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• 301. Bini, Donato
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Particle motion in a photon gas: friction matters2012Ingår i: General Relativity and Gravitation, ISSN 0001-7701, E-ISSN 1572-9532, Vol. 44, nr 10, s. 2669-2680Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

The motion of a particle in the Tolman metric generated by a photon gas source is discussed. Both the case of geodesic motion and motion with nonzero friction, due to photon scattering effects, are analyzed. In the Minkowski limit, the particle moves along a straight line segment with a decelerated motion, reaching the endpoint at zero speed. The curved case shows a qualitatively different behavior; the geodesic motion consists of periodic orbits, confined within a specific radial interval. Under the effect of frictional drag, this radial interval closes up in time and in all our numerical simulations the particle ends up in the singularity at the center.

• 302. Biver, N. et al.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Radio monitoring of 9P/Tempel 1 outgassing and and gas released by the Impact2009Ingår i: Deep Impact as a World Observatory Event: Synergies in Space, Time and Wavelength, ESO Astrophysics Symposia, Volume, ISSN 978-3-540-76958-3, s. 233-241Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
• 303. Biver, N. et al.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Periodic variation in the water production of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) observed with the Odin satellite2009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 501, s. 359-366Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
• 304. Biver, N.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Observation of Saturn and the Enceladus water torus at 557 GHz with Odin2011Ingår i: EPSC Abstracts, 2011, s. 912-1-2Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
• 305. Biver, N.,....
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Molecular composition and outgassing variability of 103P/Hartley 2 from mm and submm observations2011Ingår i: EPSC Abstracts, EPSC , 2011, s. 938-1-2Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
• 306. Biver, Nicolas
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Ethyl alcohol and sugar in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy)2015Ingår i: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, nr 9, s. 1-5, artikel-id e1500863Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

The presence of numerous complex organic molecules (COMs; defined as those containing six or more atoms) around protostars shows that star formation is accompanied by an increase of molecular complexity. These COMs may be part of the material from which planetesimals and, ultimately, planets formed. Comets represent some of the oldest and most primitive material in the solar system, including ices, and are thus our best window into the volatile composition of the solar protoplanetary disk. Molecules identified to be present in cometary ices include water, simple hydrocarbons, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen-bearing species, as well as a few COMs, such as ethylene glycol and glycine. We report the detection of 21 molecules in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), including the first identification of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, C2H5OH) and the simplest monosaccharide sugar glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) in a comet. The abundances of ethanol and glycolaldehyde, respectively 5 and 0.8% relative to methanol (0.12 and 0.02% relative to water), are somewhat higher than the values measured in solar-type protostars. Overall, the high abundance of COMs in cometary ices supports the formation through grain-surface reactions in the solar system protoplanetary disk.

• 307. Bjerkeli, P., et al.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Odin observations of water in molecular outflows and shocks2009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, Vol. 507, s. 1455-1466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
• 308. Bjerkeli, P.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Resolving the shocked gas in HH54 with Herschel CO line mapping at high spatial and spectral resolution2014Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 571, artikel-id A90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. The HH 54 shock is a Herbig-Haro object, located in the nearby Chamaeleon II cloud. Observed CO line profiles are due to a complex distribution in density, temperature, velocity, and geometry. Aims. Resolving the HH 54 shock wave in the far-infrared (FIR) cooling lines of CO constrain the kinematics, morphology, and physical conditions of the shocked region. Methods. We used the PACS and SPIRE instruments on board the Herschel space observatory to map the full FIR spectrum in a region covering the HH 54 shock wave. Complementary Herschel-HIFI, APEX, and Spitzer data are used in the analysis as well. The observed features in the line profiles are reproduced using a 3D radiative transfer model of a bow-shock, constructed with the Line Modeling Engine code (LIME). Results. The FIR emission is confined to the HH 54 region and a coherent displacement of the location of the emission maximum of CO with increasing J is observed. The peak positions of the high-J CO lines are shifted upstream from the lower J CO lines and coincide with the position of the spectral feature identified previously in CO(10-9) profiles with HIFI. This indicates a hotter molecular component in the upstream gas with distinct dynamics. The coherent displacement with increasing J for CO is consistent with a scenario where IRAS12500 - 7658 is the exciting source of the flow, and the 180 K bow-shock is accompanied by a hot (800 K) molecular component located upstream from the apex of the shock and blueshifted by -7 km s(-1). The spatial proximity of this knot to the peaks of the atomic fine-structure emission lines observed with Spitzer and PACS ([O I]63, 145 mu m) suggests that it may be associated with the dissociative shock as the jet impacts slower moving gas in the HH 54 bow-shock.

• 309. Bjerkeli, P.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
H2O line mapping at high spatial and spectral resolution Herschel observations of the VLA 1623 outflow2012Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 546, s. A29-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. Apart from being an important coolant, water is known to be a tracer of high-velocity molecular gas. Recent models predict relatively high abundances behind interstellar shockwaves. The dynamical and physical conditions of the water emitting gas, however, are not fully understood yet. Using the Herschel Space Observatory, it is now possible to observe water emission from supersonic molecular outflows at high spectral and spatial resolution. Several molecular outflows from young stars are currently being observed as part of the WISH (Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel) key program. Aims. We aim to determine the abundance and distribution of water, its kinematics, and the physical conditions of the gas responsible for the water emission. The observed line profile shapes help us understand the dynamics in molecular outflows. Methods. We mapped the VLA1623 outflow, in the ground-state transitions of o-H2O, with the HIFI and PACS instruments. We also present observations of higher energy transitions of o-H2O and p-H2O obtained with HIFI and PACS towards selected outflow positions. From comparison with non-LTE radiative transfer calculations, we estimate the physical parameters of the water emitting regions. Results. The observed water emission line profiles vary over the mapped area. Spectral features and components, tracing gas in different excitation conditions, allow us to constrain the density and temperature of the gas. The water emission originates in a region where temperatures are comparable to that of the warm H-2 gas (T greater than or similar to 200 K). Thus, the water emission traces a gas component significantly warmer than the gas responsible for the low-J CO emission. The water column densities at the CO peak positions are low, i.e. N(H2O) similar or equal to (0.03-10) x 10(14) cm(-2). Conclusions. The water abundance with respect to H-2 in the extended outflow is estimated at X(H2O) < 1 x 10(-6), significantly lower than what would be expected from most recent shock models. The H2O emission traces a gas component moving at relatively high velocity compared to the low-J CO emitting gas. However, other dynamical quantities such as the momentum rate, energy, and mechanical luminosity are estimated to be the same, independent of the molecular tracer used, CO or H2O.

• 310.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
INHOMOGENEITIES IN TYPE Ib/c SUPERNOVAE: AN INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING ORIGIN OF THE X-RAY EMISSION2013Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 769, nr 1, s. 65-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Inhomogeneities in a synchrotron source can severely affect the conclusions drawn from observations regarding the source properties. However, their presence is not always easy to establish, since several other effects can give rise to similar observed characteristics. It is argued that the recently observed broadening of the radio spectra and/or light curves in some Type Ib/c supernovae is a direct indication of inhomogeneities. As compared to a homogeneous source, this increases the deduced velocity of the forward shock and the observed correlation between total energy and shock velocity could in part be due to a varying covering factor. The X-ray emission from at least some Type Ib/c supernovae is unlikely to be synchrotron radiation from an electron distribution accelerated in a nonlinear shock. Instead it is shown that the observed correlation during the first few hundred days between the radio, X-ray, and bolometric luminosities indicates that the X-ray emission is inverse Compton scattering of the photospheric photons. Inhomogeneities are consistent with equipartition between electrons and magnetic fields in the optically thin synchrotron emitting regions.

• 311.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
MULTIPLE INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERINGS AND THE BLAZAR SEQUENCE2010Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 723, nr 1, s. 417-424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

The high frequency component in blazars is thought to be due to inverse Compton scattered radiation. Recent observations by Fermi-LAT are used to evaluate the details of the scattering process. A comparison is made between the usually assumed single scattering scenario and one in which multiple scatterings are energetically important. In the latter case, most of the radiation is emitted in the Klein-Nishina limit. It is argued that several of the observed correlations defining the blazar sequence are most easily understood in a multiple scattering scenario. Observations indicate also that, in such a scenario, the blazar sequence is primarily governed by the energy density of relativistic electrons rather than that of the seed photons. The pronounced X-ray minimum in the spectral energy distribution often observed in the most luminous blazars is discussed. It is shown how this feature can be accounted for in a multiple scattering scenario by an extension of standard one-zone models.

• 312.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
HEATING FROM FREE-FREE ABSORPTION AND THE MASS-LOSS RATE OF THE PROGENITOR STARS TO SUPERNOVAE2014Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 787, nr 2, s. 143-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

An accurate determination of the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to core-collapse supernovae is often limited by uncertainties pertaining to various model assumptions. It is shown that under conditions when the temperature of the circumstellar medium is set by heating due to free-free absorption, observations of the accompanying free-free optical depth allow a direct determination of the mass-loss rate from observed quantities in a rather model-independent way. The temperature is determined self-consistently, which results in a characteristic time dependence of the free-free optical depth. This can be used to distinguish free-free heating from other heating mechanisms. Since the importance of free-free heating is quite model dependent, this also makes possible several consistency checks of the deduced mass-loss rate. It is argued that the free-free absorption observed in SN 1993J is consistent with heating from free-free absorption. The deduced mass-loss rate of the progenitor star is, approximately, 10(-5) M-circle dot yr(-1) for a wind velocity of 10 km s(-1).

• 313.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Numerical non-LTE 3D radiative transfer using a multigrid method2017Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 599, artikel-id A118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. 3D non-LTE radiative transfer problems are computationally demanding, and this sets limits on the size of the problems that can be solved. So far, multilevel accelerated lambda iteration (MALI) has been the method of choice to perform high-resolution computations in multidimensional problems. The disadvantage of MALI is that its computing time scales as O(n(2)), with n the number of grid points. When the grid becomes finer, the computational cost increases quadratically. Aims. We aim to develop a 3D non-LTE radiative transfer code that is more efficient than MALI. Methods. We implement a non-linear multigrid, fast approximation storage scheme, into the existing Multi3D radiative transfer code. We verify our multigrid implementation by comparing with MALI computations. We show that multigrid can be employed in realistic problems with snapshots from 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations as input atmospheres. Results. With multigrid, we obtain a factor 3.3-4.5 speed-up compared to MALI. With full-multigrid, the speed-up increases to a factor 6. The speed-up is expected to increase for input atmospheres with more grid points and finer grid spacing. Conclusions. Solving 3D non-LTE radiative transfer problems using non-linear multigrid methods can be applied to realistic atmospheres with a substantial increase in speed.

• 314.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Three-dimensional modeling of the Ca II H and K lines in the solar atmosphere2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 611, artikel-id A62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. CHROMIS, a new imaging spectrometer at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST), can observe the chromosphere in the H and K lines of Ca II at high spatial and spectral resolution. Accurate modeling as well as an understanding of the formation of these lines are needed to interpret the SST/CHROMIS observations. Such modeling is computationally challenging because these lines are influenced by strong departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium, three-dimensional radiative transfer, and partially coherent resonance scattering of photons. Aims. We aim to model the Ca II H and K lines in 3D model atmospheres to understand their formation and to investigate their diagnostic potential for probing the chromosphere. Methods. We model the synthetic spectrum of Ca II using the radiative transfer code Multi3D in three different radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model atmospheres computed with the Bifrost code. We classify synthetic intensity profiles according to their shapes and study how their features are related to the physical properties in the model atmospheres. We investigate whether the synthetic data reproduce the observed spatially-averaged line shapes, center-to-limb variation and compare this data with SST/CHROMIS images. Results. The spatially-averaged synthetic line profiles show too low central emission peaks, and too small separation between the peaks. The trends of the observed center-to-limb variation of the profiles properties are reproduced by the models. The Ca II H and K line profiles provide a temperature diagnostic of the temperature minimum and the temperature at the formation height of the emission peaks. The Doppler shift of the central depression is an excellent probe of the velocity in the upper chromosphere.

• 315.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
The synthetic chromosphere: Results and techniques with a numerical approach2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)

Realistic numerical simulations of the solar atmosphere can be used to interpret different phenomena observed on the solar surface. To gain insight into the atmospheric physical conditions, we compare the observations with 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamic models combined with forward modeling (radiative transfer). This thesis focuses particularly on the less understood chromospheric layer between the photosphere and the transition region. Only a few and complex spectral lines can probe the chromosphere making its observations a real challenge.The chromospheric environment is strongly influenced by departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), horizontal radiative transfer (3D effects), and partially-coherent scattering of photons (partial redistribution effects). All these effects make the detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer very computationally demanding.In paper I, we focus on increasing the efficiency of non-LTE modeling of spectral lines in realistic solar models. We implemented a non-linear multigrid solver into the Multi3D code and showed that the method can handle realistic model atmospheres produced by radiative-MHD simulations. We obtained a speed-up of a factor 4.5-6 compared to multilevel accelerated lambda iteration.In paper II, we studied the chromospheric resonance lines Ca \textsc{ii} H\&K. Understanding their formation is crucial to interpreting the observations from the new imaging spectrometer CHROMIS, recently installed at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. We investigated how the synthetic observables of Ca \textsc{ii} H\&K lines are related to atmospheric parameters.In paper III, we investigated a simulated active region including flux emergence that produced a flare. We modeled strong chromospheric lines, such as Ca \textsc{ii} H\&K, 8542 \AA, Mg \textsc{ii} h\&k, and H-$\alpha$, to investigate how it appears in synthetic images and spectra.

• 316.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Three-dimensional modeling of chromospheric spectral lines in a simulated active regionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
• 317. Blagorodnova, N.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). California Institute of Technology, USA.
iPTF16fnl: A Faint and Fast Tidal Disruption Event in an E plus A Galaxy2017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 844, nr 1, artikel-id 46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We present ground-based and Swift observations of iPTF16fnl, a likely tidal disruption event (TDE) discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) survey at 66.6 Mpc. The light curve of the object peaked at an absolute mag M-g = -17.2. The maximum bolometric luminosity (from optical and UV) was L-p similar or equal to (1.0 +/- 0.15) x 10(43) erg s(-1), an order of magnitude fainter than any other optical TDE discovered so far. The luminosity in the first 60 days is consistent with an exponential decay, with L proportional to e(-(t-t0)/T), where t(0) = 57631.0 (MJD) and tau similar or equal to 15 days. The X-ray shows a marginal detection at L-X = 2.4(-1.1)(1.9) x 10(39) erg s(-1) (Swift X-ray Telescope). No radio counterpart was detected down to 3s, providing upper limits for monochromatic radio luminosities of nu L-nu < 2.3 x 10(36) erg s(-1) and nLn < 1.7 x 10(37) erg s(-1) (Very Large Array, 6.1 and 22 GHz). The blackbody temperature, obtained from combined Swift UV and optical photometry, shows a constant value of 19,000 K. The transient spectrum at peak is characterized by broad He II and Ha emission lines, with FWHMs of about 14,000 km s(-1) and 10,000 km s(-1), respectively. He. I lines are also detected at lambda lambda 5875 and 6678. The spectrum of the host is dominated by strong Balmer absorption lines, which are consistent with a post-starburst (E+A) galaxy with an age of similar to 650 Myr and solar metallicity. The characteristics of iPTF16fnl make it an outlier on both luminosity and decay timescales, as compared to other optically selected TDEs. The discovery of such a faint optical event suggests a higher rate of tidal disruptions, as low-luminosity events may have gone unnoticed in previous searches.

• 318. Blagorodnova, N.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
COMMON ENVELOPE EJECTION FOR A LUMINOUS RED NOVA IN M1012017Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 834, nr 2, artikel-id 107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We present the results of optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared observations of M101 OT2015-1 (PSN J14021678+ 5426205), a luminous red transient in the Pinwheel galaxy (M101), spanning a total of 16 years. The light curve showed two distinct peaks with absolute magnitudes M-r <= -12.4 and M-r similar or equal to -12, on 2014 November 11 and 2015 February 17, respectively. The spectral energy distributions during the second maximum show a cool outburst temperature of approximate to 3700 K and low expansion velocities (approximate to -300 km s(-1)) for the H I, Ca II, Ba II, and K I lines. From archival data spanning 15-8 years before the outburst, we find a single source consistent with the optically discovered transient, which we attribute to being the progenitor; it has properties consistent with being an F-type yellow supergiant with L similar to 8.7 x 10(4) L-circle dot, T-eff approximate to 7000. K, and an estimated mass of M1= 18 +/- 1 M-circle dot. This star has likely just finished the H-burning phase in the core, started expanding, and is now crossing the Hertzsprung gap. Based on the combination of observed properties, we argue that the progenitor is a binary system, with the more evolved system overfilling the Roche lobe. Comparison with binary evolution models suggests that the outburst was an extremely rare phenomenon, likely associated with the ejection of the common envelope of a massive star. The initial mass of the primary fills the gap between the merger candidates V838 Mon (5-10 M-circle dot) and NGC. 4490-OT. (30M(circle dot)).

• 319.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. APEX telescope, ESO. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Université de Montréal. Université de Montréal.
HII Regions Feeding the Interstellar Medium in M 832010Ingår i: Galaxies in Isolation: Exploring Nature Versus Nurture / [ed] Lourdes Verdes-Montenegro, Ascencíon del Olmo, and Jack Sulentic, San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific , 2010, s. 244-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
• 320.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
H alpha kinematics of 11 starburst galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey2013Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 435, nr 3, s. 1958-1983Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We present analysis of Fabry-Perot interferometric observations for a sample of 11 starburst galaxies with redshift z less than or similar to 0.03 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have targeted the H alpha lambda 6562.78 emission line at spatial sampling of 0.2arcsec-0.4 arcsec and at spectral resolution of R similar to 16 000. Studying two-dimensional maps for the velocity, velocity dispersion, line emission and continuum deliver new insights into the nature of starburst and postburst galaxies. The velocity fields are fitted to an exponential disc model, providing scalelengths and masses, to be compared with the photometric scalelength and the mass estimated from the velocity dispersions. From the line emission, the star formation rates are also calculated and compared with values in the literature. We have found that between 55 and 64 per cent of our sample show large-scale dominating rotation, while 27 per cent show local rotation typically restricted to the central part of each system. The morphology and line profiles in the centre of eight objects are consistent with a recent merger, while another two seem to be involved in a accretion process which, for the moment, has not disrupted their kinematics.

• 321.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Where stars are born: Kinematics and photometry of starburst and postburst galaxies2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)

The understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies will not be complete until we understand the physical processes that trigger and regulate starformation in them. This work is about star formation on several size scales. It includes the kinematic study of 157 H II regions in the spiral galaxy M83, in order to test the relation, if any, between luminosity (L) and velocity dispersion(s), indicative of virialization. We found that there is no strong correlation between the mentioned variables, but only an upper envelope with a maximum luminosity for a given velocity dispersion. We demonstrated that this envelope has a slope that is strongly dependent on an accurate correction of instrumental broadening. Using our experience in H II regions, we moved to star formation at larger scales. Thus, the bulk of this thesis is on starburst galaxies and their evolutionary descendants, the postburst galaxies. A starburst is a galaxy that is suddenly creating large amounts of stars, at a rate that is not sustainable for long periods.We performed a kinematic study of a sample of 11 such objects, showing that they are, in general, not supported by rotation and that many of them are consistent with a recent merger which affected their morphology and kinematics.Furthermore, from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) we extracted a robust sample of 1006 starbursts and 240 postbursts at redshift 0.010<z<0.083. We performed a comparative study of their structural parameters, such as effective radius, sersic index, asymmetry and absolute magnitude. We have found that the majority of starbursts and postbursts in the nearby Universe are disky galaxies, with a tendency for starbursts to have shorter effective radii and larger asymmetries.

• 322.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Instituto de Astrof´ısica de Canarias, Tenerife, Spain. Instituto de Astrof´ısica de Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.
Halpha kinematics of 11 starburst galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey2012Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)

We present analysis of Fabry-Perot interferometric observations for a sample of 11starburst galaxies with redshift z . 0.03 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.We have targeted the H 6562.78 emission line at spatial sampling of 0.002−0.004 andat spectral resolution of R 16000, and studying two-dimensional velocity, velocitydispersion, line emission and continuum maps deliver new insights into the nature ofstarburst and postburst galaxies. The velocity fields are fitted to an exponential discmodel, providing scale lengths and masses, to be compared with the photometric scalelength and the mass estimated from the velocity dispersions. From the line emissionthe star formation rates are also calculated and compared with values in the literature.We have found that between 55% and 64% of our sample show large scale dominatingrotation, while 27% show local rotation typically restricted to the central part of eachsystem. The morphology and line profiles in the centre of eight objects are consistentwith a recent merger, while another two seem to be involved in a accretion processwhich has not disrupted their kin

• 323.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Sweden. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Structural parameters of starburst and postburst galaxies2012Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)

We present two samples of 1173 starbursts and 145 postburst in the redshift range0.01 < z < 0.083, selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We charac-terize both samples using 2D Sersic profiles and measure their asymmetry. The Sersicindex, n, and the effective radii show that starburst galaxies are more concentratedthan the postburst sample, with median n 1.85 for starbursts and 2.85 for post-bursts. There is a large fraction of disky (n < 2) postbursts, a fraction larger thanreported by previous studies. Part of the excess comes from low luminosity (Mr > −19)objects, vastly dominated by discs. We estimate the mass from the velocity dispersionof the H emission line, both for the starbursts and those postbursts with residualemission, finding that Lr / Mb, with b = 1.35 for starbursts and b = 1.5 for post-bursts. The typical values of the mass-to-light ratio range between 0 and 10. This,now, is surprising for starburst galaxies, for which mass-to-light ratios 1 have beenpreviously found.

• 324. Blennow, Mattias
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
A halo-independent lower bound on the dark matter capture rate in the Sun from a direct detection signal2015Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, nr 5, artikel-id 036Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We show that a positive signal in a dark matter (DM) direct detection experiment can be used to place a lower bound on the DM capture rate in the Sun, independent of the DM halo. For a given particle physics model and DM mass we obtain a lower bound on the capture rate independent of the local DM density, velocity distribution, galactic escape velocity, as well as the scattering cross section. We illustrate this lower bound on the capture rate by assuming that upcoming direct detection experiments will soon obtain a significant signal. When comparing the lower bound on the capture rate with limits on the high-energy neutrino flux from the Sun from neutrino telescopes, we can place upper limits on the branching fraction of DM annihilation channels leading to neutrinos. With current data from IceCube and Super-Kamiokande non-trivial limits can be obtained for spin-dependent interactions and direct annihilations into neutrinos. In some cases also annihilations into tau tau or bb start getting constrained. For spin-independent interactions current constraints are weak, but they may become interesting for data from future neutrino telescopes.

• 325. Blommaert, J. A. D. L.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Katholieke University, Leuven, Belgium.
Herschel/PACS observations of the 69 mu m band of crystalline olivine around evolved stars2014Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 565, s. A109-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. We present 48 Herschel/PACS spectra of evolved stars in the wavelength range of 67-72 mu m. This wavelength range covers the 69 mu m band of crystalline olivine (Mg-2 2xFe(2x)SiO4). The width and wavelength position of this band are sensitive to the temperature and composition of the crystalline olivine. Our sample covers a wide range of objects: from high mass-loss rate AGB stars (OH/IR stars, (M) over dot >= 10(-5) M-circle dot/yr), through post-AGB stars with and without circumbinary disks, to planetary nebulae and even a few massive evolved stars. Aims. The goal of this study is to exploit the spectral properties of the 69 mu m band to determine the composition and temperature of the crystalline olivine. Since the objects cover a range of evolutionary phases, we study the physical and chemical properties in this range of physical environments. Methods. We fit the 69 mu m band and use its width and position to probe the composition and temperature of the crystalline olivine. Results. For 27 sources in the sample, we detected the 69 mu m band of crystalline olivine (Mg(2-2x)Fe(2x)SiO4). The 69 mu m band shows that all the sources produce pure forsterite grains containing no iron in their lattice structure. The temperature of the crystalline olivine as indicated by the 69 mu m band, shows that on average the temperature of the crystalline olivine is highest in the group of OH/IR stars and the post-AGB stars with confirmed Keplerian disks. The temperature is lower for the other post-AGB stars and lowest for the planetary nebulae. A couple of the detected 69 mu m bands are broader than those of pure magnesium-rich crystalline olivine, which we show can be due to a temperature gradient in the circumstellar environment of these stars. The disk sources in our sample with crystalline olivine are very diverse. They show either no 69 mu m band, a moderately strong band, or a very strong band, together with a temperature for the crystalline olivine in their disk that is either very warm (similar to 600 K), moderately warm (similar to 200 K), or cold (similar to 120 K), respectively.

• 326.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Inhomogeneous cosmologies with clustered dark energy or a local matter void2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)

In the standard model of cosmology, the universe is currently dominated by dark energy in the form of the cosmological constant that drives the expansion to accelerate. While the cosmological constant hypothesis is consistent with all current data, models with dynamical behaviour of dark energy are still allowed by observations. Uncertainty also remains over whether the underlying assumption of a homogeneous and isotropic universe is valid, or if large-scale inhomogeneities in the matter distribution can be the cause of the apparent late-time acceleration.This thesis investigates inhomogeneous cosmological models in which dark energy clusters or where we live inside an underdense region in a matter-dominated universe. In both of these scenarios, we expect directional dependences in the redshift-luminosity distance relation of type Ia supernovae. Dynamical models of dark energy predict spatial variations in the dark energy density. Searches for angular correlated fluctuations in the supernova peak magnitudes, as expected if dark energy clusters, yield results consistent with no dark energy fluctuations. However, the current observational limits on the amount of correlation still allow for quite general dark energy clustering occurring in the linear regime. Inhomogeneous models where we live inside a large, local void in the matter density can possibly explain the apparent acceleration without invoking dark energy. This scenario is confronted with current cosmological distance measurements to put constraints on the size and depth of the void, as well as on our position within it. The model is found to explain the observations only if the void size is of the order of the visible universe and the observer is located very close to the center, in violation of the Copernican principle.

• 327.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Constraining dark energy fluctuations with supernova correlations2010Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, Vol. 10, s. 018-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We investigate constraints on dark energy fluctuations using type Ia supernovae. If dark energy is not in the form of a cosmological constant, that is if the equation of state is not equal to -1, we expect not only temporal, but also spatial variations in the energy density. Such fluctuations would cause local variations in the universal expansion rate and directional dependences in the redshift-distance relation. We present a scheme for relating a power spectrum of dark energy fluctuations to an angular covariance function of standard candle magnitude fluctuations. The predictions for a phenomenological model of dark energy fluctuations are compared to observational data in the form of the measured angular covariance of Hubble diagram magnitude residuals for type Ia supernovae in the Union2 compilation. The observational result is consistent with zero dark energy fluctuations. However, due to the limitations in statistics, current data still allow for quite general dark energy fluctuations as long as they are in the linear regime.

• 328.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Supernovae as seen by off-center observers in a local void2010Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, Vol. 05, s. 006-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Inhomogeneous universe models have been proposed as an alternative explanation for the apparent acceleration of the cosmic expansion that does not require dark energy. In the simplest class of inhomogeneous models, we live within a large, spherically symmetric void. Several studies have shown that such a model can be made consistent with many observations, in particular the redshift-luminosity distance relation for type Ia supernovae, provided that the void is of Gpc size and that we live close to the center. Such a scenario challenges the Copernican principle that we do not occupy a special place in the universe. We use the first-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II supernova search data set as well as the Constitution supernova data set to put constraints on the observer position in void models, using the fact that off-center observers will observe an anisotropic universe. We first show that a spherically symmetric void can give good fits to the supernova data for an on-center observer, but that the two data sets prefer very different voids. We then continue to show that the observer can be displaced at least fifteen percent of the void scale radius from the center and still give an acceptable fit to the supernova data. When combined with the observed dipole anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background however, we find that the data compells the observer to be located within about one percent of the void scale radius. Based on these results, we conclude that considerable fine-tuning of our position within the void is needed tofit the supernova data, strongly disfavouring the model from a Copernican principle point of view.

• 329.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Probing dark energy inhomogeneities with supernovae2008Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, Vol. 06, s. 027-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We discuss the possibility of identifying anisotropic and/or inhomogeneous cosmological models using type Ia supernova data. A search for correlations in current type Ia peak magnitudes over a large range of angular scales yields a null result. However, the same analysis limited to supernovae at low redshift shows a feeble anticorrelation at the 2σ level at angular scales θ≈40°. Upcoming data from, e.g., the SNLS (Supernova Legacy Survey) and the SDSS-II (SDSS: Sloan Digital Sky Survey) supernova searches will improve our limits on the size of—or possibly detect—possible correlations also at high redshift at the per cent level in the near future. With data from the proposed SNAP (SuperNova Acceleration Probe) satellite, we will be able to detect the induced correlations from gravitational lensing on type Ia peak magnitudes on scales less than a degree.

• 330. Blondin, S
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Time Dilation in Type Ia Supernova Spectra at High Redshift2008Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 682, nr 2, s. 724-736Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We present multiepoch spectra of 13 high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) drawn from the literature, the ESSENCE and SNLS projects, and our own separate dedicated program on the ESO Very Large Telescope. We use the Supernova Identification (SNID) code of Blondin and Tonry to determine the spectral ages in the supernova rest frame. Comparison with the observed elapsed time yields an apparent aging rate consistent with the 1/(1+z) factor (where z is the redshift) expected in a homogeneous, isotropic, expanding universe. These measurements thus confirm the expansion hypothesis, while unambiguously excluding models that predict no time dilation, such as Zwicky's tired light'' hypothesis. We also test for power-law dependencies of the aging rate on redshift. The best-fit exponent for these models is consistent with the expected 1/(1+z) factor.

• 331. Boccaletti, A.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Germany.
Observations of fast-moving features in the debris disk of AU Mic on a three-year timescale: Confirmation and new discoveries2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 614, artikel-id A52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. The nearby and young M star AU Mic is surrounded by a debris disk in which we previously identified a series of large-scale arch-like structures that have never been seen before in any other debris disk and that move outward at high velocities. Aims. We initiated a monitoring program with the following objectives: (1) track the location of the structures and better constrain their projected speeds, (2) search for new features emerging closer in, and ultimately (3) understand the mechanism responsible for the motion and production of the disk features. Methods. AU Mic was observed at 11 different epochs between August 2014 and October 2017 with the IR camera and spectrograph of SPHERE. These high-contrast imaging data were processed with a variety of angular, spectral, and polarimetric differential imaging techniques to reveal the faintest structures in the disk. We measured the projected separations of the features in a systematic way for all epochs. We also applied the very same measurements to older observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with the visible cameras STIS and ACS. Results. The main outcomes of this work are (1) the recovery of the five southeastern broad arch-like structures we identified in our first study, and confirmation of their fast motion (projected speed in the range 4-12 km s(-1) ); (2) the confirmation that the very first structures observed in 2004 with ACS are indeed connected to those observed later with STIS and now SPHERE; (3) the discovery of two new very compact structures at the northwest side of the disk (at 0.40 '' and 0.55 '' in May 2015) that move to the southeast at low speed; and (4) the identification of a new arch-like structure that might be emerging at the southeast side at about 0.4 from the star (as of May 2016). Conclusions. Although the exquisite sensitivity of SPHERE allows one to follow the evolution not only of the projected separation, but also of the specific morphology of each individual feature, it remains difficult to distinguish between possible dynamical scenarios that may explain the observations. Understanding the exact origin of these features, the way they are generated, and their evolution over time is certainly a significant challenge in the context of planetary system formation around M stars.

• 332. Boccaletti, Anthony
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Max Planck Society, Germany.
Fast-moving features in the debris disk around AU Microscopii2015Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 526, nr 7572, s. 230-+Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

In the 1980s, excess infrared emission was discovered around main-sequence stars; subsequent direct-imaging observations revealed orbiting disks of cold dust to be the source(1). These 'debris disks' were thought to be by-products of planet formation because they often exhibited morphological and brightness asymmetries that may result from gravitational perturbation by planets. This was proved to be true for the beta Pictoris system, in which the known planet generates an observable warp in the disk(2-5). The nearby, young, unusually active late-type star AU Microscopii hosts a well-studied edge-on debris disk; earlier observations in the visible and near-infrared found asymmetric localized structures in the form of intensity variations along the midplane of the disk beyond a distance of 20 astronomical units(6-9). Here we report high-contrast imaging that reveals a series of five large-scale features in the southeast side of the disk, at projected separations of 10-60 astronomical units, persisting over intervals of 1-4 years. All these features appear to move away from the star at projected speeds of 4-10 kilometres per second, suggesting highly eccentric or unbound trajectories if they are associated with physical entities. The origin, localization, morphology and rapid evolution of these features are difficult to reconcile with current theories.

• 333. Boettcher, Thomas
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
The HADES mission concept: astrobiological survey of Jupiter's icy moon Europa2009Ingår i: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 321-329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

The HADES Europa mission concept aims to provide a framework for an astrobiological in-depth investigation of the Jupiter moon Europa, relying on existing technologies and feasibility. This mission study proposes a system consisting of an orbiter, lander and cryobot as a platform for detailed exploration of Europa. While the orbiter will investigate the presence of a liquid ocean and characterize Europa's internal structure, the lander will survey local dynamics of the ice layer and the surface environment. The lander releases a cryobot, that melts into the ice, will sample the pristine subsurface and is expected to provide data on organic and gaseous content and putative bio-signatures. In summary, we present the scientific objectives for an astrobiological investigation of Europa, resulting in a mission concept with a detailed evaluation of scientific instrumentation, mission sequences, basic design of the spacecraft, technology needs and cost estimations.

• 334.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
SEARCHES FOR HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINO EMISSION IN THE GALAXY WITH THE COMBINED ICECUBE-AMANDA DETECTOR2013Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 763, nr 1, s. 33-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We report on searches for neutrino sources at energies above 200 GeV in the Northern sky of the Galactic plane, using the data collected by the South Pole neutrino telescope, IceCube, and AMANDA. The Galactic region considered in this work includes the local arm toward the Cygnus region and our closest approach to the Perseus Arm. The searches are based on the data collected between 2007 and 2009. During this time AMANDA was an integrated part of IceCube, which was still under construction and operated with 22 strings (2007-2008) and 40 strings (2008-2009) of optical modules deployed in the ice. By combining the advantages of the larger IceCube detector with the lower energy threshold of the more compact AMANDA detector, we obtain an improved sensitivity at energies below similar to 10 TeV with respect to previous searches. The analyses presented here are a scan for point sources within the Galactic plane, a search optimized formultiple and extended sources in the Cygnus region, which might be below the sensitivity of the point source scan, and studies of seven pre-selected neutrino source candidates. For one of them, Cygnus X-3, a time-dependent search for neutrino emission in coincidence with observed radio and X-ray flares has been performed. No evidence of a signal is found, and upper limits are reported for each of the searches. We investigate neutrino spectra proportional to E-2 and E-3 in order to cover the entire range of possible neutrino spectra. The steeply falling E-3 neutrino spectrum can also be used to approximate neutrino energy spectra with energy cutoffs below 50 TeV since these result in a similar energy distribution of events in the detector. For the region of the Galactic plane visible in the Northern sky, the 90% confidence level muon neutrino flux upper limits are in the range E(3)dN/dE similar to 5.4-19.5 x 10(-11) TeV2 cm(-2) s(-1) for point-like neutrino sources in the energy region [180.0 GeV-20.5 TeV]. These represent the most stringent upper limits for soft-spectra neutrino sources within the Galaxy reported to date.

• 335.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Letter of Intent: The Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)

The Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU) is a proposed low-energy in-fill extension to the IceCube Observatory. With detection technology modeled closely on the successful IceCube example, PINGU will feature the world's largest effective volume for neutrinos at an energy threshold of a few GeV, enabling it to reach its chief goal of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH) quickly and at modest cost. PINGU will be able to distinguish between the normal and inverted NMH at 3σ significance with an estimated 3.5 years of data. With its unprecedented statistical sample of low energy atmospheric neutrinos, PINGU will also have highly competitive sensitivity to νμ disappearance, θ23 octant and maximal mixing, and ντ appearance. PINGU can also extend the search for solar WIMP dark matter into the region currently favored by some direct dark matter experiments. At the lower end of the energy range, PINGU can use neutrino tomography to perform the first-ever direct measurement of the composition of the Earth's core. With its increased module density, PINGU will improve IceCube's sensitivity to galactic supernova neutrino bursts and enable it to extract the neutrino energy spectral shape.

• 336.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Search for neutrino-induced particle showers with IceCube-402014Ingår i: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 89, nr 10, s. 102001-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We report on the search for neutrino-induced particle showers, so-called cascades, in the IceCube-40 detector. The data for this search were collected between April 2008 and May 2009 when the first 40 IceCube strings were deployed and operational. Three complementary searches were performed, each optimized for different energy regimes. The analysis with the lowest energy threshold (2 TeV) targeted atmospheric neutrinos. A total of 67 events were found, consistent with the expectation of 41 atmospheric muons and 30 atmospheric neutrino events. The two other analyses targeted a harder, astrophysical neutrino flux. The analysis with an intermediate threshold of 25 TeV leads to the observation of 14 cascadelike events, again consistent with the prediction of 3.0 atmospheric neutrino and 7.7 atmospheric muon events. We hence set an upper limit of E-2 Phi(lim) <= 7.46 x 10(-8) GeV sr(-1) s(-1) cm(-2) (90% C.L.) on the diffuse flux from astrophysical neutrinos of all neutrino flavors, applicable to the energy range 25 TeV to 5 PeV, assuming an E-nu(-2) spectrum and a neutrino flavor ratio of 1: 1: 1 at the Earth. The third analysis utilized a larger and optimized sample of atmospheric muon background simulation, leading to a higher energy threshold of 100 TeV. Three events were found over a background prediction of 0.04 atmospheric muon events and 0.21 events from the flux of conventional and prompt atmospheric neutrinos. Including systematic errors this corresponds to a 2.7 sigma excess with respect to the background-only hypothesis. Our observation of neutrino event candidates above 100 TeV complements IceCube's recently observed evidence for high-energy astrophysical neutrinos.

• 337.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Search for ultrahigh-energy tau neutrinos with IceCube2012Ingår i: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 86, nr 2, s. 022005-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

The first dedicated search for ultrahigh-energy (UHE) tau neutrinos of astrophysical origin was performed using the IceCube detector in its 22-string configuration with an instrumented volume of roughly 0: 25 km(3). The search also had sensitivity to UHE electron and muon neutrinos. After application of all selection criteria to approximately 200 live-days of data, we expect a background of 0.60 +/- 0.19(stat)(-0.58)(+0.56)(syst) events and observe three events, which after inspection, emerge as being compatible with background but are kept in the final sample. Therefore, we set an upper limit on neutrinos of all flavors from UHE astrophysical sources at 90% C.L. of E-v(2)Phi(90)(v(x)) < 16.3 x 10(-8) GeV cm(-2) sr(-1) s(-1) over an estimated primary neutrino energy range of 340 TeV to 200 PeV.

• 338.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
All-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum measured with 26 IceTop stations2013Ingår i: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 44, s. 40-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum with the IceTop air shower array, the surface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The data used in this analysis were taken between June and October, 2007, with 26 surface stations operational at that time, corresponding to about one third of the final array. The fiducial area used in this analysis was 0.122 km(2). The analysis investigated the energy spectrum from 1 to 100 PeV measured for three different zenith angle ranges between 0 degrees and 46 degrees. Because of the isotropy of cosmic rays in this energy range the spectra from all zenith angle intervals have to agree. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum was determined under different assumptions on the primary mass composition. Good agreement of spectra in the three zenith angle ranges was found for the assumption of pure proton and a simple two-component model. For zenith angles theta < 30 degrees, where the mass dependence is smallest, the knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrum was observed at about 4 PeV, with a spectral index above the knee of about -3.1. Moreover, an indication of a flattening of the spectrum above 22 PeV was observed.

• 339.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Lateral distribution of muons in IceCube cosmic ray events2013Ingår i: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 87, nr 1, s. 012005-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

In cosmic ray air showers, the muon lateral separation from the center of the shower is a measure of the transverse momentum that the muon parent acquired in the cosmic ray interaction. IceCube has observed cosmic ray interactions that produce muons laterally separated by up to 400 m from the shower core, a factor of 6 larger distance than previous measurements. These muons originate in high p(T) (> 2 GeV/c) interactions from the incident cosmic ray, or high-energy secondary interactions. The separation distribution shows a transition to a power law at large values, indicating the presence of a hard p(T) component that can be described by perturbative quantum chromodynamics. However, the rates and the zenith angle distributions of these events are not well reproduced with the cosmic ray models tested here, even those that include charm interactions. This discrepancy may be explained by a larger fraction of kaons and charmed particles than is currently incorporated in the simulations. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.012005

• 340.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
OBSERVATION OF COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPY WITH THE ICETOP AIR SHOWER ARRAY2013Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 765, nr 1, s. 55-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We report on the observation of anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays at PeV energies. The analysis is based on data taken between 2009 and 2012 with the IceTop air shower array at the south pole. IceTop, an integral part of the IceCube detector, is sensitive to cosmic rays between 100 TeV and 1 EeV. With the current size of the IceTop data set, searches for anisotropy at the 10(-3) level can, for the first time, be extended to PeV energies. We divide the data set into two parts with median energies of 400 TeV and 2 PeV, respectively. In the low energy band, we observe a strong deficit with an angular size of about 30 degrees and an amplitude of (-1.58 +/- 0.46(stat) +/- 0.52(sys)) x 10(-3) at a location consistent with previous observations of cosmic rays with the IceCube neutrino detector. The study of the high energy band shows that the anisotropy persists to PeV energies and increases in amplitude to (-3.11 +/- 0.38(stat) +/- 0.96(sys)) x 10(-3).

• 341.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Search for Galactic PeV gamma rays with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory2013Ingår i: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 87, nr 6, s. 062002-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Gamma-ray induced air showers are notable for their lack of muons, compared to hadronic showers. Hence, air shower arrays with large underground muon detectors can select a sample greatly enriched in photon showers by rejecting showers containing muons. IceCube is sensitive to muons with energies above similar to 500 GeV at the surface, which provides an efficient veto system for hadronic air showers with energies above 1 PeV. One year of data from the 40-string IceCube configuration was used to perform a search for point sources and a Galactic diffuse signal. No sources were found, resulting in a 90% C.L. upper limit on the ratio of gamma rays to cosmic rays of 1.2 x 10(-3) for the flux coming from the Galactic plane region (-80 degrees less than or similar to l less than or similar to -30 degrees; -10 degrees less than or similar to b less than or similar to 5 degrees) in the energy range 1.2-6.0 PeV. In the same energy range, point source fluxes with E-2 spectra have been excluded at a level of (E/TeV)(2)d Phi/dE similar to 10(-12)-10(-11) cm(-2) s(-1) TeV-1 depending on source declination. The complete IceCube detector will have a better sensitivity (due to the larger detector size), improved reconstruction, and vetoing techniques. Preliminary data from the nearly final IceCube detector configuration have been used to estimate the 5-yr sensitivity of the full detector. It is found to be more than an order of magnitude better, allowing the search for PeV extensions of known TeV gamma-ray emitters. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.062002

• 342.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with IceCube2013Ingår i: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 87, nr 2, s. 022001-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We present the first results in the search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with the IceCube detector, a subsurface neutrino telescope located in the South Polar ice cap containing a volume of 1 km(3). This analysis searches data taken on the partially completed detector during 2007 when roughly 0.2 km(3) of ice was instrumented. The lack of candidate events leads to an upper limit on the flux of relativistic magnetic monopoles of Phi(90%C.L.) similar to 3 x 10(-18) cm(-2) sr(-1) s(-1) for beta >= 0.8. This is a factor of 4 improvement over the previous best experimental flux limits up to a Lorentz boost gamma below 10(7). This result is then interpreted for a wide range of mass and kinetic energy values. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.022001

• 343.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Observation of the cosmic-ray shadow of the Moon with IceCube2014Ingår i: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 89, nr 10, s. 102004-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

We report on the observation of a significant deficit of cosmic rays from the direction of the Moon with the IceCube detector. The study of this Moon shadow is used to characterize the angular resolution and absolute pointing capabilities of the detector. The detection is based on data taken in two periods before the completion of the detector: between April 2008 and May 2009, when IceCube operated in a partial configuration with 40 detector strings deployed in the South Pole ice, and between May 2009 and May 2010 when the detector operated with 59 strings. Using two independent analysis methods, the Moon shadow has been observed to high significance (> 6 sigma) in both detector configurations. The observed location of the shadow center is within 0.2 degrees of its expected position when geomagnetic deflection effects are taken into account. This measurement validates the directional reconstruction capabilities of IceCube.

• 344.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos with the IceCube 59-string configuration2014Ingår i: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 89, nr 6, s. 062007-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

A search for high-energy neutrinos was performed using data collected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory from May 2009 to May 2010, when the array was running in its 59-string configuration. The data sample was optimized to contain muon neutrino induced events with a background contamination of atmospheric muons of less than 1%. These data, which are dominated by atmospheric neutrinos, are analyzed with a global likelihood fit to search for possible contributions of prompt atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos, neither of which have yet been identified. Such signals are expected to follow a harder energy spectrum than conventional atmospheric neutrinos. In addition, the zenith angle distribution differs for astrophysical and atmospheric signals. A global fit of the reconstructed energies and directions of observed events is performed, including possible neutrino flux contributions for an astrophysical signal and atmospheric backgrounds as well as systematic uncertainties of the experiment and theoretical predictions. The best fit yields an astrophysical signal flux for nu(mu) + (nu) over bar (mu) of E-2. Phi(E) = 0.25 x 10(-8) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1), and a zero prompt component. Although the sensitivity of this analysis for astrophysical neutrinos surpasses the Waxman and Bahcall upper bound, the experimental limit at 90% confidence level is a factor of 1.5 above at a flux of E-2 . Phi(E) = 1.44 x 10(-8) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1).

• 345.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Cosmic ray composition and energy spectrum from 1-30 PeV using the 40-string configuration of IceTop and IceCube2013Ingår i: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 42, s. 15-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

The mass composition of high energy cosmic rays depends on their production, acceleration, and propagation. The study of cosmic ray composition can therefore reveal hints of the origin of these particles. At the South Pole, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory is capable of measuring two components of cosmic ray air showers in coincidence: the electromagnetic component at high altitude (2835 m) using the IceTop surface array, and the muonic component above similar to 1 TeV using the IceCube array. This unique detector arrangement provides an opportunity for precision measurements of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and composition in the region of the knee and beyond. We present the results of a neural network analysis technique to study the cosmic ray composition and the energy spectrum from 1 PeV to 30 PeV using data recorded using the 40-string/40-station configuration of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.

• 346.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
The design and performance of icecube deepcore2012Ingår i: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 35, nr 10, s. 615-624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

The IceCube neutrino observatory in operation at the South Pole, Antarctica, comprises three distinct components: a large buried array for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection, a surface air shower array, and a new buried component called DeepCore. DeepCore was designed to lower the IceCube neutrino energy threshold by over an order of magnitude, to energies as low as about 10 GeV. DeepCore is situated primarily 2100 m below the surface of the icecap at the South Pole, at the bottom center of the existing IceCube array, and began taking physics data in May 2010. Its location takes advantage of the exceptionally clear ice at those depths and allows it to use the surrounding IceCube detector as a highly efficient active veto against the principal background of downward-going muons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. DeepCore has a module density roughly five times higher than that of the standard IceCube array, and uses photomultiplier tubes with a new photocathode featuring a quantum efficiency about 35% higher than standard IceCube PMTs. Taken together, these features of DeepCore will increase IceCube's sensitivity to neutrinos from WIMP dark matter annihilations, atmospheric neutrino oscillations, galactic supernova neutrinos, and point sources of neutrinos in the northern and southern skies. In this paper we describe the design and initial performance of DeepCore.

• 347. Boldt, Luis N.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
Near-Infrared K Corrections of Type Ia Supernovae and their Errors2014Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 126, nr 938, s. 324-337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

In this paper we use near-infrared (NIR) spectral observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to study the uncertainties inherent in NIR K corrections. To do so, 75 previously published NIR spectra of 33 SNe Ia are employed to determine K-correction uncertainties in the YJHK(s) passbands as a function of temporal phase and redshift. The resultant K corrections are then fed into an interpolation algorithm that provides mean K corrections as a function of temporal phase and robust estimates of the associated errors. These uncertainties are both statistical and intrinsic-i.e., due to the diversity of spectral features from object to object and must be included in the overall error budget of cosmological parameters constrained through the use of NIR observations of SNe Ia. Intrinsic variations are likely the dominant source of error for all four passbands at maximum light. Given the present data, the total Y-band K-correction uncertainties at maximum are smallest, amounting to +/- 0.04 mag at a redshift of z = 0.08. The J-band K-term errors are also reasonably small (+/- 0.06 mag), but intrinsic variations of spectral features and noise introduced by telluric corrections in the H-band currently limit its total K-correction errors at maximum to +/- 0.10 mag at z = 0.08. Finally, uncertainties in the K-s-band K terms at maximum amount to +/- 0.07 mag at this same redshift. These results are largely constrained by the small number of published NIR spectra of SNe Ia, which do not yet allow spectral templates to be constructed as a function of the light curve decline rate.

• 348. Boles, T.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
Supernova 2012eg in NGC 1213 = Psn J03091697+38382072012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)

CBET 3207 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

• 349. Bonanno, Alfio
Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
On the possibility of helicity oscillations in the saturation of the Tayler instability2017Ingår i: Astronomical Notes - Astronomische Nachrichten, ISSN 0004-6337, E-ISSN 1521-3994, Vol. 338, nr 5, s. 516-526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Recent numerical results of current-driven instabilities at low magnetic Prandtl number and high Hartmann number support the possibility of a saturation state characterized by helicity oscillations. We investigate the underlying mechanism by analyzing this possibility using a higher order Landau-Ginzburg effective Lagrangian for the weakly nonlinear amplitude dynamics, where the magnetic and velocity perturbations are linearly dependent. We find that, if the mirror symmetry between left- and right-handed modes is spontaneously broken, it is impossible to achieve an oscillating helical state. We argue that the result is likely to hold also for adding higher order terms and in the presence of an explicit symmetry breaking. We conclude that an oscillating saturating state for the Tayler instability is unlikely to depend on the interaction of chiral modes.

• 350. Bonavita, M.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
SPOTS: The Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars II. First constraints on the frequency of sub-stellar companions on wide circumbinary orbits2016Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 593, artikel-id A38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

A large number of direct imaging surveys for exoplanets have been performed in recent years, yielding the first directly imaged planets and providing constraints on the prevalence and distribution of wide planetary systems. However, like most of the radial velocity ones, these generally focus on single stars, hence binaries and higher-order multiples have not been studied to the same level of scrutiny. This motivated the Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars (SPOTS) survey, which is an ongoing direct imaging study of a large sample of close binaries, started with VLT / NACO and now continuing with VLT / SPHERE. To complement this survey, we have identified the close binary targets in 24 published direct imaging surveys. Here we present our statistical analysis of this combined body of data. We analysed a sample of 117 tight binary systems, using a combined Monte Carlo and Bayesian approach to derive the expected values of the frequency of companions, for different values of the companion's semi-major axis. Our analysis suggest that the frequency of sub-stellar companions in wide orbit is moderately low (less than or similar to 13% with a best value of 6% at 95% confidence level) and not significantly different between single stars and tight binaries. One implication of this result is that the very high frequency of circumbinary planets in wide orbits around post-common envelope binaries, implied by eclipse timing, cannot be uniquely due to planets formed before the common-envelope phase (first generation planets), supporting instead the second generation planet formation or a non-Keplerian origin of the timing variations.

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