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  • 3151.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Poetic figurative-literal meaning reversals in puns2007In: The Stockholm 2007 Metaphor Festival, Sept. 20–21, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper metonymy and metaphor are described in relation to the notion of poetic meaning, the definitional feature shared by all types of figurative uses. Even if both these types of tropes will draw on encyclopaedic experiences, or pre- or extra-linguistic cognitive complexes, they are also formed in relation to established structures in a language system. In other words, their occurrence shows how intertwined linguistic knowledge and experientially based cognition will be. Moreover, it is arguable that at least “fully alive” metaphors will have a more noticeable poetic and figurative character than metonymic uses. The reason for this is that a metaphor brings together domains that are felt to be similar in some respect, although they are also clearly different. In this imaginative coalescence many features in the source are suppressed, and a kind of ‘fake’ superordinate category is created: the generalised target meaning. It spans both the ordinarily concrete source and some other phenomenon, often something more abstract. The poetic or figurative character of metonymies is by comparison more inconspicuous, presumably because they constitute descriptive or referential shortcuts in relation to just one meronymically structured domain or chain of contiguous domains.

  • 3152.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Polysemy: conventional and incidental cases2011In: Linguistics Applied, ISSN 1689-7765, Vol. 4, p. 11-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polysemy is a key question in the field of semantics. Empirical observations, analysis and description of polysemy are important for theoretical considerations and development as well as for applied linguistics, e.g. lexicography.

    Polysemy occurs when a lexical unit or a construction is used to represent different but also related meanings. Polysemous variation is either conventional and systematic or the result of merely incidental, contextually induced meaning shifts. A polyseme has one or more distinct and entrenched sense potentials, but they sometimes combine or fuse in actual language use. In addition, there are more general types of regular polysemy that are only pragmatically instantiated, as well as idiosyncratic and unpredictable meaning changes. By comparison, a monosemic element has only one conventional sense, while homonyms just happen to be formally identical although their meanings are not related.

    Important factors in polysemous variation are (i) the occurrence of different types of meaning, or language functions, (ii) differences in experiential domain connections, and (iii) differences in sense relations. The following types of polysemous variation have been recognised: collocational tailoring, domain shift, metaphor, metonymy, perspective shift, value reversal, irony, emotive colouring, interpersonal signal, and idiom breaking.  

  • 3153.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Semantics and pragmatics2008In: Linguistics Applied, ISSN 1689-7765, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Christina Alm-Arvius

    English Department,

    Stockholm University

    SE106 91 Stockholm

    Sweden

    Christina.Alm-Arvius@English.su.se

    http://www.english.su.se/

     

     

    Semantics and Pragmatics

     

    Abstract:

    Meanings in natural language use can be either systematic or incidental, but all the same it does not appear possible to identify a set of consistent and non-contradictory criteria for distinguishing two general contrasting meaning categories termed semantics and pragmatics respectively. Instead the most valid theoretical description seems to be to include any possible meanings of a language, or its use, in the qualitative notion of semantics, and, in addition, recognise the occurrence of incidental pragmatic meaning variations and additions. In other words, semantics is the wider or superordinate category, encompassing all and any language meanings, while pragmatics is a smaller, subordinate category, including only situationally induced or personally variable meaning aspects.

     

    Key words: deixis, implicatures, pragmatics, presuppositions, reference, semantics, semantics of understanding, speech acts, truth-conditional semantics

  • 3154.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The English Verb See: A Study in Multiple Meaning1993Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 3155.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The teaching of semantics in the Department of English2007Report (Other academic)
  • 3156.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The Word-Class Status of Worth1995In: Studies in Anglistics, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International , 1995Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3157.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Trolls2012In: Metaphor in Use: Context, culture, and communication / [ed] Fiona MacArthur, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, p. 309-327Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The persistent occurrence of the noun troll in Swedish indicates that it is a culturally entrenched notion in Sweden as well as in other Scandinavian countries. The aim of this chapter is to explore the use of troll in modern Swedish and to show how culturally-entrenched concepts, and the attitudes that are associated with them, are integrated in the language of a speech community as part of its heritage. The noun has a complex and variable sense potential, and both literal and metaphorical uses of the noun are attitudinally coloured, although these attitudes may be ambiguous and even contradictory. Using linguistic evidence gathered from dictionaries and Internet sources, this chapter describes and discusses the rich and partly antithetical set of attitudes expressed by the conventional and novel metaphorical expressions that draw on this Scandinavian mythological concept, and briefly compares Swedish uses of troll with those found in English, finding that even though the word is used also in this comparatively closely related language, it is devoid of the rich cultural associations of the donor term.

  • 3158.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Universal and Language-­‐specific Components of Cultural Metaphors2012In: RaAM 9 Conference: Metaphor in Mind and Society: Book of Abstracts, 2012, p. 43-44Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation examines two lexicalised compounds in Swedish with at least basically metaphorical senses connected with the Swedish Social Democratic vision and attempted practical construction of a modern egalitarian welfare state: folkhemmet: ‘’the people’s home’ and klassresa: ‘class journey’.

    We are going to consider the experiential and conceptual grounding of the compounds folkhemmet and klassresa i) within a specific, Swedish cultural and ideological discourse complex as well as in relation to ii) a set of presumably universal meaning dimensions or functions, and iii) some embodied, also presumably universal image schemas.

  • 3159.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Vad är det för mening med joyceanskan i Finnegan's Wake?2004In: Circularrundbrev, Vol. 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3160.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    We shall soon grow to know each other better: Know, a gradable verb2004In: An International Master of Syntax and Semantics: Gothenburg Studies in English 88, Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, Gothenburg , 2004, p. 21–30-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3161.
    Almas, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Sørensen, Erik Ø.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Willingness to Compete: Family Matters2016In: Management science, ISSN 0025-1909, E-ISSN 1526-5501, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 2149-2162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of family background in explaining differences in the willingness to compete in a cognitive task. By combining data from a lab experiment conducted with a fairly representative sample of adolescents in Norway and high-quality register data on family background, we show that family background is fundamental in two important ways. First, boys from low socioeconomic status families are less willing to compete than boys from better-off families, even when controlling for confidence, performance, risk preferences, time preferences, social preferences, and psychological traits. Second, family background is crucial for understanding the large gender difference in the willingness to compete. Girls are much less willing to compete than boys among children from better-off families, whereas we do not find any gender difference in willingness to compete among children from low socioeconomic status families. Our data suggest that the main explanation of the role of family background is that the father's socioeconomic status is strongly associated with boys' willingness to compete. We do not find any association between the willingness to compete for boys or girls and the mother's socioeconomic status or other family characteristic that may potentially shape competition preferences, including parental equality and sibling rivalry.

  • 3162. Almberg, Britt
    et al.
    Rönnerfält, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Söderberg, Maria
    Törnquist, Agneta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Mat för äldre - viktigt för alla: Ett Genombrottsprojekt i ett äldre-FoU:s regi2005Report (Other academic)
  • 3163.
    Almberg, Tilde
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gustafsson, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    På ungdomars uppdrag: En kvalitativ studie om kuratorers tankar om och erfarenheter av möten med ungdomar2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how counselors who work at youth clinics relate to the question of the integrity of adolescents who are under 18 years old in relation to the parents rights to information. The study was based on semi-structured interviews with eight counselors from youth clinics in the StockholmCounty. We have analyzed our empirical material by categorizing the statements from the counselors and by using two different theories. The first one is a consequential ethics theory and the second one is a cognitive theory. These two theories have helped us to understand the thoughts and actions of the counselors. The results show that the counselors try to protect the integrity of the adolescents and that they only consider breaking that trust if they are concerned about the young persons physical or mental health. Often it is only in these situations, when the counselor might have to report to the social services, that the parents are given right to receive information. This indicates that the counselors have a strong belief in letting the adolescents keep their integrity and this ethical dilemma is only present in situations where the counselor is concerned for the adolescent.

  • 3164.
    Almberg, Wah-Sui
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Modelling Epidemic Influenza: A Novel Approach2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling the dynamics of socio-biological complex systems is no trivial task. The dynamics of the spread of influenza in a population constitutes such a system. There are various tools for modelling influenza spread. These methods have shortcomings that one would like to resolve, for example, lack of insight into the patterns of geographic spreading or incongruence with observed epidemiological patterns of spread. We suggest that the epidemiological characteristics reflect an informational systemic structure at a fundamental level. ‘Information’ here refers to David Bohm’s conception of ‘active information’, a kind of information that is intrinsically part of nature, without the need of a ‘knower’ or observer of the information.

  • 3165.
    Almberg, Wah-Sui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Boman, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    An active agent portfolio management algorithm2005In: Artificial intelligence and computer science / [ed] Susan Shannon, Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2005, p. 127-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3166.
    Almberg, Wah-Sui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Boman, Magnus
    An Ontological Quantum Mechanics Model of Influenza2010In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, no 82, p. 42-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal flu has prevailed in the temperate zones for 400 years without adequate scientific explanation. We suggest a novel approach to modelling influenza building on the ideas and theories of David Bohm.

  • 3167.
    Almberg, Wah-Sui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kjellin, Harald
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Reusing examples of general patterns for indexing and communicating knowledge2010In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference ICT, Society and Human Beings 2010: part of the IADIS MULTI CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS 2010 / [ed] Gunilla Bradley, IADIS Press , 2010, p. 115-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analogies can be used in most areas of human communication to highlight points of special interest. The creation of specific, specialised patterns, examples, or analogies for facilitating communication is resource consuming. We therefore hypothesize that there are universal patterns that can be used and reused more economically, compared to specialised patterns, for indexing and communicating knowledge. We have conducted empirical tests with altogether 204 students that each one was given 20 minutes to solve problems from six different scientific areas. The results of our tests show clearly an improvement of their problem solving skill when universal patterns were employed as cognitive aids. The average result of the test group that used universal patterns was 81 per cent higher than that of the control group.

  • 3168.
    Almberg, Wah-Sui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kjellin, Harald
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Reusing Patterns for Indexing and Communicating Knowledge and Insight2011In: International Journal of Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analogies can be used in most areas of human communication to highlight points of special interest. The creation of specific, specialised patterns, examples, or analogies for facilitating communication is resource-consuming. We therefore hypothesize that there are universal patterns that can be used and reused more economically, compared to specialised patterns, for indexing and communicating knowledge. We have conducted empirical tests with altogether 204 students, each one of whom was given 20 minutes to solve problems from six different scientific areas. The results of our tests show clearly an improvement of their problem solving skill when universal patterns were employed as cognitive aids. The average result of the test group that used universal patterns was 81 per cent higher than that of the control group.

  • 3169.
    Almberg, Wah-Sui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Kommunikation och kognition.
    Kjellin, Harald
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Kommunikation och kognition.
    Re-using Universal Patterns for Indexing and Communicating Knowledge2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Analogies can be used in most areas of human communication to highlight points of special interest. The creation of specialised patterns, examples, or analogies for facilitating communication is resource consuming. Therefore, we hypothesize that there are universal patterns that can be used and re-used more economically, than a large set of specialized patterns, for indexing and communicating knowledge. We have conducted empirical tests with 204 students, each of whom was given 20 minutes to solve problems from different scientific areas. The results of our investigation show clearly an improvement of the students’ problem solving skill in the tested areas when universal patterns were employed as cognitive aids. The average score of the test group that used universal patterns was 81 % higher than that of the control group.

  • 3170.
    Almblad, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Hellquist, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Koncernen VAG: En strukturerad varumärkesportfölj eller ett kannibalistiskt varumärkeskrig?2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varumärken är värdefulla tillgångar för företag men de är samtidigt kostnadskrävande. I sina ambitioner att växa och skapa dominans på marknaden har många företag expanderat genom bland annat fusioner och förvärv. Detta innebär att antalet aktörer på marknaden har minskat medan antalet varumärken består. De enskilda företagens varumärkesportföljer blir alltså större, vilket kan vara både positivt och negativt.

  • 3171.
    Almblad, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Hellquist, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Morningstars rating: En studie om historisk avkastning kan användas som prognosinstrument för framtida avkastning2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att undersöka vilken avkastning som följer ett fastställt betyg från Morningstars ratingsystem, och om det finns en relation mellan ett fastställt betyg och efterföljande avkastning. Kärnhypotesen i undersökningen har alltså varit om ett högt betyg på en fond också resulterar i en högre avkastning i förhållande till en fond med ett lägre betyg. Då Morningstar hävdar att deras ratingsystem kan vara till god hjälp för att hitta duktiga fondförvaltare letade vi även efter samband som skulle kunna verifiera detta uttalande. I undersökningen ingick 123 fonder från tre olika riskkategorier, från låg till hög risk. Undersökningsintervallet var 46 månader med start från januari 2002. För att granska vilken av betygskategorierna som genererat högst avkastning undersöktes hur ett kapital växer om en återinvestering sker varje månad inom en viss betygskategori. Även investering med 12-månaders tidshorisont undersöktes. Vidare räknades standardavvikelse och informationskvot ut. För att testa informationskvoten gjordes även ett t-test. Det vi fann efter dessa tester var att en investerare inte bör hysa tilltro för Morningstars ratingsystem. I lågriskkategorin var de fonder med högst betyg även de som genererat högst avkastning. Skillnaden i avkastning var dock marginell och kan förklaras av de olika fondernas avgifter. I mellanriskkategorin hade fonderna med högst betyg presterat sämre än fonderna med lägst betyg. Dock skulle ratingsystemet här kunnat hjälpa till att hitta en fondförvaltare som levererar jämn avkastning, d.v.s. låg risk, men detta på bekostnad av hög avkastning. I högriskkategorin har ratingsystemet i viss mån lyckats pricka in vinnarna, dock har fonder med lägsta betyget under vissa delar av undersökningsperioden genererat högre avkastning än de fonder med högsta betyg vilket påverkat ratingsystemets tillförlitlighet negativt.

  • 3172. Almborg, Ann-Helene
    et al.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Use of the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) in social services for elderly in Sweden2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 34, no 11, p. 959-964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT To examine the content of health information in acts of social services of elderly people in relation to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and to describe the health information in the different parts of the acts according to the ICF. Health information of 25 acts from four municipalities was analysed and the concepts were linked to ICF codes, using the established coding rules. The health information consisted of 372 concepts, which were linked to 122 specific ICF codes. The concepts in the acts were mostly linked to the ICF component Activities and Participation, except for the current functioning concepts where the ICF component Body functions was the most frequent. The 3rd level was most frequent in Activities and Participation and in Environmental factors, and the 2nd level was most frequent in Body functions. The ICF covers the concepts and terms contained in the acts to a large extent. Furthermore, the results show that the ICF codes differ in the different parts of the acts. The ICF provides a coherent and structured documentation, which contributes to a legally secure assessment of assistance. The selection of ICF codes can be used in development of "code sets" for social services for elderly.

  • 3173.
    Almbro, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Escape flight in butterflies2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flight is considered to be the overarching reason for the enormous diversity and world-wide abundance of insects. Not only does flight enable great distances to be covered and new areas to be colonised, flying has also evolved to be important in most adult life-history characteristics from reproduction to anti-predator strategies. However, despite its advantages, the costs of flight are high, particularly with regard to building a flight apparatus and staying in the air. Winged insects are popular prey for various predators from which they rely on flight to escape. However, because of their nutrient poor adult diet, butterflies are especially sensitive to the trade-off between flight and reproduction. Theory therefore predicts costs of physiological changes such as weight gain to be visible through altered aerial performance. Whereas insect flight has been extensively studied with regard to biomechanics, aerodynamics, dispersal and force production, little effort has been made to empirically study the relationship between escape strategies and weight loading, despite its value for survival and fitness. In this thesis a novel three-dimensional flight-recording set-up was used to study free flight ability in relation to natural weight loads in male and female Aglais urticae and Pieris napi butterflies. Weight loads consisted of ingested food, mate-carrying and reproductive mass, affecting wing loading and flight muscle ratio, key determinants of flight ability. Moreover, butterfly escape strategies were investigated through the use of model predators. The results showed that perceived predation risk affected butterfly flight behaviour, with greater speed being observed in attacked butterflies. Decreased flight muscle ratio after feeding resulted in slower escape flights in A. urticae, and impaired flight during mate-carrying in P. napi. Increased wing loading during reproduction in P. napi negatively affected male flight speed and female take-off angles. In summary, this thesis demonstrates that flight effort is context dependant and shows a trade-off between flight ability and longevity- and fitness related weight gain that may ultimately affect survival, mating success and energy expenditure.

  • 3174.
    Almbro, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Impaired escape flight ability in butterflies due to low flight muscle ratio prior to hibernation2008In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 211, no 1, p. 24-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3175.
    Almbro, Maria
    et al.
    Centre for Evolutionary Biology, University of Western Australia.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Season, sex and flight muscle investment affect take-off performance in the hibernating small tortoiseshell butterfly Agalis urticae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)2011In: The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, ISSN 0022-4324, Vol. 44, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flight ability is generally expected to increase with relative flight muscle mass. Changes in weight can therefore be expected to influence the capacity to rapidly take-off, which can determine mating success and predator avoidance. This study examined the influence of relative flight muscle mass, sex, and season on free take-off flight ability in a butterfly model (Aglais urticae) that undergoes adult winter hibernation. Mass change and take-off flight ability (velocity and take-off angle), was predicted to fluctuate with season (before, during and after hibernation) and sex (due to reproductive investment). Our results indeed showed changes in take-off ability in relation to both parameters. Females maintained velocity across seasons but reduced take-off angles during and after hibernation. Male flight speed increased during and after hibernation, whereas take-off angles were significantly reduced during hibernation. Finally, we showed that investment in relative flight muscle mass increased velocity in female, but not in male butterflies.

  • 3176.
    Almbro, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Ethology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Ethology. Stockholm University.
    The downfall of mating: the effect of mate-carrying and flight muscle ratio on the escape ability of a pierid butterfly2009In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 413-420Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3177.
    Almbro, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Weight Loading and Reproductive Status Affect the Flight Performance of Pieris napi Butterflies2012In: Journal of insect behavior, ISSN 0892-7553, E-ISSN 1572-8889, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 441-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weight-induced mobility reductions can have dramatic fitness consequences and winged animals are especially sensitive to the trade-off between mass and locomotion. Data on how natural weight fluctuations influence a flying insect's ability to take off are scarce. We therefore quantified take-off flight ability in Pieris napi butterflies in relation to reproductive status. Take-off flight ability (velocity and take-off angle) under suboptimal temperature conditions was recorded with a 3D-tracking camera system and was predicted to decrease with relatively larger weight loads. Our results show that relatively larger weight loads generally reduce flight speed in male butterflies and lower take-off angles in females. However, despite having a lower wing loading, mated male butterflies flew slower than unmated males. Our study suggests that retention of weight loads associated with reproduction impairs insect flight performance.

  • 3178.
    Almeblad, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Hellberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Ryberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Armlängdsprincipen: Tillämplighet vid gränsöverskridande inkomstöverföringar2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att analysera den s.k. armlängdsprincipens tillämplighet på olika former av gränsöverskridande inkomstöverföringar. Vidare analyseras vilka metoder som används när marknadspris bestäms, eftersom detta är av vikt för korrigering enligt den svenska armlängdsregeln. Dessutom kommer begreppet ekonomisk intressegemenskap att analyseras. I detta avseende är frågan om bestämmelsen är förutsebar och vilken inverkan detta får på rättssäkerheten om bestämmelsen inte tydligt anger hur stort ägande eller hur stor kontroll som krävs. Armlängdsprincipen är genom sin utformning tillämpbar på många former av inkomst-överföringar. Uppsatsen leder till ett flertal slutsatser i fråga om varje transaktion som analyserats. Uppsatsen utmynnar i slutsatsen att svenska domstolars generösa helhetsbedömning i de fall där Skattemyndigheten anser att ett företags resultat påverkats negativt av en transaktion som omfattas av armlängdsregeln, gör att den svenska armlängdsregeln inte får så stor genomslagskraft i praktiken, även om armlängdsregelns tillämpningsområde är relativt omfattande.

  • 3179. Almeida, Joao
    et al.
    Schobesberger, Siegfried
    Kuerten, Andreas
    Ortega, Ismael K.
    Kupiainen-Maatta, Oona
    Praplan, Arnaud P.
    Adamov, Alexey
    Amorim, Antonio
    Bianchi, Federico
    Breitenlechner, Martin
    David, Andre
    Dommen, Josef
    Donahue, Neil M.
    Downard, Andrew
    Dunne, Eimear
    Duplissy, Jonathan
    Ehrhart, Sebastian
    Flagan, Richard C.
    Franchin, Alessandro
    Guida, Roberto
    Hakala, Jani
    Hansel, Armin
    Heinritzi, Martin
    Henschel, Henning
    Jokinen, Tuija
    Junninen, Heikki
    Kajos, Maija
    Kangasluoma, Juha
    Keskinen, Helmi
    Kupc, Agnieszka
    Kurten, Theo
    Kvashin, Alexander N.
    Laaksonen, Ari
    Lehtipalo, Katrianne
    Leiminger, Markus
    Leppa, Johannes
    Loukonen, Ville
    Makhmutov, Vladimir
    Mathot, Serge
    McGrath, Matthew J.
    Nieminen, Tuomo
    Olenius, Tinja
    Onnela, Antti
    Petaja, Tuukka
    Riccobono, Francesco
    Riipinen, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rissanen, Matti
    Rondo, Linda
    Ruuskanen, Taina
    Santos, Filipe D.
    Sarnela, Nina
    Schallhart, Simon
    Schnitzhofer, Ralf
    Seinfeld, John H.
    Simon, Mario
    Sipila, Mikko
    Stozhkov, Yuri
    Stratmann, Frank
    Tome, Antonio
    Troestl, Jasmin
    Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios
    Vaattovaara, Petri
    Viisanen, Yrjo
    Virtanen, Annele
    Vrtala, Aron
    Wagner, Paul E.
    Weingartner, Ernest
    Wex, Heike
    Williamson, Christina
    Wimmer, Daniela
    Ye, Penglin
    Yli-Juuti, Taina
    Carslaw, Kenneth S.
    Kulmala, Markku
    Curtius, Joachim
    Baltensperger, Urs
    Worsnop, Douglas R.
    Vehkamaki, Hanna
    Kirkby, Jasper
    Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid-amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere2013In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 502, no 7471, p. 359-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleation of aerosol particles from trace atmospheric vapours is thought to provide up to half of global cloud condensation nuclei(1). Aerosols can cause a net cooling of climate by scattering sunlight and by leading to smaller but more numerous cloud droplets, which makes clouds brighter and extends their lifetimes(2). Atmospheric aerosols derived from human activities are thought to have compensated for a large fraction of the warming caused by greenhouse gases(2). However, despite its importance for climate, atmospheric nucleation is poorly understood. Recently, it has been shown that sulphuric acid and ammonia cannot explain particle formation rates observed in the lower atmosphere(3). It is thought that amines may enhance nucleation(4-16), but until now there has been no direct evidence for amine ternary nucleation under atmospheric conditions. Here we use the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN and find that dimethylamine above three parts per trillion by volume can enhance particle formation rates more than 1,000-fold compared with ammonia, sufficient to account for the particle formation rates observed in the atmosphere. Molecular analysis of the clusters reveals that the faster nucleation is explained by a base-stabilization mechanism involving acid-amine pairs, which strongly decrease evaporation. The ion-induced contribution is generally small, reflecting the high stability of sulphuric acid-dimethylamine clusters and indicating that galactic cosmic rays exert only a small influence on their formation, except at low overall formation rates. Our experimental measurements are well reproduced by a dynamical model based on quantum chemical calculations of binding energies of molecular clusters, without any fitted parameters. These results show that, in regions of the atmosphere near amine sources, both amines and sulphur dioxide should be considered when assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on particle formation.

  • 3180.
    Almeling, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Lundmark, Marika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Kampen om hyllmetrarna : En studie om inköps- och försäljningsprocessen och Efficient Consumer Response i dagligvaruhandeln2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar främst hur leverantörsprodukter kommer in i dagligvaruhandeln. Då Efficient Consumer Response har fått fäste i Sverige har vi dessutom ansett det intressant att se vilken påverkan ECR har haft på inköps-/försäljningsprocessen.

  • 3181. Almenberg, Johan
    et al.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Exponential growth bias and financial literacy2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 17, p. 1693-1696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tendency to underestimate the future value of a variable growing at a constant rate, an example of exponential growth bias, has been linked to household financial decision-making. We show that exponential growth bias and standard measures of financial literacy are negatively correlated in a representative sample of Swedish adults. Since financial literacy is linked to household decision-making, our results indicate that examining the relationship between exponential growth bias and household finance without adequate controls for financial literacy may generate biased results.

  • 3182.
    Almenberg, Johan
    et al.
    Ministry of Finance, Sweden.
    Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Sweden2011In: Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, ISSN 1474-7472, E-ISSN 1475-3022, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 585-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use data from the Swedish Financial Supervisory 2010 consumer survey to look at levels of financial literacy and retirement planning in the Swedish population. The results indicate that many adults have low financial literacy. In general, financial literacy levels are lower among the young, the old, women and those with low income or low educational attainment. People who report having tried to plan for retirement have higher levels of financial literacy. In particular, an understanding of risk diversification is strongly correlated with planning for retirement. We relate our findings to features of the Swedish pension system. 

  • 3183.
    Almer, Bertil
    Stockholm College.
    Sur quelques problèmes de la théorie des fonctions analytiques de deux variables complexes1922Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 3184.
    Almer, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Literature and History of Ideas, History of Literature.
    Feberliv och kvinnosyn: Emil Kléen kontra moderniteten2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkt för min uppsats är den bild av Emil Kléen som förmedlas i Hjalmar Söderbergs Martin Bircks ungdom.

    I min C-uppsats undersökte jag i vilken utsträckning Emil Kléens tryckta dikter kan kallas dekadenta, och intresset vaknade därmed för hur Kléens ”riktiga” dikter ser ut. De som ”icke kunna tryckas”. Lasse Söderberg publicerade 1980 en av Kléens otryckta sonetter i Tärningskastet, som är långt mer dekadent i sin framtoning än någon av Kléens tryckta verk. Dikten andas Baudelaire och fin-de-siécle på en nivå som i tryckt skick skulle varit otänkbart i den svenska borgerliga miljön på 1890-talet. Söderbergs porträtt av Kléen ger oss dessutom följande bild av hans tryckta alster: ” […] han skrev med en fabelaktig lätthet de allra vackraste vers om vad som helst, mest om flickor och blommor och om juninätterna på den skånska slätten, som han kom ifrån. 

    I Kléens alster möts Baudelaire och de ”dekadenta” poeterna i hans efterföljd och ”nittiotalismen”, hembygdsromantiken, i Sverige på ett unikt sätt. Prosadikter är ett eget kapitel i en modernitetsdiskussion, vilket Lars Nylander undersöker i sin doktorsavhandling Prosadikt och modernitet. Prosadikt som gränsföreteelse i europeisk litteratur, med särskild inriktning på Skandinavien 1880-1910. Det förekommer prosadikter ibland annat Kléens Vildvin och vallmo från 1895 som har klara drag av det modernas inträngande i samtidens mentalitet, Nietzsche och ”öfvermänniskan” och en dekadent betraktelse av Venus Vulgivaga och krossandet av en geting under skaldens fot kan nämnas.

    I Mogen sommar, Kléens enda novellsamling, tas problemet med fri kärlek mellan borgerlighet och arbetarklass upp. En annan novell behandlar ”Tattarblodet”. Det intressanta är att med hjälp av eventuella kontrasterande tryckta och otryckta verk undersöka spänningen mellan modernitet – borgerlighet – bygderomantik i en turbulent tid i Sverige. Tiden precis innan sekelskiftet 1900. Hur ser bilden av den dekadente poeten ut i denna samtid kontra den hembygdsälskande nationalskalden? Att utveckla dessa frågeställningar i en diskussion kring mötet mellan den urbana, moderna kontinentens estetik och ett mer hembygdsromantiskt Sverige, med Kléen som indikator. Hur problematiseras denna fusion hos en poet som Kléen, som var en av de första att mottaga influenser av Baudelaire och den franska ”dekadensen” i Sverige? Dessutom en man som mötte och hade täta kontakter med både Strindberg, Söderberg och de unga gubbarne i Lund och vars liv brukar samställas med hans dekadenta ideal, och hans diktargärning som perifer hembygdspoesi.

  • 3185.
    Almer, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Literature and History of Ideas, History of Literature.
    ”Sfinxens gåta”: Emil Kléen och dekadensens dualism2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den bild av Emil Kléen som övervägande presenteras i allehanda litteraturöversikter och artiklar är en ung legend, som inte blivit legendarisk av sin egen skaparkraft, utan mestadels på grund av att han figurerar i Strindbergs, Söderbergs och andra mer eller mindre kända sekelskiftesförfattares litterära verk. Bilden som förmedlas i dessa verk är den dekadente Baudelaire-efterliknaren (inspirerad även av Verlaine och Rimbaud), som dock inte själv lyckas med att skapa lyrik som skiljer sig från den rådande nittitalismen. Starkt metriskt bundna verser (t.ex. sonetter) med blommor och prålig landskapsanknytning är det som i forskningen mestadels nämns om Kléens egna skapelser. Detta trots att inte många av hans dikter är analyserade till innehållet i de artiklar som jag läst. Att de är strikt metriskt bundna stämmer dock.

    Lasse Söderberg nämner, utan att precisera sig nämnvärt, att innehållet i Kléens diktning, och ”de sidorna som vetter mot Baudelaire, Verlaine och dekadenterna” är det intressanta. Christina Sjöblad pekar på Baudelaireinspirerade exempel i Kléens poesi och Folke Isaksson sticker ut ur mängden med sina påståenden om de dekadenta och livsnihilistiska dragen i Kléens dikter, dock utan fördjupning. Det är här jag vill börja formulera en frågeställning. Går det att finna ”dekadenta” inslag i Kléens lyrik, och i så fall var, och hur? Dessutom måste självfallet begreppet ”dekadent” definieras, och anknytas till den tidens fin-de-siècle-mentalitet.

    Kléen var enligt samstämmiga källor privat en dekadent rumlare i Lund som tillsammans med Lidforss och Böök ägnade otaliga pubkvällar åt Absint och filosofi. En outgiven sonett (bifogas på blad 2) av Kléen är ett mycket bra tecken på att det borde finnas mer att finna i hans publicerade lyrik när det gäller den innehållsliga särart som möjligen skiljer honom från nittitalismen, trots den strikta formen som dikterna har. Dessutom har inga djupgående tematiska analyser av dikterna gjorts så vitt jag kunnat utröna. Detta är skissartat det jag vill problematisera i min uppsats.

  • 3186.
    Almer, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science.
    Studies on formation and stability of phosphorothioate RNA1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 3187. Almered Olsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Hermele, Kenneth
    Hornborg, Alf
    Widgren, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Konventionella jordbruket är ett blindspår2014In: Göteborgsposten, ISSN 1103-9345, no 21 novemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3188.
    Almerfors, Jacqueline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    El ascenso de la soja en Paraguay: Un estudio de la demanda mundial por la soja2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    La producción de soja ha crecido significativamente durante un periodo de 6 años en Paraguay llegado a una cosecha record de 6,2 millones de toneladas en 2007. Este aumento se debe a factores globales como la demanda creciente por la soja para la Unión Europea que va destinada a la producción del biocombustible. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido investigar cual fue la causa que conllevo al aumento de la producción de soja en Paraguay. Con la ayuda de principalmente dos publicaciones, Republicas Unidas de la Soja que es una compilación de ensayos sobre las consecuencias sociales, económicas y ecológicas de la expansión de los monocultivos de soja en Latinoamérica y Refugiados del Modelo Agroexportador que es una publicación de los resultados de una investigación en las comunidades sojeras del Paraguay. Llegamos a la conclusión de que si existe una coherencia entre la demanda mundial por el biocombustible y el aumento de producción de soja.

  • 3189.
    Almerfors, Jacqueline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    La lengua materna y el material pedagógico en un contexto bilingüe: Un análisis de las actitudes de los escolares y profesores ante el idioma materno, la cultura latina y los libros pedagógicos que se utilizan en la enseñanza de la lengua materna en Suecia2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El propósito de esta investigación es estudiar las actitudes de los escolares y los profesores ante el idioma materno y los libros didácticos que se utilizan en la enseñanza de la lengua materna. En las clases de español se observa que los grupos de alumnos son diversos y heterogéneos en edad y conocimientos del idioma, lo que, probablemente, produce dificultades didácticas y perjudica el aprendizaje del alumno. Además, se supone que el material didáctico utilizado en la enseñanza no es apto para los escolares hispanos inmigrantes en Suecia y se piensa que esto afecta negativamente el interés por la lectura de los alumnos. Los profesores de este estudio plantean la necesidad de un material que pueda apoyar de manera más efectiva el desarrollo lingüístico del escolar inmigrado en Suecia. Para llevar a cabo este estudio se ha realizado una investigación con cuestionarios que han sido repartidos a un grupo de profesores y estudiantes de diferentes escuelas en Estocolmo. Los resultados muestran actitudes positivas ante la lengua materna y negativas ante los libros pedagógicos que se utilizan en la enseñanza, primeramente por parte de los profesores.

  • 3190.
    Almerud, Eva-Kersti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German, Slavic Languages.
    Gränsöverskridande i Olga Tokarczuks roman Styr din plog över de dödas ben2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My aim with this essay was to write about bordercrossing and border changing in Olga Tokarczuk’s literary work with the main focus on her novel Drive Your Plow over the Bones of the Dead. While writing I came to the conclusion that there are very many different sorts of border changing in the novel, for example borders between countries, borders between fiction and reality, indistinct borders, borders between identities and borders in time and space. However, one distinct bordercrossing, that I had not anticipated, emerged very clearly: the border changing when it comes to genre. Drive Your Plow over the Bones of the Dead characterizes as a detective story, but the more you read the novel, the more you realize, that other themes might be more important than the puzzle. This book holds above all eco fiction and posthumanism. By crossing different borders Olga Tokarczuk has transformed an illusory detective story to a nuanced novel about human life on various levels and in different spaces, about human view on animals and about hunters’ disrespect for animals.

  • 3191.
    Almerud, Eva-Kersti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures.
    Ota Pavels sagovärld: Biografiska, narratologiska och språkliga perspektiv på Ota Pavels författarskap2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The present dissertation analyzes the role of the fairy tale in the literary works of the Czech author Ota Pavel. Ota Pavel (1930–1973) started as a sports reporter and later became a popular and esteemed writer of fiction, mainly short stories. His works have been translated to many languages, among them Swedish.

    The study consists of a biographical reading of Ota Pavel’s texts and a discussion of the function of the fairy tale in his stories. My analysis of his literary development and use of various prose elements is based on narratological theories of the fairy tale – Karel Čapek’s motifs and fairytale characters, Gérard Genette’s paratexts and Vladimir Propp’s functions and dramatis personae – and includes remarks on the function of diminutives, etc. Ota Pavel is also viewed in the context of the literary landscape of his time – the 1960s and 1970s – and the reception of his work is discussed.

    Pavel’s stories contain a number of characteristic features which together form his unique style: direct allusions and references to fairy tales--for example, fairies and witches – and the linguistic markers and distinctive use of the narrator’s voice.

    One of the most common characters in Ota Pavel’s work is the hero, who, often with the assistance of magical objects or supernatural helpers, defeats supernatural antagonists or solves impossible tasks. Developing and growing as he – the hero is usually male–strives toward his goal, Pavel’s protagonist struggles not with dragons and giants, but with himself and his own difficulties and misfortunes.

    Earlier research refers to Ota Pavel’s two “genres”: sports prose and retrospective, or “memory” prose. This study shows that the boundary between the two is fluid, and that all Pavel’s work might be called memory prose. The title of this thesis – Ota Pavels sagovärld (The Fairytale World of Ota Pavel) – indicates the perspective from which the subject is approached. On the one hand, it alludes to the influence of the fairy tale on Pavel’s work, while on the other it points to the fact that his own life was such that he sometimes needed to retreat into a fantasy world of his own.

    Keywords: Tjeckisk litteratur, saga, Ota Pavel, narratologi, Tjeckoslovakien

  • 3192.
    Almerud, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the empirical relevance of cointegration between stock market returns and labor income on optimal portfolio choiceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I investigate the empirical relevance of cointegration between labor income and (cumulative) equity returns on the optimal choice between equity and risk-free bonds for finitely lived households facing an exogenously given economic environment. Benzoni et al. (2007) showed that such cointegration implies that households should save only in risk-free bonds when young, and increase the share of equity in the portfolio as they grow older. Since this result is a reversal of conventional wisdom, I investigate if the empirical cointegration relationship is strong enough to be relevant when households make investment decisions. Using an economic environment estimated on US data between 1929-2016, I find that cointegration exists, but that it is not strong enough to result in an increasing equity share with age.

  • 3193.
    Almerud, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Optimal public policy in a multi-sector model with asymmetric shocksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an economy with sticky prices and multiple large sectors that face asymmetric shocks, it is not possible to reach the first-best outcome with only monetary policy as a tool. However, with the introduction of state-dependent fiscal policy, the first best can be achieved. I show that in such an economy, the central bank should aim for zero aggregate inflation, while the fiscal authority changes taxes and wage subsidies to change effective relative prices between the sectors. Furthermore I show that if the fiscal authority has an implementation lag of one period when conducting fiscal policy, so that it decides the policy for t+1 in period t, it is no longer possible to reach to first-best solution. It is however still beneficial to conduct fiscal policy.

  • 3194.
    Almerud, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Public Policy, Household Finance and the Macroeconomy2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis contains four separate essays, spanning questions of the interaction between public policy, household finance and the macroeconomy. How does public policy affect macroeconomic outcomes, and the choices and welfare of households, and what are households’ optimal financial responses to changes in macroeconomic environments? Furthermore, the thesis includes a development of a method, which is helpful to answer questions like the ones stated above. 

    The first essay, Optimal Public Policy in a Multi-Sector Economy with Asymmetric Shocks, shows how fiscal policy can complement monetary policy. It is shown that fiscal policy can be used to improve macroeconomic outcomes and make the economy more efficient. Since fiscal policy, in general, includes more instruments than monetary policy, it is possible to neutralize several frictions in the economy simultaneously. This is shown in a general equilibrium model with dynastic households, where firms face monopolistic competition, sticky prices, productivity shocks and cost-push shocks. 

    The second essay, On the Design of Mortgage Default Legislation, asks how different types of mortgage contracts interact with different types of mortgage default policies regarding the probability of a default on home-owner’s mortgage. The different types of mortgage contracts analyzed are fixed rate annuity mortgages, adjustable rate amortized mortgages and adjustable rate non-amortized mortgages. The mortgage default policies span from non-recourse (where the mortgage lender takes all the default risk) to full recourse (where the borrower takes all the default risk). It is shown that a “borrower friendly” non-recourse policy is, as the one implemented in many parts of the United States, not necessarily borrower friendly due to its effect on the risk premium. This is investigated in a model with finitely lived households and an endogenous risk premium. 

    The third essay, On The Empirical Relevance of Cointegration Between Stock Market Returns and Labor Income on Optimal Portfolio Choice, investigates how finitely lived households optimally choose a portfolio consisting of risk-free bonds and risky equity, and how this choice is affected by the long-run correlation between risky (cumulative) equity returns and stochastic labor income. More specifically, I investigate if the empirical cointegration (long-run correlation) between the two variables is strong enough to affect the optimal portfolio choice.  It is shown that it is not. Cointegration exists between the two variables, but the speed-of-adjustment back to the cointegration equilibrium is to slow to have a significant effect on the households’ optimal portfolios. 

    The fourth essay, Solving Dynamic Programming Problems Using Stochastic Grids and Nearest-Neighbor Interpolation, describes a new computational method, which is used in the second and third essays. The method is developed to solve models with finitely lived households who face a complex economic environment. Post-state decision rules for the households are used together with simulated stochastic grids over the exogenous variables. By simulating the grids it is possible to reduce the number of grid points that the model is solved for, thereby making it significantly faster to solve models with many exogenous state variables. It is shown that it is possible to solve non-linear life-cycle models including at least eight state variables relatively quickly on a standard desktop computer.

  • 3195.
    Almerud, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Vestman, Roine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Österling, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the Design of Mortgage Default LegislationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We characterize the condition under which mortgage defaults occur and the welfare consequences of recourse versus non-recourse under different types of mortgage contracts. We build a model where household endogenously chooses to default on their mortgage and where bank endogenously set the risk premium tailored to the kind of mortgage contract and the current exemption level. We find that even moderate recourse, i.e. some garnishment of wages and assets upon default, provides a potent means for discouraging defaults. Furthermore, we find that households prefer strong recourse to weak recourse, as it implies a reduction of the risk premium. Under non-recourse, households prefer ARMs over IOs and FRMs, while under moderate recourse they prefer IOs over ARMs and FRMs. Our analysis suggests that the moral hazard effects on labor supply under strong recourse do not outweigh the benefits of the reduction in the risk premium. In no regime do households prefer FRMs over ARMs.

  • 3196.
    Almerud, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Österling, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Solving dynamic programming problems using stochastic grids and nearest-neighbor interpolationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose two modications to the method of endogenous grid points that greatly decreases the computational time for life cycle models with many exogenous state variables. First, we use simulated stochastic grids on the exogenous state variables. Second, when we interpolate to nd the continuation value of the model, we split the interpolation step into two: We use nearest-neighbor interpolation over the exogenous state variables, and multilinear interpolation over the endogenous state variables. We evaluate the numerical accuracy and computational eciency of the algorithm by solving a standard consumption/savings life-cycle model with an arbitrary number of exogenous state variables. The model with eight exogenous state variables is solved in around eight minutes on a standard desktop computer. We then demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithm by solving a model which includes a more realistic income process estimated by Guvenen et al. (2015).

  • 3197.
    Almerén, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Nabavi, Bahar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Statliga myndigheters materiella anläggningstillgångar - värdering till historiskt anskaffningsvärde eller verkligt värde?: En studie av infrastrukturella och kulturhistoriska tillgångar2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige redovisas de statliga materiella anläggningstillgångarna till historiskt anskaffningsvärde. Anläggningstillgångarna ska tas upp till anskaffningsvärdet och skrivas av systematiskt över den ekonomiska livslängden. Ett alternativ till anskaffningsvärdet är verkligt värde som idag används av statliga myndigheter i Australien och Nya Zeeland. Denna värderingsmetod avser försäljningsvärdet av tillgången och fördelen med dena metod är att det för ägaren finns ett alternativ att tillgå. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka vilken värderingsmetod som är lämplig för Banverkets och Nationalmuseums materiella anläggningstillgångar. Värderingsproblematiken är komplex då många faktorer påverkar. Slutsatsen av denna studie är att verkligt värde inte är relevant för någon typ av dessa materiella anläggningstillgångar eftersom det historiska anskaffningsvärdet är förenligt med de viktigaste redovisningsprinciperna. Kostnaderna med en ändring av värderingsmetod skulle bli höga utan att det verkliga värdet tjänar ett givande syfte. Faktum kvarstår att det verkliga värdet blir riktigt intressant vid en försäljningssituation och blir därmed inte ändamålsenligt i statlig redovisning av materiella anläggningstillgångar.Tilläggsinformation är ett bra redskap för att ge en mer rättvisande bild av av myndigheternas innehav av tillgångar och användning av sådan information skulle avspegla statens resurser på ett bra sätt utan omfattande ansträngningar.

  • 3198.
    Almesjö, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea - spatiotemporal patterns and nitrogen fixation2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Summer blooms of filamentous, diazotrophic cyanobacteria are typical of the Baltic Sea Proper, and are dominated by Aphanizomenon sp. and the toxic Nodularia spumigena. Although occurring every summer, the blooms vary greatly in timing and spatial distribution, making monitoring difficult and imprecise. This thesis studies how the spatial variability of Baltic cyanobacterial blooms influences estimates of abundance, vertical and horizontal distribution and N2-fixation. Implications for sampling and monitoring of cyanobacterial blooms are also discussed.

    The results of the thesis confirm the importance of diazotrophic cyanobacteria in providing N for summer production in the Baltic Proper. It also highlights the large spatial and temporal variation in these blooms and argues that improved spatial coverage and replication could make monitoring data more useful for demonstrating time trends, and for identifying the factors regulating the blooms. The vertical distribution of Aphanizomenon and Nodularia was found to be spatially variable, probably as a combination of species-specific adaptations and ambient weather conditions. Vertical migration in Aphanizomenon was more important towards the end of summer, and is probably regulated by a trade-off between P-availability and light and temperature.

  • 3199.
    Almesjö, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Limén, Helene
    Fiskpopulationer i svenska vatten. Hur påverkas de av fiske, övergödning och miljögifter?2008Report (Other academic)
  • 3200.
    Almesjö, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Rolff, C.
    Automated measurements of filamentous cyanobacteria by digital image analysis2007In: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, Vol. 5, p. 217-224Article in journal (Refereed)
61626364656667 3151 - 3200 of 105512
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