dentate group. Thus, genetic factors might contribute to greater risk in developing complex oral diseases leading to tooth loss or just be an indication that the subjects in our study carrying APOE ɛ4 are more fragile.

  • 317. Bergendal, G.
    et al.
    Martola, J.
    Stawiarz, L.
    Kristoffersen-Wiberg, M.
    Fredrikson, S.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Callosal atrophy in multiple sclerosis is related to cognitive speed2013Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 127, nr 4, s. 281-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bergendal G, Martola J, Stawiarz L, Kristoffersen-Wiberg M, Fredrikson S, Almkvist O. Callosal atrophy in multiple sclerosis is related to cognitive speed. Acta Neurol Scand: 2013: 127: 281-289. (C) 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background Long-term changes regarding corpus callosum area (CCA) and information processing speed in cognitive and sensory-motor tasks have rarely been studied in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective and methods Information processing speed in cognitive (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT), sensory (visual and auditory reaction time) and motor (finger-tapping speed, FT; right and left hand) tasks as well as auditory inter-hemispheric transfer (verbal dichotic listening, VDL) was related to CCA, measured by MRI at baseline and at follow-up after nine years in 22 patients with MS. Possible confounding by demographic (age, gender and education), clinical (symptom onset, duration, severity of disease) and relative brain volume (RBV) as well as T2 lesion load was taken into account. Results The smaller the CCA at baseline, the slower was SDMT performance at baseline. In a similar way, CCA at follow-up was associated with poor SDMT result at follow-up. Furthermore, the higher the annual rate of change in CCA, the poorer was performance in VDL on the left ear and the more pronounced was the right ear advantage. A positive relationship between performance in VDL right ear and annual rate of change in RBV was also seen. Sensory-motor tests were not significantly associated with CCA. T2 lesion load at baseline was associated with FT performance at baseline. Demographic, clinical and radiological (RBV and T2 lesion load) characteristics did not confound the significant relation between CCA and SDMT. Conclusions CCA unlike RBV and T2 lesion load was associated with SDMT, which indicated a marked cognitive rather than perceptual-motor component.

  • 318. Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Bondjers, Kristina
    Arnberg, Filip
    Nilsson, Doris
    Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Utvärdering av Barntraumateamet i Norrköping2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 319.
    Berglund, Anna-Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Dual Targeting of Proteins to Mitochondria and Chloroplasts2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of mitochondrial and chloroplastic proteins are nuclear encoded, synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the respective organelle using an N-terminal extension, the targeting peptide (TP). After import into the organelle, the TP is cleaved off and degraded by the Presequence protease (PreP). The import process is thought to be highly specific, however there is a group of proteins that are localised to both mitochondria and chloroplasts, using an ambiguous, dual targeting peptide (dTP). The aim of this thesis was to investigate targeting properties of dTPs. Analysis of the amino acid content of all currently known dually targeted proteins revealed that the dTPs are enriched in hydroxylated, hydrophobic and positively charged residues, lacking acidic residues, whereas the content of serine, arginine and proline is intermediary in comparison to the mitochondrial and chloroplastic TPs. dTPs do not form amphiphilic a-helices, characteristic of the mitochondrial TPs, but the helical structure can be induced in membrane mimetic environment, as revealed by spectroscopic studies of a dTP of an aminoacyl- tRNA-synthetase (aaRS). In vitro and in vivo import experiments of fusion constructs containing N-terminal truncations of seven aaRS-dTPs coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) demonstrated different organisation of targeting determinants showing that the N-terminal portion of dTPs was crucial for import into both organelles or at least one organelle for different constructs. In addition, studies of targeting capacity of the TPs of PreP homologues from plant, mammal and yeast (AtPreP, hPreP and Mop112) showed species dependent intra-mitochondrial localisation of the coupled GFP and demonstrated functional complementation of an intermembrane space located Mop112 with a matrix located AtPreP. The studies presented here contribute to understanding of the intracellular and intra-mitochondrial sorting process of proteins in the eukaryotic cell.

  • 320.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Writings in remembrance of Professor Trygg Engen2012Inngår i: Olfactory Cognition: From Perception and Memory to Environmental Odours and Neuroscience / [ed] Gesualdo M. Zucco, Rachel S. Herz, and Benoist Schaal, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, s. 295-312Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 321.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Höglund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Is there a measurement system for odour quality?2012Inngår i: Olfactory Cognition: From Perception and Memory to Environmental Odours and Neuroscience, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, s. 3-21Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although humans can discriminate a huge number of odours, the mechanisms behind the perception of odours are not well understood. The theory of the present essay and our experiments were developed with the view that odours are homogeneous perceptions (as opposed to visual objects that are heterogeneous percepts). Other typical examples of homogeneous perceptions are colours and some emotional states. Thus, through perceptual learning, which is a prerequisite for perceiving, we become aware of and may recognise odours in the environment. Typically, odours are detected at very low concentrations as compared to chemical instruments, the electronic nose inclusive. Four principles of investigating the human world of odour qualities are discussed: (i) classification and sorting according to odour-quality resemblance, (ii) using names and verbal attributes for odour sources, (iii) using odour qualities for a representative set of reference odorants, and (iv) measuring odour quality by similarity scaling of pairs of odorous stimuli. Although a huge number of odours can be discriminated, the quality of odour mixtures is intermediary among the odour qualities of their components. This applies to single chemical compounds or mixtures thereof and for very broadband mixtures like indoor air. Our perceptual world simply consists of a massive amount of odour qualities potentially attributable to sources in the environment. Their organisation is, however, still a mystery.

  • 322.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Höglund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Esfandabad, Hassan Shams
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    A bisensory method for odor and irritation detection of formaldehyde and pyridine2012Inngår i: CHEMOSENS PERCEPT, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 146-157Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A bisensory method was developed for determining the psychometric functions and absolute thresholds for odor and sensory irritation of two odorous irritants. Individual and group thresholds for formaldehyde or pyridine were measured for 31 age-matched subjects (18-35 years old). P (50) absolute thresholds were for formaldehyde odor 110 ppb (range 23-505), for pyridine odor 77 ppb (range 20-613), and for pyridine irritation 620 ppb (range 90-3,656); too few subjects' formaldehyde irritation thresholds were possible to determine (human exposures limited to 1 ppm). In spite of large interindividual differences, all thresholds for irritation were higher than for odor. The average slopes of the 62 psychometric functions for odor and the 32 possible for sensory irritation were highest for formaldehyde odor (83% per log ppb) and equal for pyridine odor and irritation (68% per log ppb). The bisensory method for measuring odor and sensory irritation jointly produced detection functions and absolute thresholds compatible with those earlier published; however, a steeper slope for sensory irritation than odor was expected for pyridine. The bisensory method is intended for measuring odor and sensory irritation to broadband mixtures and dynamic exposures, like indoor air.

  • 323. Berglund, Linnea Hergot
    et al.
    Prytz, Hanne Sandberg
    Perski, Aleksander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Svartberg, Johan
    Testosterone levels and psychological health status in men from a general population: the Troms circle divide o study2011Inngår i: The Aging Male, ISSN 1368-5538, E-ISSN 1473-0790, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 37-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods. aEuro integral Total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were analysed and free testosterone levels was calculated in 3413 men participating in the fifth Troms circle divide o study in 2001. Self-administered questionnaires including information about education, marital status, smoking habits and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 (SCL-10, a 10-item psychological health questionnaire) were completed. The cross-sectional data were analysed with partial association and analysis of variance and covariance. Results. aEuro integral The complete SCL-10 was not associated with total or free testosterone, but symptoms of anxiety were negatively associated with both total and free testosterone (p < 0.05). Men presumed to be testosterone deficient, with testosterone levels in the lowest 10th percentile, had increased SCL-10 score compared to men with higher testosterone levels (p == 0.021), before and after adjusting for age, waist circumference, marital status, education and smoking. There was an even stronger association between men presumed to be testosterone deficient and symptoms of anxiety (p < 0.001). However, men with more pronounced symptoms indicating mental disorder did not have lower testosterone levels. Conclusions. aEuro integral Men presumed being testosterone deficient had a higher symptom score, in particularly regarding anxiety, but they did not have pathological symptoms. Thus, lower testosterone levels was only associated with subthreshold symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  • 324. Bergman, Ingvar
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The effect of age on fluid intelligence is fully mediated by physical health2013Inngår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 57, nr 1, s. 100-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the extent to which the effect of age on cognitive ability is predicted by individual differences in physical health. The sample consisted of 118 volunteer subjects who were healthy and ranging in age from 26 to 91. The examinations included a clinical investigation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain neuroimaging, and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. The effect of age on fluid IQ with and without visual spatial praxis and on crystallized IQ was tested whether being fully-, partially-or non-mediated by physical health. Structural equation analyses showed that the best and most parsimonious fit to the data was provided by models that were fully mediated for fluid IQ without praxis, non-mediated for crystallized IQ and partially mediated for fluid IQ with praxis. The diseases of the circulatory and nervous systems were the major mediators. It was concluded from the pattern of findings that the effect of age on fluid intelligence is fully mediated by physical health, while crystallized intelligence is non-mediated and visual spatial praxis is partially mediated, influenced mainly by direct effects of age. Our findings imply that improving health by acting against the common age-related circulatory-and nervous system diseases and risk factors will oppose the decline in fluid intelligence with age.

  • 325.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    The role of psychopathology as motivator for drug dependency—some moderating remarks2013Inngår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 108, nr 4, s. 673-674Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 326.
    Bergmark, Karin H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Internet addiction - vad är det?2016Inngår i: Tidskriften för svensk psykiatri, ISSN 1653-8579, nr 1, s. 59-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 327.
    Bergqvist, Kersti
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Åberg Yngwe, Monica
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lundberg, Olle
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Understanding the role of welfare state characteristics for health and inequalities - an analytical review2013Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, s. 1234-Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The past decade has witnessed a growing body of research on welfare state characteristics and health inequalities but the picture is, despite this, inconsistent. We aim to review this research by focusing on theoretical and methodological differences between studies that at least in part may lead to these mixed findings. Methods: Three reviews and relevant bibliographies were manually explored in order to find studies for the review. Related articles were searched for in PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Database searches were done in PubMed and Web of Science. The search period was restricted to 2005-01-01 to 2013-02-28. Fifty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Three main approaches to comparative welfare state research are identified; the Regime approach, the Institutional approach, and the Expenditure approach. The Regime approach is the most common and regardless of the empirical regime theory employed and the amendments made to these, results are diverse and contradictory. When stratifying studies according to other features, not much added clarity is achieved. The Institutional approach shows more consistent results; generous policies and benefits seem to be associated with health in a positive way for all people in a population, not only those who are directly affected or targeted. The Expenditure approach finds that social and health spending is associated with increased levels of health and smaller health inequalities in one way or another but the studies are few in numbers making it somewhat difficult to get coherent results. Conclusions: Based on earlier reviews and our results we suggest that future research should focus less on welfare regimes and health inequalities and more on a multitude of different types of studies, including larger analyses of social spending and social rights in various policy areas and how these are linked to health in different social strata. But, we also need more detailed evaluation of specific programmes or interventions, as well as more qualitative analyses of the experiences of different types of policies among the people and families that need to draw on the collective resources.

  • 328.
    Bergström, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Sörensen, Malin H
    Boon Sing Ng, Jovice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Alberius, Peter C.A.
    Improved enzymatic activity of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase immobilized in a hydrophobic particulate mesoporous carrier2010Inngår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 343, s. 359-365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus has been immobilized within particulate mesoporous silica carriers, with either hydrophilic or hydrophobic supporting surfaces, produced by the newly developed emulsion and solvent evaporation (ESE) method. The Michaelis–Menten model was used to calculate the parameters related to the enzymatic activity of lipase i.e. the turnover number, kcat, and the specific activity. The specific activity was improved by immobilization of lipase onto the hydrophobic support, compared to lipase immobilized onto the hydrophilic support and lipase free in solution. The enhanced enzymatic activity of lipase onto a hydrophobic support was attributed to interfacial activation of the Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase when it is attached to a hydrophobic surface and a reduced denaturation. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM) studies, of fluorescently tagged lipase, showed that leakage of the lipase from the mesoporous particles was limited to an initial period of only a few hours. Both the rate and the amount of lipase leached were reduced when the lipase was immobilized onto the hydrophobic support.

  • 329.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Fabian, Helena
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Salari, Raziye
    Preschool children living in joint physical custody arrangements show less psychological symptoms than those living mostly or only with one parent2018Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, nr 2, s. 294-300Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Joint physical custody (JPC), where children spend about equal time in both parent's homes after parental separation, is increasing. The suitability of this practice for preschool children, with a need for predictability and continuity, has been questioned.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, we used data on 3656 Swedish children aged three to five years living in intact families, JPC, mostly with one parent or single care. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, completed by parents and preschool teachers, as the outcome measure.

    Results

    Children in JPC showed less psychological problems than those living mostly (adjusted B 1.81; 95% CI [0.66 to 2.95]) or only with one parent (adjusted B 1.94; 95% CI [0.75 to 3.13]), in parental reports. In preschool teacher reports, the adjusted Betas were 1.27, 95% CI [0.14 to 2.40] and 1.41, 95% CI [0.24 to 2.58], respectively. In parental reports, children in JPC and those in intact families had similar outcomes, while teachers reported lower unadjusted symptom scores for children in intact families.

    Conclusion

    Joint physical custody arrangements were not associated with more psychological symptoms in children aged 3–5, but longitudinal studies are needed to account for potential preseparation differences.

  • 330.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fifty moves a year: is there an association between joint physical custody and psychosomatic problems in children?2015Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 69, nr 8, s. 769-774Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many Western countries, an increasing number of children with separated parents have joint physical custody, that is, live equally much in their parent's respective homes. In Sweden, joint physical custody is particularly common and concerns between 30% and 40% of the children with separated parents. It has been hypothesised that the frequent moves and lack of stability in parenting may be stressful for these children.

    Methods: We used data from a national classroom survey of all sixth and ninth grade students in Sweden (N=147839) to investigate the association between children's psychosomatic problems and living arrangements. Children in joint physical custody were compared with those living only or mostly with one parent and in nuclear families. We conducted sex-specific linear regression analyses for z-transformed sum scores of psychosomatic problems and adjusted for age, country of origin as well as children's satisfaction with material resources and relationships to parents. Clustering by school was accounted for by using a two-level random intercept model.

    Results: Children in joint physical custody suffered from less psychosomatic problems than those living mostly or only with one parent but reported more symptoms than those in nuclear families. Satisfaction with their material resources and parent–child relationships was associated with children's psychosomatic health but could not explain the differences between children in the different living arrangements.

    Conclusions: Children with non-cohabitant parents experience more psychosomatic problems than those in nuclear families. Those in joint physical custody do however report better psychosomatic health than children living mostly or only with one parent. Longitudinal studies with information on family factors before and after the separation are needed to inform policy of children's postseparation living arrangements.

  • 331.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Wells, Michael B.
    Köhler, Lennart
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Children with two homes: Psychological problems in relation to living arrangements in Nordic 2-9 year olds2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Joint physical custody, children spending equal time in each parents’ respective home after a parental divorce, is particularly common in Nordic compared with other Western countries. Older children have been shown to fare well in this practice but for young children there are few existing studies. The aim of this paper is to study psychological problems in 2- to 9-year-old Nordic children in different family forms. Methods: Total symptom score according to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as well as scores showing externalizing problems were compared among 152 children in joint physical custody, 303 in single care and 3207 in nuclear families through multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Children in single care had more psychological symptoms than those in joint physical custody (B = 1.08; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.67) and those in nuclear families had the least reported symptoms (B = −0.53; 95% CI −0.89 to −0.17). Externalizing problems were also lower in nuclear families (B = −0.28, 95% CI −0.52 to −0.04) compared with joint physical custody after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions: Young children with non-cohabiting parents suffered from more psychological problems than those in intact families. Children in joint physical custody had a lower total problem score than those in single care after adjusting for covariates. Longitudinal studies with information on family factors before the separation are needed to inform policy of young children’s post-separation living arrangements.

  • 332.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rajmil, Luis
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gustafsson, Per A
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Living in two homes-a Swedish national survey of wellbeing in 12 and 15 year olds with joint physical custody2013Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, s. Article no 868-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The practice of joint physical custody, where children spend equal time in each parent's home after they separate, is increasing in many countries. It is particularly common in Sweden, where this custody arrangement applies to 30 per cent of children with separated parents. The aim of this study was to examine children's health-related quality of life after parental separation, by comparing children living with both parents in nuclear families to those living in joint physical custody and other forms of domestic arrangements.

    Methods Data from a national Swedish classroom study of 164,580 children aged 12 and 15-years-old were analysed by two-level linear regression modelling. Z-scores were used to equalise scales for ten dimensions of wellbeing from the KIDSCREEN-52 and the KIDSCREEN-10 Index and analysed for children in joint physical custody in comparison with children living in nuclear families and mostly or only with one parent.

    Results Living in a nuclear family was positively associated with almost all aspects of wellbeing in comparison to children with separated parents. Children in joint physical custody experienced more positive outcomes, in terms of subjective wellbeing, family life and peer relations, than children living mostly or only with one parent. For the 12-year-olds, beta coefficients for moods and emotions ranged from -0.20 to -0.33 and peer relations from -0.11 to -0.20 for children in joint physical custody and living mostly or only with one parent. The corresponding estimates for the 15-year-olds varied from -0.08 to -0.28 and from -0.03 to -0.13 on these subscales. The 15-year-olds in joint physical custody were more likely than the 12-year-olds to report similar wellbeing levels on most outcomes to the children in nuclear families.

    Conclusions Children who spent equal time living with both parents after a separation reported better wellbeing than children in predominantly single parent care. This was particularly true for the 15-year-olds, while the reported wellbeing of 12-years-olds was less satisfactory. There is a need for further studies that can account for the pre and post separation context of individual families and the wellbeing of younger age groups in joint physical custody.

  • 333. Bergvall, Tomas
    et al.
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Lindquist, Marie
    vigiGrade: A Tool to Identify Well-Documented Individual Case Reports and Highlight Systematic Data Quality Issues2014Inngår i: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 65-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual case safety reports of suspected harm from medicines are fundamental to post-marketing surveillance. Their value is directly proportional to the amount of clinically relevant information they include. To improve the quality of the data, communication between stakeholders is essential and can be facilitated by a simple score and visualisation of the results. The objective of this study was to propose a measure of completeness and identify predictors of well-documented reports, globally. The Uppsala Monitoring Centre has developed the vigiGrade completeness score to measure the amount of clinically relevant information in structured format, without reflecting whether the information establishes causality between the drug and adverse event. The vigiGrade completeness score (C) starts at 1 for reports with information on time-to-onset, age, sex, indication, outcome, report type, dose, country, primary reporter and comments. For each missing dimension, a penalty is detracted which varies with clinical relevance. We classified reports with C > 0.8 as well-documented and identified all such reports in the WHO global individual case safety report database, VigiBase, from 2007 to January 2012. We utilised odds ratios with statistical shrinkage to identify subgroups with unexpectedly high proportions of well-documented reports. Altogether, 430,000 (13 %) of the studied reports achieved C > 0.8 in VigiBase. For VigiBase as a whole, the median completeness was 0.41 with an interquartile range of 0.26-0.63. Two out of three well-documented reports come from Europe, and two out of three from physicians. Among the countries with more than 1,000 reports in total, the highest rate of well-documented reports is 65 % in Italy. Tunisia, Spain, Portugal, Croatia and Denmark each have rates above 50 %, and another 20 countries have rates above 30 %. On the whole, 24 % of the reports from physicians are well-documented compared with only 4 % for consumers/non-health professionals. Notably, Denmark and Norway have more than 50 % well-documented reports from consumers/non-health professionals and higher rates than for physicians. The rate of well-documented reports for the E2B format is 11 % compared with 22 % for the older INTDIS (International Drug Information System) format. However, for E2B reports entered via the WHO programme's e-reporting system VigiFlow, the rate is 29 %. Overall, only one report in eight provides the desired level of information, but much higher proportions are observed for individual countries. Physicians and e-reporting tools also generate greater proportions of well-documented reports overall. Reports from consumers/non-health professionals in specific regions have excellent quality, which illustrates their potential for the future. vigiGrade has already provided valuable information by highlighting data quality issues both in Italy and the USA.

  • 334. Berkman, Lisa F.
    et al.
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Working conditions and health2014Inngår i: Social epidemiology / [ed] Lisa F. Berkman, Ichiro Kawachi, and Maria Glymour, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, 2, s. 153--181Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 335. Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Biguet, Gabriele
    Stathakarou, Natalia
    Westin-Hägglöf, Beata
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Jeding, Kerstin
    McGrath, Cormac
    Zary, Nabil
    Kononowicz, Andrzej A.
    Virtual Patients in a Behavioral Medicine Massive Open Online Course (MOOC): A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Participants' Perceptions2017Inngår i: Academic Psychiatry, ISSN 1042-9670, E-ISSN 1545-7230, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 631-641Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The purpose of this article is to explore learners' perceptions of using virtual patients in a behavioral medicine Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) and thereby describe innovative ways of disseminating knowledge in health-related areas. Methods A 5-week MOOC on behavioral medicine was hosted on the edX platform. The authors developed two branched virtual patients consisting of video recordings of a live standardized patient, with multiple clinical decision points and narration unfolding depending on learners' choices. Students interacted with the virtual patients to treat stress and sleep problems. Answers to the exit survey and participant comments from the discussion forum were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results In total, 19,236 participants enrolled in the MOOC, out of which 740 received the final certificate. The virtual patients were completed by 2317 and 1640 participants respectively. Among survey respondents (n = 442), 83.1% agreed that the virtual patient exercise was helpful. The qualitative analysis resulted in themes covering what it was like to work with the virtual patient, with subthemes on learner-centered education, emotions/eustress, game comparisons, what the participants learned, what surprised them, how confident participants felt about applying interventions in practice, suggestions for improvement, and previous experiences of virtual patients. Conclusions Students were enthusiastic about interacting with the virtual patients as a means to apply new knowledge about behavioral medicine interventions. The most common suggestion was to incorporate more interactive cases with various levels of complexity. Further research should include patient outcomes and focus on interprofessional aspects of learning with virtual patients in a MOOC.

  • 336. Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Changes in Mental and Physical Well-Being Among Problematic Alcohol and Drug Users in 12-Month Internet-Based Intervention Trials2015Inngår i: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, ISSN 0893-164X, E-ISSN 1939-1501, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 97-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve-month well-being outcomes were investigated for 835 participants in 1 of 2 randomized controlled trials offering online assessment and brief intervention for either problematic alcohol (n = 633) or drug use (n = 202). The well-being of participants who had reduced their substance use to a less problematic level (regardless of intervention) over 12 months was compared with that of participants who had maintained or increased their use. At a 12-month follow-up, the 227 alcohol trial participants with reduced use showed better well-being in comparison to the 406 with stable or increased use, in physical health and sleep quality, as well as general well-being, ability to concentrate, lower stress, better social life satisfaction and sense of control, and a lower rate of depressed mood. Among the 70 drug trial participants who had reduced their drug use over 12 months, 80% had ceased all drug use, and at follow-up they had fewer alcohol-related problems than the stable group. No differences in well-being between these groups were identified. Self-reported access to additional treatment modalities beyond the trial interventions (e.g., speaking to someone about problematic use and accessing additional Internet-based interventions) was higher among participants in both cohorts with reduced substance use in comparison to those with stable/increased use. Drug users who reduced their use accessed prescribed medication to a larger extent than those whose use remained stable or increased. Points to consider when conducting future research on well-being and problematic substance use are discussed.

  • 337. Bernard, H.
    et al.
    Faber, M.
    Wilking, H.
    Haller, S.
    Höhle, Michael
    Robert Koch Institute, Germany.
    Schielke, A.
    Ducomble, T.
    Siffczyk, C.
    Merbecks, S. S.
    Fricke, G.
    Hamouda, O.
    Stark, K.
    Werber, D.
    Large multistate outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with frozen strawberries, East Germany, 20122014Inngår i: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 19, nr 8, artikkel-id pii=20719Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From 20 September through 5 October 2012, the largest recorded food-borne outbreak in Germany occurred. Norovirus was identified as the causative agent. We conducted four analytical epidemiological studies, two case–control studies and two surveys (in total 150 cases) in secondary schools in three different federal states. Overall, 390 institutions in five federal states reported nearly 11,000 cases of gastroenteritis. They were predominantly schools and childcare facilities and were supplied almost exclusively by one large catering company. The analytical epidemiological studies consistently identified dishes containing strawberries as the most likely vehicle, with estimated odds ratios ranging from 2.6 to 45.4. The dishes had been prepared in different regional kitchens of the catering company and were served in the schools two days before the peaks of the respective outbreaks. All affected institutions had received strawberries of one lot, imported frozen from China. The outbreak vehicle was identified within a week, which led to a timely recall and prevented more than half of the lot from reaching the consumer. This outbreak exemplifies the risk of large outbreaks in the era of global food trade. It underlines the importance of timely surveillance and epidemiological outbreak investigations for food safety.

  • 338. Bernard, Helen
    et al.
    Werber, Dirk
    Höhle, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Robert Koch Institute, Germany.
    Estimating the under-reporting of norovirus illness in Germany utilizing enhanced awareness of diarrhoea during a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 in 2011 - a time series analysis2014Inngår i: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Laboratory- confirmed norovirus illness is reportable in Germany since 2001. Reported case numbers are known to be undercounts, and a valid estimate of the actual incidence in Germany does not exist. An increase of reported norovirus illness was observed simultaneously to a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104: H4 in Germany in 2011 - likely due to enhanced (but not complete) awareness of diarrhoea at that time. We aimed at estimating age- and sex-specific factors of that excess, which should be interpretable as (minimal) under-reporting factors of norovirus illness in Germany. Methods: We used national reporting data on laboratory-confirmed norovirus illness in Germany from calendar week 31 in 2003 through calendar week 30 in 2012. A negative binomial time series regression model was used to describe the weekly counts in 8.2 age- sex strata while adjusting for secular trend and seasonality. Overall as well as age- and sex- specific factors for the excess were estimated by including additional terms (either an O104: H4 outbreak period indicator or a triple interaction term between outbreak period, age and sex) in the model. Results: We estimated the overall under- reporting factor to be 1.76 (95% Cl 1.28- 2.41) for the first three weeks of the outbreak before the outbreak vehicle was publicly communicated. Highest under-reporting factors were here estimated for 20- 29 year-old males (2.88, 95% Cl 2.01- 4.11) and females (2.67, 95% Cl 1.87- 3.79). Under-reporting was substantially lower in persons aged < 10 years and 70 years or older. Conclusions: These are the first estimates of (minimal) under- reporting factors for norovirus illness in Germany. They provide a starting point for a more detailed investigation of the relationship between actual incidence and reporting incidence of norovirus illness in Germany.

  • 339.
    Bernard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Temporary, self-employed and permanent workers: A Swedish study on work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013Inngår i: , 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 340.
    Berndt, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Fors, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Childhood living conditions, education and health among the oldest old in Sweden2016Inngår i: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 631-648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives were to investigate the associations between social and financial living conditions in childhood, education and morbidity in old age. The study population (N = 591; 76+ years old) was assembled from two nationally representative Swedish surveys, in 1968 and 2011, that together made longitudinal analysis possible. Morbidity in old age comprised self-reported measures of musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular disease, self-rated health and impaired mobility. There were no independent associations between adverse childhood living conditions and morbidity. However, adverse childhood living conditions were associated with an increased likelihood of low education. Moreover, low education was associated with a higher probability of health problems in old age. The results did not show any associations between adverse childhood conditions and late-life morbidity. However, adverse childhood conditions were associated with lower levels of education which, in turn, was associated with health problems and attrition from the study. These results suggest that adverse childhood conditions may indeed be associated with health and survival in old age, but mainly through mechanisms acting earlier in the lifecourse.

  • 341. Bernehäll Claesson, Inger
    et al.
    Brodin, Jane
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    What families with children with brittle bones want to tell2002Inngår i: Child: Care, Health and Development, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 309-315Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interviews with parents of children with brittle bones and questionnaires answered by 30 families about everyday life.

  • 342. Berner, Jessica
    et al.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Jogréus, Claes
    Anderberg, Peter
    Sköldunger, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Wahlberg, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Berglund, Johan
    Factors influencing Internet usage in older adults (65 years and above) living in rural and urban Sweden2015Inngår i: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 237-249Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults living in rural and urban areas have shown to distinguish themselves in technology adoption; a clearer profile of their Internet use is important in order to provide better technological and health-care solutions. Older adults' Internet use was investigated across large to midsize cities and rural Sweden. The sample consisted of 7181 older adults ranging from 59 to 100 years old. Internet use was investigated with age, education, gender, household economy, cognition, living alone/or with someone and rural/urban living. Logistic regression was used. Those living in rural areas used the Internet less than their urban counterparts. Being younger and higher educated influenced Internet use; for older urban adults, these factors as well as living with someone and having good cognitive functioning were influential. Solutions are needed to avoid the exclusion of some older adults by a society that is today being shaped by the Internet.

  • 343. Bernhard-Oettel, C.
    et al.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The temporaries, theself-employed and the permanent staff: A Swedish study comparing work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 344.
    Berntzon, Lotta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Ronnevi, L. O.
    Bergman, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    DETECTION OF BMAA IN THE HUMAN CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM2015Inngår i: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 292, s. 137-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an extremely devastating neurodegenerative disease with an obscure etiology. The amino acid beta-N-methyl-L-alanine (BMAA) produced by globally widespread phytoplankton has been implicated in the etiology of human motor neuron diseases. BMAA was recently proven to be present in Baltic Sea food webs, ranging from plankton to larger Baltic Sea organisms, some serving as important food items (fish) for humans. To test whether exposure to BMAA in a Baltic Sea setting is reflected in humans, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from individuals suffering from ALS were analyzed, together with sex- and age-matched individuals not inflicted with ALS. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), in conjunction with diagnostic transitions revealed BMAA in three (12%) of the totally 25 Swedish individuals tested, with no preference for those suffering from ALS. The three BMAA-positive samples were all retrieved from the CSF, while BMAA was not detected in the blood. The data show that BMAA, potentially originating from Baltic Sea phytoplankton, may reach the human central nervous system, but does not lend support to the notion that BMAA is resident specifically in ALS-patients. However, while dietary exposure to BMAA may be intermittent and, if so, difficult to detect, our data provide the first demonstration of BMAA in the central nervous system of human individuals ante mortem quantified with UHPLC-MS/MS, and therefore calls for extended research efforts.

  • 345. Beronius, A.
    et al.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Making the most of expert judgment in hazard and risk assessment of chemicals2017Inngår i: Toxicology Research, ISSN 2045-452X, E-ISSN 2045-4538, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 571-577Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the reliability and relevance of toxicity and ecotoxicity studies is an integral step in the assessment of the hazards and risks of chemicals. This evaluation is inherently reliant on expert judgment, which often leads to differences between experts' conclusions regarding how individual studies can contribute to the body of evidence. The conclusions of regulatory assessment, such as establishing safe exposure levels for humans and the environment and calculations of margins of exposure, may have large consequences for which chemicals are permitted on the market and their allowed uses. It is therefore important that such assessments are based on all reliable and relevant scientific data, and that assessment principles and assumptions, such as expert judgment, are transparently applied. It is not possible nor desirable to completely eliminate expert judgment from the evaluation of (eco) toxicity studies. However, it is desirable to introduce measures that increase structure and transparency in the evaluation process so as to provide scientifically robust risk assessments that can be used for regulatory decision making. In this article we present results from workshop exercises with Nordic experts to illustrate how experts' evaluations regarding the reliability and relevance of (eco) toxicity studies for risk assessment may vary and discuss methods intended to promote structure and transparency in the evaluation process.

  • 346.
    Beronius, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Hanberg, Annika
    Zilliacus, Johanna
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals2014Inngår i: Current opinion in pharmacology (Print), ISSN 1471-4892, E-ISSN 1471-4973, Vol. 19, s. 99-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulatory risk assessment is traditionally based primarily on toxicity studies conducted according to standardized and internationally validated test guidelines. However, health risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is argued to rely on the efficient integration of findings from academic research. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current developments to facilitate the use of academic research in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals and how certain aspects of study design and reporting are particularly important for the risk assessment process. By bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of EDCs, scientific uncertainty in risk assessment conclusions can be reduced, allowing for better targeted policy decisions for chemical risk reduction.

  • 347. Beronius, Anna
    et al.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Hanberg, Annika
    The influence of study design and sex-differences on results from developmental neurotoxicity studies of bisphenol A, implications for toxicity testing2013Inngår i: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 311, nr 1-2, s. 13-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of bisphenol A (BPA) has been investigated in a large number of studies. However, there are discrepancies in the results reported between the studies. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze factors that may contribute to these differences and to assess whether there are sex-differences in the sensitivity of certain endpoints or tests used in DNT-studies. Forty-four DNT studies of BPA were identified from the open literature. Details about study design and results from each study, as well as the criteria for DNT testing according to the standardized OECD test guideline (TG) 426, were collected in a database. This enabled systematic and detailed comparisons between studies as well as to the criteria and recommendations stated in TG 426. Multivariate analyses were also used to investigate how different factors of the study design contributed to differences in study results. The analyses showed behavioral effects were often observed for endpoints that are not required according to OECD TG 426, such as anxiety-related, social and sexual behaviors, especially at very low doses and in female offspring. On the other hand relatively few studies observed any effects on motor activity, which is commonly used in screening for neurotoxic effects in regulatory testing. However, varied and to some extent seemingly contradictory results have been reported in these studies, especially for endpoints related to motor activity and anxiety and exploration. Many studies were also poorly reported, limiting these analyses. No strong conclusions could be drawn from the multivariate analyses. A few factors of study design, such as the size of the dose and number of dose levels used and the use of litter or individual pup as statistical unit seemed to have some influence on study results. In conclusion, this analysis suggests that DNT-studies conducted according to the standardized OECD TG 426 may overlook sensitive effects of BPA, and possibly other potential endocrine disruptors, especially in female offspring.

  • 348.
    Beronius, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Molander, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Hanberg, Annika
    Facilitating the use of non-standard in vivo studies in health risk assessment of chemicals: a proposal to improve evaluation criteria and reporting2014Inngår i: Journal of Applied Toxicology, ISSN 0260-437X, E-ISSN 1099-1263, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 607-617Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve data availability in health risk assessment of chemicals and fill information gaps there is a need to facilitate the use of non-standard toxicity studies, i.e. studies not conducted according to any standardized toxicity test guidelines. The purpose of this work was to propose criteria and guidance for the evaluation of reliability and relevance of non-standard in vivo studies, which could be used to facilitate systematic and transparent evaluation of such studies for health risk assessment. Another aim was to propose user friendly guidance for reporting of non-standard studies intended to promote an improvement in reporting of studies that could be of use in risk assessment. Requirements and recommendations for the design and execution of in vivo toxicity studies were identified from The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guidelines, and served as basis for the data evaluation criteria and reporting guidelines. Feedback was also collected from experts within the field of toxicity testing and risk assessment and used to construct a two-tiered framework for study evaluation, as well as refine the reporting guidelines. The proposed framework emphasizes the importance of study relevance and an important aspect is to not completely dismiss studies from health risk assessment based on very strict criteria for reliability. The suggested reporting guidelines provide researchers with a tool to fulfill reporting requirements as stated by regulatory agencies. Together, these resources provide an approach to include all relevant data that may fill information gaps and reduce scientific uncertainty in health risk assessment conclusions, and subsequently also in chemical policy decisions.

  • 349.
    Beronius, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Vandenberg, Laura N.
    Using systematic reviews for hazard and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals2016Inngår i: Reviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders (Print), ISSN 1389-9155, E-ISSN 1573-2606, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 273-287Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our environment contribute to hormonally related effects and diseases observed in human and wildlife populations has caused concern among decision makers and researchers alike. EDCs challenge principles traditionally applied in chemical risk assessment and the identification and assessment of these compounds has been a much debated topic during the last decade. State of the science reports and risk assessments of potential EDCs have been criticized for not using systematic and transparent approaches in the evaluation of evidence. In the fields of medicine and health care, systematic review methodologies have been developed and used to enable objectivity and transparency in the evaluation of scientific evidence for decision making. Lately, such approaches have also been promoted for use in the environmental health sciences and risk assessment of chemicals. Systematic review approaches could provide a tool for improving the evaluation of evidence for decision making regarding EDCs, e.g. by enabling systematic and transparent use of academic research data in this process. In this review we discuss the advantages and challenges of applying systematic review methodology in the identification and assessment of EDCs.

  • 350. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Sverige.
    Vad händer med arbetsmiljön när man inför aktivitetsbaserade kontor inom akademin?2017Inngår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 9-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktivitetsbaserade kontor är fortfarande ovanliga för forskare och lärare inom akademin, men nu verkar flera lärosäten vara igång att införa den här typen av arbetsplatser. Det finns begränsat med kunskap om vad som händer vid flyttprocesser från egna rum till aktivitetsbaserade kontor i akademin och hur personalen upplever arbetsmiljön i denna typ av kontorsmiljöer. I den här artikeln redovisas resultat från en enkätundersökning före och efter flytt till aktivitetsbaserade kontor på en svensk högskola.

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