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  • 301.
    Ståhl, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Folke vs Henry: En jämförelse av förståelse mellan syntetisk och mänsklig uppläsning av sammanhängande texter2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I en studie som kan vara den första i Sverige i sitt slag har vuxna testpersoner med och utan synnedsättning fått lyssna till texter som lästs upp med antingen unit selection-syntesen Folke eller en mänsklig röst. Genom förståelsefrågor till varje text har det undersökts om en syntetisk uppläsning av sammanhängande text ger en sämre förståelse än en mänsklig uppläsning. Genom testet har också faktorer som ansträngning samt korrelation med längd, svårighetsgrad och vana av syntetiskt tal undersökts. Testet visar att för relativt enkla texter som inte är längre än ca 700 ord eller inte har en uppläsningstid på mer än ca fem minuter så ger en syntetisk uppläsning inte någon påvisbar försämring i förståelse. Resultat och analys visar dock att det vid längre texter än så kan finnas en skillnad i förståelse mellan de två uppläsningssätten samt att det kan finnas en korrelation med textens längd och svårighetsgrad. Testpersonernas subjektiva uppfattning och det kvantitativa resultatet visar också delvis att syntetiska uppläsningar är mer ansträngande än mänskliga. Dock behöver ytterligare studier genomföras för att bekräfta en försämrad förståelse och större ansträngning.

  • 302.
    Ståhl, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Grammatisk finithet i Cupeño2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i både traditionell och samtida syn på finithet har det uto-aztekiska språket cupeño studerats. Flera grammatiska markörer för såväl subjektskongruens som temporala, modala och aspektuella distinktioner definieras. Dessa markörer kan i huvudsatser i cupeño uppträda i antingen ett auxiliarkomplex i Wackernagels position eller som affix på verbet. Subjektskongruens och olika TMA-markörer definieras som två skilda grammatiska system. Framför allt markörerna för subjektskongruens kan bibehållas i underordnade satser, som också har speciella markörer för underordning. Även om skillnader finns mellan över- och underordnade satser så finns ingen distinktion mellan finita och icke finita verb. Förutom verbkonstruktioner i över- respektive underordnade satser definieras också verbkonstruktioner med nominal morfologi och imperativ som egna typer av verbkonstruktioner, som varierar i vilken utsträckning finita drag förekommer.

  • 303.
    Stüdeli, Lena Meret
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    "Catchy Climate Science": A Comparative Analysis of Rhetorical and Discursive Strategies in Online Texts Written by Scientists versus Journalists2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Climate science and the effective public communication of it havebecome increasingly vital in a world that is changing atan unprecedentedrate. For many scientists and journalists, the Internet hasgrown to be the preferred medium of climate science communication. As the issues thattextsabout climate changedeal with are ratherpressing, it is crucial that thescientific knowledge is recontextualized for non-expert audiencesin the mosteffectiveand engaging way. Science communicatorshave rhetorical strategiesof recontextualization and discursive strategies of newsworthinessat their disposal to achieve the desired science communicationand ultimately createan inclusive and engaging discourse with theirreaders. This qualitative study is a comparative analysis of two different typesof writers:scientists and journalists. The analysis of onlinetexts about climate change, written by these two types of writers, showsthat scientists and journalists employ many of the same strategies.Nonetheless, the findings reveal distinct differences in how extensively certain strategies are/ are not used.Generally, the scientists recontextualized the scientific knowledge in a more personalizedand inclusivemanner. The journalists, in turn, made use of more discursive strategies of newsworthiness. This qualitative comparative studyalsoprovides a novel analytical framework for further studies of the same kind.

  • 304.
    Sundh, Lydia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The function of teacher questions in EFL classroom activities in Cambodia: A conversation analytic study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to examine teacher questions in an English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom with a conversation analytic (CA) approach. Specifically, the study focuses on the sequential position of the teacher questions, and on their function in the management of classroom activities. Two activities in an intermediate leveled English classroom in Cambodia with students aged 20-24 were recorded and subsequently transcribed according to CA conventions. Thereafter, the teacher questions were identified and categorized. The findings showed that there were five categories of questions used by the teacher; that is, understanding checks, activity managing questions, repair regarding understanding and repair regarding accomplishment of task and lastly topic elaboration questions. Each category of question was used in a specific time in order to manage classroom activities, however, the findings also reveal that questions can interfere with the pedagogical focus when they appear out of context and can limit students’ participation in class.

  • 305.
    Sundmalm, Sara Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Syntactic Origin of Old English Sentence Adverbials2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

     

    Languages rely on grammatical rules, by which even such variable constituents as adverbials are affected. However, due to the many different positions in Old English sentences taken up by adverbials, it is easy to wrongfully assume that there is an absence of grammatical rules regarding adverbials in Old English. Hence, it may be possible to detect patterns of behaviour among Old English adverbs if their different position and movement within various clauses is studied systematically. This paper has been focused on examining two conjunct adverbs, and two disjunct adverbs, functioning as sentence adverbials in prose, in order to contribute information of where they are base-generated within the syntactic structure of Old English clauses, and thus hopefully contribute to a better understanding of the grammatical system of Old English. 120 sentences of prose containing sentence adverbials have been examined according to the Government and Binding Theory, as introduced in Stæfcræft: An Introduction to Old English Syntax, in order to establish where the different textual constituents of Old English are base-generated.

  • 306.
    Svahn, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Allt är ju lika viktigt: En översättningssociologisk studie om översättningsnormer vid granskningsfasen inom Europeiska kommissionen2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen är en översättningssociologisk studie om översättningsnormer vid granskningsfasen vid Europeiska kommissionen (EK) och består av två delstudier. Den första studien är textbaserad och fokuserar på revideringar vid granskningsfasen. Materialet utgörs av fyra översättningar i tre stadier från franska till svenska från EK. Den andra delstudien består av intervjuer med två översättare vid EK. Metoden till den första delstudien är hämtad från Nordman (2009). Resultatet visar att majoriteten av revideringarna återfinns på textnivå, samt att den vanligaste normen är språkriktighet. Intervjuerna ger till viss del en annan bild av granskningsfasen. De samlingar med riktlinjer som finns tillgängliga framstår i båda delstudierna som värdefulla.

  • 307.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Discourse Markers in Dardic Languages: Palula ba and ta in a comparative perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates discourse markers in Dardic languages (Indo-Aryan; Pakistan), focusing on the discourse markers ba and ta in Palula in comparison with other languages of the region, particularly Dameli in which two markers with the same form and similar functions have been observed. The results showed that Palula ba functions as a topic-marker, in addition to other functions, whereas ta only signals subsequence, except in an adversative construction ta... ba. In Dameli, both ba and ta function as topic-markers, in addition to other functions such as ta marking subsequence, and the ta... ba construction functions similarly to Palula. Interestingly, Kalasha and Gawri showed some similarities, as both have a topic-marker surfacing as ta and tä respectively, which can be used in the adversative constructions ta... o and tä... i respectively, both of which have another marker as the second element. No other language in the sample was found to have a construction similar to the ta... ba construction nor a marker similar in form and function to ba, but all have a subsequence marker resembling ta. These results indicated that the Palula markers ba and ta are part of an areal phenomenon encompassing at least the Chitral, Panjkora and Swat valleys, where Palula originally only had the Shina subsequence marker and later adapted the Dameli system into the language.

  • 308.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Grammatical gender in New Guinea2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the gender systems of 20 languages in the New Guinea region, an often overlooked area in typological research. The languages were classified with five criteria used by Di Garbo (2014) to classify gender systems of African languages. The results showed that the gender systems were diverse, although around half of the languages have two-gendered sex-based systems with semantic assignment, more than four gender-indexing targets, and no gender marking on nouns. The gender systems of New Guinea are remarkably representative of the world, although formal assignment is much less common. However, the gender systems of New Guinea and Africa are very different. The most significant difference isthe prevalence of non-sex-based gender systems and gender marking on nouns in Africa, whereas the opposite is true in New Guinea. However, gender in Africa is also less diverse largely due to the numerous Bantu languages. Finally, four typologically rare characteristics were found in the sample: (1) size and shape as important criteria of gender assignment, with large/long being masculine and small/short feminine, (2) the presence of two separate nominal classification systems, (3) no gender distinctions in pronouns, and (4) verbs as the most common indexing target. 

  • 309.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Selected Topics in the Grammar of Nalca2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyzes a selection of topics in the grammar of Nalca (Mek language; Papua), with a focus on verbs and nominals. No published grammar or dictionary is available for Nalca, but a translation of the New Testament was used as a parallel text. The results showed that Nalca is split-ergative, strongly suffixing and agglutinating, with subject-object-verb (SOV) as the dominant word order. Verbs consist of a stem and a series of suffixes expressing tense/aspect/mood, negation, number and person. The case alignment is ergative-absolutive for nouns, for which syntactic function is indicated by a series of postpositions. These postpositions agree with nouns in gender. Ergativity was not observed for pronouns; while the results were inconclusive, they appeared to show a nominative-accusative case alignment. The numeral system is an extended body-part system with the base 27. Many of the features found in Nalca are comparable with other Mek languages, with the gender system and split-ergativity being two major exceptions. Finally, the use of the New Testament as a parallel text was a success, with a basic description of the grammar of Nalca having been made, although further investigation is needed.

  • 310.
    Swärd, Elias
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Semantiska aspekter av lexikal pluralitet: En typologisk studie av kushitiska språk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Lexikal pluralitet är en term för vissa substantiv som har en inneboende pluralbetydelse. Lexikal pluralitet är ett relativt outforskat område, särskilt ur ett typologiskt perspektiv. Några studier som gjorts inom lexikal pluralitet har visat att de lexikalt plurala substantiven tenderar att finnas inom vissa tvärspråkligt återkommande semantiska kategorier. Föreliggande studie bygger på dessa tidigare studiers kategorier, och syftet är att utveckla kategorierna för att bättre fånga in den semantiska variationen hos de kushitiska språken. Detta görs genom att samla lexikalt plurala substantiv ur grammatikor och sedan klassificera substantiven utifrån deras semantik. Resultatet visar, förutom att de semantiska kategorierna i stor utsträckning överlappar med tidigare studier, att de semantiska kategorierna grupper, granulära ämnen, duala enheter och vätskor & fasta ämnen tenderar att vara mer frekventa än kategorierna tidsuttryck, sjukdomar, platser och koncept/aktiviteter som involverar flera deltagare.

  • 311.
    Sánchez Abascal, Pablo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    La aplicación del componente pragmático funcional en un manual sueco de español publicado tras el currículo Lgy 20112016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo de esta monografía es el de analizar el modo en el que un manual didáctico para la enseñanza del español en el contexto educativo sueco de bachillerato aplica y desarrolla la competencia pragmática funcional en sus propuestas didácticas. Para la realización de dicho análisis usaremos como instrumento de medida, por una parte, las actividades de simulación, escenario y role-play que propone Sánchez Sarmiento (2005), y que se dirigen a la activación de la competencia pragmática de los estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras y, por otra, los criterios de transacciones e interacciones de colaboración para el desarrollo de la competencia pragmática funcional que se recogen en el §.5 del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las lenguas: aprendizaje, enseñanza, evaluación (MCER, 2002). La hipótesis de la que parte este estudio postula que el manual que analizamos (Caminando 5, Natur & Kultur, 2013), a pesar de estar compuesto de propuestas didácticas en las que se presentan el componente pragmático funcional, no enuncia de forma explícita el trabajo con ella, no conduce ni a su activación ni a su desarrollo, su frecuencia de aparición en el manual es irregular, y las actividades que forman parte de sus propuestas didácticas no proponen reflexiones metapragmáticas sobre los propios contenidos pragmáticos de la lengua. La investigación que hemos desarrollado confirma que, aunque en algunas propuestas didácticas del manual  se proponen actividades que activan y desarrollan algunos de los criterios de transacción e interacción colaborativa del MCER (2002), su tratamiento resulta poco exhaustivo y su explicitación es escasa. Sin embargo, se puede constatar que el manual representa un acercamiento a los principios metodológicos de los enfoques comunicativos y que su explotación didáctica, aunque no de forma explícita, conduce, en parte, al trabajo con algunos de los criterios pragmáticos funcionales que se proponen en el MCER (2002).

  • 312.
    Säflund, Maud
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: Differences and Similarities Between L1 and L2 Subjects2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will deal with the questions of what impact knowledge of vocabulary has on L1 readers’ and L2 readers’ reading comprehension respectively. As Koda points out "Research consistently demonstrates that vocabulary knowledge correlates more highly with reading comprehension than other factors including morphosyntactic knowledge" (Koda 2004:49) Philip Shaw and Alan McMillion at Stockholm University are doing a research project called ‘Advanced Reading Project’with in all 140 students at university level. There was a gap-filling test on vocabulary and multiple choice questions for synonyms and antonyms. They have also set up a number of other tests to check reading comprehension etc. The aim of this work is to analyze the vocabulary tests’ data provided by Shaw and McMillion. This is done by entering the data into Excel files and sorting the answers and attempts made for each subject, and by comparing the numbers of correct answers and non- attempts to different questions, patterns could be detected that can show differences or similarities between the subjects. Through this analysis and further research we may find the answers to the questions: Which vocabulary items are easy or difficult for all British and Swedish subjects? And what differences and similarities can be found in the answers given by Swedes and British respectively? Are there any patterns which might suggest reasons for the findings? The vocabulary results will further be compared with the results from the reading comprehension tests. The research reported in this essay will test the thesis expressed by Koda 2004: "Successful comprehension is heavily dependent on knowledge of individual word meaning. The widely recognized relationship between vocabulary and reading comprehension attests to the crucial role word knowledge plays in text understanding among both L1 and L2 readers---". (Koda 2004: 48) Could there be other explanations for good reading comprehension other than vocabulary knowledge?

  • 313.
    Söderberg, Benny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The Double Passive in Swedish: A case of creating raising verbs in the Scandinavian languages.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this thesis is to map the syntactic and semantic nature, and the frequency of the Double Passive in Swedish. The results showed that the Double Passive is a control construction where the internal argument (OBJ) of the embedded verb is raised to subject of the s-passive matrix verb, and the verb of the infinitival complement co-occurs as an s-passive infinitive. In the thesis Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is used as a model for semantic and syntactic analysis. The analysis showed that when the AGENT in a Double Passive construction is suppressed, it creates an argument structure that triggers an equi verb to occur as a raising verb (cf. Ørsnes 2006:404). Overt agents within constructions containing the Double Passive showed an even lower frequency than the low frequencies documented in previous research of passive constructions by Silén (1997) and Laanemets (2010). The lower frequency is partly a result of the fact that agents in a Double Passive construction are suppressed twice. The results of a corpus study showed a frequency of 3.57 % of overt agents within constructions containing Double Passives. The complementizer att ‘to’ in the subordinated infinitive clause of a Double Passive is overtly expressed, partly depending on the degree of modality of the matrix verb (cf. Sundman 1983; Teleman 1999; Lagerwall 1999), and the degree of semantic bonding between the matrix verb and the complement (Givón 2001b). The data (matrix verbs) collected in the corpus study were analysed according to a categorising-system in SAG (Teleman et al. 1999) and in Givón (2001a) and Givón (2001b). The matrix verbs with strong nominal (lexical) properties, e.g. planera ‘plan’, showed a high frequency of co-occurrence with full infinitives, as compared to matrix verbs with largely grammatical meaning, e.g. avse ‘intend’.

  • 314.
    Söderholm, Joen
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Standardiserad diskurs: En undersökning av kontextuella faktorers effekt på diskursen i en standard från SIS2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks kontextuella faktorers inverkan på diskursen i en standard, SS 624070, framtagen av det svenska standardiseringsorganet SIS, Swedish Standards Institute. Undersökningen går igenom vilka premisser och faktorer som gör att diskursen i standarden ser ut som den gör. Undersökningen omfattar även hur aktörerna ser på denna diskurs, och hur användandet av standarden ser ut. Materialet består av intervjuer och texter som har analyserats utifrån diskursanalytiska begrepp. Med hjälp av intertextualitet och tematisering försöker undersökningen ge svar på hur kontextuella faktorer påverkar både hur denna diskurs skapas och hur den förstås. Analysen sker främst på makronivå för att ge en övergripande bild av hur kommunikationssituationen ser ut, vilka problem som uppstår och vad man kan göra åt dessa problem.

    Resultaten visar att SS 624070, och standarder överlag, förmedlar en specifik standardiseringsdiskurs. Denna diskurs ser i stort sett likadan ut oavsett vilken standard det handlar om. Diskursen styrs väldigt kraftigt av bland annat tradition och skrivregler som bestämmer både på mikro- och makronivå hur standarder ska skrivas. Detta görs för att uppfylla flera olika syften. Syften som stämmer överens med hur standarder överlag fungerar . De ska vara likformiga och kompatibla med varandra, och behöver därför ha samma diskurs för att leva upp till det syftet. Samtidigt blir standardernas diskurs en del av SIS ansikte utåt. Den enhetliga diskursen visar på hur SIS arbetar med att göra världen mindre splittrad. Inte bara för externa parter utan även för sig själva. Diskursen har en funktion i sig, samtidigt som den visar mer övergripande på SIS egna funktion.

  • 315.
    Söderstedt, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    En studie av blickar och pekningars språkliga funktion hos barn i interaktion.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att studera hur blickar och pekningar förhåller sig till barns verbala yttranden. Jag har använt ett videoinspelat material där 8 hörande barn med typisk utveckling mellan 0;8 och 5;10 år interagerar. Ur detta har jag klippt sekvenser som passar min frågeställning, implementerat dem i annotationsprogrammet ELAN, och sedan annoterat och analyserat materialet. Av 77 deklarativa-informativa pekningar i det slutliga materialet fann jag 68 ha den tidigare kända funktionen för denna pekningstyp, att förekomma i en vanlig påståendesats. De återstående 9 hade ett blickmönster som skilde sig från dessa. Jag anser att dessa pekningar tillför yttrandet en betonande funktion. Jag fann även ytterligare 7 pekningar i samband med interrogativa satser som inte är tidigare beskrivna. De följde samma blickmönster som de betonade pekningarna. De slutsatser jag drog var att blickar i kombination med pekningar hos barn kan ha en betonande och en interrogativ funktion.

  • 316.
    Tahbaz, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Beröringens roll för barns språkutveckling2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Beröring är en modalitet som visat sig spela en stor roll i människans utveckling. Föreliggande studie hade för avsikt att undersöka beröringens roll i barnets språkutveckling, utifrån hur beröring förändras över tid och hur det påverkar barnets produktiva ordförråd. Fri interaktion mellan förälder och barn analyserades utifrån annoteringar med information om beröring, som duration och beröring med eller utan hud-mot-hudkontakt. I undersökningen inkluderades alla former av beröring i den totala beröringsdurationen. Tio barn studerades under det första levnadsåret och då de var 24 månader gamla. Resultaten visar att en minskning av beröringsduration sker under barnens första två levnadsår. Resultatet indikerar några intressanta tendenser som diskuteras utifrån tidigare forskning. Beröring med hud-mot-hudkontakt verkar ha en annan roll än total beröring. Studien utformades explorativt och fann inget signifikant samband mellan beröring vid barns första och andra levnadsår och deras produktiva ordförråd vid 30 månader, varken med eller utan hud-mot-hudkontakt. Studien förser dock framtida forskning med tendenser som behöver studeras vidare.

  • 317.
    Tahbaz, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Emblem use in parent-child interaction: A longitudinal study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates emblem use exploratory in parent-child interaction. Emblems are conventional gestures with a verbal equivalent. The aim of this study was to answer if emblem use facilitates language acquisition. Formulaic gestures – fixed gestures accompanying songs – were examined as a subgesture of emblems. 20 children and their parents’ emblem use were recorded when interacting freely at seven age points: 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months. Emblem use was correlated to the children’s productive vocabulary at 30 months. The results showed that parental emblem use at 24 months and child emblem use at 15 months predicted child productive vocabulary at 30 months. T-tests showed how emblem production of children in a lower productive vocabulary group differed from children in a higher productive vocabulary group. A difference between the children of the lower productive vocabulary group and the children of the higher productive vocabulary group emblem use was also found at 15 months, indicating emblem use being important in language acquisition. Formulaic gestures did not correlate to child productive vocabulary. Emblem use developed along with child age and probably inherently with word production. Parents adjust their emblem use to the child’s age and/or possibly language skills, suggesting that child-directed gesturing occurs in parent-child interaction.

  • 318.
    Tahbaz, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    The acquisition of Swedish prepositions: A longitudinal study of child comprehension and production of spatial prepositions2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Prepositions are acquired at earliest during the second year of life. This thesis investigates 16 children acquiring Swedish spatial prepositions, i.e. ‘on/at’, i ‘in/at’, under ‘under’, bredvid ‘beside/next to’, bakom ‘behind/back’ and framför ‘in front’. This thesis aimed toinvestigate how preposition acquisition relates to language acquisition. The thesis used three different methods: eight sessions of free parent-child interaction, one structured experiment at 2;9 years and parental reports on child passive/active vocabulary from when the children were 0;9 years until they were 3;0 years old. The data gathered was correlated to scores in the parental reports at 4;0 years, which was used as a measure of communicative level, and used as a base when dividing the children into three groups: lower, average and higher score. The results showed that both parental and child preposition production, comprehension at 2;9 years, and comprehension and production predicted communicative level at 4;0 years. The results of the thesis varied depending on the method used. This highlights the importance if using several methods when investigating child language acquisition.

  • 319.
    Tesfazion, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Taltolkning av hörande teckenspråksanvändare: En fokusgruppstudie med tolkar och hörande teckenspråkiga som tecknar i tolkade sammanhang2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien behandlar och beskriver dels hur tolkar upplever att taltolka hörande personer som använder teckenspråk, dels hur hörande personer som använder teckenspråk upplever att bli taltolkade. Två fokusgrupper fick berätta om sina erfarenheter av denna företeelse; teckenspråkstolkar i en grupp och hörande teckenspråkiga i en annan grupp. Genom kvalitativ innehållsanalys identifierades fem teman med de viktigaste aspekterna i frågan. Dessa teman var: 1. Hörandes val av språk i tolkade sammanhang 2. Strategier för att hantera att bli taltolkad 3. Tolkens språkliga utmaningar 4. Ett gott samarbete är avgörande 5. CEFR – självbedömning är svårt. Genom dessa teman framkom att taltolkning av hörande är ett komplext fenomen som kräver särskild hantering. Ett väl utarbetat samarbete är en stor fördel och underlättar tolkens arbete. Det krävs också god kännedom om anledningen till att hörande ibland väljer att teckna i tolkade sammanhang. Det gör att tolken kan slappna av och koncentrera sig på tolkuppdraget. God insikt hos hörande gällande sin teckenspråkskompetens är också eftersträvansvärt. Vanan av att bli taltolkad underlättar situationen eftersom hörande då utarbetar strategier för att tåla att parallellt med den egna produktionen höra taltolkningen. 

  • 320.
    Thofelt, Unn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Något om den konstruerade dialogen i svenskt teckenspråk2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppen rapporterat tal och citat är missvisande, enligt Tannen (1986, 1989), eftersom den som lyssnar på en utsaga, noterar kärnan och budskapet i utsagan. Vi återberättande. lägger dennen in sin egen tolkning i återgivningen. Den berättadne minns inte ordagrant vad som sades, utan återger den ur sitt eget perspektiv och minne. Tannen (1986, 1989) menar att det är bättre att kalla dessa återgivningar konstruerad dialog (constructed dialogue)och har definierat olika kategorier i sammanhanget.

    Metzger (1995) undersöker bruket av konstruerad dialog, enligt Tannens kategorier, inom amerikanskt teckenspråk. Metzger (1995) menar att sex av tio kategorier går att applicera.

    Föreliggande arbete visar att sju av Tannens tio kategorier är applicerbara på svenskt teckenspråk. Fyra kategorier är desamma som Metzger funnit, men övriga skiljer sig åt. I de analyserade texterna använder de berättande sig av konstruerad dialog i form av kategorierna Dialog representerande vad som inte sades, Dialog som typexempel, Sammanfattning av dialog, Dialog i kör, Dialog som inre tal, Vag referent och Icke-mänsklig talare.

  • 321.
    Thomsen, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Tolkningsstrategier i ljuset av språkkompetens, tolkningsriktning och tolkerfarenhet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie undersöker vad språkkompetens och tolkningsriktning har för inverkan på tolkningsstrategier inom tolkning i offentlig sektor. Undersökningen utgår ifrån fyra videoinspelade rollspel som har tolkats av fyra tolkar med olika tolkerfarenhet mellan språken svenska och spanska. Rollspelen utgick från ett manus och rollspelarna uppmanades att utsätta tolkarna för specifika svårigheter på specifika punkter under samtalen. Analysen har utöver observation av videoinspelningar, och transkription av dessa, även utgått från tolkarnas retrospektion, ett språktest och en intervju angående deras språkkompetens. Analysmetoden har dessutom utgått från och replikerat Arumí Ribas och Vargas-Urpis studie (2017) och har genomfört en kvantitativ analys på grundval av Wadensjös sju typer av avvikande återgivningar (1998). Denna analysmetod har visat sig innehålla begränsningar då Wadensjös avvikande återgivningar inte har kunnat användas för att identifiera alla typer av tolkningsstrategier. Studien har dock kunnat fastställa att tolken tillämpar fler tolkningsstrategier till sitt svaga språk än till sitt starka språk men att fortsatt forskning är nödvändig på detta område.

  • 322.
    Trolin, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    En tolk ska översätta, det är inte som att vara en lärare: Hur upplever skolledare, tolkar, lärare och elever tolkningen i specialskolan?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna undersökning intervjuades en skolledare, två tolkar, en lärare och två fokusgrupper med elever om sin syn på tolkning inom specialskolan. Data från de semistrukturerade intervjuerna analyserades enligt en kvalitativ innehållsanalys där liknande svar samlas i temagrupper. Tre teman valdes ut till resultat och dessa är: 1. Information om tolkning 2. Tolken som samordnare 3. Tolkens roll. Information om tolkning handlar om vilken information eleverna får och behöver ha för att tolkningen ska fungera. Tolken som samordnare utgår från Wadensjös (1998) syn på samordning som en reglering av det tolkade samtalet som tolken måste sköta. Tolkens roll undersöktes med främst Metzgers (1999) fundering kring huruvida tolken kan vara neutral. Resultatet pekar på att skolledare och lärare anser att eleverna får mycket information om tolkning, men det tycker inte eleverna själva. Tolkarna anser att mer information behövs för en förståelse för tolkprocessen. Tolkens roll, som neutral och samordnande, är tydlig för tolkar och elever, men inte när det är en lärare som tolkar. Tolkning inom specialskolan är något naturligt som sker ofta och som upplevs fungera till största delen väl när det är tolkar som utför uppdragen.

  • 323.
    Turunen, Riina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English Vocabulary Proficiency of Synonyms Applied to Semantic Fields in Swedish Upper Secondary School2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study investigates the lexical synonym proficiency within semantic fields, of Swedish upper secondary school students studying English 5, 6 and 7. English is a language with large lexica (Lightbown & Spada, 2013, p. 61). Therefore, it may be assumed that vocabulary proficiency is essential to master English. In this study, vocabulary knowledge is highlighted as a fundamental factor in second language acquisition. Since the English lexicon contains many synonyms, the suggestion of learning synonyms in semantic fields to enhance vocabulary proficiency is explored. Paradigmatic semantic field theory is utilized as the framework for this study, since it supports structuring the lexicon by paradigmatic semantic relations, in this case synonymy. This study investigates empirical data from vocabulary tests and questionnaires to achieve perception concerning lexical synonym proficiency within the semantic fields of physical world, sense perception, social relations, religion & beliefs and emotion. From the five selected semantic fields, students know most synonyms within social relations and least synonyms within religion & beliefs and emotion. The results from the questionnaires reveal that the students from all tested groups agree to some extent that learning new words in semantic fields is helpful. In this study, testing and learning synonyms in semantic fields is suggested to assess and enhance vocabulary proficiency of Swedish upper secondary school students.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

     

    Keywords

    Vocabulary Proficiency, Synonyms, Semantic Field, Paradigmatic Semantic Field Theory, Swedish Upper Secondary School, Second Language Acquisition.

  • 324.
    Tuva, Janhans
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    "The Only Woman in the Room": Female leaders in the Swedish gaming industry on creating and performing communication.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Female leaders in the gaming industry are a minority, and previous research states that

    women mould their identity to the male-dominated industry. Leadership is commonly

    associated with masculinity, and the feminine style of communication is viewed as

    subordinate. The present study investigates how female leaders in a male-dominated

    industry use language and communicate with their colleagues. A semi structured

    interview, field observation, and questionnaire was utilized. The results indicate that

    female leaders in the gaming industry utilize several speech strategies to communicate;

    however, favouring the masculine style. Three interesting points derived from the

    interviews; fear of misinterpretations; humour usage limitations; and, communication

    restrictions.

  • 325.
    Tönnes, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    SCUM på svenska: En uppsats om Sara Stridsbergs översättning av SCUM Manifesto och hennes tillhörande förord2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen har tre syften, alla beträffande Sara Stridsbergs översättning av amerikanskan Valerie Solanas radikalfeminstiska SCUM Manifesto från 1968: att göra en övergripande karaktäristik av översättningen, att undersöka och presentera nyckelord i översättningen, samt att beskriva samspelet mellan Stridsbergs förord och översättning. Med textanalysmodeller av Yvonne Lindqvist, Lennart Hellspong och Per Ledin genomförs textanalyser av översättningen i stort, av ett urval av nyckelord och av förordet. Resultaten visar på att Stridsberg gjort en fri översättning med fokus på språk och stil, och att förordet kompletterar översättningen och bjuder in läsaren till olika sätt att läsa manifesttexten på. I diskussionen avhandlas resultatens betydelse i förhållande till tidigare forskning och vad mina resultat betyder utifrån André Lefeveres teorier om att ideologiska och poetologiska faktorer är det viktigaste vid översättsval. Uppsatsens slutsats är att Stridsberg översatt texten i huvudsak som litterär text istället för som politisk kortare skrift eller längre pamflett, och att förordet presenterar Stridsbergs ingång till texten och hjälper läsaren att göra en litterär läsning av manifestet.

  • 326.
    Törnqvist, Jennifer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Using Coh-Metrix to investigate changes in student texts: Comparing student writing from 1999 and 20092015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates Swedish students’ texts from two time periods: 1999 and 2009, in search of cohesive evidence indicating a change of quality influenced by the development of the Internet. The method used in this study is the application of a computational tool that provides measures of language and discourse called Coh-Metrix, which provides measures along several cohesion variables, including word concreteness, deep cohesion, verb cohesion and lexical diversity. The results showed that the student texts from 2009 had higher lexical diversity, suggesting a larger vocabulary, which is closely connected to text quality. The results also showed a higher use of deep cohesion in the texts from 2009, which suggest that the writers know how to use connectives. In contrast, the student texts from 1999 showed a higher use of verb cohesion, suggesting the texts being written in a more narrative style, which is often connected to younger students. By using Coh-Metrix to study evidence of cohesion, this study could contribute with relevant findings about how students’ written English has changed over a period of time. 

  • 327.
    Ullenius, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    L2 and L1 repairs: Speech production in a comparative perspective2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    I investigated and compared L2 and L1 speech errors and repairs. A speech error may be defined as a linguistic item that is partially or wholly articulated but disagrees with the speaker’s desired communicative intention. A self-repair usually comprises a speech error, a self-interruption, and a repair. Repairs reveal information about the speech production process and in particular about the monitoring component. Errors and repairs were collected from 24 L1 and L2 English speakers who were audio recorded while describing patterns of multi-coloured interconnected nodes. The methodology is a modified version of Levelt’s (1982; 1983) methodology in his study of L1 Dutch speakers, and his results are incorporated in the analysis section for comparison purposes. The hypothesis that L2 speakers produce more repairs than L1 speakers was confirmed. The hypothesis that they produce more lexical errors and less appropriateness errors compared to L1 speakers was confirmed in relation to the English L1 group but not in relation to Levelt’s Dutch L1 group. The hypothesis that L2 speakers leave a larger proportion of their lexical errors unrepaired was not confirmed. The significant differences in numbers and types of errors between the L1 and the L2 data may be related to Paradis’s (2009) theory of declarative knowledge and procedural competence, which entails a higher demand on attentional resources during L2 production. Data may be influenced by methodological inconsistencies, and may also be too small to generalise upon. 

  • 328.
    Untracht Forsberg, Mikaela
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Identity Buliding in Social Media: The role of mediated language in the online fitness industry2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The domain of social media and social network sites is a comparatively new and extensive phenomenon in today’s society. Since their introduction, social network sites, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter have attracted millions of users and are distinguished as an element of immense time consumption in many people’s lives. This thesis investigates the use of Instagram, a social network site where users are able to share pictures, videos and texts with the community. The main focus of the study is the analysis of the relationship between language, gender, and identity building in this social network. Previous research has tackled many different aspects of social media related to gender and identity. However, the focus has mainly been on the general area of images and language devoid of finding specific connections between the authors behind the analyzed materials. Therefore, this study adds to previous studies by also integrating the focus of a specific field in the analyses, that of fitness as a lifestyle. To collect the data, a number of well-known English-speaking fitness bloggers were selected from different countries including Venezuela, Colombia, Germany, France, Australia, Puerto Rico and the USA. In order to analyze the data, multimodal discourse analysis is incorporated using the theory of systemic functional linguistics, developed by Halliday (1994), including ideational, interpersonal, and textual metafunctions. Conclusively, although certain posts appear to be ‘more masculine’ than others, there are many similarities in the use of language by both men and women. The language used in men and women’s posts does not differ vastly contingent on the gender of the bloggers.

  • 329.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Breaking paradigms: A typological study of nominal and adjectival suppletion2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Suppletion is a term used to describe the occurrence of unpredictable and irregular patterns. Although typological research has been devoted to verb suppletion, not as much attention has been given to suppletion in nominal and adjectival paradigms. The thesis presents the cross-linguistic distribution of nominal and adjectival suppletion. The lexical distribution as well as the features involved are presented. The results of nominal suppletion show that nouns referring to humans are most often suppletive, that number is the most common grammatical feature involved in nominal suppletion and that „child‟ is by far the most common noun to be suppletive cross-linguistically. The results on adjectival suppletion show that adjectival suppletion is well spread though not very common cross-linguistically. A study of 8 Semitic languages shows that „woman‟ versus „women‟ are stable suppletive forms in this language family.

  • 330.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The Finite Independency: A study of the relevance of the notion of finiteness in Hdi.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that there is a finiteness distinction in Hdi and that the notion is of value for a description of the language. The definition of finiteness suitable for the language has been suggested to be the one given by Anderson (2007) combined with Bisang (2007). The finite clauses are argued to be the pragmatically independent ones while the non-finite clauses are argued to be the pragmatically dependent. However, no morphological reductions were found in the non-finite clauses relative to the finite ones. What is more, negation in Hdi shows a nontypical behaviour regarding finiteness properties as there are aspectual distinctions made for dependent clauses that are not made for independent. Verbless clauses and imperatives may be viewed as finite and non-finite depending on their capacity to licence independent predication or, alternatively, they may be viewed as not displaying finiteness properties at all. The latter is argued to be preferred in order to avoid a redundant definition of finiteness.

  • 331.
    Valentine Bordal, Heidi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Negation of existential predications in Swedish: A corpus study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this corpus study is to provide an adequate description of negation strategies in existential predications in Swedish. In Swedish, existential predications may be negated by a standard negative marker. Another possibility to negate existence is by using a negative indefinite pronoun. In negation of existential predications in Swedish, the choice between standard negation and indefinite pronouns, whether negative or not, has not been previously described in any descriptive or theoretical work. It is therefore the purpose of the current study to describe what factors determine the choice of negative marker in existential predications. The results of this study show that there is a strong preference to negate existential predications with a negative indefinite pronoun. Further, it is shown that the negative indefinite pronoun is frequently used as a modifier to the pivot, and thus states an unconditional absence. 

  • 332.
    Valentine Bordal, Heidi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Privativa adjektiv och deras motsatsord: En studie i hur frånvaro och närvaro av en egenskap uttrycks i svenska2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 333.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Anpassningsstrategier i lajvspråk2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 334.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Skarp, vass och sharp – semantiska relationer hos tre perceptionsadjektiv2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 335.
    Verdizade, Allahverdi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Selected topics in the grammar and lexicon of Matal2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes basic grammatical features and lexicon of Matal, a Chadic language spoken by around 18 000 people in northern Cameroon. A translation of the New Testament is used as a parallel text for the purposes of this study. The identified language structures are compared with other Chadic languages. The results show that Matal is overall typical for the language family, except for the pronominal system, which lacks a clusivity distinction. Nouns and adjectives have a limited morphology, only expressing number as a grammatical category, whereas verbs have many categories that are expressed morphologically, by prefixation and suffixation. For finite verb forms, subject prefixes are obligatory. Tense is expressed either by altered tone in the stem vowel or morphologically. Several verbal suffixes with number and person variants have been identified, although their functions have not been entirely clarified. A system of complex adpositions that make extensive use of grammaticalized body concepts has also been inquired, within which the phenomenon of preposition agreement has been identified. Basic syntactic features, such as word order, negation and topicalization are also addressed. The analysis of the lexicon demonstrates that the basic vocabulary is mainly inherited from earlier stages of the language, but a large number of lexical loans in various semantic domains have also entered Matal.

  • 336.
    Vikner, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Accent preference - stereotypes or individual?: Swedish university students' attitudes towards British and American varieties of English.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the attitudes of Swedish university students towards the British and the American variety of English. Many studies have shown that perceptions of the varieties are changing as a result of increasing exposure of the language. The present study analyses responses from a questionnaire on speech samples of the two varieties and compares them to a similar study made ten years ago, to investigate possible differences over time and between respondents. The data shows a more positive attitude towards the American variety in general, although female respondents are more prone to conform to the results of previous studies and favour the British variety in aspects of prestige and status. The data also show that this method of research is very sensitive to individual characteristics of the speakers used in the investigation and stresses the difficulties in receiving a reliable general result.

  • 337.
    Vikström, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    “[E]en strict offensive och defensive alliance” and “the danger this King and the 2 Queens were in”: News Reporting in Early Modern Swedish and English Diplomatic Correspondence2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The study of early cross-linguistic diplomatic epistolography was first introduced in Brownlees' (2012) comparative study of Italian and English personal newsletters. Given the field’s young age and the strong need for both further research and the retrieving of new, untranscribed and unanalysed data, the present study set out to help move this field forward by examining, at both a textual superstructure and semantic macrostructural level, two sets of unchartered diplomatic newsletters which representatives at foreign courts despatched back to their respective home countries. The first set of original manuscripts comprises periodical newsletters which Baron Christer Bonde, the Swedish ambassador-extraordinary to England, wrote to Charles X, King of Sweden, between 1655-6, whereas the second set consists of letters sent in 1680 by John Robinson, England’s chargé d’affaires in Sweden, to Sir Leoline Jenkins, Secretary of State for the Northern Department of England. The analysis has shown that whereas the textual superstructures of the two diplomats’ correspondences remain similarly robust, the instantiating semantic macrostructures display not only stylistic and compositional, but also narrative, variation.

  • 338.
    Vikström, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Tudor and Stuart England and the Significance of Adjectives: A Corpus Analysis of Adjectival Modification, Gender Perspectives and Mutual Information Regarding Titles of Social Rank Used in Tudor and Stuart England2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study has been to investigate how titles of social rank used in Tudor and Stuart England are modified by attributive adjectives in pre-adjacent position and the implications that become possible to observe. Using the Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler (CEECS) the present work set out to examine adjectival modification, gender perspectives and MI (Mutual Information) scores in order to gain a deeper understanding of how and why titles were modified in certain ways. The titles under scrutiny are Lord, Lady, Sir, Dame, Madam, Master and Mistress and these have been analysed following theories and frameworks pertaining to the scientific discipline of sociohistorical linguistics.

       The findings of the present study suggest that male titles were modified more frequently than, and differently from, female titles. The adjectives used as pre-modifiers, in turn, stem from different semantic domains which reveals differences in attitudes from the language producers towards the referents and in what traits are described regarding the holders of the titles. Additionally, a type/token ratio investigation reveals that the language producers were keener on using a more varied vocabulary when modifying female titles and less so when modifying male titles. The male terms proved to be used more formulaically than the female terms, as well. Lastly, an analysis of MI scores concludes that the most frequent collocations are not necessarily the most relevant ones.

       A discussion regarding similarities and differences to other studies is carried out, as well, which, further, is accompanied by suggestions for future research. 

  • 339.
    Visnjar, Mojca
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Negotiating Identity: A sociolinguistic analysis of adult English speaking immigrants in Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased transnational migration and globalisation, English has come to have a high status in Sweden, and is used in daily communication. The purpose of this research is to investigate how immigrants with English as their first language, negotiate their identity in Sweden, how they construct the need to (not) speak Swedish, and, finally, how their linguistic trajectories inform us about their linguistic ideologies and reported practices. Identity, constantly performed on the border between the self and the other, is greatly dependent on the language. Recent research in the field has focused mainly on immigrants moving to English speaking countries, while migrants with English as their first language have been somewhat neglected. This study investigates identity negotiation based on linguistic repertoire, Spracherleben, and linguistic ideologies, based on data collected through interviews. The results indicate that the fact that all informants prefer to, and mostly do use English, has a meaning beyond the language. It is namely in the language choice itself that the participants negotiate and demonstrate their identity. Language, therefore, is not the main issue the informants find problematic. Instead, it is the sense of alienation and the inability to convey their message in the way they feel would best represent who they are. 

  • 340.
    von Rettig, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Translating Expressive Prose using CAT Tools: An investigation into discerning the effects of segmentation in student translations2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Computer Assisted Translation tools continue to become more ubiquitous, but translation students do not necessarily receive much training in using them, and may therefore find translating when using them very different to translating freehand. An experiment was conducted where a three Master’s students were each asked to translate two texts; one in a CAT tool and the other freehand, and the resulting target texts were inspected to determine whether they may have been affected by the segmentation performed by the CAT tool compared to freehand translations of the same text, and if so, how. There were indications that in certain cases, such as very long sentences, the CAT tool may act as a visual aid, and also indications that certain students may be more prone to follow the segmentation provided by the CAT tool than others. However, the influence of personal translator style and translator’s habitus cannot be disregarded and as such the differences that are apparent cannot be entirely attributed to the CAT tool.

  • 341.
    Wahlström, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Gender and indirectness: A corpus study investigating imperatives and tag questions2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There has been some controversy concerning the subject of gender and indirectness in discourse over the years. The goal of this essay is to investigate four major approaches to gender and indirectness for the purpose of distinguishing the most relevant one. The first three ways of approaching gender and indirectness, the theory of deficit, the theory of dominance and the theory of difference claim that there is a measurable difference between genders but they cannot concur on why such a difference exists. The theory of deficit and the theory dominance claim that the difference is socially structured, while the theory of difference claims it is because of inherent nature. The fourth approach, the dynamic/social constructionist approach, does not agree with previous approaches and claims instead that other factors are more important when analyzing why some people are more indirect than others, for example age, class and ethnicity. This essay investigates the topic of indirectness by studying tag questions and imperatives and the data used in this essay was collected from the British National Corpus. The search queries used in the British National Corpus were please and come for imperatives and hasn’t and wasn’t for tag questions. The result of this essay is consistent with the results from the fourth approach, the theory of dynamic/social constructionist as no measurable difference could be found between the genders.

  • 342.
    Wahlström, Sofie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Feminism and Anti-Feminism in Harmony?: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Postfeminism in Women's Magazines2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates postfeminist discourses in women’s magazines with the use of

    Fairclough’s (2014) critical discourse analysis (CDA). Additionally, it presents

    consumers’ perceptions of women’s magazines in order to explore how women’s

    magazines might influence readers’ constructions of identity. Postfeminism is mainly

    defined by Gill (2007, 2009) and McRobbie (2004) as an idea of feminism and antifeminism

    combined with the use of neoliberal views. Previous research conducted

    between 1990 and 2009 has stated that women’s magazines follow a postfeminist

    discourse and therefore give a contradictory message to their readers, emphasising the

    importance of individuality and empowerment as well as promoting a traditional

    feminine image. The magazines analysed in this essay were the January 2016 issue of

    Elle Magazine US and the February 2016 issue of Elle Magazine UK. The magazines

    follow a postfeminist discourse, and it is constructed with the use of wording and

    modality. To complement the CDA, an interview with a target group of women’s

    magazine readers was conducted. Findings indicate that the magazines both largely

    follow a postfeminist discourse, constructed through the use of rhetorical features such

    as wording and modality, and readers believe magazines affect their identity

    construction negatively. The article is concluded with a discussion on what the aim of a

    postfeminist discourse is.

  • 343.
    Wallermo, Yvonne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Reading Success and Vocabulary Knowledge among advanced professionals with English as their second language (L2): A comparative study of Russian and Swedish medical professionals in Sweden2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    It is vital you have advanced knowledge in English as a second language (L2) if you work and/or research as a medical specialist at the Swedish academic university hospitals in Sweden. Otherwise it will be impossible to communicate within your area of interest, either orally or in writing, or even by means of reading, not only internationally but also between co-workers. All communication between academic professionals from different countries as well as textbooks, articles, instructions, lectures and exchange of information are in English.

    Interviews and tests for this essay were made with advanced medical researchers and specialists at Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PURPOSE

    The aim of this research is to find out how closely estimated vocabulary size is related to successful reading.

    There has not been much research on advanced academic intellectuals when it comes to advanced reading comprehension. Some studies on children and younger adults have shown that reading proficiency is based on the size of their vocabulary, the bigger vocabulary they have the higher their reading proficiency, while other studies have shown that the more they read the more they understand and automatically their vocabulary increases. Are these the only reasons for their reading proficiency, or are there other aspects involved? Do their vocabulary sizes affect their understanding when they read? Or what other reasons help reading and comprehending the text?

    In comparing readers’ understanding of different domain-specific texts, it can be hypothesized that there are differences in comprehension between general and more specialized texts. It can also be thought that it is easier for Swedes to read and comprehend English as the same alphabet is used in English and Swedish, than for Russians, who are used to a different language structure with other typographical factors.

    RESEARCH ON READING

    Factors that Can Affect Reading Success

    - The Linguistic Threshold Hypothesis

    - Background knowledge

    - Prior knowledge

    - Interest and attitude

    General Questions

    1. How important is a L2 reader’s vocabulary size to his/her understanding of a text? Could other factors be more important?

    2. Is it possible for professionals with poor linguistic proficiency in English to read and understand domain specific texts due to their expert knowledge?

    3. Is professionals’ receptive proficiency similar within their domain specific areas and in general areas?

    4. Is there an effect of having lived in an English-speaking country on reading comprehension or vocabulary size?

    Hypothesis

    1. The L1 typology would make a difference.

    2. The Swedes would have a better vocabulary and a better general comprehension of general English, and thereby a better understanding of the domain-specific texts as well.

    METHOD

    Professionals often have English as their L2. They are assumed to read English texts as efficiently as they read texts in their L1. In this essay the focus was set on their reading ability and their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary was assessed as academic or infrequent, and reading was assessed by means of tests of word recognition, single sentence comprehension, evaluation of logical arguments based on two sentence recognitions, and reading domain-specific, medical articles as well as general articles.

    Data was collected from medical researchers and specialists during this empirical research. The specialists were presumed to read English journal articles on a daily basis in their area of expertise, medicine, and use English as their working language. Seven Russians and seven Swedes were interviewed between February and April 2007. They had chosen the date, time and place for their interviews.

    The testing took about 90 minutes and was divided into

    MATERIAL

    Each subject was asked to fill out a questionnaire about his/her educational and social background. This data could not be used in this essay, but would be interesting to use for research about the impact of social background on the proficiency of English as a L2.

    Then they were asked to continue with paper diagnostic tests, the Proficiency Test, testing their syntax skills and vocabulary size. The Proficiency Test is a part of DIALANG, a self-assessment test developed by the Project of the European Commission for use on the Internet, and it was used along with a test of academic vocabulary, and a test of infrequent vocabulary, divided into synonyms and antonyms.

    The computerized test, the SuperLab test, was divided into two sections. For the first section, Reading Proficiency, articles within the medical domain as well as various general domains were read and then retold orally. The retold stories were taped and the language used when retelling the story, L1 or L2, was decided by the subject, so they would feel comfortable when speaking. These interviews were transcribed and analyzed. The second part of the computerized sub skills, Reading Comprehension, consisted of word recognition and reading comprehension of one and more sentences.

    ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    The Proficiency Test

    The Proficiency test tested vocabulary knowledge. Overall most of the subjects thought Part 2 Synonyms and Part 3 Antonyms were the most difficult parts of the whole test. Although they knew other languages, it was not possible to use that knowledge in this part of the test. One Swede thought the Part 3 Antonyms was the most difficult. Some words were recognised from earlier, from looking them up in dictionaries several times and then forgetting them again. Sometimes no alternative seemed to be correct. Another Swede commented that it was not obvious which alternative was the correct answer. Sometimes the synonym or antonym could be explained in his own words, but not with any of the alternatives. A third Swede commented that in reading a regular text you do not have to know every single word to get coherence.

    The SuperLab Test

    The computerized reading test, the SuperLab test, was to show reading comprehension of texts, sentences and word recognition. Since sentence comprehension did not correlate well with vocabulary size here, these results suggest that the size of the vocabulary above a certain level does not have an immediate impact on the logical judgement or comprehension of sentences At the same time it has to be remembered that the subjects are advanced academic professionals, and might not only use their vocabulary knowledge and size in a L2 when it comes to making conclusions and decisions.

    Reading Comprehension - Analysis

    The Reading Comprehension part of the test consisted of six different texts: three general texts and three medical texts. For each text there were a number of propositions that had to be correctly recalled to get points. The first text was on paper and the last five read and timed on the computer. It has to be kept in mind that the text read on paper, Text 1, presented the subjects with an opportunity to read as they usually do. Most of them seemed to read the title, skimmed the text and then read and reread the interesting or missed parts several times, until the message was clear. When the other five texts were read on the computer screen on the other hand, only one sentence was shown at a time, and disappeared when the next sentence was keyed for. This computerized way of reading the text forced the reader to remember what was read after each sentence, without knowing what came next. So, the ordinary way of reading a text was changed.

    Reading Comprehension - Results

    A conclusion of all propositions indicated that the Russians as a group had higher results than the Swedes. When looking at the individual answers a pattern can be shown. The Swedes on an average were a more homogenous group with a smaller span between the top result and the lowest. The Russians were a more heterogeneous group.

    In this essay the focus has been on the reading quality. The results showed that there are other circumstances than simple language and reading proficiency to be aware of. There is a difference in their background knowledge. How much of their ‘recall’ do they actually remember from the text and how much do they know from beforehand?

    For example, the Reading Comprehension Test with the retelling of the five texts read in an unnatural way did not only test how much the subjects understood and recalled, but also how much they remembered. While reading the texts on the computer, one sentence at a time, the subjects had to focus on the meaning of each sentence in the text, memorize it and then read the next sentence. For the three first texts there was no demand for any previous knowledge to be able to read and understand the words and sentences separately. The subjects did not use any dictionaries, which they seldom do in their ordinary, everyday work either.

    The results also show that interest and background knowledge were important factors to be able to understand the whole contents of each text. The meaning of the text was more easily understood the more background knowledge the subjects had.

    DISCUSSION

    Hypothesis 1 - The L1 typology would make a difference.

    The tests did not show that the language background made a difference. The Russians lived in Sweden and spoke Russian among themselves but English with everybody else. They were well-educated academics, not only proficient in English within their own area, medical texts, but also very good at understanding general texts. When it came to reading comprehension the background knowledge seemed to be more important than the vocabulary skills.

    Hypothesis 2 - The Swedes would have a better vocabulary and a better general comprehension of general English, and thereby a better understanding of the domain-specific texts as well.

    It was not indicated at any time during the research for this essay that the Swedes had a better vocabulary and thereby would understand both general and domain-specific texts better. The understanding and comprehension seemed to be more based on attitude and background knowledge of the different texts.

    Tsui and Fullilove (1998) found in their studies that it was extremely difficult to process information which contradicted what they already knew. This particularly showed during this essay, with some of the Russians questioning and discussing the contents of the medical texts, exactly as Steffensen and Joag-Dev (1979) found in their study. The authors stated that readers seemed to dismiss information they found unimportant, add information they thought should be there, and focus on what they found important, all based on their world view and their opinion.

    Most of the Russians seemed to be more involved and questioning than the Swedes in this investigation. This study showed that the more background knowledge the subjects had, the more they understood the texts.

    During the testing he Swedes made a point of the difficulties of reading the texts on the computers, which did not agree with their reading strategies. These Swedes seemed to attempt to use more normal strategies when reading the texts on the computer screen than the Russians. The Russians appeared to read more slowly overall. Slow readers usually had difficulties putting things together towards the end of sentences and paragraphs. Probably the Russians used more background information than English reading proficiency and understanding when doing the test.

    Vocabulary Size and Reading Success

    During the work with this essay it was not proven that vocabulary size was directly linked to reading proficiency. The readers tested were advanced academic professionals, and might not only use their vocabulary but also their background knowledge when understanding the content of the texts used. The Russians were not a random selection, because those who participated were more confident with their English knowledge than those that did not participate.

    CONCLUSION

    There were of course some limitations during this study. One was fatigue among the subjects due to their hectic working environment and the long duration of the tests. Another issue was that most of the texts were on the screen, to be read sentence by sentence, and hence unnaturally read.

    Out of the results of these tests the conclusion could be drawn that even if you have a larger vocabulary, it would not necessarily mean you understand more.

    After having worked with the material for this essay and interviewing the scientists, brought up in an academic environment, I came to the conclusion that vocabulary knowledge and reading skills shown during a test did not show everything. Speed and accuracy of reading often correlate, but that was not the case in this study. Low proficiency did not seem to make an impact on the understanding of the text. The background knowledge was very important, but at the same time the attitude and interest of the subjects during the testing also had an enormous impact on their results.

    References

    Steffensen, M.S., Joag-Dev, C. and Anderson, R.C. 1979. A cross-cultural perspective on reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1 (pp. 10-29).

    Tsui, A.B.M. and Fullilove, J. 1998 Bottom-up or top-down processing as a discriminator of L2 listening performance. Ap

  • 344.
    Wallin Bååth, Sarah
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Who is Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?: A corpus-based study on the representation of wolves in metaphors in the English language2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As described by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), conceptual metaphors play a large part in how we understand and perceive the world we live in. Very often human traits are described using animal metaphors (Lawrence, 1993). To gain a better understanding, previous research on animal metaphors was examined and summarised. Few animals have been subject to such fierce public opinion as the wolf. Thus, the main focus of this essay has been to investigate whether such opinions are mirrored in the way that wolves are represented in metaphors.To get a proper overview of the occurrences and representations of wolves in metaphors in the English language of modern times, a corpus search was conducted in the COCA corpus (Davies, 2008-). The results from that search were then classified using the MIPVU-method (Steen et al., 2010) and further analysed to determine normative bias. The results were unanimous with previous research on the subject and in agreement with other studies. The wolf is exclusively used as a representative for less flattering human traits, both regarding physique and personality. It is plausible to conclude that the perception of the wolf as expressed in metaphors are similar to those in legends, fairy tales and stories from times long ago. The continuous usage of negative images associated with wolves maintains the image of the animal as danger and something to be feared.

  • 345.
    Waltin, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    När döva och hörande kollegor möts genom tolk: En etnografisk studie om tvåspråkighet på en arbetsplats2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Döva personer i Sverige och världen lever nästan uteslutande i ett hörande majoritetssamhälle och har således på ett eller annat sätt en fortlöpande kontakt med hörande människor i såväl privat- som arbetsliv. De flesta döva i arbetslivet arbetar som enda eller som en av få döva på en hörande arbetsplats och ofta anlitas tolk för möten mellan hörande och döva kollegor. Föreliggande uppsats är en etnografisk studie av tolksituationen på en arbetsplats där en döv samt ett tjugotal hörande kollegor arbetar tillsammans. Med hjälp av fältanteckningar, intervjuer och videofilmning har en bild av tolksituationen genererats. I resultaten visas tecken på att den döva deltagaren till stor del lider av informationsbrist på olika plan. Därtill verkar det finnas en stor kunskapslucka hos de hörande kollegorna gällande teckenspråk och dövas villkor i ett hörande samhälle. Resultatet visar även tendenser till att den döva deltagaren genom det omgivande majoritetsspråkssamhället själv medverkar till sin egen underordning. I den komplexa tolksituationen verkar tolken fungera som en grindvakt. Tolken kan ha en svår och inte alltid definierad roll att översätta och samordna turer mellan hörande och döva och föra samtalet framåt i en gemensam riktning. Det verkar även som att den döva deltagaren och hennes hörande kollegor har olika uppfattning om tolkens roll. Tolkens arbete verkar härigenom kunna försvåras, något som i sin tur skulle kunna påverka relationen mellan den döva deltagaren och hennes hörande kollegor. Resultaten har diskuterats utifrån ett poststrukturalistiskt perspektiv för att visa på samband mellan mikro- och makronivå med kopplingar till språkideologi, språkpolitik, maktrelationer samt teorin om Deafhood.

  • 346.
    Werner, Tove
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Mina ögon kan glittra, min mun kan le, men sorgen i mitt hjärta kan ingen se: - Metaforer för sorg i svenskan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker de metaforer som används i svenska för att benämna känslan sorg. Den metafordefinition som tillämpas är den konceptuella, myntad av Lakoff & Johnson (1980), där metaforer ses som språklig evidens för kognitiva mappningar och består av en så kallas måldomän och källdomän. Uppsatsens syfte är att beskriva och kartlägga de olika sorgemetaforernas källdomäner och att anknyta dessa till tre metaforer på övergripande nivå, som i tidigare studier visat vara viktiga för figurativt känslospråk; PSYKET SOM KROPP-METAFOREN (Sweetser 1990), METAFOREN FÖR HÄNDELSESTRUKTUR (Lakoff & Johnson 1999 och Kövecses 2000) och KRAFTMETAFOREN (Kövecses 2000), varav den sistnämnda i tidigare studier av Kövecses (2000) lyfts fram som en för känslospråk dominerande metafor. Metoderna som tillämpas utgörs av en textanalys och en korpusstudie, där metaforer först manuellt extraheras och analyseras från böcker och hemsidor med sorgetema för att sedan uppsökas i korpora. Resultatet uppvisar en stor variation i de metaforer som används och 21 metaforer noteras, med 14 undergrupper. Alla tre tidigare metaforer förekommer. KRAFTMETAFOREN utgör dock inte en dominerande övergrupp, vilket tros kunna bero på att forskning kring metaforen främst skett inom engelska, men även det faktum att sorgen som definierad i studien inte utgör en prototypisk känsla.

  • 347.
    Westerlund, Ida
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Linguistic differences between fantasy and science fiction: A Coh-Metrix analysis2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the potential linguistic differences between the genres fantasy and science fiction by using the computation tool Coh-Metrix to analyse texts by 15 different authors, out of whom five authors write texts in both genres. The data was analysed by conducting ANOVA, correlations, t-tests and general scrutinising of the data. The results showed a lot of weak correlations and significant differences, but a lack of patterns, when comparing the texts and texts groups to each other, both when looking at all indices and the different measures of Coh-Metrix. However, there were some discernible patterns. In general, the authors who write both fantasy and science fiction seem to conform more to the fantasy genre than the science fiction genre overall (based on a set of control texts), but for four out of the eleven measures of Coh-Metrix (descriptive, referential cohesion, LSA and lexical diversity), the authors writing texts in both genres seemed to conform more to science fiction than fantasy. The text easability principle component scores variable seemed to differentiate the genres as well. Patterns among the connectives variable, as well as the syntactic structure similarity index, agentless passive voice forms index and second language readability index implicated potential differences between the genres but were not supported by significant differences. The potential differences between the genres are all suggested for future research.

  • 348.
    Westerlund, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Frilansöversättningens status: En studie om frilansöversättares uppfattning om status i förhållande till uppdragsförmedlande språkföretag2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie undersöker frilansöversättares uppfattning om sin egen professionella status i förhållande till uppdragsförmedlande språkföretag i Sverige. Genom en enkätstudie inspirerad av Dam & Zethsens undersökningar, i kombination med en analys av offentligt publicerade texter från ett antal större svenska språkföretag, ämnar studien få en inblick i hur frilansöversättare upplever sin egen status, samt vilka krav som företagen ställer på översättarna. I förlängningen undersöks även graden av professionalisering som översättaryrket genomgått i Sverige. Resultaten visar att översättarna med få undantag uppfattar sin status som relativt låg, och att språkföretagen överlag ställer upp få formella, offentliga krav på sina översättare utöver yrkeserfarenhet av översättning och punktlighet. Översättaryrkets grad av professionalisering i Sverige bedöms därutöver som låg.

  • 349.
    Westerlund, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Punktregel och precision: Kommenterad översättning av en EU-förordning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats utgörs av en kommenterad översättning av ingressen och det första kapitlet i artikeldelen av den franska versionen av Europaparlamentets och rådets förordning nr 528/2012 till svenska. En strategi för översättningen bestäms utifrån ett antal utgångspunkter, exempelvis översättningsvetenskapliga teorier och EU:s anvisningar för översättning av rättsakter. Översättningen och den befintliga svenska versionen av förordningen analyseras sedan i syfte att undersöka likheter och skillnader i översättningsstrategi. Denna analys fokuserar på tre faktorer: transposition, modulation samt meningsbyggnad och EU:s punktregel. Det framkommer att både författarens egen översättning och den befintliga EU-versionen är mycket källtexttrogna, men att den befintliga versionen är mer källtexttrogen än vad uppsatsens översättning är, vilket tyder på en stark norm att inte avvika alltför mycket från källtexten.

  • 350.
    Westling, Måns
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A Qualitative Descriptive Translation Study of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is a qualitative descriptive translation study concerning two translations of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet into Swedish. The purpose of the study is to investigate the translational behaviour of the translators and the translation norms that govern this behaviour.

    By thoroughly analysing stretches of the play, the study will attempt to locate translation shifts (linguistic changes) that occur in the translation from the source text to the target text. These changes are connected with the translators’ fidelity towards e.g. the metre of the verse or the sense transfer of puns. The analysis also comprises a survey of the translation norms that the translators adhere to. These norms, stated by the translators themselves, are connected to their translation approach. Thus, the study will reveal the differences of translation behaviour and analyse them from a wider perspective. The translations were made around 1840 and in 1982, respectively. The considerable space in time in itself suggests that linguistic differences will occur. However, the study will also find differences as regards the purposes of the translations. The older translation appears to be performed in a tradition of fidelity to the written text and its literary qualities, whereas the modern translation clearly has the purpose of being used for the stage performance. The latter is stated by the translator himself, who also argues that Shakespeare is to be considered drama and not literature.

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