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  • 301.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Mälardalens högskola, Sverige .
    Welander, Jonas
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Sorti, tystnad och lojalitet bland medarbetare och chefer i socialtjänsten2017Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 41-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Personalsituationen i socialtjänsten framstår som alltmer problematisk med omfattande personalomsättning och rekryteringssvårigheter. Baserat på en nationell enkätstudie undersöks betydelsen av arbetsvillkor och organisatoriska faktorer för handlingsalternativen sorti, tystnad och lojalitet bland medarbetare och chefer inom socialtjänsten. Resultaten visar bland annat att styrningen inom socialtjänsten behöver utvecklas i riktning mot färre motstridiga krav och för en öppenhet som tillåter dialog och kritisk reflektion för att behålla och på sikt attrahera nya medarbetare.

  • 302. Athanasopoulos, Panos
    et al.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Does Grammatical Aspect Affect Motion Event Cognition? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of English and Swedish Speakers2013Ingår i: Cognitive science, ISSN 0364-0213, E-ISSN 1551-6709, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 286-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore whether cross-linguistic differences in grammatical aspect encoding may give rise to differences in memory and cognition. We compared native speakers of two languages that encode aspect differently (English and Swedish) in four tasks that examined verbal descriptions of stimuli, online triads matching, and memory-based triads matching with and without verbal interference. Results showed between-group differences in verbal descriptions and in memory-based triads matching. However, no differences were found in online triads matching and in memory-based triads matching with verbal interference. These findings need to be interpreted in the context of the overall pattern of performance, which indicated that both groups based their similarity judgments on common perceptual characteristics of motion events. These results show for the first time a cross-linguistic difference in memory as a function of differences in grammatical aspect encoding, but they also contribute to the emerging view that language fine tunes rather than shapes perceptual processes that are likely to be universal and unchanging.

  • 303. Athanasopoulos, Panos
    et al.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Montero-Melis, Guillermo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Damjanovic, Ljubica
    Schartner, Alina
    Kibbe, Alexandra
    Riches, Nick
    Thierry, Guillaume
    Two Languages, Two Minds: Flexible Cognitive Processing Driven by Language of Operation2015Ingår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 518-526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People make sense of objects and events around them by classifying them into identifiable categories. The extent to which language affects this process has been the focus of a long-standing debate: Do different languages cause their speakers to behave differently? Here, we show that fluent German-English bilinguals categorize motion events according to the grammatical constraints of the language in which they operate. First, as predicted from cross-linguistic differences in motion encoding, bilingual participants functioning in a German testing context prefer to match events on the basis of motion completion to a greater extent than do bilingual participants in an English context. Second, when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in English, their categorization behavior is congruent with that predicted for German; when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in German, their categorization becomes congruent with that predicted for English. These findings show that language effects on cognition are context-bound and transient, revealing unprecedented levels of malleability in human cognition.

  • 304.
    Auer, Isabel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Zingmark, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Arbetspsykologisk testning: Vad mäter ett situationsbaserat bedömningstest?2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har varit oenig gällande vad ett SJT (situational judgment test) mäter. Studiens syfte är att undersöka vad SJT mäter genom att korrelera SJT-poängen med poängen på personlighets- respektive begåvningstest. Ytterligare en frågeställning är huruvida SJT skulle kunna vara ett användbart komplement till övriga arbetspsykologiska test. Totalt genomförde 130 personer fyra olika test; ett SJT, ett personlighetstest samt två begåvningstest (ett logiskt och ett matematiskt test). Resultatet av en regressionsanalys, med poängen på conscientiousness, agreeableness och g-faktorn som prediktorer av SJT-poäng, gav R = .31 och Adj R2 = .07. I linje med ett flertal andra studier blev conscientiousness och g-faktorn signifikanta prediktorer till SJT. Ytterligare studier krävs dock för att bekräfta vilket konstrukt SJT faktiskt mäter.

  • 305.
    Augner, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    När känns arbete meningsfullt? En kvalitativ studie av arbetsmotivation och känslan av sammanhang2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Individens ”känsla av sammanhang” (KASAM) hjälper människor att trots påfrestningar nå eller behålla fysisk och psykisk hälsa. KASAM byggs upp av begreppen meningsfullhet, begriplighet och hanterbarhet. Första syftet med denna uppsats var att konkretisera begreppsparen meningsfullhet–meningslöshet, begriplighet–obegriplighet, samt hanterbarhet–ohanterbarhet i förhållande till arbete. Det andra syftet var att söka orsakerna bakom de sex begreppen. Ett tredje syfte var att se hur resultaten förhåller sig till tidigare arbetsmotivationsteorier. I en studie fick 90 personer fick skriva ner nyckelord för innebörder av begreppen, i en annan intervjuades åtta personer om bakomliggande orsaker. Resultaten från tematisk analys stämde väl överens med KASAM-modellen. Tidigare arbetsmotivationsteorier har framförallt fokuserat på nivån av själva arbetet, medan resultaten här visar att även faktorer inom individen själv, samt på organisations- och omvärldsnivå kan ha betydelse för känslan av meningsfullhet och arbetsmotivation. Vidare visas att även begreppen begriplighet och hanterbarhet bör inkluderas i arbeten rörande arbetsmotivation.

  • 306.
    Augustsson, Frida
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Seriemördares verkliga offer2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Seriemördare är rovdjur som fascinerar samhället på grund av deras farlighet. Forskning fokuserar främst på seriemördaren och offret blir obemärkt. Studier om mordoffrets karakteristika är få och befintlig forskning har fokuserat på få variabler om offret. Syftet med studien var att ta reda på om seriemördare begår mord på offer som uppvisar liknande egenskaper och visa hur variationen ser ut hos olika typer av seriemördare. Utifrån seriemördare från kända listor genomfördes en deskriptiv analys av offrens egenskaper. Resultatet visade att det typiska offret för män var en obekant, vit, vuxen kvinna som befann sig inom hans bekvämlighetszon. För kvinnor var det typiska offret en bekant, vit, vuxen man som befann sig inom hennes bekvämlighetszon. Majoriteten av seriemördare dödar inte utifrån bestämda offerkategorier utan varierar istället, vilket korresponderar med vad tidigare studier på området har kommit fram till kring offrets egenskaper. Att förstå hur mordoffret väljs ut ökar förståelsen om seriemördaren.

  • 307. Augustsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    Hasson, Henna
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    The Need for Dual Openness to Change: A Longitudinal Study Evaluating the Impact of Employees' Openness to Organizational Change Content and Process on Intervention Outcomes2017Ingår i: Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, ISSN 0021-8863, E-ISSN 1552-6879, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 349-368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how individual- and group-level openness to organizational change, concerning change content and process, affects intervention outcomes. The intervention aimed to improve primary health care employees' competence in and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Employees' (n = 1,042) ratings of their openness to the change content and process as well as of their workgroup's openness to the change content before the intervention were used to predict ICT competence and its use 18 months later. Openness to the change process predicted both ICT competence and use of competence, while openness to the change content and group openness predicted use of competence only. These results show that individual- and group-level openness to organizational change are important predictors of successful outcomes. Furthermore, employees should be open both to the content of the change and to the process by which the intervention is implemented in order to maximize outcomes.

  • 308.
    Aurelius, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Stress,coping och åtgårdsförslag hos långtidsfriska undersköterskor på ett akutsjukhus2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning om arbetsrelaterad stress och coping är viktig eftersom det påverkar upplevd hälsa. Forskare anser att man bör studera hälsofrämjande faktorer och ge förslag på åtgärder för att minska stress som annars orsakar stort individuellt lidande och kostnader för samhället. Utifrån ett salutogent perspektiv fokuserade denna studie på långtidsfriska undersköterskor på ett akutsjukhus och hur de upplevde stressiga situationer, vilka copingstrategier de använde och förslag på åtgärder för att förbättra arbetssituationen. Åtta halvstrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes, tolkades och bearbetades enligt ett induktivt tematiskt analyssätt. Undersköterskorna beskrev tre övergripande stressorer: tung arbetsbörda, brister i arbetsorganisationen och personalkonflikter vilket är kännetecken för arbetsuppgifter med stora krav och litet kontroll. De copingstrategier undersköterskorna använde sig framför allt av var problem- (ex. man tog sig an problemet) och emotionsfokuserade (ex. man pratade med andra). Slutligen framträdde förbättringsåtgärder för att åtgärda ovanstående stressorer. Samtliga resultat överensstämde med tidigare forskning och visar på behovet av att förbättra brister i arbetsorganisationen.

  • 309. Ausen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Edman, Gunnar
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bogdanovic, Nenad
    Self- and Informant Ratings of Personality in Mild Cognitive Impairment, Reviewed2011Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 387-393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine the degree of agreement between self-and informant ratings of personality in relation to cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and healthy controls (HC). Methods: Thirty-two patients and informants with MCI, 23 with SCI and 22 HC completed the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). Correlations and incongruence between self-and informant ratings were calculated. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess cognitive function. Results: The correlations between self-and and informant ratings were fair-to-moderate on a majority of SSP scales and significant in 44%. The incongruence between patients and informants was significantly larger in MCI than in HC across SSP scales. There was a significant negative correlation between the incongruence index and the MMSE for all subjects. Conclusions: Self-informant agreement on ratings of patients' personality was reasonable. Incongruence between patients and their informants was associated with MCI but not SCI or HC. Disagreement between patients and informants indicates cognitive impairment. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 310.
    Ausén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Edman, Gunnar
    Danderyds sjukhus.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bogdanovic, Nenad
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Personality Features in Subjective Cognitive Impairment and Mild Cognitive Impairment - Early Indicators of Dementia?2009Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 28, nr 6, s. 528-535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate patterns of personality in patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), compared to healthy controls. Methods: We assessed24 patients with SCI, 35 patients with MCI and 26 healthy controls with the self-report questionnaire Swedish Universities Scales of Personality measuring aspects of neuroticism/anxiety proneness, extraversion, and aggression-hostility. Results: Patients with SCI and MCI showed significantly more Somatic Trait Anxiety, Psychic Trait Anxiety and Stress Susceptibility than healthy controls. Moreover, there was a significant increase in Detachment in patients with MCI and a significant decrease in Adventure Seeking in patients with SCI, relative to healthy controls. Conclusions: Patients with SCI and MCI presented specific patterns of personality alterations with higher scores in traits related to anxiety proneness and aggression-hostility and lower in traits of extraversion. In most subscales differences followed a sequential pattern with gradually increasing scores from healthy controls, to patients with SCI and further to MCI. The groups differed in amount and type of symptoms, suggesting that patterns of personality may be related to degree of cognitive impairment.

  • 311.
    Avesson, Tilda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Prokrastinering i arbetslivet: Samt dess samband med arbetsengagemang och prestationsmotivation2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Prokrastinering har uppvisat samband med flera negativa aspekter för både individ och organisation, såsom stress och kortare anställningstid. Trots detta är forskningen om prokrastinering i arbetslivet fortfarande sparsam. Vidare verkar prokrastinering korrelera med arbetsengagemang och prestationsmotivation, två faktorer som i sig kan ha positiva effekter för individer och organisationer. Syftet med denna korrelationsstudie var därmed att undersöka förekomsten av prokrastinering och om det korrelerade negativt med arbetsengagemang samt prestationsmotivation i arbetslivet. Med ett bekvämlighetsurval genomfördes en enkätundersökning på en koncern av mediebyråer i Sverige med cirka 350 anställda. Resultatet visade på låg prokrastinering och negativa samband erhölls mellan prokrastinering och arbetsengagemang samt prestationsmotivation. Det visade sig även att hög prestationsmotivation kan predicera låg prokrastinering. Hypoteserna bekräftas därmed av resultatet. Möjliga förklaringar till resultatet kan vara undersökningsdeltagarnas engagemang och samvetsgrannhet samt att organisationens arbetsmiljö förhindrar prokrastinering och främjar engagemang.

  • 312.
    Avgeris, Nikolaos
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Svenska och grekiska föräldrars inställning till barn med rörelsehinder2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning om attityder till personer med rörelsehinder förekommer mycket sparsamt. Studiens syfte var att studera inställningen till barn med rörelsehinder hos föräldrar till barn utan rörelsehinder med särskild tonvikt på föräldrars etniska bakgrund. 52 svenskar och 50 greker svarade på en enkät, speciellt utvecklad för detta ändamål. Föräldrar visade i genomsnitt en positiv inställning till barn med rörelsehinder. Föräldrars inställning påverkades av deras utbildning, tendensen att vilja beskydda dessa barn, funderingar om barnens roll i samhället och funderingar om samlevnadsfrågor med dessa barn. Föräldrar med svensk bakgrund visade mindre tendens att vilja beskydda barn med rörelsehinder, var mer positiva till dessa barns roll i samhället och till tanken att leva med dessa barn samt de visade mer positiv inställning än föräldrar med grekisk bakgrund. Vistelsens längd i Sverige påverkade inte inställningen hos greker. Resultaten diskuteras inom ramen för Bronfenbrenners utvecklingsekologiska modell med hänsyn till kulturella skillnader mellan de två föräldragrupperna.

  • 313.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Long shifts, short rests and vulnerability to shift work2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    At the same time as many urban economies are developing into 24-hour societies it is becoming increasingly popular amongst shift workers to compress their working hours. This is done by working longer shifts (>8h) and/or restricting free time (<16h) in between shifts – the main reasons are to gain longer bouts of free time and extra free weekends. However, there is a limited knowledge of the effects of such arrangements on sleep and wakefulness. Thus, the main purposes of the present thesis were to evaluate the effects of long working hours (in the form of 12h shifts) and short recovery periods. Another aim was to evaluate possible mechanisms that could suggest why some individuals develop problems with shift work while others do not.

    We used a combination of methods - sleep diaries, wake diaries, blood samples and objective measures of sleep and cognitive performance - across whole or large parts of shift schedules to evaluate acute effects of particularly demanding working periods, as well as the total effects of a shift cycle. Study I evaluated the effect of changing from an 8h- to a 12h-shift system. Study II evaluated the effects of long shifts in a shift schedule with both 8h- and 12h-shifts. Study III evaluated the effects of several consecutive short recovery periods (8-9h of recovery) and whether satisfaction with ones’ work hours was associated to problems with sleep and sleepiness. Study IV evaluated whether endocrinological markers of catabolic (cortisol) and anabolic (testosterone) activity changed across a shift sequence and whether satisfaction were related to them. Study V was a laboratory simulation of the effects of a short recovery period (4h of sleep) and whether a short nap could counteract any detrimental effects.

    There was no convincing evidence for 12h shifts inducing more problems with sleep and sleepiness than 8h shifts. With regard to recovery time between shifts, the shortest recovery times (only 8h) seriously shortened sleep duration and increased sleepiness, while 12h of recovery (between two consecutive 12h shifts) was judged as having no or limited effects on acute measures. The problems with the shortest recovery periods were worse in a schedule with several consecutive shifts and less pronounced in a schedule with few consecutive shifts. With regard to individual differences, it was found that subjects being dissatisfied with their working hours were vulnerable to short recovery periods, which was evident by less sufficient sleep and an accumulation of sleepiness across work periods with limited recovery time. Interestingly, these problems disappeared when they were allowed to recover after the work period. In addition, dissatisfied male shift workers had lower testosterone levels at the end of work periods, indicating disturbed anabolic activity. The simulated quick return supported that curtailed sleep affected sleepiness and performance and that a short nap could counteract these effects temporarily.

    It is concluded that long shifts (up to 12h) may be acceptable, whereas short recovery time (8h or less) is not. Most of the problems with short recovery periods were related to short sleep and sleepiness, and there is, clearly, a subgroup of workers that suffer more from this than others. It is argued that insufficient sleep and low testosterone levels (in males) might be key factors for developing shift intolerance, mainly by reducing the capacity to recover from shift work.

  • 314.
    Axelsson, John
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rehman, Javaid-ur
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Ekman, Rolf
    Miller, Gregory E.
    Höglund, Caroline Olgart
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Effects of Sustained Sleep Restriction on Mitogen-Stimulated Cytokines, Chemokines and T Helper 1/ T Helper 2 Balance in Humans2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 12, artikel-id e82291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies suggest that acute sleep deprivation disrupts cellular immune responses by shifting T helper (Th) cell activity towards a Th2 cytokine profile. Since little is known about more long-term effects, we investigated how five days of sleep restriction would affect pro-inflammatory, chemotactic, Th1- and Th2 cytokine secretion. Methods: Nine healthy males participated in an experimental sleep protocol with two baseline sleep-wake cycles (sleep 23.00 - 07.00 h) followed by 5 days with restricted sleep (03.00 - 07.00 h). On the second baseline day and on the fifth day with restricted sleep, samples were drawn every third hour for determination of cytokines/chemokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL) -1 beta, IL-2, IL-4 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)) after in vitro stimulation of whole blood samples with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Also leukocyte numbers, mononuclear cells and cortisol were analysed. Results: 5-days of sleep restriction affected PHA-induced immune responses in several ways. There was a general decrease of IL-2 production (p<.05). A shift in Th1/Th2 cytokine balance was also evident, as determined by a decrease in IL2/IL4 ratio. No other main effects of restricted sleep were shown. Two significant interactions showed that restricted sleep resulted in increased TNF-alpha and MCP-1 in the late evening and early night hours (p's<.05). In addition, all variables varied across the 24 h day. Conclusions: 5-days of sleep restriction is characterized by a shift towards Th2 activity (i.e. lower 1L-2/IL-4 ratio) which is similar to the effects of acute sleep deprivation and psychological stress. This may have implications for people suffering from conditions characterized by excessive Th2 activity like in allergic disease, such as asthma, for whom restricted sleep could have negative consequences.

  • 315. Axelsson, John
    et al.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Van Someren, Eus J. W.
    Olsson, Andreas
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people2010Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 341, artikel-id c6614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our findings show that sleep deprived people appear less healthy, less attractive, and more tired compared with when they are well rested. This suggests that humans are sensitive to sleep related facial cues, with potential implications for social and clinical judgments and behaviour. Studies are warranted for understanding how these effects may affect clinical decision making and can add knowledge with direct implications in a medical context.

  • 316.
    Axelsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    HR-medarbetares upplevelser kring spelprevention och policyimplementering på arbetsplatsen2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skadligt bruk är ett brett begrepp som omfattar många olika former av bruk, till exempel av alkohol, droger eller spel om pengar vilket kan påverka arbetsprestationen negativt hos en arbetstagare. På uppdrag av Folkhälsomyndigheten ville man värdera verkningsgraden av genomförda utbildningsinsatser kopplat till problematiskt spelande. Syftet med den här studien är att kvalitativt utvärdera upplevelser av genomförda utbildningsinsatser som organisationen Alna genomfört kring skadligt bruk med fokus på spelproblem. Tematisk analys användes och datainsamling skedde genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio HR-medarbetare, vars fem organisationer ingick i utbildningsprojektet Spel och spelförebyggande insatser för arbetslivet. Resultatet visar att Alnas metoder och verktyg upplevs som effektiva och värdefulla av undersökningsdeltagarna. Vissa hinder för effektiv implementering av uppdaterade policys och riktlinjer identifierades och dessa kunde bestå av tidsbrist, underbemanning eller eftersatt prioritering av spelfrågan. Vidare framgår det att Alnas utbildningsinsatser främjat utformandet av policys och riktlinjer kring skadligt bruk med fokus på spel och spelproblem i organisationerna. 

  • 317.
    Axelsson, Mia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nyckeltal för jämställdhet i organisationer2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Immateriella resurser är i dagens postindustriella samhälle organisationens främsta tillgång. I och med att jämställdhet i organisationen kan bidra till verksamhetsutveckling och ökad lönsamhet, kan argumenteras för att jämställdhet är en immateriell resurs för organisationen. Denna resurs kan mätas med personalrelaterade nyckeltal, exempelvis JÄMIX. Syftet med studien var att undersöka på vilket sätt JÄMIX används i organisationer och därmed bidra till en ökad förståelse för personalrelaterade nyckeltal med inriktning mot jämställdhet. De organisationer som medverkade i studien hade abonnerat på JÄMIX i minst två år. Sju respondenter deltog i studien, två män och fem kvinnor i åldrarna 30-63 år. Med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer som tematiskt analyserades, kunde urskiljas ett samband mellan erfarenhet av att använda personalrelaterade nyckeltal och förmåga att tolka och förstå JÄMIX-materialet. Resultatet visade att de främsta användningsområdena för JÄMIX var att bidra till en kartläggning av jämställdhetssituationen i verksamheten samt att möjliggöra jämförelse mellan organisationer. Dock framkom även att JÄMIX bör kompletteras med andra verktyg, såsom till exempel medarbetarundersökningar, för att kartlägga jämställdheten i organisationen. Vid en analys av resultatet kunde urskiljas att legitimering var det främsta syftet med JÄMIX.

     

  • 318.
    Axelsson, Richard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    VAD GÖR EN LEDARSKAPSUTBILDNING FÖR SKILLNAD FÖR EN LEDARE?2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarskap är viktigt i dagens organisationer då dessa möter ständiga förändringar. Olika former av ledarskapsutveckling används för att uppnå ett mer effektivt ledarskap, men vad dessa får för faktiskt utfall utvärderas sällan. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilken påverkan ett ledarskapsprogram haft på deltagarnas ledarskap och hur de kunnat använda detta i organisationen samt vad som krävs efteråt hos deltagaren och hos organisationen för att programmet ska få effekt. Studien baseras på sex intervjuer med deltagare från ett avslutat ledarskapsprogram. Materialet analyserades med en induktiv tematisk metod. Studiens resultat visade att ledarskapsprogrammet på olika sätt påverkat deltagarna positivt vilket gjort att de stärkts i sina ledarroller, hos ett antal har även ledarskapsutveckling skett. För att programmet ska få större effekt på lång sikt och ledarskapsutveckling ske hos fler bör en tydligare integration av programmet ske hos överordnade chefer för att skapa handlingsutrymme för deltagarna.

  • 319.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Aesthetic Appreciation Explicated2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present doctoral thesis outlines a new model in psychological aesthetics, named the Information-Load Model. This model asserts that aesthetic appreciation is grounded in the relationship between the amount of information of stimuli and people’s capacity to process this information. This relationship results in information load, which in turn creates emotional responses to stimuli. Aesthetic appreciation corresponds to an optimal degree of information load. Initially, the optimal degree is relatively low. As an individual learns to master information in a domain (e.g., photography), the degree of information load, which corresponds to aesthetic appreciation, increases.

    The present doctoral thesis is based on three empirical papers that explored what factors determine aesthetic appreciation of photographs and soundscapes. Experiment 1 of Paper I involved 34 psychology undergraduates and 564 photographs of various motifs. It resulted in a set of 189 adjectives related to the degree of aesthetic appreciation of photographs. The subsequent experiments employed attribute scales that were derived from this set of adjectives. In Experiment 2 of Paper I, 100 university students scaled 50 photographs on 141 attribute scales. Similarly, in Paper II, 100 university students scaled 50 soundscapes on 116 attribute scales. In Paper III, 10 psychology undergraduates and 5 photo professionals scaled 32 photographs on 27 attribute scales. To explore the underlying structure of the data sets, they were subjected to Multidimensional Scaling and Principal Components Analyses. Four general components, related to aesthetic appreciation, were found: Familiarity, Hedonic Tone, Expressiveness, and Uncertainty. These components result from the higher-order latent factor Information Load that underlies aesthetic appreciation.

  • 320.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Designing Soundscape for Sustainable Urban Development2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The term 'soundscape' — the acoustic equivalent to 'landscape' — is relatively new to many. The present report summarises the results of the conference Designing Soundscape for Sustainable Urban Development, which was organised in order to introduce the soundscape approach to architects and urban planners who have little or no previous experience in this field. Like the conference, the present report seeks to inspire and provoke new thoughts in order to challenge the visual dominance in architecture. In order to reach this objective I invited among the finest soundscape experts in the world to present their thoughts and case studies for others to follow. By the present report they provide their contributions in written form for those who could not participate in the conference. I am convinced that these thoughts will change the way you perceive the built environment, as well as the way you think about and listen to sounds. The report makes evident that the soundscape is an essential environmental resource.

  • 321.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Effects of a low-height sound absorbent street furniture and a fountain on the soundscape in a Stockholm pocket park2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the Inter-Noise 2016, 2016, s. 5203-5211Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of a mock-up version of a low-height sound absorbent street furniture and a fountain on the local soundscape in a pocket park in Stockholm. Binaural recordings were conducted at two distances from the main road (on the sidewalk and in the park). The recordings were conducted with or without the mock-up, and with the local fountain either turned on or off. Thirty-two students (16 women, Mage = 26.6 yrs., SDage = 5.7) participated in a listening experiment, and assessed eight experimental sounds, in context of 12 fill sounds, on how pleasant or eventful they were. ANOVA showed that the mock-up had a stronger effect on pleasantness on the sidewalk than in the park, and the fountain contributed to pleasantness only in the absence of the mock-up. Moreover, the fountain reduced the eventfulness in the park but not on the sidewalk. The results are in line with previous case studies. Taken together, they suggest that it is better to build low-height sound absorbent street furniture  han fountains, to improve the urban soundscape.

  • 322.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    How to measure soundscape quality2015Ingår i: Proceedings of Euronoise 2015 / [ed] C. Glorieux, Nederlands Akoestisch Genootschap and ABAV - Belgian Acoustical Society , 2015, s. 1477-1481, artikel-id 67Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Soundscape-Quality Protocol has been criticized for being insufficient, because it proposes to assess soundscape quality by a Good–Bad Scale, and alternatively by eight attribute scales assessing the perceived affective quality of a soundscape. Critics argue that further alternative definitions of ‘soundscape quality’ must be explored. In particular they argue for assessing ‘soundscape quality’ by asking to what extent a soundscape is appropriate to a place. The Sound Cities project at School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, in the UK, investigated this issue by a listening experiment involving 50 university students and 25 urban and peri-urban areas from the UK. The results indicate that the Good–Bad Scale is correlated with the perceived affective quality of a soundscape. Conversely, the appropriateness of a soundscape to a place is orthogonal to the former two assessments and provides additional information. Thus, a soundscape can be appropriate to a place even though it is poor. This raises the issue of which information should be given priority. Probably the best recommendation is to assess soundscape by perceived affective quality. In addition, it is possible to complement this assessment by assessing the appropriateness of the soundscape to the place. However, the latter assessment should not be used on its own, as this may lead to unfortunate conclusions.

  • 323.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Individual differences in preferences to photographs2007Ingår i: Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, ISSN 1931-3896, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 61-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in preferences to photographs were explored based on an alternative framework. This framework predicts that the primary difference between individuals in this respect is their ability to process photographic information, which in turn influences their preferences. Chiefly, people with well-developed schemes in photography (e.g., photo professionals) should have a higher ability to process photographic information than people with less developed schemes (e.g., psychology students). Consequently, people with well-developed schemes in photography should prefer photographs that are relatively more demanding to process. Ten psychology students and 5 photo professionals assessed 32 photographs on six general concepts: Preference, Hedonic Tone, Expressiveness, Familiarity, Uncertainty, and Dynamics. As predicted, photo professionals had a higher ability to process photographic information and preferred photographs that were relatively uncertain and unfamiliar. These results are in concordance with previous research and give strong support to the utility of the present framework in experimental aesthetics.

  • 324.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Introducing soundscape2012Ingår i: AESOP 2012, Ankara: Ankara, Turkey: Association of European Schools of Planning. / [ed] M. Balamir, M. Ersoy and E. Babalık Sutcliffe, 2012, s. Paper 220-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    'Soundscape' – the acoustic equivalent of 'Landscape' – is a relatively new area to many. It concerns the acoustic environment as perceived, experienced or understood by people, in context. Current development in soundscape research is directed towards urban planning and design in promotion of sustainable development, health, well-being, and quality of life. Above all, soundscape is about what sounds are appropriate to, or belonging to, a place. There is no one ideal soundscape. To determine which soundscapes are good, we must consider which activities the soundscape may enable at a place. Furthermore, soundscape creates a sense of place, and it is an important aspect of our cultural heritage. For instance, what soundscapes will our generation transfer to the next, and how will this affect sustainability and quality of life in the future? To incorporate soundscape into urban planning and design, we must understand the relationship between sound and human activities in the urban environment. What sounds and human activities are compatible, and which are not? For example, what sounds are compatible with urban street-life, or with a young children’s playground? What sounds promote or impede social interaction in urban open spaces, or what sounds promote or impede tranquillity? In order to advance soundscape research, a coordinated, cooperative and interdisciplinary effort is needed.

  • 325.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    May information load be the key dimension underlying soundscape perception?2009Ingår i: Inter-Noise 2009: Innovations in Practical Noise Control / [ed] J.S. Bolton, B. Gover, & C. Burroughs, Ottawa: Institute of Noise Control Engineering of the USA , 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether to improve existing soundscapes or to design future soundscapes it is central to have a prediction model that can guide our actions in order to achieve desired outcomes. In order to create such a predication model it is necessary to understand the psychological processes that underlie soundscape perception. In the present paper I outline a theoretic framework for such psychological processes. I propose that Information Load is the most fundamental dimensions underlying soundscape perception and the cause of emotional responses to soundscapes. In this context information load is an interaction between soundscape complexity and our ability to comprehend or to process information. The framework predicts that low degree of information load (a monotonous soundscape) is boring, a moderate degree of information load (a quiet natural soundscape) is pleasant, above moderate degree of information load (an eventful soundscape) is exciting, and a very high degree of information load (a chaotic soundscape) is unpleasant. In addition, I propose promising indicators of information load, like 1/f-like noise, which may be used to test the proposed framework.

  • 326.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Measuring procedures for soundscapes in residential areas: Paper No. in10_3432010Ingår i: Inter Noise 2010 / [ed] O. Inácio, Lisbon, Portugal: Portuguese Acoustical Society , 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last years, soundscape research has increased strongly and with this also the need for sharing ideas regarding methods of data collection, procedures and evaluation. We present two soundscape studies, conducted in residential areas. The measurements are based on general practice in perception psychology, psychophysics and sensory evaluation. The first study measured overall soundscape quality in order to investigate necessary actions to improve the soundscape. The second study measured if the restoration of a courtyard will meet preset objectives for soundscape improvement. We present useful soundscape metrics and indicators. We discuss our particular research procedures and their implications for soundscape research and practice. We conclude that perception psychology, psychophysics, and sensory evaluation provide the design tools necessary for soundscape improvement.

  • 327.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Perceived Quality of Urban Open Space: A Stockholm Case Study2017Ingår i: Space of Dialog for Places of Dignity: Fostering the European Dimension of Planning: Book of Proceedings / [ed] Eduarda Marques da Costa, Sofia Morgado, João Cabral, Lisboa: Universidade de Lisboa , 2017, s. 843-851, artikel-id 1454Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In investigating the quality of urban open space, it is important to investigate how the visual and auditory components contribute to the total quality. The majority of studies investigating audio-visual interaction in environmental perception have concerned how visual stimuli affect auditory perception, such as how vegetation affects the perception of the sound of road traffic from a motorway (e.g., Anderson, Mulligan, Goodman, Regen, 1983). In general, these studies indicate that how people perceive sound depends on the visual context. That is, some sounds are more appropriate in one context than in another, which seems to depend on the participants’ expectations. For example, a city center is expected to sound like a city center, and not like a forest, and vice versa. Typically, a mismatch resulted in discomfort.

    A handful of laboratory studies investigated how perception of auditory and visual aspects related to the perception of the composite of audio-visual information (e.g., Gifford & Ng, 1982; Kuwano, Namba, Komatsu, Kato, & Hayashi, 2001; Morinaga, Aono, Kuwano, & Kato, 2003). Chiefly, these studies showed that visual aspects of environments were more important than auditory aspects. However, how important the visual aspects were, was highly variable across different environments. This indicates that auditory information might dominate over visual information at some point (see also Gan, Luo, Breitung, Kang, & Zhang, 2014; Preis, Koci ski, Hafke-Dys, & Wrzosek, 2015).

    The present paper concerns a case study conducted in collaboration with the City of Stockholm, Sweden, in the summer of 2016. The purpose was to characterize and to investigate the potential for improving the quality of the environment in a centrally located park area in the city. Walks were conducted in situ together with 61 residents. In the walks the participants assessed five preselected sites in and near the park area, with regards to their perceived total, auditory and visual qualities.

  • 328.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Progress in soundscape research requires a common agenda2011Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, nr 4, s. 2495-2495Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly believed that progress and success in any field requires competition. This is probably true, but this belief implies that all competitors have a common view on the objectives. There would not be much competition if all parties ran off in opposite directions, striving to achieve different goals. Nor would it lead to much progress. The present session calls for networking and international collaboration in soundscape research. For such collaboration to be successful, it is critical to agree on a common agenda; a mission; an objective. Recent development in soundscape research makes evident that the objective must be practical and applicable. Our minds must be set to implementing soundscape research in practice to avoid exhausting academic debates, which tend to be ends in themselves and do not contribute to progress. Two excellent, recent examples of international collaboration in soundscape research, contributing to progress, are ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 54 and the European COST Action TD0804 “Soundscape of European Cities and Landscapes.” Both illustrate the need for international and interdisciplinary collaboration among acousticians, architects, and urban planners to accelerate progress in soundscape research. The present paper presents possible topics for a common agenda in soundscape research.

  • 329.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. University of Sheffield, UK .
    Sound Cities2013Ingår i: Planning for Resilient Cities and Regions: E-book of abstracts, Dublin: University College Dublin, The School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Polices , 2013, s. 772-772Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Soundscape is an overlooked aspect of sustainable urban development and resilient cities. Particularly, soundscape is associated with urban open space quality and urban design. It concerns the acoustic environment as perceived or experienced and/or understood by people in context. It includes all sounds – positive as well as negative. Unlike current management of the acoustic environment, soundscape is not primarily about reducing sound levels below an acceptable guideline value. Rather, it is about what sounds belong to a place. From a heritage perspective it is important to ask what soundscapes present generations create and transfer to future generations. How do people want the city to sound? This relates to architecture and the urban infra structure, such as location of buildings, roads and parks, including the activities they entail. Much of what present generations create is durable and will affect many generations to come, by limiting the number of degrees of freedom at their disposal. This paper presents an early report on the Sound Cities projects that investigate how soundscapes may be consciously and expediently designed, as well as what we should mean with soundscape quality. For example, what is the relationship between soundscape and human activity in the city, or between soundscape and different kinds of sound sources? The aim of the projects is to promote sustainable urban development, quality of life, as well as health and well-being among urban residents, today and in the future. The projects include in situ questionnaires, psychoacoustic listening experiments, as well as machine learning, based on music information retrieval technology.

  • 330.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Soundscape and the human scale in urban design2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With changing practices in urban planning, moving away from thinking of the city primarily in terms of infrastructure towards a growing appreciation of the city as a stage for social interaction, the human scale is all more important in urban design. What do the citizens need, and how would they like the city to be? Soundscape research focuses on these issues with regards to the acoustic environment, aiming to develop knowledge, tools and strategies. Central purposes of soundscapes studies are to describe, evaluate, change or to design/create acoustic environments. The aim is to promote health, well-being and quality of life. Because soundscape concerns how people perceive, experience or understand the acoustic environment the human scale is taken into account by definition. This paper will discuss questions that are central to soundscape theory and its application in an increasingly dense urban environment.

  • 331.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Soundscape Quality2013Ingår i: AIA-DAGA/EAA Euroregio 2013: Program, Berlin: Deutschen Gesellschaft für Akustik , 2013, s. 204-205Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With the formation of the working group ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 54 “Perceptual Assessment of Soundscape Quality” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 2008, a debate has arisen on what soundscape quality should mean. The Swedish Soundscape-Quality Protocol defines soundscape quality operationally as a single, one-dimensional Good-Bad scale. Critics argue that this is unsatisfactory, because there is no one ideal soundscape. Rather, they argue that soundscape quality is relative to a place and the outcomes that the soundscape of that place facilitates or enables (e.g., conversation without interruption, nature appreciation or psychological restoration). In 2013, a questionnaire study will be conducted in Sheffield, UK, including about 900 users/visitors in 45 urban and peri-urban areas, divided on 9 different kinds (e.g., pedestrian areas, residential areas, parks, and plazas). The purpose is to define soundscape quality and to further develop measurement methods in this field. The results are expected to contribute to methods for 'green labelling' of soundscapes, and to support the development of the International Standard ISO 12913 on soundscape. The present paper discusses research plans and initial results.

  • 332.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Standardization in Soundscape Research: Current and Future Perspectives2010Ingår i: Programme for DAGA 2010, Berlin, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Akustik , 2010, s. 45-45Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) decided to put together a new expert working group ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 54 named “Perceptual assessment of soundscape quality”. The scope of the working group is to provide minimum specifications for soundscape studies, by proposing (a) new international standard(s) on how to measure the perceived quality of soundscapes. This work is chiefly motivated by a need to harmonise methods in soundscape research internationally in order to improve the comparability of research results across countries and over time. The standard(s) developed by this working group will primarily be intended for researchers assessing perceived soundscape quality and for public users evaluating soundscape quality in different areas. The standard(s) will include definitions, methods, measurements and reporting requirements. Examples of applications may include visitor questionnaire studies in outdoor areas intended for recreation (e.g., city parks or open green spaces), or resident questionnaire studies in residential areas, including areas with designated places of high sound quality. In the ISO terminology this is a preliminary working item, which means that there are no time restrictions until the group has put forward its first formal proposal. The working group plan to do this in 2011.

  • 333.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The ISO 12913 series on soundscape2011Ingår i: Proceedings of Forum Acusticum 2011 / [ed] Danish Acoustical Society, Aalborg, Danmark: European Acoustics Association (EAA), 2011, s. 494-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since February 2009 the working group ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 54 “Perceptual assessment of soundscape quality”, of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), has been working on a draft of the first international standard on soundscape. It was submitted as a new work item proposal to ISO in November 2010, and may become the first part of the new ISO 12913 series on soundscape. This first part of the series provides a definition of the term ‘soundscape’ and a conceptual framework of soundscape perception. It explicates background factors relevant for soundscape perception and the measurement of soundscape quality. By providing a standard reference, the working group aims at international consensus in order to avoid confusion in regard to the definition, and to accelerate progress in soundscape research. Subsequent parts of the ISO 12913 series will deal with minimum reporting requirements in soundscape research, and methods for measuring soundscape quality.

  • 334.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The ISO 12913 series on soundscape: An update, May 20122012Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 131, nr 4, artikel-id 3381Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In February 2009 the working group ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 54 “Perceptual assessment of soundscape quality”, of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), begun preparing the first International Standard on soundscape “ISO 12913-1 Acoustics — Soundscape — Part 1: Definition and conceptual framework”. This paper presents the latest version of the definition of “soundscape” and its conceptual framework. At its current state of development the framework highlights seven general concepts and their relationships: (1) sound sources, (2) acoustic environment, (3) auditory sensations, (4) interpretation of auditory sensations, (5) responses, (6) context, and (7) outcomes. By providing a standard reference, the working group aims at international consensus in order to avoid ambiguity, and to enable conceptual progress in soundscape research. ISO 12913-1 is expected to be published as an International Standard in 2015. Subsequent parts of the ISO 12913 series will deal with minimum reporting requirements in soundscape research, and methods for measuring soundscape quality.

  • 335.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Towards a psychology of photography: Dimensions underlying aesthetic appeal of photographs2007Ingår i: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 105, nr 2, s. 411-434Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim to contribute to the development of a psychology of photography, this study examined what attributes are the major determinants of aesthetic appeal of photographs. Two interlinked experiments were conducted with 564 photographs having a wide range of motifs. Exp. 1 consisted of sorting by aesthetic appeal and adjective generation. In Exp. 2, attribute scaling was collected. Multidimensional scaling analysis of the photographs yielded three dimensions identified with the aid of attribute scales combined with measures of the manifest content of the photographs. The three dimensions were Hedonic Tone-Familiarity, Absence of color, and Expressiveness-Dynamics. The present results suggested that participants' familiarity with the photographs, the types of photographs (Color or Black & White), and the photographs' dynamics all affected participants' judgments of aesthetic appeal. Hedonic Tone and Expressiveness apparently mediated the participants' judgments.

  • 336.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Towards guidelines for soundscape design2015Ingår i: Book of Proceedings AESOP Prague Annual Congress 2015: Definite Space – Fuzzy Responsibility / [ed] M. Macoun, K. Maier, 2015, s. 802-808Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Architects and urban planners request guidelines with regards to soundscape design. In 2013 staff and students at the University of Sheffield, UK, were invited to take part in an electronic survey to investigate what kinds of urban open spaces that they prefer, and how these spaces should be designed with regards to soundscape. Respondents were asked to freely name their favourite outdoor place in Sheffield, and to what extent they found a list of 45 social and recreational activities, as well as a list of 40 sound sources appropriate for this place. A total of 935 individuals completed the questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis of the 45 social and recreational activities revealed three main categories of favourite outdoor places: ‘Urban Park’, ‘City Centre’, and ‘My Space’. For ‘Urban Park’ natural sounds were appropriate when clearly audible, sounds of individuals when moderately audible, sounds of crowds when slightly audible, and technological sounds when inaudible. For ‘City Centre’ sounds of individuals were appropriate when moderately audible, whereas natural sounds, and sounds of crowds were appropriate when slightly audible. Technological sounds were appropriate when inaudible. For ‘My Space’ natural sounds and sounds of individuals were appropriate when moderately audible, whereas sounds of crowds and technological sounds were appropriate when inaudible. This kinds of profiles may serve as design guidelines for urban outdoor spaces with regards to soundscape, based on their social and recreational purposes.

  • 337.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Tower of Babel, or why bother about international standards?2011Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, nr 4, s. 2467-2467Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    While a vast nation like the USA has the capacity to be self-sufficient, many countries lack this privilege. Take Sweden as an example, a small country in northern Europe with a population of 9 million. Swedes are proud to be international. And they should, because how could a nation, which since the days of the Vikings has depended on international trade, sustain itself without a global economy. International standards support the development within this global economy, just like English as business language facilitates global collaboration. Imagine humanity without these common frames of reference.

  • 338.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Molero Suárez, M.
    Soundscape management urgently needed in developing countries2010Ingår i: Inter Noise 2010: Paper No. in10_781 / [ed] O. Inácio, Lisbon, Portugal: Portuguese Acoustical Society , 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soundscape management is urgently needed in developing countries. Take for example Lima, the capital of Peru. Because people have moved to cities to seek a better life and to work in the growing industrial sector, Lima’s population has grown rapidly since the 1960’s, to reach 8.5 million in 2007 (30 % of Peru’s population). Public transport in Lima is by road vehicles rather than by trams and trains. Apart from chemical air pollution and particulate matter, noise pollution increases intensely with the ever-increasing number of vehicles (on average 3.7 % per year). Current developments are all but sustainable, and Lima city urgently needs to implement efficient noise-abatement strategies to control noise emissions and immissions. Soundscape management would be able to provide high acoustic quality. Thus, urban planning and environmental management have to be creatively developed.

  • 339.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Soundscape assessment.2005Ingår i: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 117, nr 4, s. 2591-2592Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the quality of the soundscape it is necessary to know its descriptive and evaluative properties, and the relationships between these properties. This was explored in a listening experiment with 100 participants (48 women, 52 men; mean age 25,6 years). Each participant scaled 5 out of 50 soundscapes with regard to 116 single verbal attributes, using a visual analogue scale of agreeableness. In addition, acoustical properties of the soundscapes were assessed. A principal component analysis identified two major evaluative components, labeled Hedonic Tone and Eventfulness. Furthermore it was found that the mere presence of common sound sources, regardless of sound level, correlated significantly with these evaluative components. Technological sounds (e.g., traffic noise) were negatively associated with both Hedonic Tone and Eventfulness, while a positive association was found between Hedonic Tone and sounds of nature (e.g., bird song), and a positive association was found between Eventfulness and human sounds (e.g., human voices). These relationships lead to the hypothesis that introduction of nature and human sounds, in combination with the reduction of technological sounds may improve the quality of soundscapes considerably.

  • 340.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Lundén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sound Cities: Computational modelling of urban soundscape quality2013Ingår i: Inter Noise 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life. Innsbruck, Austria / [ed] W. Talasch, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether to improve existing acoustic environments, as they are perceived or experienced and/or understood by people, in context (i.e., soundscapes), or to design future soundscapes it is central to have a prediction model that relates predictors (i.e., acoustic indicators) to outcomes (i.e., psychological variables). In the Sound Cities project it is proposed to use as outcome what Axelsson previously has termed Information Load. The purpose of the Sound Cities project is to identify what acoustic indicators may predict the information load of soundscapes. The method will be psychoacoustic experiments in which a large sample of naïve listeners will assess recordings of authentic acoustic environments with regards to information load. Acoustic signals and information-load data will be submitted to machine learning, based on music information retrieval technology. It is expected that the Sound Cities project will contribute to the underpinnings of future tools for soundscape planning and design, like soundscape maps that provide information on how people perceive the acoustic environment. This is in contrast to present noise maps, which only provide calculated sound-pressure levels from transportation and industry.

  • 341.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    On sound source identification and taxonomy in soundscape research: Paper No. in10_7802010Ingår i: Inter Noise 2010 / [ed] O. Inácio, Lisbon, Portugal: Portuguese Acoustical Society , 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound source identification is typically the first step in a soundscape study. For comparability, a standardized sound source taxonomy and data collection methods are needed. Sound sources typically form three main categories: technological, human and natural sounds (e.g., road traffic, voices, and singing birds). These categories are meaningfully related to emotional responses to soundscapes. Technological sounds are typically judged unpleasant, natural sounds pleasant, whereas human sounds are eventful. Based on our empirical results we discuss how detailed a sound source taxonomy needs to be. We illustrate and conclude, it must state basic principles for how to categorize sound sources, and include clear examples without aiming to be exhaustive. Although standardized, related data collection methods must be flexible and allow adaption to unforeseen circumstances.

  • 342.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Water features and acoustic diversity of urban parks2011Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, nr 4, s. 2533-2533Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Water features are well-acknowledged in architecture and urban planning for their visual characteristics. But, how do water features contribute to acoustic diversity and soundscape quality? Visitors in an urban park were recruited to complete a questionnaire on how they perceived the park including its soundscape. Meanwhile, the soundscape was manipulated by turning a fountain on or off at irregular hours. The fountain sounds had a positive effect on soundscape quality in an area close to the fountain, by masking background road-traffic noise. The fountain sound also masked other natural sounds, which may have a negative influence on acoustic diversity and soundscape quality. In addition, some participants may have mistaken the fountain sounds for distant road-traffic noise. Hence, when introducing a water feature in an urban park it is necessary to consider the acoustic characteristics of the water sounds, as well as the placement of the water feature.

  • 343.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    A principal components model of soundscape perception2010Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 128, nr 5, s. 2836-2846Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for a model that identifies underlying dimensions of soundscape perception, and which may guide measurement and improvement of soundscape quality. With the purpose to develop such a model, a listening experiment was conducted. One hundred listeners measured 50 excerpts of binaural recordings of urban outdoor soundscapes on 116 attribute scales. The average attribute scale values were subjected to principal components analysis, resulting in three components: Pleasantness, eventfulness, and familiarity, explaining 50, 18 and 6% of the total variance, respectively. The principal-component scores were correlated with physical soundscape properties, including categories of dominant sounds and acoustic variables. Soundscape excerpts dominated by technological sounds were found to be unpleasant, whereas soundscape excerpts dominated by natural sounds were pleasant, and soundscape excerpts dominated by human sounds were eventful. These relationships remained after controlling for the overall soundscape loudness (Zwicker’s N10), which shows that ‘informational’ properties are substantial contributors to the perception of soundscape. The proposed principal components model provides a framework for future soundscape research and practice. In particular, it suggests which basic dimensions are necessary to measure, how to measure them by a defined set of attribute scales, and how to promote high-quality soundscapes.

  • 344.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    A Swedish instrument for measuring soundscape quality2009Ingår i: Euronoise 2009: Action on noise in Europe / [ed] J. Kang, Edinburgh: Institute of Acoustics , 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) decided to put together a new expert working group ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 54 named “Perceptual assessment of soundscape quality”. The purpose of this expert group is to propose the first ever, international standard on how to measure the perceived quality of soundscapes, by means of questionnaire techniques. This work is chiefly motivated by a need to harmonise methods in soundscape research internationally in order to improve the comparability of research results across countries and over time. Within the Swedish research program Soundscape Support to Health, the present authors developed such a technique based on field work and laboratory studies. In the present paper we present research in which we validated our initial findings and finalised our questionnaire protocol. We propose that the measurement of perceived soundscape quality must include: (1) identification of perceived sounds sources, such as, technological sounds, human sounds, and natural sounds, (2) classification of soundscape quality on a good–bad scale, and (3) qualitative measurement of a set of eight perceived-soundscape attributes defined in a two-dimensional Pleasantness–Eventfulness measurement model.

  • 345.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Validation of the Swedish soundscape-quality protocol2012Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 131, nr 4, s. 3474-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Soundscape-Quality Protocol was developed to help non-experts (e.g., officials working for municipalities rather than soundscaperesearchers) to make informed, accurate measurements of soundscape quality. The Protocol has hitherto been used in England, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and The Netherlands; a Korean version is being developed. Based on field studies – soundwalks in urban residential areas, recreational areas, and parks – the present paper reports on the psychometric properties of the scales of the Protocol. Participants were residents, or visitors to the areas and their results support the reliability and validity of the scales in the Protocol. Because high acoustic quality has a greater effect in visually attractive than in visually poor areas, the Swedish Soundscape-Quality Protocol includes scales for cross-sensory tabulation. These are sound source identification – sounds from humans, nature and technology – attribute scales (e.g., eventful, exciting, pleasant, and calm), overall soundscape quality, and concomitant visual impressions. In brief, the Swedish Soundscape-Quality Protocol is an easy to use and practical tool for measuringsoundscape quality. It has the potential to help operationalize how soundscapes can be measured in “quiet areas” to meet a future guideline value of the World Health Organization.

  • 346.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hellström, Björn
    Lundén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    A field experiment on the impact of sounds from a jet-and-basin fountain on soundscape quality in an urban park2014Ingår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 123, s. 49-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A field experiment was conducted to explore whether water sounds from a fountain had a positive impact on soundscape quality in a downtown park. In total, 405 visitors were recruited to answer a questionnaire on how they perceived the park, including its acoustic environment. Meanwhile the fountain was turned on or off, at irregular hours. Water sounds from the fountain were not directly associated with ratings of soundscape quality. Rather, the predictors of soundscape quality were the variables Road-traffic noise and Other natural sounds. The former had a negative and the latter a positive impact. However, water sounds may have had an indirect impact on soundscape quality by affecting the audibility of road-traffic and natural sounds. The present results, obtained in situ, agree with previous results in soundscape research that the sounds perceived particularly roadtraffic and natural sounds explain soundscape quality. They also agree with the results from laboratory studies that water sounds may mask roadtraffic sounds, but that this is not simple and straight forward. Thus sound should be brought into the design scheme when introducing water features in urban open spaces, and their environmental impact must be thoroughly assessed empirically.

  • 347.
    Axäll, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Unga vuxna med autismspektrumtillstånd och deras upplevelser av anställningsbarhet2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vara anställningsbar innebär att ha den kompetens och andra attribut som krävs för att kunna skaffa sig ett arbete. Den självupplevda anställningsbarheten varierar beroende på en mängd olika faktorer. Vissa individer har svårare för att etablera sig på arbetsmarknaden, till exempel unga och personer med funktionsnedsättning. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur unga vuxna med autismspektrumtillstånd upplever sin anställningsbarhet samt vilken betydelse det tillskrivs dem i arbetsliv och privatliv. Data samlades in genom semi-strukturerade intervjuer och analyserades tematiskt. Resultatet visade att deltagarna känner sig anställningsbara för sin egen del men tror inte att chanserna till att få en anställning i nuläget är särskilt höga. Det talas om att det är omgivningens bedömning som hindrar dem att få en anställning och inte deras förmågor i sig. Studien överensstämmer med tidigare forskning som handlar om svårigheter för utsatta grupper att ta sig in på arbetsmarknaden men tar även upp nya aspekter, till exempel vikten av att ha en meningsfull sysselsättning, göra något värdefullt och att känna sig kompetent.

  • 348. Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu
    et al.
    Baylar, Ayben
    Cagla Keles, Seray
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi. Hiroshima University, Japan .
    Positive Affect and School Related Outcomes: Feeling Good Facilitates School Engagement Among Turkish-Bulgarian Minority Adolescents2017Ingår i: Well-Being of Youth and Emerging Adults across Cultures: Novel Approaches and Findings from Europe, Asia, Africa and America / [ed] Radosveta Dimitrova, Cham: Springer, 2017, s. 145-156Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fredrickson's (Rev Gen Psychol 2:300-319, 1998, Am Psychol 56:218-226, 2001) Broaden and Build Theory (BBT) proposes that experiencing positive affect results in broadened thoughts and behaviors, which facilitate adaptive responses to various environmental conditions. The present chapter tests the applicability of this theory for school engagement in an acculturation context and examines whether or to what extent positive affect also facilitates school engagement for 201 Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents (59% male) aged 14-19 years. Results showed that experiencing positive affect was positively related to school engagement among Turkish-Bulgarian youth, and thereby provide support for the applicability of Fredrickson's theory in an acculturation contect. Findings highlight the role of positive affect for school engagement and can be used to facilitate the adaption process of youth by promoting the creation of environment in which the experience of positive affect is fostered.

  • 349. Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Brief report: When does identity lead to negative affective experiences?: A comparison of Turkish–Bulgarian and Turkish–German adolescents2016Ingår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 47, s. 125-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine relationships between social identity domains (ethnic, national, and religious) and negative affect among Turkish–Bulgarian and Turkish–German youth. Path analysis confirmed a multiple social identities (MSI) factor that has negative relations to experiencing negative affect for Turkish youth in both countries. Beyond this negative relationship, the component of national identity showed a positive relationship to negative affect for Turkish–Bulgarians, but not for Turkish–Germans. Our findings indicate that beyond the generally adaptive effect of MSI on youth development, unique components of social identity may not always be an asset: In an assimilative acculturation context (i.e., Bulgaria), the endorsement of national identity was not adaptive. Our research therefore highlights the need for a contextually differentiated view on “healthy” identity formation among immigrants for research and practice.

  • 350.
    Azad, Azade
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Childrens’ report pattern from witnessing homicidal violence – the effect of repeated experience and repeated interviews2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine childrens’ report pattern after witnessing homicidal violence and whether witnessing repeated violence have an effect on the childrens’ report. In addition, the aim was also to study whether repeated interviews with the child leads to a more detailed report. The results revealed that the majority of the children reported a great amount of details about what happened before, during, and after the homicide in the police interviews, where most of the children provided great amount of details concerning sensitive information (i.e., severe and critical information) about the violence. Witnessing repeated violence did not significantly affect the amount of details given. Repeated interviews did not affect the amount of details provided. These findings, which add important information to research on childrens’ memory of violence, are discussed in detail.

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