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  • 3151.
    Alm Bergvall, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Svensson, Lisa
    Kjellander, Petter
    Vigilance adjustments in relation to long- and short term risk in wild fallow deer (Dama dama)2016In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 128, p. 58-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk allocation hypothesis predicts that vigilance should be adjusted to the temporal variation in risk. We test this hypothesis in wild fallow deer exposed to short term (disturbance) and long term (presence of a fawn after parturition) changes in risk. We recorded the proportion, frequency and type of vigilance and size of used area before and after parturition, in GPS-collared wild female fallow deer. Vigilance was divided in two main groups: non-grazing vigilance and grazing vigilance. The latter group was divided into grazing vigilance while chewing and a grazing vigilance when chewing was interrupted. By recording external disturbance in form of passing cars, we were able to investigate if this altered the amount, and type of vigilance. We found that females increased the proportion and frequency of grazing vigilance stop chewing after parturition. The grazing vigilance chewing was unaffected, but non-grazing vigilance decreased. Disturbance increased the proportion grazing vigilance stop chewing to the same extent before and after parturition. We found a clear decrease in female home range size after parturition as a possible behavioural adjustment. The increase in grazing vigilance stop chewing after parturition is a rarely described but expected cost of reproduction.

  • 3152.
    Alm, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    The un/selfish leader: Changing notions in a Tamil Nadu village2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    'The un/selfish' leader explores notions of selfishness, as they were perceived by people in the village of Ekkaraiyur, Tamil Nadu, India, at a time they associated with thorough changes in their lives.

    Discussing locally held notions about agrarian change, seen as causing the erosion of earlier village loyalties and leading to the emergence of a new type of leaders, the study focus on the censure of the alleged corruption of these leaders. Expressed in a rich repertoire of stories about the ideals of leadership and about the excellence of the past and foreign societies, the censure was routinely voiced in public debates and in everyday conversations.

    Set against a background an increasing role of the state for the people in Ekkaraiyur, the censure of leaders implied a critique of the contemporary society they were taken to represent. Moreover, the study argues that the critique was grounded in evaluations of individualism and selfishness in human nature.

    The study is based on fieldwork carried out in Ekkaraiyur between 1988 and 1990

  • 3153.
    Alm, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Åsa
    Durbeej, Natalie
    Palmstierna, Tom
    Berman, Anne H.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Hellner Gumpert, Clara
    Classification of offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use using the Addiction Severity Index version 6: Analysis of three-year follow-up data and predictive validity2014In: Mental Health and Substance Use, ISSN 1752-3281, E-ISSN 1752-3273, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 431-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research is scarce on the problems and needs of the “triply troubled” – among offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use. Classifying this population into clusters based on problem profiles may provide information about individual needs for treatment. In a previous study, we identified four clusters of triply troubled: less troubled, severely triply troubled, triply troubled with medical problems, and working triply troubled. The present study explored the stability and predictive validity of these clusters in a naturalistic design. In total, 125 triply troubled individuals included in any of the four clusters were followed for approximately three years with regard to their inpatient and outpatient treatment participation. They were also interviewed with the 6th version of the Addiction Severity Index, the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life–Bref. The main finding of the study was that on average the participants of all four clusters exhibited substantial improvements over the course of time but that improvements were cluster-specific rather than sample-specific. Implications of the study are discussed.

  • 3154.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Lindqvist, Per
    Palmstierna, Tom
    Gumpert, Clara Hellner
    Gender differences in re-offending among psychiatrically examined Swedish offenders2010In: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 323-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The gender gap for violent offending is narrowing in the general population. Substance abuse and mental health problems are known risk factors for criminality. While substance abuse treatment has been associated with reduced risk of re-offending, women seem less likely to engage than men. People misusing substances tend to be high users of emergency room (ER) services. Such use may be an indicator both of treatment failure for substance misuse and offending. Little is known about gender differences in this respect. Aims: This study aims to test for gender differences in re-offending, use of substance abuse treatment, and hospital ER visits among offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden. Method: The study used a longitudinal retrospective design. Data on all 31 women from a 2-year (2000–2001) cohort of serious offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Stockholm county, and 31 men from the same cohort, were extracted from forensic service and national records. Selection of the men was by initial random sampling followed by matching on age and substance misuse. The two resulting samples were compared on health service use and re-offending data between release and the census date (30 April 2004). Results: There were no gender differences for violent re-offending or for engagement in planned substance abuse treatment, in spite of longer time at risk for the men. Re-offending was reduced for women but not men who did not present in the ER with physical health problems. Conclusions: Our study is limited by sample size, although it included all women referred to the specialist forensic psychiatric service over 2 years, but it does indicate that differences between men and women in this situation are likely, and worthy of further study. The only way of achieving adequate sample sizes is likely to be through multi-centre collaboration.

  • 3155.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Rehnberg, Nora Helmy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Language and eyewitness suggestibility2019In: Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, ISSN 1544-4759, E-ISSN 1544-4767, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 201-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During forensic interviews, eyewitnesses are to retrieve correct information from memory. Cognitive load should be high, leading to risks of giving in to suggestive questions and difficulties in memory retrieval generally. Testifying in a non-native vs. native language may require even more cognitive effort due to the need to inhibit the interference of the native language. Such witnesses may also be more motivated to appear credible because they often belong to ethnic outgroups relative to forensic professionals, risking more scepticism. In this study, Swedish participants (N = 51) reported their memory of a simulated crime event either in English (non-native language) or in Swedish (native language) and were tested for suggestibility and accuracy. Results showed that English-speaking witnesses yielded to more suggestive questions, perceived themselves as less credible but were equally accurate. Results suggest that testifying in a non-native language is taxing cognitive resources, in turn increasing suggestibility and suboptimal memory search.

  • 3156.
    Alm, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Vahlne, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Swedish Brand of Origin: A potential in China?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we investigate the use of brand origin among Swedish companies. We argue that brand origin is a better concept for capturing the aspects of the origin of a product than using country of origin cues. With the increase in outsourcing country of origin, where the product has been manufactured, becomes less important. We instead believe that the brand origin, the country where the brand originates from, and the possible linkages with the values and images of that country is more important than where the product itself is actually manufactured. We apply this theory on both Swedish companies and on the current situation in China in order to find out if there would be any rationale in using a brand origin of Sweden when marketing towards Chinese consumers.

  • 3157.
    Alm Djerf, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Informationssäkerhetens riktighet, konfidentialitet och spårbarhet: en tillämpning av riskanalys2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3158.
    Alm, Elisabet
    Stockholm University.
    Sveconorwegian metallogenesis in Sweden2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two main ore types are found in the Sveconorwegian Orogen in southwestern Sweden (Southwest Scandinavian Domain). One of them comprises stratabound Cu mineralizations in the Dal group, located west of lake Vänern. The other comprises quartz veins with varying precious and base metal contents, distributed over 250 km between lake Mjøsa (southeastern Norway) and lake Vänern. In this thesis, both ore types are discussed, although the main emphasis is on Au-bearing quartz veins, particularly those in the Harnäs area near lake Vänern.

    The Dal group is a 2000 m thick sequence of clastic sediments and intercalated mafic volcanic rocks, metamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions. It records deposition mainly in a shallow marine basin, formed during a rift stage preceding the Sveconorwegian orogeny (c. 1.15-0.9 Ga). The volcanic rocks have been subject to various degrees of sodic and/or potassic alteration. Geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic evidence indicate a continental setting of volcanism. Cu mineralizations (chalcopyrite and bornite) occur at two stratigraphic levels. An ore-genetic model involving synsedimentary (or syndiagenetic) deposition of sulphides from metal-bearing fluids is favoured.

    Among Au-bearing quartz veins in the Mjøsa-Vänern ore district, four paragenetic types have been distinguished: Cu-dominated veins with chalcopyrite and/or bornite; Pb-Cu-bearing veins with pyrite, galena and chalcopyrite; Zn-Pb-dominated veins with sphalerite, galena, pyrite and chalcopyrite; Mn-bearing vein(s) with galena, chalcopyrite and hausmannite. In addition, e.g. native gold, argyrodite, hessite, tellurobismuthite and altaite are recognized. The ore lead isotopic composition is complex and metals appear to be derived from a variety of source rocks.

    The orthogneisses, which constitute the host rocks to the Harnäs veins and the Brustad Au quartz veins (Eidsvoll, near lake Mjøsa), have been investigated with respect to geochemistry, U-Pb zircon age and feldspar lead isotopic composition. The obtained intrusion age of the Brustad augen gneiss is 1674 ± 10 Ma and this rock is considered to belong to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt. The Harnäs gneiss yielded a protolith age of 1595 +24/-17 Ma and is considered to be a member of the Åmål granitoid suite. Both orthogneisses have undergone ductile deformation during the Sveconorwegian orogeny. A complete isotopic resetting of the feldspar lead through dynamic recrystallization in conjunction with this deformation, at c. 1.0 Ga, has been demonstrated.

    The steeply dipping Harnäs veins are hosted in a local left-lateral shear zone, which transects the fabric in the surrounding orthogneisses. The moderate wall rock alteration was mainly sericitic. Fluid inclusions show that the ore-bearing vein system at Harnäs developed essentially in three stages: a quartz stage, a pyrite-gold stage and finally a galena stage. The early ore fluid was CO2-bearing, of low salinity and with a temperature of c. 200 oC, while in the galena stage it was purely aqueous, with a slightly higher salinity and a slightly lower temperature. Oxygen and sulphur isotope results imply a predominantly metamorphic origin for the ore fluid and suggest that the fluid constituents were derived from the regional orthogneisses. Ore lead isotopic compositions indicate metal derivation from these orthogneisses shortly after the Sveconorwegian deformation and resetting of feldspar lead. Subordinate Au-anomalous quartz veins in the Harnäs area as well as the Brustad Au quartz veins show characteristics similar to the Harnäs veins. Despite recognized variations, e.g. in mineralogy, a common origin is envisaged for most veins in the Mjøsa-Vänern ore district. They are characterized as late Proterozoic orogenic type Au deposits, with modern analogues e.g. in the western Alps.

  • 3159.
    Alm, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Sjukfrånvaro och ohälsa inom lärarkåren2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning saknas.

  • 3160.
    Alm, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Solving the correspondence problem in analytical chemistry: Automated methods for alignment and quantification of multiple signals2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When applying statistical data analysis techniques to analytical chemical data, all variables must have correspondence over the samples dimension in order for the analysis to generate meaningful results. Peak shifts in NMR and chromatography destroys that correspondence and creates data matrices that have to be aligned before analysis. In this thesis, new methods are introduced that allow for automated transformation from unaligned raw data to aligned data matrices where each column corresponds to a unique signal. These methods are based around linear multivariate models for the peak shifts and Hough transform for establishing the parameters of these linear models. Methods for quantification under difficult conditions, such as crowded spectral regions, noisy data and unknown peak identities are also introduced. These methods include automated peak selection and a robust method for background subtraction. This thesis focuses on the processing of the data; the experimental work is secondary and is not discussed in great detail.

    All the developed methods are put together in a full procedure that takes us from raw data to a table of concentrations in a matter of minutes.

    The procedure is applied to 1H-NMR data from biological samples, which is one of the toughest alignment tasks available in the field of analytical chemistry. It is shown that the procedure performs consistently on the same level as much more labor intensive manual techniques such as Chenomx NMRSuite spectral profiling.

    Several kinds of datasets are evaluated using the procedure. Most of the data is from the field of Metabolomics, where the goal is to establish concentrations of as many small molecules as possible in biological samples.

  • 3161.
    Alm, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Bro, Rasmus
    Engelsen, Sören B.
    Karlberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Torgrip, Ralf J. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Vibrational overtone combination spectroscopy (VOCSY)—a new way of using IR and NIR data2007In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 388, no 1, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work explores a novel method for rearranging 1st order (one-way) infra-red (IR) and/or near infra-red (NIR) ordinary spectra into a representation suitable for multi-way modelling and analysis. The method is based on the fact that the fundamental IR absorption and the first, second, and consecutive overtones of NIR absorptions represent identical chemical information. It is therefore possible to rearrange these overtone regions of the vectors comprising an IR and NIR spectrum into a matrix where the fundamental, 1st, 2nd, and consecutive overtones of the spectrum are arranged as either rows or columns in a matrix, resulting in a true three-way tensor of data for several samples. This tensorization facilitates explorative analysis and modelling with multi-way methods, for example parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), N-way partial least squares (N-PLS), and Tucker models. The vibrational overtone combination spectroscopy (VOCSY) arrangement is shown to benefit from the “order advantage”, producing more robust, stable, and interpretable models than, for example, the traditional PLS modelling method. The proposed method also opens the field of NIR for true peak decomposition—a feature unique to the method because the latent factors acquired using PARAFAC can represent pure spectral components whereas latent factors in principal component analysis (PCA) and PLS usually do not.

  • 3162.
    Alm, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Csenki, Leonard
    Torgrip, Ralf J.O.
    Åberg, K. Magnus
    Nord, Lars I.
    Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina
    Lindberg, Johan
    Alignment of 1H-NMR data using a Generalized Fuzzy Hough Transform2007In: SSC10 Conference, Lappeenranta, 2007 and Metabolomics Society 3rd Annual Conference, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3163.
    Alm, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Slagbrand, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Åberg, K. Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Wahlström, Erik
    Gustafsson, Ingela
    Lindberg, Johan
    Automated annotation and quantification of metabolites in (1)H NMR data of biological origin2012In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 403, no 2, p. 443-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1H NMR metabolomic datasets, there are often over a thousand peaks per spectrum, many of which change position drastically between samples. Automatic alignment, annotation, and quantification of all the metabolites of interest in such datasets have not been feasible. In this work we propose a fully automated annotation and quantification procedure which requires annotation of metabolites only in a single spectrum. The reference database built from that single spectrum can be used for any number of 1H NMR datasets with a similar matrix. The procedure is based on the generalized fuzzy Hough transform (GFHT) for alignment and on Principal-components analysis (PCA) for peak selection and quantification. We show that we can establish quantities of 21 metabolites in several 1H NMR datasets and that the procedure is extendable to include any number of metabolites that can be identified in a single spectrum. The procedure speeds up the quantification of previously known metabolites and also returns a table containing the intensities and locations of all the peaks that were found and aligned but not assigned to a known metabolite. This enables both biopattern analysis of known metabolites and data mining for new potential biomarkers among the unknowns.

  • 3164.
    Alm, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Torgrip, Ralf J. O.
    Åberg, K. Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina
    Lindberg, Johan
    A solution to the 1D NMR alignment problem using an extended generalized fuzzy Hough transform and mode support2009In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 395, no 1, p. 213-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper approaches the problem of intersample peak correspondence in the context of later applying statistical data analysis techniques to 1D 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data. Any data analysis methodology will fail to produce meaningful results if the analyzed data table is not synchronized, i.e., each analyzed variable frequency (Hz) does not originate from the same chemical source throughout the entire dataset. This is typically the case when dealing with NMR data from biological samples. In this paper, we present a new state of the art for solving this problem using the generalized fuzzy Hough transform (GFHT). This paper describes significant improvements since the method was introduced for NMR datasets of plasma in Csenki et al. (Anal Bioanal Chem 389:875-885, 15) and is now capable of synchronizing peaks from more complex datasets such as urine as well as plasma data. We present a novel way of globally modeling peak shifts using principal component analysis, a new algorithm for calculating the transform and an effective peak detection algorithm. The algorithm is applied to two real metabonomic 1H-NMR datasets and the properties of the method are compared to bucketing. We implicitly prove that GFHT establishes the objectively true correspondence. Desirable features of the GFHT are: (1) intersample peak correspondence even if peaks change order on the frequency axis and (2) the method is symmetric with respect to the samples.

  • 3165.
    Alm, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Torgrip, Ralf J. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Åberg, K. Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina
    Lindberg, Johan
    Time-resolved biomarker discovery inH-NMR data using generalized fuzzy Hough transform alignment and parallel factor analysis2010In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 396, no 5, p. 1681-1689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work addresses the subject of time-series analysis of comprehensive 1H-NMR data of biological origin. One of the problems with toxicological and efficacy studies is the confounding of correlation between the administered drug, its metabolites and the systemic changes in molecular dynamics, i.e., the flux of drug-related molecules correlates with the molecules of system regulation. This correlation poses a problem for biomarker mining since this confounding must be untangled in order to separate true biomarker molecules from dose-related molecules. One way of achieving this goal is to perform pharmacokinetic analysis. The difference in pharmacokinetic time profiles of different molecules can aid in the elucidation of the origin of the dynamics, this can even be achieved regardless of whether the identity of the molecule is known or not. This mode of analysis is the basis for metabonomic studies of toxicology and efficacy. One major problem concerning the analysis of 1H-NMR data generated from metabonomic studies is that of the peak positional variation and of peak overlap. These phenomena induce variance in the data, obscuring the true information content and are hence unwanted but hard to avoid. Here, we show that by using the generalized fuzzy Hough transform spectral alignment, variable selection, and parallel factor analysis, we can solve both the alignment and the confounding problem stated above. Using the outlined method, several different temporal concentration profiles can be resolved and the majority of the studied molecules and their respective fluxes can be attributed to these resolved kinetic profiles. The resolved time profiles hereby simplifies finding true biomarkers and bio-patterns for early detection of biological conditions as well as providing more detailed information about the studied biological system. The presented method represents a significant step forward in time-series analysis of biological 1H-NMR data as it provides almost full automation of the whole data analysis process and is able to analyze over 800 unique features per sample. The method is demonstrated using a 1H-NMR rat urine dataset from a toxicology study and is compared with a classical approach: COW alignment followed by bucketing.

  • 3166. Alm, Göran
    Enkel men värdig: metodistisk kyrkoarkitektur i Sverige 1869-19101974Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 3167.
    Alm, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Persson, Maha
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Påtvingade brytpunkter i karriären: Ny väg - nya möjligheter?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med examensarbetet var att undersöka hur påtvingade brytpunkter, i detta fall nedläggning av en arbetsplats, upplevdes och vilka möjligheter individerna såg inför sina fortsatta karriärval. Den metod som användes var av kvalitativ art med ostrukturerade intervjufrågor riktat till sex respondenter som befann sig i samma situation. Resultatet visade att trots att de flesta respondenter kände chock och ilska när beskedet kom, så upplevde de ett år senare situationen som mer hanterbar och hade börjat strukturera i både tankar och handling vilka alternativ man såg som möjliga och åtkomliga. De slutsatser vi drog var att individens egen motivation har spelat stor roll och beslut som tagits har utgått ifrån den kontext man befunnit sig i. Flera var aktiva i sitt sökande efter nya möjligheter till sysselsättning och kunde med lite distans se denna oförutsedda händelse som ett tillfälle i livet att utifrån ett intresse finna en ny karriär.

    The purpose with the degree project was to investigate how forced turning points, in this case company closure, were experienced and what opportunities individuals could see concerning their continuous career choices. Method used was of qualitative kind with unstructured interview questions aimed to six respondents´ being in the same situation. Despite most of respondents´ feelings of chock and anger when information was recieved, the result proved one year later they experienced the situation as manageable and had started to structure in both thoughts and actions different possibilities and reachable alternatives. Conclusions made were in fact that the individual’s own motivation had made a big difference and decisions made were taken considering the context of their lives. Most of the respondents were active in seeking after new possibilities to occupation and were able to with some perspective see this unforeseen turning point as an opportunity in life to find a new career based on their interest.

  • 3168. Alm, Henrik
    et al.
    Scholz, Birger
    Kultima, Kim
    Nilsson, Anna
    Andren, Per E.
    Savitski, Mikhail M.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Stigson, Michael
    Fex-Svenningsen, Asa
    Dencker, Lennart
    In Vitro Neurotoxicity of PBDE-99: Immediate and Concentration-Dependent Effects on Protein Expression in Cerebral Cortex Cells2010In: Journal of Proteome Research, ISSN 1535-3893, E-ISSN 1535-3907, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 1226-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used flame retardants in various consumer products. Pre- and postnatal exposure to congeners of PBDEs disrupts normal brain development in rodents. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to analyze concentration-dependent differences in protein expression in cultured cortical cells isolated from rat fetuses (GD 21) after 24 h exposure to PBDE-99 (3, 10, or 30 mu M). Changes on a post-translational level were studied using a 1 h exposure to 30 mu M PBDE-99. The effects of 24 h exposure to 3 and 30 mu M PBDE-99 on mRNA levels were measured using oligonucleotide microarrays. A total of 62, 46, and 443 proteins were differentially expressed compared to controls after 24 h of exposure to 3, 10, and 30 mu M PDBE-99, respectively. Of these, 48, 43, and 238 proteins were successfully identified, respectively. We propose that the biological effects of low-concentration PBDE-99 exposure are fundamentally different than effects of high-concentration exposure. Low-dose PBDE-99 exposure induced marked effects on cytoskeletal proteins, which was not correlated to cytotoxicity or major morphological effects, suggesting that other more regulatory aspects of cytoskeletal functions may be affected. Interestingly, 0.3 and 3 mu M, but not 10 or 30 mu M increased the expression of phosphorylated (active) Gap43, perhaps reflecting effects on neurite extension processes.

  • 3169.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    University of Borås, , .
    Forsgren, Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Torbjörn, Johansson
    Umeå University, , .
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, , .
    X-services - eXtended avatar-services with integrated human – driven knowledge management – a new service galaxy2011In: eChallenges e-2011, Florens, Italy, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3170. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Janecek, Paul
    Forsgren, Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Co-design Research and Business Development: Case of Scandinavian Airlines (SAS)2014In: Systemic Practice and Action Research, ISSN 1094-429X, E-ISSN 1573-9295, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 465-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is presenting a case study of Scandinavian Airlines Systems (SAS) showing how improvements of service quality aspects with Avatars can be managed with a Co-design research approach. The Co-design practices are carried out in different fields of studies. Some of the key advocates of Co-design originate from business. In this study the four steps of Co-design approach is applied. From the first step of Co-design, through interviews, log analysis and a channel survey, findings show that the failed dialogues with Avatar Eva are mainly concerned with five factors: interactivity; dialogue capability; consistency; knowledge; and synonyms. In the second step, carrying out customer workshops, we suggested ten ideal scenarios for Avatar Eva to perform better. In the third step, SAS decision makers decided to implement the first three scenarios: Eva's synonyms; knowledge and Eva's consistency. In the fourth step, another channel survey was carried out as well as a new log analysis to know the impact of the redevelopment above three scenarios. An important result of the study was that the company adopted a continuous use of Co-design as an approach of continuous improvement of the service quality performed by the Avatar Eva. It also opens a new set of questions framing the relation and transformation between Co-design as a research approach for knowledge creation and Co-design as a method for innovation and service quality improvements. The study presents an Extended Co-design Model, which illustrates how the Co-design inspires staff to use it for other functions within and without the SAS.

  • 3171.
    Alm, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personlighetens inverkan på psykisk ohälsa vid nedläggning av arbetsplats2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den pågående globala finanskrisen har satt sina spår i svensk ekonomi. BNP sjunker och trots finanspolitiska åtgärder ser den närmaste framtiden mörk ut ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv. Nedläggningar av företag och uppsägningar har blivit en oundviklig konsekvens. En uppsägning kan ge psykiska effekter på individen och syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om en individs personlighet kan ha någon inverkan på psykisk ohälsa vid nedläggning av arbetsplats. Data insamlade på en fabrik (n=151) som tvingats till nedläggning användes. Multipel regressionsanalys visade att ett högt värde på egenskapen neuroticism ökade risken för psykisk ohälsa vid nedläggning. Resultatet visade också att personlighetsegenskapen samvetsgrannhet kan ha en positiv effekt för psykisk ohälsa vid nedläggning. Vad uppsägning i samband med nedläggning har för betydelse för resultatet i förhållande till annan uppsägning diskuteras. Diskussionen belyser även vikten av att arbetsgivare och samhället har vetskap om personlighetens inverkan på självskattad psykisk ohälsa.

  • 3172.
    Alm, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ege, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”Rent kaos och ren lycka”: – Några flickors beskrivningar av att ha genomgått behandling för självskadebeteende2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis was to take part of girl’s descriptions and experiences of their treatment for deliberate self-harm and to investigate whether they still experience effects of the treatment today. Our main research questions where; how do the girls describe their experiences of the treatment method, do the girls describe that they still experience any effects of the treatment, and finally how do the girls look back on their treatment today? In order to answer these questions, we carried out eight qualitative telephone interviews with girls that had undergone treatment in a specific treatment centre. We chose to analyze the material from the salutogenic theory and the concepts of SOC (sense of coherence) and with a hermeneutic approach. Our result showed that the treatment methods that where most important where dialectic behaviour therapy, horse therapy and finally environmental therapy. Several of the girls could see remaining effects of the treatment today, while other girls could not see any of these effects. A couple of the girls expressed that they should have been dead if they had not been taken care of by the treatment centre while other girls meant that the treatment did not make any difference.

  • 3173.
    Alm, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    A Universal A(infinity) Structure on BV Algebras with Multiple Zeta Value Coefficients2016In: International mathematics research notices, ISSN 1073-7928, E-ISSN 1687-0247, no 24, p. 7414-7470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct an explicit and universal A-infinity deformation of Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras, with all coefficients expressed as rational sums of multiple zeta values. If the Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra that we start with is cyclic, then so is the A-infinity deformation. Moreover, the adjoint action of the odd Poisson bracket acts by derivations of the A-infinity structure. The construction conjecturally defines a new presentation of the Grothendieck-Teichmuller Lie algebra.

  • 3174.
    Alm, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Universal algebraic structures on polyvector fields2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of operads is a conceptual framework that has become a kind of universal language, relating branches of topology and algebra. This thesis uses the operadic framework to study the derived algebraic properties of polyvector fields on manifolds.The thesis is divided into eight chapters. The first is an introduction to the thesis and the research field to which it belongs, while the second chapter surveys the basic mathematical results of the field.The third chapter is devoted to a novel construction of differential graded operads, generalizing an earlier construction due to Thomas Willwacher. The construction highlights and explains several categorical properties of differential graded algebras (of some kind) that come equipped with an action by a differential graded Lie algebra. In particular, the construction clarifies the deformation theory of such algebras and explains how such algebras can be twisted by Maurer-Cartan elements.The fourth chapter constructs an explicit strong homotopy deformation of polynomial polyvector fields on affine space, regarded as a two-colored noncommutative Gerstenhaber algebra. It also constructs an explicit strong homotopy quasi-isomorphism from this deformation to the canonical two-colored noncommmutative Gerstenhaber algebra of polydifferential operators on the affine space. This explicit construction generalizes Maxim Kontsevich's formality morphism.The main result of the fifth chapter is that the deformation of polyvector fields constructed in the fourth chapter is (generically) nontrivial and, in a sense, the unique such deformation. The proof is based on some cohomology computations involving Kontsevich's graph complex and related complexes. The chapter ends with an application of the results to properties of a derived version of the Duflo isomorphism.The sixth chapter develops a general mathematical framework for how and when an algebraic structure on the germs at the origin of a sheaf on Cartesian space can be "globalized" to a corresponding algebraic structure on the global sections over an arbitrary smooth manifold. The results are applied to the construction of the fourth chapter, and it is shown that the construction globalizes to polyvector fields and polydifferential operators on an arbitrary smooth manifold.The seventh chapter combines the relations to graph complexes, explained in chapter five, and the globalization theory of chapter six, to uncover a representation of the Grothendieck-Teichmüller group in terms of A-infinity morphisms between Poisson cohomology cochain complexes on a manifold.Chapter eight gives a simplified version of a construction of a family of Drinfel'd associators due to Carlo Rossi and Thomas Willwacher. Our simplified construction makes the connections to multiple zeta values more transparent--in particular, one obtains a fairly explicit family of evaluations on the algebra of formal multiple zeta values, and the chapter proves certain basic properties of this family of evaluations.

  • 3175.
    Alm, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Merkulov, Sergei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Grothendieck-Teichmuller group and Poisson cohomologies2015In: Journal of Noncommutative Geometry, ISSN 1661-6952, E-ISSN 1661-6960, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 185-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study actions of the Grothendieck-Teichmuller group GRT on Poisson cohomologies of Poisson manifolds, and prove some go and no-go theorems associated with these actions.

  • 3176.
    Alm, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Ekestubbe, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Stridh, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Affärsänglar: Har de förändrat sitt investeringsbeteende?2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning saknas.

  • 3177.
    Alm, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Ekestubbe, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Stridh, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Kassaflödesanalys : Varför orsakar den sådant huvudbry?2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning saknas.

  • 3178. Alm, Jonas
    et al.
    Lindskog, Filip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Valuation of Index-Linked Cash Flows in a Heath-Jarrow-Morton Framework2015In: Risks, ISSN 1670-0139, E-ISSN 2227-9091, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 338-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the valuation of stochastic cash flows that exhibit dependence on interest rates. We focus on insurance liability cash flows linked to an index, such as a consumer price index or wage index, where changes in the index value can be partially understood in terms of changes in the term structure of interest rates. Insurance liability cash flows that are not explicitly linked to an index may still be valued in our framework by interpreting index returns as so-called claims inflation, i.e., an increase in claims cost per sold insurance contract. We focus primarily on the case when a deep and liquid market for index-linked contracts is absent or when the market price data are unreliable. Firstly, we present an approach for assigning a monetary value to a stochastic cash flow that does not require full knowledge of the joint dynamics of the cash flow and the term structure of interest rates. Secondly, we investigate in detail model selection, estimation and validation in a Heath-Jarrow-Morton framework. Finally, we analyze the effects of model uncertainty on the valuation of the cash flows and how forecasts of cash flows and interest rates translate into model parameters and affect the valuation.

  • 3179.
    Alm, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Ahlström, Adam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lärorika barn leka bäst: Ideologiska dilemman i pedagogiska planeringar för fritidshemmet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka hur personal i fritidshemmet kategoriserar barn och hur pedagogisk styrning tillämpas i de pedagogiska planeringar som formuleras för fritidshemmets verksamhet. Med bakgrund i fritidshemmets unika position som tar avstamp i att skapa en meningsfull fritid för barn är det relevant att undersöka detta, i synnerhet då fritidshemmet genomgår stora förändringar. Denna studie har genomförts med utgångspunkt i de pedagogiska planeringar personal formulerar för fritidshemmets verksamhet. Utifrån ett diskursanalytiskt förhållningssätt belyser studien flera ideologiska dilemman som uppstår i materialet. Vidare beskrivs vilka olika val personalen i fritidshem gör när de ställs inför dessa ideologiska dilemman. Konsekvenserna av de val som personalen gör påverkar och formar den diskursiva porträtteringen av barnet och vad det ges för förutsättningar för att vara delaktigt i skapandet av sin egen meningsfulla fritid.

  • 3180.
    Alm, Kristofer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Edh, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Överavkastningens utveckling över tiden ur ett värderingsperspektiv. 1999Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet är att undersöka hur överavkastningen på investerat kapital, det vill säga skillnaden mellan avkastning på investerat kapital och kapitalkostnaden, utvecklas under en nio-årsperiod på den svenska aktiemarknaden. Undersyftet är vidare att studera huruvida kapitalintensitet och inträdesbarriärer kan förklara delar av variationen i överavkastningen.

  • 3181.
    Alm, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education, PRIM-gruppen.
    På upptäcktsfärd i elevernas  värld av tal2007In: Matematikdidaktiska texter – Beprövad erfarenhet och vetenskaplig grund / [ed] Lena Alm ..., Stockholm: PRIM-gruppen, Institutionen för undervisningsprocesser, kommunikation och lärande, Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm , 2007, p. 43-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3182.
    Alm, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att kunna läsa före skolstarten: En studie av några lärares uppfattningar av tidiga läsare i årskurs 12019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Early readers are defined as students that are able to read fluently before beginning year 1. In this study, I have investigated some teachers' perceptions of early readers and the teaching of early readers from a phenomenographic research approach. The empirical evidence of the study consists of six recorded and semi-structured interviews with primary school teachers from three public schools. All participants have been involved in teaching students that are early readers. The inductive and phenomenographic inspired analysis generated eight different categories based on the participants' perceptions of early readers, and the other four categories addressed the perceptions of the teaching of early readers. Early readers are in general perceived to be strong, alternatively to be affected by factors at home, to have a strong motivation, or to have gained input from the pre-school and pre-school classes. The perceptions about the teaching of early readers are either based on their specific needs and the need of challenges that should be provided by the teacher, or the inclusion of the early readers in groups, in order to increase the involvement in a group learning process. Other perceptions are that the early reader should learn based on the current possessed level of knowledge, or that the early reader can be a resource for other students. The result of this study can be related to previous research, suggesting that the development of reading can occur in several different ways and that the teacher's own knowledge, attitude, and willingness in meeting with early readers, is significant for the student's motivation and future reading development. The findings in this study suggest that teaching of early readers requires reflection and presence from the teachers, and reflections of what, how, and why the teaching is performed in a certain way, and how it can benefit early readers.  

  • 3183.
    Alm, Mathilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Kullberg, William
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    It's a Match!: En kvalitativ studie om attityder och behovstillfredsställelse utifrån användningen av mobilapplikationen Tinder.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning var att ta reda på vilka attityder kring mobilapplikationen Tinder det fanns hos tio unga människor samt om det uppkommit nya behov i och med denna nya teknik där man sveper mellan olika människor. För att få fram ett resultat utfördes tio kvalitativa intervjuer med människor i åldrarna 18-30. Teorierna som kompletterade det insamlande materialet var uses & gratifications teorin som bland annat belyser hur publiken använder medier och vad de får ut av användningen, samt Castells teori om nätverkssamhället där teknologin och dess utveckling spelar stor roll för hur vi använder oss av medier och kommunikation på distans. De kvalitativa intervjuade visade att användningen av applikationen inte var i nätdejtingssyfte. Respondenterna använde snarare applikationen för att bland annat tillfredsställa ett emotionellt behov där ett bekräftelsesökande visade sig vara större än viljan att kommunicera med människor. Även ett avkopplingsbehov existerade, där respondenterna använde applikationen i brist på något annat att göra. Många av Tinders funktioner förstärkte dessa behov, bland annat det utseendebaserade användningsområdet samt applikationens enkelhet i sig. 

  • 3184.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Dreams meeting reality? A gendered perspective on the relationship between occupational preferences in early adolescence and actual occupation in adulthood2015In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1077-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of longitudinal data from Sweden (n = 15,211), the article offers a gendered perspective on the relationship between occupational preferences during early adolescence and actual occupations in adulthood. Theoretically the study is based on socialisation theory and devaluation theory. The analyses show that preferences for one's future occupation were stronger among those who came to make gender-typical choices, than among those who chose a gender-atypical occupation. However, a gender difference was also found in that girls who came to choose a male dominated occupation showed a stronger preference for their future occupation in adolescence, than boys who came to choose a female dominated occupation. Results also showed that at a general level, the occupations in adulthood were even more gender segregated than the preferences in adolescence. This was particularly true for girls, who in adolescence expressed a stronger preference to work in a male dominated occupations, than they would later actually do.

  • 3185.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Drug abuse and life-chances—Do childhood conditions matter? Results from a Swedish life course study2017In: Advances in Life Course Research, ISSN 1569-4909, E-ISSN 1879-6974, Vol. 32, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that people whose childhoods are characterized by various types of resource deficiencies are at significantly higher risk than others of developing serious drug-abuse. Having confirmed the existence of this correlation in the study's data set, this study asked whether the different childhood conditions experienced by individuals with serious drug-abuse problems continue to affect their life chances once these problems have become established, or whether the drug abuse appears to produce such radically new life conditions that childhood conditions no longer play a significant role. Analyses were based on the Stockholm Birth Cohort study which includes data on a cohort of individuals (n = 15,117) from birth to middle age, and in addition to measurements of social and economic problems during childhood, the analysis also included a measurement of the family's socio-economic status and a measurement of the individual's own childhood resources in the form of school performance. Drug abuse was measured using an indicator of whether the individual had been admitted for inpatient treatment with a drug-related diagnosis at least once at ages 16–30 (n = 229). On basis of Cox and OLS regression models, the most important conclusion from the study was that heavy drug-abuse seems to involve such a fundamental change to individuals' life situation that variations in childhood conditions lose a substantial amount of their power to explain subsequent life course outcomes. However, the study did find a tendency for SES of family of origin to be related to mortality risk up to age 56, in that those from less privileged homes died to a somewhat higher extent. Individuals from more privileged homes did not manage to recover to a higher extent though, but tended to remain in heavy abuse. The study found no relationship between childhood conditions and recovery from heavy abuse.

  • 3186.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Isolating the effect of eviction on criminal convictions: Results from a Swedish study2018In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 263-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On an individual level, criminal offending is linked to resource deficiencies. Since evictions tend to affect society’s weakest groups, we would expect evicted individuals to be convicted of crime to a higher degree than others even before eviction. But is there also a direct effect of eviction on criminal convictions? The aim of this study was to isolate the effect of eviction on criminal convictions. Propensity score matching was used and the analyses included all individuals evicted in Sweden from 2009 to 2010 (n = 5050), and a 10% sample of the adult population (n = 770,000). After matching based on relevant background factors, the analyses showed a significant increase in criminal convictions from the year of eviction until the end of the period studied, two to three years later. The pattern was similar for men and women. Future research should investigate eviction in relation to different types of crime.

  • 3187.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jag ska bli professor jag, tralala. Ett genusperspektiv på vad 1960-talets unga ville bli och vad de senare blev2019In: Att odla kriminologi. Perspektiv på brott och utsatthet: En festskrift till Eva Tiby / [ed] Anita Heber, Lena Roxell, Kriminologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2019, p. 293-307Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3188.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Jag ska bli professor jag, tralala: Ett genusperspektiv på vad 1960-talets unga ville bli och vad de senare blev2019In: Att odla kriminologi: Perspektiv på brott och utsatthet. En festskrift till Eva Tiby / [ed] Anita Heber, Lena Roxell, Stockholm: Kriminologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2019, p. 293-307Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3189.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sibling configuration and the right to fail – parental and children’s own scholastic aspirations in different types of families2020In: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 154-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore the life circumstances of singletons and first-born children, and the importance of the size of the sibling group, by focusing on scholastic aspirations, both on part of the children themselves, but also of their parents. The study used data collected with around 3650 children and their parents, and apart from information on the children’s and their parents’ explicit aspirations, there was also information on the children’s estimation of their parents’ aspirations. While only small differences in parental explicit aspirations were found, substantial differences were found with respect to the children’s own aspirations and their estimations of those of their parents. Only children were more likely to estimate high scholastic aspirations on part of their parents, as were first-borns with siblings. First- also tended to express higher scholastic aspirations themselves. Theoretically, strategic parenting and role specialization were used to explain the results.

  • 3190.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The resurgence of mass unemployment: studies on social consequences of joblessness in Sweden in the 1990s2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 3191.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Ungas framtidstro2014In: Den långa vägen till arbetsmarknaden: om unga utanför / [ed] Jonas Olofsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 1, p. 297-309Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3192.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    What happened to the Swedish problem drug users of the 1960's and 1970's?2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 109-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS & DESIGN - In this study we follow a Stockholm birth cohort born in 1953 (n = 14 294) from youth to middle age. The cohort members were in their teenage years when drug abuse was established as a considerable threat to Swedish society and some of the cohort members themselves became drug abusers (n=431). RESULTS - As expected, life became dramatically worse for those with documented drug abuse when young, than for the rest of the cohort members. While 72 percent of those without documented drug abuse were socially included at the age of 56, the corresponding share among those with documented drug abuse was 18 per cent. And while 5 percent in the former group were diseased at 56, this was true for 38 percent in the latter group. Supplementary analyses showed that social inclusion was also less stable among those with documented drug abuse than among the rest of the cohort, and that the flow from exclusion to inclusion was virtually nonexistent, which was not the case for those without experience of drug abuse. CONCLUSIONS - Gender specific analyses showed that the situation, at least in absolute terms, tended to be even worse for male drug abusers than for women. Gender differences in alcohol abuse, criminality, and with respect to parenthood are suggested as possible explanations to be further studied in future research.

  • 3193.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Future orientation climate in the school class: Relations to adolescent delinquency, heavy alcohol use, and internalizing problem2016In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 70, p. 324-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known, based on previous research, that adolescents' thoughts and feelings about their future are related to the risk of delinquency, alcohol use as well as health. However, other well-known facts are that adolescents' actions are substantially shaped in interaction with peers and that, during adolescence, individuals spend a considerable amount of the day at school, in interaction with classmates. Despite this, there is an almost complete lack of studies exploring to what extent the school climate, as measured by thoughts and feelings about the future, can influence individual adolescents. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether the future orientation (FO) climate, measured at the school class level, is related to delinquency, alcohol use and internalizing problems at the individual level, among a sample of Swedish students 14–15 years of age. The data used come from the Swedish part of the Youth in Europe (YES!) study, which is part of the larger project Children of Immigrants - Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). In the present paper, we use data from the first wave, collected among 8th grade students in 2010/11 (n = 4119–4364). The method used was multilevel modeling (linear probability models (LPM) and linear regression analysis). The results showed that, in school classes where a high proportion of students had a positive future orientation, the risk of heavy alcohol use at the individual level was lower, also after adjusting for individual FO and for individual- and class-level socioeconomic conditions. A similar, but not statistically significant, tendency was found for delinquency. In addition, having a high proportion of students with a positive FO in a school class was associated with fewer internalizing problems, also after controlling for individual FO and socioeconomic conditions at the individual and school class level. We conclude that the surrounding school class, in terms of its general future orientation climate, may play a role for individual outcomes in the form of problem behaviors and mental health.

  • 3194.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The Gendered Mirror on the Wall: Satisfaction with Physical Appearance and Its Relationship to Global Self-esteem and Psychosomatic Complaints Among Adolescent Boys and Girls2018In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 525-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated gender differences in satisfaction with physical appearance as a domain-specific aspect of self-esteem, and its association with global self-esteem and psychosomatic complaints. The data used was from the Stockholm School Survey, conducted among ninth grade students (15–16 years), with pooled information from six cross-sectional surveys in 2004–2014 (n = 32,117). Girls reported lower satisfaction with their appearance than boys. Satisfaction with appearance was more strongly associated with global self-esteem among girls, while the association with psychosomatic complaints was similar for both genders. There was a tendency towards a decline in satisfaction with appearance at the end of the study period for both genders, albeit more strong for girls. We conclude that satisfaction with appearance may contribute to our understanding of poor mental well-being among adolescent girls.

  • 3195.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor Family Relationships in Adolescence and the Risk of Premature Death: Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor family relationships during childhood have been shown to have long-term negative effects on an offspring’s health. However, few studies have followed the offspring to retirement age, and relatedly, knowledge about the link between poor family relationships and premature death is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relationships in adolescence and the risk of premature death, even when considering other adverse childhood conditions. Prospective data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were used, with 2636 individuals born in 1953 who were followed up until age 65. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants’ mothers in 1968. Information on mortality was retrieved from administrative register data from 1969–2018. Cox proportional hazards regressions showed that poor family relationships in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of premature death, even when adjusting for childhood conditions in terms of household social class, household economic poverty, contact with the child services, parental alcohol abuse, and parental mental illness (Hazard Ratio (HR), 2.08, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.40–3.09). The findings show that poor family relationships in adolescence can have severe and long-lasting health consequences, highlighting the importance of early interventions.

  • 3196.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    School effectiveness and students' future orientation: A multilevel analysis of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 70, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Future orientation (FO) refers to individuals' beliefs and feelings about their future. Earlier research has primarily investigated correlates of FO at the individual and family level, but it seems likely that FO is also shaped by other central agents or institutions, such as the school. Earlier studies have found positive associations between “school effectiveness” and student performance, and negative associations in relation to e.g., bullying, delinquency, and health risk behaviors. The current study investigated three teacher-reported features of school effectiveness - school leadership, teacher cooperation and consensus, and school ethos - and their links with student-reported FO.

    Methods

    Survey data were collected in 2016 among 5131 students (aged 17–18 years) and 1061 teachers in 46 upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden, and merged with school-level register data. Two-level binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results

    The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of school leadership and school ethos were associated with a greater likelihood of reporting an optimistic FO among students. Teacher cooperation and consensus was however not associated with students' FO.

    Conclusion

    The findings indicate that the school environment contributes to shaping students' beliefs about their future. Thus, enhancing features of school effectiveness may be a way of promoting a positive development and brighter objective future prospects for the young, via pathways such as good student-teacher relations and academic motivation and achievement.

  • 3197. Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Framtidstro - spelar det roll var man bor?2011In: Utanförskap / [ed] Alm, Susanne, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, p. 211-242Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3198.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Openness to Gender Atypical Occupations in Youth: Do Peer Groups and School Classes Matter?2015In: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses aspects of gender composition and social dominance in peer groups and school classes and their effects on the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations in young adolescents. The data set used contains information for some 13,000 girls and boys living in Stockholm in the early 1960s. Results from multi-level regressions show that gender composition is significantly related to openness to gender-atypical occupations at peer-group level only. As the causal direction of this relationship can be questioned, the result should be interpreted with caution. Concerning aspects of dominance, quite substantive effects on individual openness to gender-atypical occupations are found for girls, albeit not for boys. Thus, for girls, the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of the most central girl in the school class significantly affects the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of individual girls in that school class.

  • 3199.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gavanas, Anna
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Perspektiv på utanförskap2011In: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas och Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, 1, p. 7-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3200.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Bäckman, OlofStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).Gavanas, AnnaInstitutet för framtidsstudier.Nilsson, AndersStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Utanförskap2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
61626364656667 3151 - 3200 of 109692
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