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  • 301. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sandblom, Oskar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Berger, Urs
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Lignell, Sanna
    Wiberg, Karin
    Glynn, Anders
    Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) in Serum from 2-4-Month-Old Infants: Influence of Maternal Serum Concentration, Gestational Age, Breast-Feeding, and Contaminated Drinking Water2018Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, nr 12, s. 7101-7110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about factors influencing infant perfluorinated alkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations. Associations between serum PFAA concentrations in 2-4-month-old infants (n = 101) and determinants were investigated by multiple linear regression and general linear model analysis. In exclusively breastfed infants, maternal serum PFAA concentrations 3 weeks after delivery explained 13% (perfluoroundecanoic acid, PFUnDA) to 73% (perfluorohexanesulfonate, PFHxS) of infant PFAA concentration variation. Median infant/maternal ratios decreased with increasing PFAA carbon chain length from 2.8 for perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to 0.53 for PFUnDA and from 1.2 to 0.69 for PFHxS and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Infant PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and PFOS levels increased 0.7-1.2% per day of gestational age. Bottle-fed infants had mean concentrations of PFAAs 2 times lower than and a mean percentage of branched (%br) PFOS isomers 1.3 times higher than those of exclusively breast-fed infants. PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS levels increased 8-11% per week of exclusive breast-feeding. Infants living in an area receiving PFAA-contaminated drinking water had 3-fold higher mean perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) and PFHxS concentrations and higher mean %br PFHxS. Prenatal PFAA exposure and postnatal PFAA exposure significantly contribute to infant PFAA serum concentrations, depending on PFAA carbon chain length. Moderately PFBS- and PFHxS-contaminated drinking water is an important indirect exposure source.

  • 302. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    McCleaf, Philip
    Euren, Karin
    Eriksson, Sara
    Ahlgren, Sven
    Lignell, Sanna
    Aune, Marie
    Kotova, Natalia
    Glynn, Anders
    Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum - A case study from Uppsala, Sweden2015Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 140, s. 673-683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high Sigma PFAA levels (> 100 ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala.

  • 303. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Diderholm, Barbro
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    Ridefelt, Peter
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Lignell, Sanna
    Lampa, Erik
    Glynn, Anders
    Perfluoroalkyl acid levels in first-time mothers in relation to offspring weight gain and growth2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 111, s. 191-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated if maternal body burdens of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) at the time of delivery are associated with birth outcome and if early life exposure (in utero/nursing) is associated with early childhood growth and weight gain. Maternal PFAA body burdens were estimated by analysis of serum samples from mothers living in Uppsala County, Sweden (POPUP), sampled three weeks after delivery between 1996 and 2011. Data on child length and weight were collected from medical records and converted into standard deviation scores (SDS). Multiple linear regression models with appropriate covariates were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA levels and birth outcomes (n = 381). After birth Generalized Least Squares models were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA and child growth (n = 200). Inverse associations were found between maternal levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and birth weight SDS with a change of - 0.10 to - 0.18 weight SDS for an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in ng/g PFAA. After birth, weight and length SDS were not significantly associated with maternal PFAA. However, BMI SDS was significantly associated with PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS at 3 and 4 years of age, and with PFOS at 4 and 5 years of age. If causal, these associations suggest that PFAA affects fetal and childhood body development in different directions.

  • 304.
    Göktas, Recep Kaya
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Kocaeli University, Turkey.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants in the multi-media global environment2016Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 217, s. 33-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying the remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can inform the design of monitoring studies and the interpretation of measurement data. Previous work on quantifying remoteness has not explicitly considered partitioning between the gas phase and aerosols, and between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. The objective of this study is to present a metric of remoteness for POPs transported through the atmosphere calculated with a global multimedia fate model, BETR-Research. We calculated the remoteness of regions covering the entire globe from emission sources distributed according to light emissions, and taking into account the multimedia partitioning properties of chemicals and using averaged global climate data. Remoteness for hypothetical chemicals with distinct partitioning properties (volatile, seimi-volatile, hydrophilic, low-volatility) and having two different half-lives in air (60-day and 2-day) are presented. Differences in remoteness distribution among the hypothetical chemicals are most pronounced in scenarios assuming 60-day half-life in air. In scenarios with a 2-day half-life in air, degradation dominates over wet and dry deposition processes as a pathway for atmospheric removal of all chemicals except the low-volatility chemical. The remoteness distribution of the low-volatility chemical is strongly dependent on assumptions about degradability on atmospheric aerosols. Calculations that considered seasonal variability in temperature, hydroxyl radical concentrations in the atmosphere and global atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns indicate that variability in hydroxyl radical concentrations largely determines the seasonal variability of remoteness. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in tree bark from around the world are more highly correlated with remoteness calculated using our methods than with proximity to human population, and we see considerable potential to apply remoteness calculations for interpretation of monitoring data collected under programs such as the Stockholm Convention Global Monitoring Plan.

  • 305. Hagemann, Stefan
    et al.
    Blome, Tanja
    Ekici, Altug
    Beer, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Soil-frost-enabled soil-moisture-precipitation feedback over northern high latitudes2016Ingår i: Earth System Dynamics, ISSN 2190-4979, E-ISSN 2190-4987, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 611-625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. The currently observed global warming is most pronounced in the Arctic region and is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input. This warming will certainly have effects on the ecosystems of the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of such effects, however, is still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, including several feedback mechanisms between land and atmosphere. In this study we contribute to increasing our understanding of such land-atmosphere interactions using an Earth system model (ESM) which includes a representation of cold-region physical soil processes, especially the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water on thermal and hydrological states and processes. The coupled atmosphere-land models of the ESM of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, MPI-ESM, have been driven by prescribed observed SST and sea ice in an AMIP2-type setup with and without newly implemented cold-region soil processes. Results show a large improvement in the simulated discharge. On the one hand this is related to an improved snowmelt peak of runoff due to frozen soil in spring. On the other hand a subsequent reduction in soil moisture enables a positive feedback to precipitation over the high latitudes, which reduces the model's wet biases in precipitation and evapotranspiration during the summer. This is noteworthy as soil-moisture-atmosphere feedbacks have previously not been the focus of research on the high latitudes. These results point out the importance of high-latitude physical processes at the land surface for regional climate.

  • 306. Hansen, Solrunn
    et al.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Herzke, Dorte
    Melhus, Marita
    Evenset, Anita
    Hanssen, Linda
    Brustad, Magritt
    Sandanger, Torkjel M.
    Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances through the consumption of fish from lakes affected by aqueous film-forming foam emissions - A combined epidemiological and exposure modeling approach. The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study2016Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 94, s. 272-282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Releases of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) from airport firefighting activities have been identified as important local point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in nearby waterways. PFASs can be taken up by fish, and in turn by the humans that consume them. Despite the global extent of AFFF emissions, few studies exist on related impacts on humans. We aimed to investigate the associations between the consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations in humans using a combination of statistical tools, empirical data, and toxicokinetic modeling. Participants of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study were the basis far this study sample, which comprised 74 persons. Fifty-nine participants who reported consuming fish from AFFF-affected waters and 15 nonconsumers completed a questionnaire and gave serum samples. Participants were classified based on their consumption of trout and char: high (n = 16), moderate (n = 16), low (n = 27), and nonconsumers (n = 15); and serum samples were tested for the presence of 15 PFASs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic add (PFOS) was found in all participants, with the highest concentrations detected in the high consumption group (geometric means, 28 ng/mL) compared to the low consumption group and nonconsumers (10 and 11 ng/mL, respectively). In an analysis of variance contrast model, a significant, positive increasing trend was seen for fish consumption and PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). Toxicokinetic modeling allowed us to predict the median increases in serum concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA among high consumers within a factor of 2.2. The combination of statistical evaluation and toxicokinetic modeling clearly demonstrated a positive relationship between consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations. Further studies on dietary exposure to other PFASs present in AFFF and its consequences on human health are warranted.

  • 307. Hanson, M. L.
    et al.
    Wolff, B. A.
    Green, J. W.
    Kivi, M.
    Panter, G. H.
    Warne, M. St J.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sumpter, J. P.
    How we can make ecotoxicology more valuable to environmental protection2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 578, s. 228-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing awareness that the value of peer-reviewed scientific literature is not consistent, resulting in a growing desire to improve the practice and reporting of studies. This is especially important in the field of ecotoxicology, where regulatory decisions can be partly based on data from the peer-reviewed literature, with wide-reaching implications for environmental protection. Our objective is to improve the reporting of ecotoxicology studies so that they can be appropriately utilized in a fair and transparent fashion, based on their reliability and relevance. We propose a series of nine reporting requirements, followed by a set of recommendations for adoption by the ecotoxicology community. These reporting requirements will provide clarity on the the test chemical, experimental design and conditions, chemical identification, test organisms, exposure confirmation, measurable endpoints, how data are presented, data availability and statistical analysis. Providing these specific details will allow for a fuller assessment of the reliability and relevance of the studies, including limitations. Recommendations for the implementation of these reporting requirements are provided herein for practitioners, journals, reviewers, regulators, stakeholders, funders, and professional societies. If applied, our recommendations will improve the quality of ecotoxicology studies and their value to environmental protection.

  • 308.
    Hanson, Marsha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Provningsjämförelse 2015-1 Metaller och spårämnen2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 309.
    Hanson, Marsha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Provningsjämförelse 2015-2 Suspenderade ämnen2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 310.
    Hanson, Marsha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Provningsjämförelse 2015-3 Närsalter2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 311.
    Hanson, Marsha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Provningsjämförelse 2015-4: Kommunalt och Skogsindustriellt avlopp2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 312.
    Hanson, Marsha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Provningsjämförelse 2015-5: Jonbalans och Klorofyll2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 313.
    Hanson, Marsha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Provningsjämförelse 2016-1: Metaller och spårämnen2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 314.
    Hanson, Marsha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Provningsjämförelse 2016-2: Suspenderade ämnen2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 315.
    Hanson, Marsha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Provningsjämförelse 2016-3: Närsalter och lukt2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 316. Harner, Tom
    et al.
    Rauert, Cassandra
    Muir, Derek
    Schuster, Jasmin K.
    Hsu, Yu-Mei
    Zhang, Leiming
    Marson, George
    Watson, John G.
    Ahad, Jason
    Cho, Sunny
    Jariyasopit, Narumol
    Kirk, Jane
    Korosi, Jennifer
    Landis, Matthew S.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). University of Alberta, Canada.
    Zhang, Yifeng
    Fernie, Kim
    Wentworth, Gregory R.
    Wnorowski, Andrzej
    Dabek, Ewa
    Charland, Jean-Pierre
    Pauli, Bruce
    Wania, Frank
    Galarneau, Elisabeth
    Cheng, Irene
    Makar, Paul
    Whaley, Cynthia
    Chow, Judith C.
    Wang, Xiaoliang
    Air synthesis review: polycyclic aromatic compounds in the oil sands region2018Ingår i: Environmental Reviews, ISSN 1181-8700, E-ISSN 1208-6053, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 430-468Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This air synthesis review presents the current state of knowledge on the sources, fates, and effects for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and related chemicals released to air in the oil sands region (OSR) in Alberta, Canada. Through the implementation of the Joint Canada-Alberta Oil Sands Monitoring Program in 2012 a vast amount of new information on PACs has been acquired through directed monitoring and research projects and reported to the scientific community and public. This new knowledge addresses questions related to cumulative effects and informs the sustainable management of the oil sands resource while helping to identify gaps in understanding and priorities for future work. As a result of this air synthesis review on PACs, the following topics have been identified as new science priorities: (i) improving emissions reporting to better account for fugitive mining emissions of PACs that includes a broader range of PACs beyond the conventional polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including, inter alia, alkylated-PAHs (alk-PAHs), dibenzothiophene (DBT), alk-DBTs, nitro-PAHs, oxy-PAHs including quinones and thia-and aza-arenes; (ii) improving information on the ambient concentrations, long-range transport, and atmospheric deposition of these broader classes of PACs and their release (with co-contaminants) from different types of mining activities; (iii) further optimizing electricity-free and cost-effective approaches for assessing PAC deposition (e.g., snow sampling, lichens, passive ambient sampling) spatially across the OSR and downwind regions; (iv) designing projects that integrate monitoring efforts with source attribution models and ecosystem health studies to improve understanding of sources, receptors, and effects; (v) further optimizing natural deposition archives (e.g., sediment, peat, tree rings) and advanced forensic techniques (e.g., isotope analysis, marker compounds) to provide better understanding of sources of PACs in the OSR over space and time; (vi) conducting process research to improve model capabilities for simulating atmospheric chemistry of PACs and assessing exposure to wildlife and humans; and (vii) developing tools and integrated strategies for assessing cumulative risk to wildlife and humans by accounting for the toxicity of the mixture of chemicals in air rather than on a single compound basis.

  • 317. Hartmann, Nanna B.
    et al.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Holten Lützhøft, Hans-Christian
    Baun, Anders
    NanoCRED: A transparent framework to assess the regulatory adequacy of ecotoxicity data for nanomaterials - Relevance and reliability revisited2017Ingår i: NanoImpact, ISSN 2452-0748, Vol. 6, s. 81-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental hazard and risk assessment serve as the basis for regulatory decisions to protect the environment from unintentional adverse effects of chemical substances including nanomaterials. This process requires reliable and relevant environmental hazard data upon which classification and labelling can be based and Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) values can be estimated. In a regulatory context ecotoxicological data is often recommended to be generated according to accepted and validated test guidelines, preferably also following Good Laboratory Practice. However, engineered nanomaterials are known to behave very differently in ecotoxicity tests compared to the conventional soluble chemicals, for which most guidelines were developed. Therefore non-guideline tests, or tests following modified test guidelines, can provide valuable information and should not per se be considered less adequate for regulatory use. Here we propose a framework for reliability and relevance evaluation of ecotoxicity data for nanomaterials that take into account the challenges and characterisation requirements associated with testing of these substances. The nanoCRED evaluation criteria, and accompanying guidance, were developed to be used in combination with those developed through the ‘Criteria for Reporting and Evaluating Ecotoxicity Data (CRED)’ project. This approach can accommodate all types of nanomaterials, all types of aquatic ecotoxicity studies, and qualitative as well as quantitative data evaluation requirements. Furthermore, it is practically feasible to implement and directly applicable in European as well as international regulatory frameworks.

  • 318.
    Haslett, Sophie L.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. University of Manchester, UK.
    Taylor, Jonathan W.
    Deetz, Konrad
    Vogel, Bernhard
    Babic, Karmen
    Kalthoff, Norbert
    Wieser, Andreas
    Dione, Cheikh
    Lohou, Fabienne
    Brito, Joel
    Dupuy, Regis
    Schwarzenboeck, Alfons
    Zieger, Paul
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Coe, Hugh
    The radiative impact of out-of-cloud aerosol hygroscopic growth during the summer monsoon in southern West Africa2019Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 1505-1520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water in the atmosphere can exist in the solid, liquid or gas phase. At high humidities, if the aerosol population remains constant, more water vapour will condense onto the particles and cause them to swell, sometimes up to several times their original size. This significant change in size and chemical composition is termed hygroscopic growth and alters a particle's optical properties. Even in unsaturated conditions, this can change the aerosol direct effect, for example by increasing the extinction of incoming sunlight. This can have an impact on a region's energy balance and affect visibility. Here, aerosol and relative humidity measurements collected from aircraft and radiosondes during the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) campaign were used to estimate the effect of highly humid layers of air on aerosol optical properties during the monsoon season in southern West Africa. The effects of hygroscopic growth in this region are of particular interest due to the regular occurrence of high humidity and the high levels of pollution in the region. The Zdanovskii, Stokes and Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule is used to estimate the hygroscopic growth of particles under different conditions based on chemical composition. These results are used to estimate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at lambda = 525 nm for 63 relative humidity profiles. The median AOD in the region from these calculations was 0.36, the same as that measured by sun photometers at the ground site. The spread in the calculated AODs was less than the spread from the sun photometer measurements. In both cases, values above 0.5 were seen predominantly in the mornings and corresponded with high humidities. Observations of modest variations in aerosol load and composition are unable to explain the high and variable AODs observed using sun photometers, which can only be recreated by accounting for the very elevated and variable relative humidities (RHs) in the boundary layer. Most importantly, the highest AODs present in the mornings are not possible without the presence of high RH in excess of 95 %. Humid layers are found to have the most significant impact on AOD when they reach RH greater than 98 %, which can result in a wet AOD more than 1.8 times the dry AOD. Unsaturated humid layers were found to reach these high levels of RH in 37% of observed cases. It can therefore be concluded that the high AODs present across the region are driven by the high humidities and are then moderated by changes in aerosol abundance. Aerosol concentrations in southern West Africa are projected to increase substantially in the coming years; results presented here show that the presence of highly humid layers in the region is likely to enhance the consequent effect on AOD significantly.

  • 319. Hawkes, Jeffrey A.
    et al.
    Radoman, Nikola
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Regional diversity of complex dissolved organic matter across forested hemiboreal headwater streams2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 16060Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils enters the aquatic environment via headwater streams. Thereafter, it is gradually transformed, removed by sedimentation, and mineralised. Due to the proximity to the terrestrial source and short water residence time, the extent of transformation is minimal in headwaters. DOM has variable composition across inland waters, but the amount of variability in the terrestrial end member is unknown. This gap in knowledge is crucial considering the potential impact large variability would have on modelling DOM degradation. Here, we used a novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to characterise DOM in 74 randomly selected, forested headwater streams in an 87,000 km(2) region of southeast Sweden. We found a large degree of sample similarity across this region, with Bray-Curtis dissimilarity values averaging 8.4 +/- 3.0% (mean +/- SD). The identified variability could be reduced to two principle coordinates, correlating to varying groundwater flow-paths and regional mean temperature. Our results indicate that despite reproducible effects of groundwater geochemistry and climate, the composition of DOM is remarkably similar across catchments already as it leaves the terrestrial environment, rather than becoming homogeneous as different headwaters and sub-catchments mix.

  • 320. Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    Herting, Gunilla
    Latvala, Siiri
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions2016Ingår i: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 81, s. 162-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5-7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10-12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. Xray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy.

  • 321. Heintzenberg, Jost
    et al.
    Tunved, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Gali, Martí
    Leck, Caroline
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    New particle formation in the Svalbard region 2006-20152017Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, nr 10, s. 6153-6175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Events of new particle formation (NPF) were analyzed in a 10-year data set of hourly particle size distributions recorded on Mt. Zeppelin, Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Three different types of NPF events were identified through objective search algorithms. The first and simplest algorithm utilizes short-term increases in particle concentrations below 25 nm (PCT (percentiles) events). The second one builds on the growth of the sub-50 nm diameter median (DGR (diameter growth) events) and is most closely related to the classical banana type of event. The third and most complex, multiple-size approach to identifying NPF events builds on a hypothesis suggesting the concurrent production of polymer gel particles at several sizes below ca. 60 nm (MEV (multisize growth) events). As a first and general conclusion, we can state that NPF events are a summer phenomenon and not related to Arctic haze, which is a late winter to early spring feature. The occurrence of NPF events appears to be somewhat sensitive to the available data on precipitation. The seasonal distribution of solar flux suggests some photochemical control that may affect marine biological processes generating particle precursors and/or atmospheric photochemical processes that generate condensable vapors from precursor gases. Notably, the seasonal distribution of the biogenic methanesulfonate (MSA) follows that of the solar flux although it peaks before the maxima in NPF occurrence. A host of ancillary data and findings point to varying and rather complex marine biological source processes. The potential source regions for all types of new particle formation appear to be restricted to the marginal-ice and open-water areas between northeastern Greenland and eastern Svalbard.Depending on conditions, yet to be clarified new particle formation may become visible as short bursts of particles around 20 nm (PCT events), longer events involving condensation growth (DGR events), or extended events with elevated concentrations of particles at several sizes below 100 nm (MEV events). The seasonal distribution of NPF events peaks later than that of MSA and DGR, and in particular than that of MEV events, which reach into late summer and early fall with open, warm, and biologically active waters around Svalbard. Consequently, a simple model to describe the seasonal distribution of the total number of NPF events can be based on solar flux and sea surface temperature, representing environmental conditions for marine biological activity and condensation sink, controlling the balance between new particle nucleation and their condensational growth. Based on the sparse knowledge about the seasonal cycle of gel-forming marine microorganisms and their controlling factors, we hypothesize that the seasonal distribution of DGR and, more so, MEV events reflect the seasonal cycle of the gel-forming phytoplankton.

  • 322. Helander, Björn
    et al.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Runkel, Agneta A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Jožef Stefan Institute, Slovenia.
    Bignert, Anders
    Temporal Changes in Concentrations of Lead and Other Trace Metals in Free-Ranging Eurasian Eagle Owls Bubo bubo in Sweden2019Ingår i: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 77, nr 3, s. 377-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of lead and other trace metals were examined in 122 Eurasian eagle owls Bubo bubo found dead in Sweden in the period 1978-2013. Environmental lead (Pb) has decreased over recent decades from reduced anthropogenic emissions but mortality by Pb poisoning is still frequently reported for avian raptors and scavengers exposed to Pb ammunition. One objective here was to determine if Pb concentrations in a nocturnal non-scavenging raptor follow the general decline observed in other biota. Pb concentration in owl liver was significantly correlated with body weight, sex, latitude, longitude and season. Pb showed a significant decreasing trend towards north and west. Starved birds had significantly higher concentrations. Total Pb concentrations in liver averaged 0.179 mu g g(-1) dry weight (median 0.103) and decreased by 5.6% per year 1978-2013, or 5.3% after adjustment for confounding factors, similar to trends in other species. Among 14 other trace elements only antimony and arsenic showed decreasing trends. Lead isotope ratios Pb-206/Pb-207 and Pb-208/Pb-207 increased from 1.138 and 2.408 in 1978-1985 to 1.170 and 2.435 in 2010-2013, respectively, demonstrating that the decreasing Pb concentration in eagle owl is related to the phase-out of leaded gasoline in Europe, where Pb additives had much lower isotope ratios than natural lead in Swedish soils. Only one incidence of suspected Pb poisoning (40.7 mu g g(-1) in liver) was observed indicating that poisoning from ingestion of metallic lead is rare (< 1%) in eagle owl in Sweden, in contrast to what has been reported for eagles.

  • 323. Hilber, Isabel
    et al.
    Bastos, Ana Catarina
    Loureiro, Susana
    Soja, Gerhard
    Marsz, Aleksandra
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute NGI, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway.
    Bucheli, Thomas D.
    THE DIFFERENT FACES OF BIOCHAR: CONTAMINATION RISK VERSUS REMEDIATION TOOL2017Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, ISSN 1648-6897, E-ISSN 1822-4199, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 86-104Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the different aspects of biochar as source and sink of organic and inorganic contaminants. Biochar can contain organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or heavy metals. As the distribution coefficients of the biochar especially for contaminants are high, the freely dissolved concentrations are low and with that also the bioavailability. The link between biochar's inherent contaminants and toxicity to soil meso- and macro-fauna remains unclear, with data being often contradictory and influenced by feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. The biochar's potential to remediate contaminated soils has mainly been addressed in lab studies, but rarely in the field. This far, results have been contradicting. Many studies reported successful immobilization of contaminants but some not. In summary, the ambivalent face of the biochar with regard to contaminants prevails. In future, long term field studies are needed to properly address the sustainability of biochar in this respect.

  • 324. Holmquist, H.
    et al.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    van der Veen, I.
    Peters, G. M.
    Leonards, P. E. G.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Properties, performance and associated hazards of state-of-the-art durable water repellent (DWR) chemistry for textile finishing2016Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 91, s. 251-264Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the phase-out of long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), the textile industry had to find alternatives for side-chain fluorinated polymer based durable water repellent (DWR) chemistries that incorporated long perfluoroalkyl side chains. This phase-out and subsequent substitution with alternatives has resulted in a market where both fluorinated and non-fluorinated DWRs are available. These DWR alternatives can be divided into four broad groups that reflect their basic chemistry: side-chain fluorinated polymers, silicones, hydrocarbons and other chemistries (including dendrimer and inorganic nanoparticle chemistries). In this critical review, the alternative DWRs are assessed with regard to their structural properties and connected performance, loss and degradation processes resulting in diffuse environmental emissions, and hazard profiles for selected emitted substances. Our review shows that there are large differences in performance between the alternative DWRs, most importantly the lack of oil repellency of non-fluorinated alternatives. It also shows that for all alternatives, impurities and / or degradation products of the DWR chemistries are diffusively emitted to the environment. Our hazard ranking suggests that hydrocarbon based DWR is the most environmentally benign, followed by silicone and side-chain fluorinated polymer-based DWR chemistries. Industrial commitments to reduce the levels of impurities in silicone based and side-chain fluorinated polymer based DWR formulations will lower the actual risks. There is a lack of information on the hazards associated with DWRs, in particular for the dendrimer and inorganic nanoparticle chemistries, and these data gaps must be filled. Until environmentally safe alternatives, which provide the required performance, are available our recommendation is to choose DWR chemistry on a case-by-case basis, always weighing the benefits connected to increased performance against the risks to the environment and human health.

  • 325. Holopainen, Reetta
    et al.
    Lehtiniemi, Maiju
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Albertsson, Jan
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Kotta, Jonne
    Viitasalo, Markku
    Impacts of changing climate on the non-indigenous invertebrates in the northern Baltic Sea by end of the twenty-first century2016Ingår i: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 18, nr 10, s. 3015-3032Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological invasions coupled with climate change drive changes in marine biodiversity. Warming climate and changes in hydrology may either enable or hinder the spread of non-indigenous species (NIS) and little is known about how climate change modifies the richness and impacts of NIS in specific sea areas. We calculated from climate change simulations (RCO-SCOBI model) the changes in summer time conditions which northern Baltic Sea may to go through by the end of the twenty-first century, e.g., 2-5 A degrees C sea surface temperature rise and even up to 1.75 unit decrease in salinity. We reviewed the temperature and salinity tolerances (i.e., physiological tolerances and occurrence ranges in the field) of pelagic and benthic NIS established in-or with dispersal potential to-the northern Baltic Sea, and assessed how climate change will likely affect them. Our findings suggest a future decrease in barnacle larvae and an increase in Ponto-Caspian cladocerans in the pelagic community. In benthos, polychaetes, gastropods and decapods may become less abundant. By contrast, dreissenid bivalves, amphipods and mysids are expected to widen their distribution and increase in abundance in the coastal areas of the northern Baltic Sea. Potential salinity decrease acts as a major driver for NIS biogeography in the northern Baltic Sea, but temperature increase and extended summer season allow higher reproduction success in bivalves, zooplankton, amphipods and mysids. Successful NIS, i.e., coastal crustacean and bivalve species, pose a risk to native biota, as many of them have already demonstrated harmful effects in the Baltic Sea.

  • 326. Hong, Juan
    et al.
    Äijälä, Mikko
    Häme, Silja A. K.
    Hao, Liqing
    Duplissy, Jonathan
    Heikkinen, Liine M.
    Nie, Wei
    Mikkilä, Jyri
    Kulmala, Markku
    Prisle, Nonne L.
    Virtanen, Annele
    Ehn, Mikael
    Paasonen, Pauli
    Worsnop, Douglas R.
    Riipinen, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Petäjä, Tuukka
    Kerminen, Veli-Matti
    Estimates of the organic aerosol volatility in a boreal forest using two independent methods2017Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 4387-4399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The volatility distribution of secondary organic aerosols that formed and had undergone aging - i. e., the particle mass fractions of semi-volatile, low-volatility and extremely low volatility organic compounds in the particle phase - was characterized in a boreal forest environment of Hyytiala, southern Finland. This was done by interpreting field measurements using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) with a kinetic evaporation model. The field measurements were performed during April and May 2014. On average, 40% of the organics in particles were semi-volatile, 34% were low-volatility organics and 26% were extremely low volatility organics. The model was, however, very sensitive to the vaporization enthalpies assumed for the organics (Delta H-VAP). The best agreement between the observed and modeled temperature dependence of the evaporation was obtained when effective vaporization enthalpy values of 80 kJ mol(-1) were assumed. There are several potential reasons for the low effective enthalpy value, including molecular decomposition or dissociation that might occur in the particle phase upon heating, mixture effects and compound-dependent uncertainties in the mass accommodation coefficient. In addition to the VTDMA-based analysis, semi-volatile and low-volatility organic mass fractions were independently determined by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) data. The factor separation was based on the oxygenation levels of organics, specifically the relative abundance of mass ions at m/z 43 (f43) and m/z 44 (f44). The mass fractions of these two organic groups were compared against the VTDMA-based results. In general, the best agreement between the VTDMA results and the PMF-derived mass fractions of organics was obtained when Delta H-VAP D 80 kJ mol(-1) was set for all organic groups in the model, with a linear correlation coefficient of around 0.4. However, this still indicates that only about 16% (R-2)of the variation can be explained by the linear regression between the results from these two methods. The prospect of determining of extremely low volatility organic aerosols (ELVOAs) from AMS data using the PMF analysis should be assessed in future studies.

  • 327.
    Hoppe, Sabina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Biotic Ligand model: A tool for risk assessment of metals in Scandinavian fresh waters?2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Produkter från metallindustrin är bland Sveriges viktigaste exportprodukter. Metallutvinning leder dock till utsläpp som kan hamna i den akvatiska miljön och där orsaka toxicitet. Europeiska Unionens Vattendirektiv syftar till att alla medlemsstater ska klassificera sina vatten och ta fram miljökvalitetsnormer. Dessa normer ska baseras på den biotillgängliga fasen av metaller istället för den totala som tidigare. Biotiska ligand modeller (BLM) har förts fram som verktyg i denna process.

    BLM kan beräkna utsläppsnivåer för sötvatten baserat på rådande vattenkemi samt vattenorganismers känslighet och ger användaren en specifikt anpassad rekommendation (LC/EC50, NOEC, PNEC o.s.v.).

    Dock är dessa modeller ofta kalibrerade för en vattenkemi gällande i de centrala och södra delarna av Europa. I Sverige är det vanligt med sura mjuka vatten, vilka har en högre koncentration av biotillgängliga metaller vilka kan orsaka toxicitet. Det övergripande syftet med denna doktorsavhandling var att undersöka hur dagens BLM för koppar (Cu) fungerar för svenska sötvatten.

    Resultaten från Artikel I och II visar att en stor del av de Fennoskandinaviska vatten som testats faller utanför kalibreringsintervallet för BLM.

    Vidare visar Artikel III och IV att de testade modellerna inte på ett korrekt sätt kunde uppskatta toxicitet för alger och vattenloppor, vilket innebär att de inte räknar ut skyddande rekommendationer för dessa arter. Det var även tydligt i Artikel IV att aluminium (Al) påverkar kopparspecieringen och genom detta även koppars toxicitet. Sammanfattningsvis visar denna avhandling att flera tillgängliga BLM inte är helt applicerbara i mjuka vatten, ofta p.g.a. opassande intervall för de kemiska parametrarna. För att förbättra tillämpbarheten av BLMs i Sverige krävs det att modellerna dels kalibreras för den rådande vattenkemin och dels att Al och NOMs egenskaper inkluderas.

  • 328.
    Hoppe, Sabina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Garmo, Öyvind A.
    Leppanen, Matti. T.
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ndungu, Kuria
    Soft and sour: The challenge of setting environmental quality standards for bioavailable metal concentration in Fennoscandinavian freshwaters2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 54, s. 210-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires member states to ensure that all inland and coastal waters achieve 'good' water quality status. To this end, the WFD has set environmental quality standards (EQS) or Water quality criteria (WQC) for priority pollutants that include the four metals Cd, Ni, Pb and Hg. Many states have also chosen to set EQS for Cu and Zn. The use of bioavailability models to set EQS, paves the way for accepting higher local metal concentrations in waters where metal bioavailability is deemed low. The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) concept has been proposed as a tool for estimating metal bioavailability and for calculating local EQS in the EU guidance document. The BLM estimates metal bioavailability based on the dissolved metal concentration and key ancillary water chemistry parameters (acidity, hardness and organic carbon content). The BLMs developed so far, have only been validated for water chemistry input parameters typical of Central Europe. However, the pH, alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon levels of a significant fraction of Fennoscandinavian (Finland, Norway and Sweden) freshwaters are outside the calibration range of currently available BLMs. The levels of Ca2+, alkalinity and pH in 75%, 29% and 22%, respectively, of the ca. 2500 Fennoscandinavian freshwater bodies investigated in this survey were outside the calibration range of tested BLMs. Moreover, a comparison of the ability of the tested BLMs to predict the acute and chronic copper toxicity to Daphnia magma and Rainbow trout indicated that the BLMs should be used with caution outside their current validation range. We conclude that more work is needed to extend the application of BLMs in the practical risk assessment to encompass a broader range of European freshwater bodies.

  • 329.
    Hoppe, Sabina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Gustafsson, J. -P.
    Borg, H.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Can natural levels of Al influence Cu speciation and toxicity to Daphnia magna in a Swedish soft water lake?2015Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 138, s. 205-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that chemical parameters, such as natural organic matter (NOM), cation content and pH may influence speciation and toxicity of metals in freshwaters. Advanced bioavailability models, e.g. Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs), can use these and other chemical parameters to calculate site specific recommendations for metals in the aquatic environment. However, since Al is not an input parameter in the BLM v.2.2.3, used in this study, there could be a discrepancy between calculated and measured results in Al rich waters. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the presence of Al in a circumneutral (pH similar to 6) soft humic freshwater, Lake St. Envattern, will affect the Cu speciation and thereby the toxicity to the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The results show a statistically significant increase in the free Cu2+ concentration with Al additions and that measured levels of Cu2+ significantly differed from BLM calculated levels of Cu2+. Furthermore, there was also a statistically significant elevated acute toxic response to D. magna at low additions of Al (10 mu g/L). However, since the large difference between calculated and measured Cu2+ resulted in a significant but minor (factor of 2.3) difference between calculated and measured toxicity, further studies should be conducted in Al rich soft waters to evaluate the importance of adding Al as an input parameter into the BLM software.

  • 330.
    Hoppe, Sabina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Predictions of Cu toxicity in three aquatic species using bioavailability tools in four Swedish soft freshwaters2015Ingår i: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 27, nr 25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The EU member countries are currently implementing the Water Framework Directive to promote better water quality and overview of their waters. The directive recommends the usage of bioavailability tools, such as biotic ligand models (BLM), for setting environmental quality standards (EQS) for metals. These models are mainly calibrated towards a water chemistry found in the south central parts of Europe. However, freshwater chemistry in Scandinavia often has higher levels of DOC (dissolved organic carbon), Fe and Al combined with low pH compared to the central parts of Europe. In this study, copper (Cu) toxicities derived by two different BLM software were compared to bioassay-derived toxicity for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and D. pulex in four Swedish soft water lakes.

    Results

    A significant under- and over prediction between measured and BLM calculated toxicity was found; for P. subcapitata in three of the four lakes and for the daphnids in two of the four lakes. The bioassay toxicity showed the strongest relationship with Fe concentrations and DOC. Furthermore, DOC was the best predictor of BLM results, manifested as positive relationships with calculated LC50 and NOEC for P. subcapitata and D. magna, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Results from this study indicate that the two investigated BLM softwares have difficulties calculating Cu toxicity, foremost concerning the algae. The analyses made suggest that there are different chemical properties affecting the calculated toxicity as compared to the measured toxicity. We recommend that tests including Al, Fe and DOC properties as BLM input parameters should be conducted. This to observe if a better consensus between calculated and measured toxicity can be established.

  • 331. Hsu-Kim, Heileen
    et al.
    Eckley, Chris S.
    Achá, Dario
    Feng, Xinbin
    Gilmour, Cynthia C.
    Jonsson, Sofi
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Mitchell, Carl P. J.
    Challenges and opportunities for managing aquatic mercury pollution in altered landscapes2018Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 141-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental cycling of mercury (Hg) can be affected by natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Of particular concern is how these disruptions increase mobilization of Hg from sites and alter the formation of monomethylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative form of Hg for humans and wildlife. The scientific community has made significant advances in recent years in understanding the processes contributing to the risk of MeHg in the environment. The objective of this paper is to synthesize the scientific understanding of how Hg cycling in the aquatic environment is influenced by landscape perturbations at the local scale, perturbations that include watershed loadings, deforestation, reservoir and wetland creation, rice production, urbanization, mining and industrial point source pollution, and remediation. We focus on the major challenges associated with each type of alteration, as well as management opportunities that could lessen both MeHg levels in biota and exposure to humans. For example, our understanding of approximate response times to changes in Hg inputs from various sources or landscape alterations could lead to policies that prioritize the avoidance of certain activities in the most vulnerable systems and sequestration of Hg in deep soil and sediment pools. The remediation of Hg pollution from historical mining and other industries is shifting towards in situ technologies that could be less disruptive and less costly than conventional approaches. Contemporary artisanal gold mining has well-documented impacts with respect to Hg; however, significant social and political challenges remain in implementing effective policies to minimize Hg use. Much remains to be learned as we strive towards the meaningful application of our understanding for stakeholders, including communities living near Hg-polluted sites, environmental policy makers, and scientists and engineers tasked with developing watershed management solutions. Site-specific assessments of MeHg exposure risk will require new methods to predict the impacts of anthropogenic perturbations and an understanding of the complexity of Hg cycling at the local scale.

  • 332. Huang, Qinghui
    et al.
    Wei, Lai
    Bignert, Anders
    Ye, Hua
    Huang, Fei
    Qiu, Yanling
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, China; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Organophosphate flame retardants in heron eggs from upper Yangtze River basin, southwest China2019Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 236, artikel-id 124327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The egg samples of four heron species, including black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), little egret (Egretta garzetta), Chinese pond heron (Ardeola bacchus) and cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), were collected from the upper Yangtze River (Changjiang) Basin, Southwest China in early summer of 2017. Nine out of ten target organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were detected in these heron egg samples. The sum of concentrations of the PFRs quantified (Sigma PFRs) ranged from 63 to 590 pmol g(-1) ww (18-185 ng g(-1) ww) with a median value of 139 pmol g(-1) ww (48 ng g(-1) ww) among all samples. The median Sigma PFRs in eggs of night herons (160 pmol g(-1) ww) was higher than Chinese pond herons (median 121 pmol g(-1) ww) and little egrets (median 109 pmol g(-1) ww). In heron eggs, Sigma PFRs were mainly contributed by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris (isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tri-2-methylphenyl phosphate (TMPP). Alkyl-PFRs accounted for approximately 28%-85% (median 57%) of the nine PFRs quantified while the rest is contributed by aryl-PFRs and chlorinated PFR5. Lower levels of PFRs in little egret eggs were found upstream than downstream of the Yangtze. In addition, the daily intakes of PFRs through ingestion of heron eggs were estimated at lower levels. 

  • 333. Huang, Susie S. Y.
    et al.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. AXYS Analytical Services Ltd., Canada.
    Chandramouli, Bharat
    Butler, Heather
    Helbing, Caren C.
    Cosgrove, John R.
    Xenobiotics Produce Distinct Metabolomic Responses in Zebrafish Larvae (Danio rerio)2016Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, nr 12, s. 6526-6535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensitive and quantitative protocols for characterizing low-dose effects are needed to meet the demands of 21st century chemical hazard assessment. To test the hypothesis that xenobiotic exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations produces specific biochemical fingerprints in organisms, metabolomic perturbations in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo/larvae were measured following 24 h exposures to 13 individual chemicals covering a wide range of contaminant classes. Measured metabolites (208 in total) included amino acids, biogenic amines, fatty acids, bile acids, sugars, and lipids. The 96-120 h post-fertilization developmental stage was the most appropriate model for detecting xenobiotic-induced metabolomic perturbations. Metabolomic fingerprints were largely chemical- and dose-specific and were reproducible in multiple exposures over a 16-month period. Furthermore, chemical-specific responses were detected in the presence of an effluent matrix; importantly, in the absence of morphological response. In addition to improving sensitivity for detecting biological responses to low-level xenobiotic exposures, these data can aid the classification of novel contaminants based on the similarity of metabolomic responses to well-characterized model compounds. This approach is clearly of use for rapid, sensitive, and specific analyses of chemical effect on organisms, and can supplement existing methods, such as the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity assay (OECD TG236), with molecular-level information.

  • 334. Huang, Susie S. Y.
    et al.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Veldhoen, Nik
    Chandramouli, Bharat
    Butler, Heather
    Helbing, Caren C.
    Cosgrove, John R.
    A multi-omic approach to elucidate low-dose effects of xenobiotics in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae2017Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 182, s. 102-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulatory-approved toxicity assays_such as the OECD Fish Embryo Toxicity Assay (TG236) allow correlation of chemical exposure to adverse morphological phenotypes. However, these assays are ineffective in assessing sub-lethal (i.e. low-dose) effects, or differentiating between similar phenotypes induced by different chemicals. Inclusion of multi-omic analyses in studies investigating xenobiotic action provides improved characterization of biological response, thereby enhancing prediction of toxicological outcomes in whole animals in the absence of morphological effects. In the current study, we assessed perturbations in both the metabolome and transcriptome of zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF) larvae exposed from 96 to 120 h post fertilization to environmental concentrations of acetaminophen (APAP), diphenhydramine (DH), carbamazepine (CBZ), and fluoxetine (FLX); common pharmaceuticals with known mechanisms of action. Multi-omic responses were evaluated independently and integrated to identify molecular interactions and biological relevance of the responses. Results indicated chemical-and dose-specific changes suggesting differences in the time scale of transcript abundance and metabolite production. Increased impact on the metabolome relative to the transcriptome in FLX-treated animals suggests a stronger post-translational effect of the treatment. In contrast, the transcriptome showed higher sensitivity to perturbation in DH-exposed animals. Integration of `omic' responses using multivariate approaches provided additional insights not obtained by independent `omic' analyses and demonstrated that the most distinct overall response profiles were induced following low-dose exposure for all 4 pharmaceuticals. Importantly, changes in transcript abundance corroborated with predictions from metabolomic enrichment analyses and the identified perturbed biological pathways aligned with known xenobiotic mechanisms of action. This work demonstrates that a multi-omic toxicological approach, coupled with a sensitive animal model such as ZF larvae, can help characterize the toxicological relevance of acute low-dose chemical exposures.

  • 335. Huang, Wei
    et al.
    Saathoff, Harald
    Pajunoja, Aki
    Shen, Xiaoli
    Naumann, Karl-Heinz
    Wagner, Robert
    Virtanen, Annele
    Leisner, Thomas
    Mohr, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
    alpha-Pinene secondary organic aerosol at low temperature: chemical composition and implications for particle viscosity2018Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 2883-2898Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical composition, size distributions, and degree of oligomerization of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from alpha-pinene (C10H16) ozonolysis were investigated for low-temperature conditions (223 K). Two types of experiments were performed using two simulation chambers at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology: the Aerosol Preparation and Characterization (APC) chamber, and the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber. Experiment type 1 simulated SOA formation at upper tropospheric conditions: SOA was generated in the AIDA chamber directly at 223K at 61% relative humidity (RH; experiment termed cold humid, CH) and for comparison at 6% RH (experiment termed cold dry, CD) conditions. Experiment type 2 simulated SOA uplifting: SOA was formed in the APC chamber at room temperature (296 K) and < 1% RH (experiment termed warm dry, WD) or 21% RH (experiment termed warm humid, WH) conditions, and then partially transferred to the AIDA chamber kept at 223 K, and 61% RH (WDtoCH) or 30% RH (WHtoCH), respectively. Precursor concentrations varied between 0.7 and 2.2 ppm alpha-pinene, and between 2.3 and 1.8 ppm ozone for type 1 and type 2 experiments, respectively. Among other instrumentation, a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) coupled to a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO), deploying I as reagent ion, was used for SOA chemical composition analysis.

    For type 1 experiments with lower alpha-pinene concentrations and cold SOA formation temperature (223 K), smaller particles of 100-300 nm vacuum aerodynamic diameter (d(va)/and higher mass fractions (> 40 %) of adducts (molecules with more than 10 carbon atoms) of alpha-pinene oxidation products were observed. For type 2 experiments with higher alpha-pinene concentrations and warm SOA formation temperature (296 K), larger particles (similar to 500 nm d(va)/with smaller mass fractions of adducts (< 35 %) were produced.

    We also observed differences (up to 20 degrees C) in maximum desorption temperature (T-max/of individual compounds desorbing from the particles deposited on the FIGAERO Teflon filter for different experiments, indicating that T-max is not purely a function of a compound's vapor pressure or volatility, but is also influenced by diffusion limitations within the particles (particle viscosity), interactions between particles deposited on the filter (particle matrix), and/or particle mass on the filter. Highest T max were observed for SOA under dry conditions and with higher adduct mass fraction; lowest T-max were observed for SOA under humid conditions and with lower adduct mass fraction. The observations indicate that particle viscosity may be influenced by intra-and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding between oligomers, and particle water uptake, even under such low-temperature conditions.

    Our results suggest that particle physicochemical properties such as viscosity and oligomer content mutually influence each other, and that variation in T-max of particle desorptions may have implications for particle viscosity and particle matrix effects. The differences in particle physicochemical properties observed between our different experiments demonstrate the importance of taking experimental conditions into consideration when interpreting data from laboratory studies or using them as input in climate models.

  • 336. Huang, Wei
    et al.
    Saathoff, Harald
    Shen, Xiaoli
    Ramisetty, Ramakrishna
    Leisner, Thomas
    Mohr, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Chemical Characterization of Highly Functionalized Organonitrates Contributing to Night-Time Organic Aerosol Mass Loadings and Particle Growth2019Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 1165-1174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) with NO3 radicals and of reactive intermediates of oxidized VOC with NO can lead to the formation of highly functionalized organonitrates (ON). We present quantitative and chemical information on ON contributing to high nighttime organic aerosol (OA) mass concentrations measured during July-August 2016 in a rural area in southwest Germany. A filter inlet for gases and aerosols coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (FIGAERO-HR-ToF-CIMS) was used to analyze the molecular composition of ON in both the gas and particle phase. We find larger contributions of ON to OA mass during the night. Identified ON are highly functionalized, with 4 to 12 oxygen atoms. The diel patterns of ON compounds with 5, 7, 10, or 15 carbon atoms per molecule vary, indicating a corresponding behavior of their potential precursor VOC. The temporal behavior of ON after sunset correlates with that of the number concentration of ultrafine particles, indicating a potential role of ON in night-time new particle formation (NPF) regularly observed at this location. We estimate an ON contribution of 18-25% to the mass increase of newly formed particles after sunset. Our study provides insights into the chemical composition of highly functionalized ON in the rural atmosphere and the role of anthropogenic emissions for night-time SOA formation in an area where biogenic VOC emissions dominate.

  • 337. Huang, Wei
    et al.
    Saathoff, Harald
    Shen, Xiaoli
    Ramisetty, Ramakrishna
    Leisner, Thomas
    Mohr, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Seasonal characteristics of organic aerosol chemical composition and volatility in Stuttgart, Germany2019Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 19, nr 18, s. 11687-11700Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical composition and volatility of organic aerosol (OA) particles were investigated during July-August 2017 and February-March 2018 in the city of Stuttgart, one of the most polluted cities in Germany. Total non-refractory particle mass was measured with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS; hereafter AMS). Aerosol particles were collected on filters and analyzed in the laboratory with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (FIGAERO-HR-ToF-CIMS; hereafter CIMS), yielding the molecular composition of oxygenated OA (OOA) compounds. While the average organic mass loadings are lower in the summer period (5.1 +/- 3.2 mu g m(-3)) than in the winter period (8.4 +/- 5.6 mu g m(-3)), we find relatively larger mass contributions of organics measured by AMS in summer (68.8 +/- 13.4 %) compared to winter (34.8 +/- 9.5 %). CIMS mass spectra show OOA compounds in summer have O : C of 0.82 +/- 0.02 and are more influenced by biogenic emissions, while OOA compounds in winter have O : C of 0.89 +/- 0.06 and are more influenced by biomass burning emissions. Volatility parametrization analysis shows that OOA in winter is less volatile with higher contributions of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) and extremely low-volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs). We partially explain this by the higher contributions of compounds with shorter carbon chain lengths and a higher number of oxygen atoms, i.e., higher O : C in winter. Organic compounds desorbing from the particles deposited on the filter samples also exhibit a shift of signal to higher desorption temperatures (i.e., lower apparent volatility) in winter. This is consistent with the relatively higher O : C in winter but may also be related to higher particle viscosity due to the higher contributions of larger-molecular-weight LVOCs and ELVOCs, interactions between different species and/or particles (particle matrix), and/or thermal decomposition of larger molecules. The results suggest that whereas lower temperature in winter may lead to increased partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) into the particle phase, this does not result in a higher overall volatility of OOA in winter and that the difference in sources and/or chemistry between the seasons plays a more important role. Our study provides insights into the seasonal variation of the molecular composition and volatility of ambient OA particles and into their potential sources.

  • 338.
    Humborg, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Geibel, Marc C.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Björk, Göran
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Thornton, Brett F.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Deutsch, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Gustafsson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Gustafsson, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Ek, Jörgen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Sea-air exchange patterns along the central and outer East Siberian Arctic Shelf as inferred from continuous CO2, stable isotope, and bulk chemistry measurements2017Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 31, nr 7, s. 1173-1191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This large-scale quasi-synoptic study gives a comprehensive picture of sea-air CO2 fluxes during the melt season in the central and outer Laptev Sea (LS) and East Siberian Sea (ESS). During a 7 week cruise we compiled a continuous record of both surface water and air CO2 concentrations, in total 76,892 measurements. Overall, the central and outer parts of the ESAS constituted a sink for CO2, and we estimate a median uptake of 9.4 g C m(-2) yr(-1) or 6.6 Tg C yr(-1). Our results suggest that while the ESS and shelf break waters adjacent to the LS and ESS are net autotrophic systems, the LS is a net heterotrophic system. CO2 sea-air fluxes for the LS were 4.7 g C m(-2) yr(-1), and for the ESS we estimate an uptake of 7.2 g C m(-2) yr(-1). Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (delta C-13(DIC) and delta C-13(CO2)) in the water column indicates that the LS is depleted in delta C-13(DIC) compared to the Arctic Ocean (ArcO) and ESS with an offset of 0.5% which can be explained by mixing of delta C-13(DIC)-depleted riverine waters and 4.0 Tg yr(-1) respiration of OCter; only a minor part (0.72 Tg yr(-1)) of this respired OCter is exchanged with the atmosphere. Property-mixing diagrams of total organic carbon and isotope ratio (delta C-13(SPE-DOC)) versus dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration diagram indicate conservative and nonconservative mixing in the LS and ESS, respectively. We suggest land-derived particulate organic carbon from coastal erosion as an additional significant source for the depleted delta C-13(DIC).

  • 339.
    Höpner, Friederike
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Bender, Frida A. -M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Praveen, P. S.
    Bosch, Carme
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Spain.
    Ogren, J. A.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ramanathan, V.
    Vertical profiles of optical and microphysical particle properties above the northern Indian Ocean during CARDEX 20122016Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 1045-1064Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed analysis of optical and microphysical properties of aerosol particles during the dry winter monsoon season above the northern Indian Ocean is presented. The Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing Experiment (CARDEX), conducted from 16 February to 30 March 2012 at the Maldives Climate Observatory on Hanimaadhoo island (MCOH) in the Republic of the Maldives, used autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (AUAV) to perform vertical in situ measurements of particle number concentration, particle number size distribution as well as particle absorption coefficients. These measurements were used together with surface-based Mini Micro Pulse Lidar (MiniMPL) observations and aerosol in situ and off-line measurements to investigate the vertical distribution of aerosol particles. Air masses were mainly advected over the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Peninsula. The mean surface aerosol number concentration was 1717 +/- 604cm(-3) and the highest values were found in air masses from the Bay of Bengal and Indo-Gangetic Plain (2247 +/- 370cm(-3)). Investigations of the free tropospheric air showed that elevated aerosol layers with up to 3 times higher aerosol number concentrations than at the surface occurred mainly during periods with air masses originating from the Bay of Bengal and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This feature is different compared to what was observed during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) conducted in winter 1999, where aerosol number concentrations generally decreased with height. In contrast, lower particle absorption at the surface (sigma(abs)(520nm) = 8.5 + 4.2Wm(-1)) was found during CARDEX compared to INDOEX 1999. Layers with source region specific single-scattering albedo (SSA) values were derived by combining vertical in situ particle absorption coefficients and scattering coefficients calculated with Mie theory. These SSA layers were utilized to calculate vertical particle absorption profiles from MiniMPL profiles. SSA surface values for 550 nm for dry conditions were found to be 0 : 94 +/- 0 : 02 and 0 : 91 +/- 0 : 02 for air masses from the Arabian Sea (and Middle East countries) and India (and Bay of Bengal), respectively. Lidar-derived particle absorption coefficient profiles showed both a similar magnitude and structure as the in situ profiles measured with the AUAV. However, primarily due to insufficient accuracy in the SSA estimates, the lidar-derived absorption coefficient profiles have large uncertainties and are generally weakly correlated to vertically in situ measured particle absorption coefficients. Furthermore, the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) for the northern Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season was calculated to determine equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations from particle absorption coefficient measurements. A mean MAE of 11.6 and 6.9m(2) g(-1) for 520 and 880 nm, respectively, was found, likely representing internally mixed BC containing particles. Lower MAE values for 880 and 520 nm were found for air masses originating from dust regions such as the Arabian Peninsula and western Asia (MAE(880 nm) = 5.6m(2) g(-1), MAE(520 nm) = 9.5m(2) g(-1)) or from closer source regions as southern India (MAE(880 nm) = 4.3m(2) g(-1), MAE(520 nm) = 7. 3m(2) g(-1)).

  • 340.
    Höpner, Friederike
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Bender, Frida A.-M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Andersson, August
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Leck, Caroline
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Investigation of Two Optical Methods for Aerosol‐Type Classification Extended to a Northern Indian Ocean Site2019Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 124, nr 15, s. 8743-8763Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for determining aerosol types in cases where chemical composition measurements are not available are useful for improved aerosol radiative forcing estimates. In this study, two aerosol characterization methods by Cazorla et al. (2013, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-9337-2013; CA13) and Costabile et al. (2013, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-2455-2013; CO13) using wavelength‐dependent particle absorption and scattering are used, to assess their applicability and examine their limitations. Long‐term ambient particle optical property and chemical composition (major inorganic ions and bulk carbon) measurements from the Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo as well as concurrent air mass trajectories are utilized to test the classifications based on the determined absorption Ångström exponent, scattering Ångström exponent, and single scattering albedo. The resulting aerosol types from the CA13 method show a good qualitative agreement with the particle chemical composition and air mass origin. In general, the size differentiation using the scattering Ångström exponent works very well for both methods, while the composition identification depending mainly on the absorption Ångström exponent can result in aerosol misclassifications at Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo. To broaden the applicability of the CA13 method, we suggest to include an underlying marine aerosol group in the classification scheme. The classification of the CO13 method is less clear, and its applicability is limited when it is extended to aerosols in this environment at ambient humidity.

  • 341.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Textile Related Chemicals: Analytical Approaches Towards the Assessment of Human and Environmental Exposures2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The textile manufacturing chain involves an extensive use of chemicals as early as fabric-production. To confer special features to textile materials, more chemicals are required in subsequent steps. Furthermore, potentially harmful substances can end up in clothes as transformation products. Compounds that are not covalently bonded to the fabrics have high probability to be released on the skin or into the environment when the clothes are worn or laundered.

    In order to remove interfering compounds from solvent extracts of investigated textiles, a cleanup step based on solid phase extraction using graphitic carbon black was developed resulting in effective dye removal. In a pilot screening, nitroanilines were detected up to 0.57 mg/g, which was 2-3 order of magnitude higher than measured quinolines.

    Human exposure to chemicals can occur through skin contact. Benzothiazole was chosen as model compound for in-vitro experiments. Its permeation was experimentally determined in order to estimate dermal exposure. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, associated to wearing t-shirt containing BT, according to international standards, were found to be below the acceptable exposure levels.

    It has been shown that chemical concentrations decreased during domestic washing. A procedure was developed for enrichment and clean-up of textile related compounds from water samples. The method was applied to three wastewater treatment plant effluents located in Stockholm. Tolyltriazole, 1-benzotriazole, and UV-P were detected within the range of 53-1148 ng/L.

    Suspect and non-target screening methodology was developed do detect and identify substances in textile materials. The occurrence of thirteen suspect compounds, belonging to quinolines, nitroanilines, benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles and phthalates, was confirmed through suspect analysis approach. Furthermore, using a non-target screening approach, compounds not included in the suspect list such as nitrophenols, organophosphate and acridine were identified.

    In order to remove interfering compounds from the textile extracts, a cleanup step based on solid phase extraction using graphitic carbon black was developed resulting in effective dye removal. In a pilot screening, nitroanilines were detected up to 0.57 mg/g, which was 2-3 times higher than measured quinolines.

    Human exposure to chemicals can occur through skin contact. Benzothiazole was chosen as model compound for in-vitro experiments. Its permeation was experimentally determined in order to estimate dermal exposure. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, associated to wearing t-shirt containing BT, according to international standards, were found to be below the acceptable exposure levels.

    It has been shown that chemical concentrations decreased during domestic washing. A procedure was developed for enrichment and clean-up of textile related compounds from water samples. The method was applied to three wastewater treatment plant effluents located in Stockholm. Tolyltriazole, 1-benzotriazole, and UV-P were detected within the range of 53-1148 ng/L.  

    Suspect and non-target screening methodology was developed do detect and identify substances in textile materials. The occurrence of thirteen suspect compounds, belonging to quinolines, nitroanilines, benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles and phthalates, was confirmed through suspect approach. Furthermore, using a non-target screening approach, compounds not included in suspect list such as nitrophenols, organophosphate and acridine were identified.

  • 342.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    Strzałka, Emilia
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Determination of Textile Related Compounds (Benzothiazole, Benzotriazole, Nitroaniline, Quinoline and some Derivatives) in WastewaterManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of textile consumer goods involve a multitude of chemicals during the entire production chain. In order to investigate the release of harmful compounds from the end products, a sensitive and robust multicomponent procedure for the analysis of three classes of textile related chemicals in aqueous matrices has been developed. The method involves solid phase extraction (SPE) using a graphitized carbon black (GCB) sorbent, followed by GC-MS or LC-MS/MS analysis. The described method can be used to monitor thirty-two selected compounds in waste water. Several of these analytes are regulated by the European Union (REACH) due to their carcinogenic and/or mutagenic properties. After sampling on SPE, three different compound classes are desorbed and analyzed using different chromatographic conditions. The use of GCB provided quantitative and reproducible recoveries of the selected compounds and a cleanup of the wastewater sample. The procedure was evaluated using wastewater sample matrices. Finally, the method was applied in a pilot study to investigate the occurrence of these classes of analytes in the effluent of three different wastewater treatment plants in the Stockholm area. 

  • 343.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Carlsson, Josefine
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Eklund, Jonas
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Strategies Towards Suspect and Non-target Screening of Chemicals in Clothing Textiles by Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatography–hybrid Linear Ion Trap Orbitrap Mass SpectrometryManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile industry uses a large number of various chemicals in the multi-step production chain. Some of these chemicals are intentionally used to give specific features to textile materials (softness, color, improve fastness, flame resistant etc.). Some other are unintentionally added, such us transformation products (e.g. dye degradation production), impurities of other used compounds and/or biocides. Due to the large number of cloths manufacturing steps, starting from fabric production to clothes trade, information regarding the chemicals used are not always available. Clothes are in close and prolonged contact with the skin, making possible a human exposure to chemicals present in textile material. Furthermore, chemicals, if not removed from wastewater treatment plants, can be released in the environment through the laundry of textile materials. In the present study, reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry was used for screening of suspect and unknown compounds in twenty-four textile samples. Strategies towards suspect and non-target screening are discussed considering the experimental conditions and the subsequent data treatment. Suspect compounds belonging to benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles, nitroanilines, quinolines and phthalates were confirmed in the analyzed samples. The method was able also to successfully identify compounds not included in the suspect list, such as nitrophenols, acridine, and phosphates.

  • 344.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Universita di Salerno, Italy.
    Amini, Ahmad
    Colmsjö, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Koyi, Hirsh
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Application of graphitic sorbent for online microextraction of drugs in human plasma samples2015Ingår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1422, s. 34-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work a new sorbent based on graphitized carbon (CarbonX (R) COA) was evaluated in microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) for extraction of lidocaine and ropivacaine from human plasma samples. The new graphitic sorbent showed high recoveries of lidocaine and ropivacaine compared to C18 sorbent In the present study the G-MEPS (syringe packed with graphitic sorbent) was connect online with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In order to obtain a fast and reliable method different factors affecting MEPS performance were investigated. The extraction efficiency of the graphitic sorbent was compared with silica-based sorbents used in MEPS. The G-MEPS was also evaluated for reuse (50-100 times). The recoveries of lidocaine and ropivacaine from plasma samples were 79% and 82%; respectively. The method was validated according to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) guideline for bioanalytical method validation. Linearity was assessed in the range 5-2000 nmol/L, with coefficient of determination r(2) > 0,995 (n=3) for lidocaine and r(2) > 0.997 (n=3) for ropivacaine. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5 nmol/L and the limit of detection (LOD) was 1 nmol/L for studied analytes in plasma samples. For both analytes considered in this study the accuracy values in plasma samples were ranged from 86% to 113%. The Inter-day precisions, expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD), at three different concentrations (QC-samples) ranged from 8% to 9% for lidocaine, and from 4% to 11% for ropivacaine.

  • 345.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Manniello, Michele Dario
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. University of Salerno, Italy.
    Holmbäck, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Russo, Paola
    Chemicals from textiles to skin: an in vitro permeation study of benzothiazole2018Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 25, s. 24629-24638Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the possible impact on human health, few studies have been conducted to assess the penetration and accumulation of contaminants in the skin after a prolonged contact with textile materials. In previous studies, we have shown that benzothiazole and its derivatives, as well as other potentially hazardous chemicals, often are present as textile contaminants in clothes available on the retail market. Since benzothiazole is a common contaminant in clothes, these can be a possible route for human chemical exposure, both systemic and onto the skin. To investigate this potential exposure, Franz-type and flow-through cells were used for the permeation studies together with a Strat-MA (R) artificial membranes. Experiments were performed using solutions of benzothiazole, as well as contaminated textile samples in the donor chamber. Benzothiazole was demonstrated to penetrate through, as well as being accumulated in the membrane mimicking the skin. After 24 h, up to 62% of benzothiazole was found in the acceptor cell, while up to 37% was found absorbed in the skin mimicking membrane. It also was shown that there was release and permeation from contaminated fabrics. The results indicate that benzothiazole can be released from textile materials, penetrate through the skin, and further enter the human body. This will possibly also apply to other chemical contaminants in textiles, and the results of this study indicate that the presence of these textile contaminants entails potential health risks. A rough risk assessment was made for clothing textiles according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and European regulations for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic compounds, using literature data for benzothiazole.

  • 346.
    Ingre-Khans, Ellen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Stockholm University.
    Transparency within REACH?: Regulatory risk assessment of industrial chemicals2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals provide us with many benefits but can also have adverse effects on human health and the environment. Concerns that previous European legislations were not providing adequate protection from chemical risks resulted in a new chemicals legislation – REACH – in 2007. According to REACH, the chemical industry must ensure that risks from chemicals they produce or import at or above one tonne per year can be adequately controlled. Data on the chemicals’ properties and uses, hazards and risks as well as instructions for safely handling the chemicals, must be provided by industry to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) before the chemicals are allowed on the European market. The information is used by ECHA and the competent authorities of the Member States to identify chemicals of concern that warrant regulation. Thus, the registered data need to be reliable and relevant as well as transparently reported to ensure that chemicals of concern can be identified. The aim of this thesis was to provide insights into the risk assessments carried out by industry under REACH to contribute to a safer use of chemicals.

    The results in this thesis show that information that is used for concluding on hazards and risks of chemicals as well as industry’s conclusions are reported in a semi-transparent manner and therefore difficult for third parties to fully scrutinise and evaluate (paper I). This was in part due to the protection of confidential information as laid down by law but also related to ECHA’s procedures for making information available to the public as well as industry’s reporting. Furthermore, industry is only required under REACH to summarise (eco)toxicity studies that are gathered for the risk assessment. Consequently, data based on industry studies that are not publicly available cannot be scrutinised and independently assessed by third parties. Thus, the system relies on studies being accurately summarised by the registrant although this was not always seen to be the case (paper IV). 

    Furthermore, the current framework for industry to evaluate (eco)toxicity studies and report data evaluations under REACH was found to be neither systematic nor transparent (paper II). Studies may not be evaluated based on their inherent scientific quality when the Klimisch method for evaluating data is used, which is the recommended data evaluation method under REACH. Using the Klimisch method may also result in giving less weight to non-standard studies, such as many academic research studies, than studies performed according to standardised test guidelines, although non-standard studies could contribute with important information to the risk assessment. The structure and transparency of data evaluations could be improved by using a framework that has clear criteria and guidance as well as a structured format for reporting data evaluations (paper III). This would support more harmonised and transparent data evaluations and encourage studies to be evaluated according to their inherent scientific quality rather than mere compliance with standardised test guidelines.

    The overall objective of this thesis is to contribute to the development of systematic and transparent risk assessments under REACH, which is critical for using chemicals safely.

  • 347.
    Ingre-Khans, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Beronius, Anna
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Reliability and relevance evaluations of REACH data2019Ingår i: Toxicology Research, ISSN 2045-452X, E-ISSN 2045-4538, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 46-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulatory authorities rely on hazard and risk assessments performed under REACH for identifying chemicals of concern and to take action. Therefore, these assessments must be systematic and transparent. This study investigates how registrants evaluate and report data evaluations under REACH and the procedures established by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) to support these data evaluations. Data on the endpoint repeated dose toxicity were retrieved from the REACH registration database for 60 substances. An analysis of these data shows that the system for registrants to evaluate data and report these evaluations is neither systematic nor transparent. First, the current framework focuses on reliability, but overlooks the equally important aspect of relevance, as well as how reliability and relevance are combined for determining the adequacy of individual studies. Reliability and relevance aspects are also confused in the ECHA guidance for read-across. Second, justifications for reliability evaluations were mainly based on studies complying with GLP and test guidelines, following the Klimisch method. This may result in GLP and guideline studies being considered reliable by default and discounting non-GLP and non-test guideline data. Third, the reported rationales for reliability were frequently vague, confusing and lacking information necessary for transparency. Fourth, insufficient documentation of a study was sometimes used as a reason for judging data unreliable. Poor reporting merely affects the possibility to evaluate reliability and should be distinguished from methodological deficiencies. Consequently, ECHA is urged to improve the procedures and guidance for registrants to evaluate data under REACH to achieve systematic and transparent risk assessments.

  • 348.
    Ingre-Khans, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Beronius, Anna
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Toxicity studies used in registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH): How accurately are they reported?2019Ingår i: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, ISSN 1551-3777, E-ISSN 1551-3793, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 458-469Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Toxicity studies on chemicals registered under the European Union's Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation are provided as summaries instead of as a full study report. Because the registration data are used by regulatory agencies to identify chemicals of concern, the study summaries must accurately reflect the information in studies. A “study summary” should include sufficient information on the objectives, methods, results, and conclusions in the full study report in order for the relevance of the study to be determined. Sometimes a “robust study summary” is required, which should contain more detailed information to enable an independent assessment of the study. The aim of the present investigation is to examine how well published toxicity papers were reflected in study summaries submitted by registrants under REACH. Summaries of 20 published studies (peer‐reviewed studies, including 1 abstract) were examined and broad categories of various types of observed differences were derived. The extent to which information in the published studies was reported, as well as how accurately the information was reflected, varied. How accurately the information was reflected also varied. Differences between the published studies and the summaries included simple typing errors, unclear and incomplete reporting, as well as the omission of information on, for example, study design, results, or interpretation of the results, which in some cases could be considered relevant for the risk assessment. This raises concerns regarding the accuracy of study summaries and their use for decision making. Moreover, the possibility for third parties to independently assess and scrutinize the summaries is limited. Considering that we rely on REACH registration data for chemical safety, all data used for risk assessment should be accessible for thorough examination and fully independent assessment.

  • 349.
    Ingre-Khans, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Beronius, Anna
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Transparency of chemical risk assessment data under REACH2016Ingår i: Environmental Science: Pocesses & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, Vol. 18, nr 12, s. 1508-1518Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The REACH regulation requires EU manufacturers and importers of substances to register information on the hazard and risk of their substances with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Risk management of the substances is based on the provided information. It is known that conclusions on hazard and risk are influenced by expert judgements as well as potential conflict of interests. Thus, it is important that hazard and risk assessments are transparent and can be evaluated by a third party. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the transparency, i.e. the accessibility and comprehensibility, of information on substances registered under REACH. Data on repeated dose toxicity and hazard assessment conclusions were extracted for 60 substances from the REACH registration database available on the ECHA website. The data were compiled in a database for systematically evaluating the transparency of information related to the conclusions on hazard or risk. In addition, chemical safety reports (CSR) were requested from ECHA for five substances. The transparency of information on the hazard and risk of substances was found to be limited for several reasons. First, certain information was removed due to confidentiality and certain fields were not published because they could contain confidential information although the information had not been claimed confidential. Also, the extent to which registrants reported information varied, and the presentation of some data and certain terminology required further clarification. In addition, the data source for the majority of the key and supporting studies could not be identified due to confidentiality. Since registrants are only required to summarise studies, it cannot be verified whether all relevant information from non-public industry reports have been reported. Lastly, certain information related to the hazard and risk assessment were only reported in the CSR which is only available upon request; a time-consuming and work-intensive process. As information on registered chemicals is currently provided to the public, it is difficult to follow steps that are undertaken in the hazard and risk assessment. This limits the possibility for a third party to evaluate the assessment.

  • 350.
    Ingre-Khans, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Beronius, Anna
    Improving structure and transparency in reliability evaluations of data under REACH: suggestions for a systematic method2020Ingår i: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, ISSN 1080-7039, E-ISSN 1549-7860, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 212-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of identifying hazardous chemicals registered under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of CHemicals (REACH) Regulation and taking appropriate risk management measures relies on robust data registrations. However, the current procedures for European chemical manufacturers and importers to evaluate data under REACH neither support systematic evaluations of data nor transparently communicate these assessments. The aim of this study was to explore how using a data evaluation method with predefined criteria for reliability and establishing principles for assigning reliability categories could contribute to more structured and transparent evaluations under REACH. In total, 20 peer-reviewed studies for 15 substances registered under REACH were selected for an in-depth evaluation of reliability with the SciRAP tool. The results show that using a method for study evaluation, with clear criteria for assessing reliability and assigning studies to reliability categories, contributes to more structured and transparent reliability evaluations. Consequently, it is recommended to implement a method for evaluating data under REACH with predefined criteria and fields for documenting and justifying the assessments to increase consistency of data evaluations and transparency.

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