Change search
Refine search result
62636465666768 3201 - 3250 of 105349
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 3201.
    Almgren, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will focus on the actions taken by a translator to rid a children’s book of sexist content. First of all the sexist content in the book is located by studying the criticism (of sexist content) the book in question has received since it was published. By using the translation theory of shifts these actions will be exemplified and further discussed by the use of other translation theories.

    With the translator’s actions in focus certain translation strategies will be compared to the ones taken by the translator of the book. The shifts made in the translation will be located, presented and explained. Finally a discussion, of the problems occurring when editing a translation in order to change the effect on the reader and about the responsibilities of translators, will follow.

  • 3202.
    Almgren, Annelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Einerborg Broberg, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Semesterkatastrofen: En uppsats om hur resebolag hanterar kris och katastrof2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till den här uppsatsen är den senaste tidens oroligheter i världen, terrorattacker och naturkatastrofer som tsunamin. Dessa skapar rädsla hos människor och det minskar benägenheten att resa. Det drabbar resebolagen då de på grund av detta förlorar kunder. Vi har haft frågeställningen: ”hur planerar och hanterar resebranschen risk och osäkerhet”. Vi har avgränsat uppsatsen till charterbranschen då det är dessa som främst bär risk. Syftet har varit att ta reda på vilken typ av planering som finns hos resebolagen för att hantera oförutsedda händelser som naturkatastrofer och terrorattacker. Som metod har vi valt att ha en kvalitativ ansats och har gjort fallstudier på de två resebolagen, Fritidsresor och My travel vilka är de två största charterarrangörerna. För att få informationen använde vi oss av intervjuer och samtal. Vi har analyserat materialet genom att strukturera upp de olika tendenser vi sett i intervjumaterialet och sedan jämfört det med relevanta teorier. Vi fann efter våra studier att resebolagen hanterar sin katastrofrisk genom att göra ständiga riskbedömningar för att vara ute i god tid om någonting sker. Resebolagen gör riskbedömningar via sina medarbetare på resmålen samt samarbetar i nätverk med andra aktörer på plats för att få tillgång till den senaste informationen. Utrikesdepartementet utfärdar varningar och rekommendationer som resebolagen följer. Genomgående försöker bolagen ha ett flexibelt reseprogram för att kunna ändra i det om något resmål skulle drabbas av en katastrof. Vi har funnit att resebolagen kristränar sina organisationer och bolagen vi har studerat har även utarbetade katastrofplaner. De har även goda kontakter med media och är medvetna om vikten av att göra ett gott intryck där. Vi har i vår analys klassificerat resebolagen enligt Scott:s (2003) modell för organisationer och funnit att de är exempel på ”Open rational systems” då de anpassar sig till sin varierande och utmanande omgivning. Då vi studerat resebolagens katastrofförberedelser har vi funnit att de inte budgeterar sin risk. De använder en modell som kan karakteriseras som ”risk excluded” vilken innebär att risker faller utanför budgeten och att riskbedömningar görs på andra ställen än i budgeten (Collier & Berry, 2003). Våra slutsatser är att attityden hos bolagen har förändrats de senaste åren, medan förändringarna i praxis är mindre. Researrangörerna tänker mer på riskerna idag än tidigare eftersom de nu har en större medvetenhet om katastrofrisken. Det är tack vare den osäkra miljön de verkar i nödvändigt för resebolagen att anpassa sig till omgivningen, det vill säga kundernas skiftande önskemål. Vi kan därmed dra slutsatsen att omvärldsbevakningen är nödvändigt för resebolagen om de ska kunna erbjuda kunderna attraktiva resor. Vi har belyst definitionen på en kris vilken är; en händelse som är ett existentiellt hot mot organisationen och som organisationen inte är designad för att hantera. Definitionen gör att en kris är omöjlig att förbereda sig för. Inom resebranschen är däremot vissa katastrofer en del av deras verksamhet och dessa är det därför nödvändigt att förbereda sig för. Vi avslutar uppsatsen med en diskussion kring huruvida resebolagen skall vidga sin katastrofberedskap då större katastrofer har blivit allt vanligare.

  • 3203.
    Almgren, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Reflektionsrapport2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2013 togs beslutet om Mittuniversitetets nedläggning av campus Härnösand. Universitetet behövde spara pengar efter att alliansregeringen beslutat om att sänka universitetens ersättning. Mittuniversitetet, som hade campus i tre städer, Härnösand, Östersund och Sundsvall, beslutade att lägga ner det minsta – Härnösand – och omlokalisera all den verksamheten till Sundsvall. Det blev slutet på en flera hundra år lång akademisk tradition i staden.

    Mitt examensarbete handlar om omständigheterna kring beslutet och om hur de som var inblandade upplevde det hela. Härnösandsbornas identitet har länge byggts på det faktum att det alltid har funnits någon form av lärosäte på orten. Men i och med beslutet 2013 så rycktes detta ifrån dem. Med mitt examensarbete ville jag utforska hur detta upplevdes hos de som kämpade för att få ha kvar campus Härnösand eller som på andra sätt var i närheten av beslutet.

    Frågan är viktig för mig då jag själv kommer från Härnösand. Jag ville visa ett exempel på hur det i skuggan av den urbanisering vi ser idag även sker en lika stor utflyttning från de mindre städerna. De små städerna behöver inte bara slåss om att locka fler invånare till kommunen, utan måste även kämpa för att behålla det de har, både invånare och institutioner.

    Jag ville försöka förstå bakgrunden till beslutet om campus Härnösand, men efter att ha blivit klar med projektet har jag fortfarande många outrätade frågetecken. Vissa saker är klarare, medan andra, nya frågor som uppstod längs vägen ännu är obesvarade. I slutändan känner jag i alla fall att jag lyckades fånga de känslor och tankar som rördes upp då och som är relevanta än idag.

  • 3204.
    Almgren, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, Comparative Religion and Gender Studies.
    Flashback eller Backlash?: En strukturanalys av genusordningen i J.R.R Tolkiens och Peter Jacksons Lord of the Rings2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3205.
    Almgren, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Den hälsosamma kroppen.: En kvalitativ studie i hur kroppsliga ideal i media påverkar individens självidentitet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsa är ett begrepp som vi ständigt möts av i vår vardag. Hälsa handlar om att må bra fysiskt och psykiskt och är därför någonting som berör oss alla. Dock är begreppet hälsa väldigt brett. I statistiska undersökningar mäter man ofta hälsa utifrån rent konkreta variabler som livslängd, vikt i förhållande till längd, avsaknad av sjukdom etcetera. I media har istället fokus kommit att hamna på kroppen, dess utseende och former. Även den marknad som har växt fram kring hälsa fokuserar starkt på kroppens utseende och erbjuder en mängd olika produkter och tjänster såsom träning, kosttillskott och även plastikkirurgi i syfte att förändra och förbättra kroppen. Mitt syfte med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur denna fokusering på kroppen är påtaglig i våra sociala liv och vidare hur den påverkar individens interaktioner och självbild. När det kommer till dessa frågor är samhälle och kultur av väsentlig betydelse, kroppsideal är starkt kontextbundna och klass och genus är viktiga aspekter när det gäller hälsa. Av denna anledning och för att avgränsa uppsatsen har jag valt att fokusera på Sverige och ge exempel från de svenska medierna. Metoden jag har valt att använda är en kvalitativ kritisk ideologianalys. Jag har analyserat artiklar kring hälsa och träning i media. Jag har kommit fram till att disciplinering av kroppen antas leda till en stärkt självbild. Ju mer individen lyckas disciplinera sin kropp desto bättre mår hon. Viktnedgång och självkänsla står i kausalitet till varandra och den sociala kontexten osynliggörs. Media riktar sig till en homogen grupp mottagare som alla har samma förutsättningar och möjligheter att arbeta för sin hälsa. Därför får media en normgivande roll. Individer som misslyckas med att disciplinera sina kroppar riskerar därför att diskrimineras. Vidare producerar media riskmedvetenhet, vad individen riskerar genom att inte disciplinera sin kropp, och detta blir en slags utgångspunkt för själva rapporteringen kring hälsa och viktnedgång. 

  • 3206.
    Almgren, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
      Den hälsosamma kroppen: En kvalitativ studie i hur kroppsliga ideal i media påverkar individens självidentitet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsa är ett begrepp som vi ständigt möts av i vår vardag. Hälsa handlar om att må bra fysiskt och psykiskt och är därför någonting som berör oss alla. Dock är begreppet hälsa väldigt brett. I statistiska undersökningar mäter man ofta hälsa utifrån rent konkreta variabler som livslängd, vikt i förhållande till längd, avsaknad av sjukdom etcetera. I media har istället fokus kommit att hamna på kroppen, dess utseende och former. Även den marknad som har växt fram kring hälsa fokuserar starkt på kroppens utseende och erbjuder en mängd olika produkter och tjänster såsom träning, kosttillskott och även plastikkirurgi i syfte att förändra och förbättra kroppen. Mitt syfte med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur denna fokusering på kroppen är påtaglig i våra sociala liv och vidare hur den påverkar individens interaktioner och självbild.

    När det kommer till dessa frågor är samhälle och kultur av väsentlig betydelse, kroppsideal är starkt kontextbundna och klass och genus är viktiga aspekter när det gäller hälsa. Av denna anledning och för att avgränsa uppsatsen har jag valt att fokusera på Sverige och ge exempel från de svenska medierna.

    Metoden jag har valt att använda är en kvalitativ kritisk ideologianalys. Jag har analyserat artiklar kring hälsa och träning i media.

    Jag har kommit fram till att disciplinering av kroppen antas leda till en stärkt självbild. Ju mer individen lyckas disciplinera sin kropp desto bättre mår hon. Viktnedgång och självkänsla står i kausalitet till varandra och den sociala kontexten osynliggörs. Media riktar sig till en homogen grupp mottagare som alla har samma förutsättningar och möjligheter att arbeta för sin hälsa. Därför får media en normgivande roll. Individer som misslyckas med att disciplinera sina kroppar riskerar därför att diskrimineras.

    Vidare producerar media riskmedvetenhet, vad individen riskerar genom att inte disciplinera sin kropp, och detta blir en slags utgångspunkt för själva rapporteringen kring hälsa och viktnedgång. 

  • 3207.
    Almgren, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Halldén, Mirjam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Offshoring: How does the phenomenon affect the Swedish company, the Yangtze River Delta Region in China and the Swedish market?2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental shift is occurring in the world economy, we are moving towards a world in which national economies are merging into one integrated global economic system. This new global climate puts pressure on businesses to change and to develop in order to stay competitive. This has resulted in the phenomenon Offshoring, meaning to move employments into low wage countries.

  • 3208.
    Almgren, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Halldén, Mirjam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Vilka problem och möjligheter möter svenska företag vid en etablering i Kina?: Exempel: Volvo Penta och Sapa2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3209.
    Almgren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Relationerna på en sekundär flygplats: en studie av Stockholm Skavsta Flygplats, Nyköpings kommun och Ryanair2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syftar till att förstå och analysera relationerna mellan de stora aktörerna på en sekundär flygplats där ett lågprisflygbolag är dominerande. Detta görs genom en fallstudie avseende Stockholm Skavsta Flygplats, Nyköpings kommun och flygbolaget Ryanair. Arbetets tes är att flygplatsen och kommunen befinner sig i en beroendeställning gentemot flygbolaget. Tesen prövas genom att relationerna mellan aktörerna studeras med hjälp av teorier kring privatoffentliga partnerskap och maktrelationer. Uppsatsens undersökning är huvudsakligen baserad på informantintervjuer med representanter för Nyköpings kommun och Stockholm Skavsta Flygplats samt på officiella dokument och rapporter. Arbetet visar att både kommunen och flygplatsen befinner sig i en beroendeställning gentemot flygbolaget. Slutsatsen som dras är emellertid att möjligheterna till framgång torde vara större än riskerna med att ha en så dominerande tillväxtmotor som Ryanair på flygplatsen och i kommunen. Utan Ryanair skulle den utveckling som varit på Stockholm Skavsta Flygplats tagit avsevärt mycket längre tid.

  • 3210.
    Almgren, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Talerätten vid klander av bolagsstämmobeslut: vem kan, och bör, anses tillhöra kretsen av klanderberättigade subjekt enligt 7 kap. 50 § ABL?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3211.
    Almhagen, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Development and validation of a scanned proton beam model for dose distribution verification using Monte Carlo2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3212.
    Almhagen, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Development and validation of a scanned proton beam model for dose distribution verification using Monte Carlo2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Although proton therapy is becoming increasingly common as a radiotherapy modality, facilities offering proton therapy are still scarce in comparison to photon therapy. Sweden's new proton therapy facility, Skandionkliniken, is scheduled to being operation during August 2015, employing the pencil beam scanning technique. Given Skandionklinikens unique stance as the only facility offering proton therapy in Sweden as of this writing, it is important to minimize the need for measurements during quality assurance to free up beam time for patients and other endeavors. It is the purpose of this work to create a foundation for a method whereby dose distribution verification is done via Monte Carlo simulation by developing and performing simple validation of a beam model. As input for simulating a dose distribution, log files storing a wide variety of data on how the dose distribution was delivered were used.

    Method: GATE, an open source Monte Carlo code and built on top of Geant4, was used for all simulations. A beam model parameterizing phase space at the nozzle exit was developed. The beam model development process made use of the beam data library and log file data. Using an in house developed code to convert log file data to treatment plans readable by GATE allowed simulation of delivered dose distributions. For validation, gamma index tests were performed comparing measured and simulated dose distributions.

    Results: The beam model was found able to predict the spot size in almost all cases within 0.2 mm. Likewise, the beam model was able to predict the proton range within 0.2 mm. The energy spread was found to be more difficult to estimate; comparisons of simulated and measured curves for at six points around the Bragg peak yielded a maximum deviation of 0.86 mm. Several difficulties prevented easy interpretation of the results of the gamma index tests. If allowance is made for certain data manipulation, pass rates of 90% or above using the global method can be achieved for all depths and for both treatment plans scanned.

    Conclusion: Although some complications arose during validation, the beam model performance appears capable of producing accurate results. To produce a full product suitable for routine patient specific quality assurance, further work will be necessary. Significant computing power would also be mandatory for routine use, necessitating the acquisition of a dedicated computer cluster or using GPUs.

  • 3213.
    Almin, Karl Erik
    Stockholm College.
    Fractionation of polymers by liquid-liquid distribution.1960Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 3214. Al-Minawi, Ali Z.
    et al.
    Lee, Yin-Fai
    Håkansson, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Lundin, Cecilia
    Saleh-Gohari, Nasrollah
    Schultz, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Jenssen, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Bryant, Helen E.
    Meuth, Mark
    Hinz, John M.
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    The ERCC1/XPF endonuclease is required for completion of homologous recombination at DNA replication forks stalled by inter-strand cross-links2009In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 37, no 19, p. 6400-6413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both the ERCC1-XPF complex and the proteins involved in homoIogous recombination (HR) have critical roles in inter-strand cross-link (ICL) repair. Here, we report that mitomycin C-induced lesions inhibit replication fork elongation. Furthermore, mitomycin C-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the result of the collapse of ICL-stalled replication forks. These are not formed through replication run off, as we show that mitomycin C or cisplatin-induced DNA lesions are not incised by global genome nucleotide excision repair (GGR). We also suggest that ICL-lesion repair is initiated either by replication or transcription, as the GGR does not incise ICL-lesions. Furthermore, we report that RAD51 foci are induced by cisplatin or mitomycin C independently of ERCC1, but that mitomycin C-induced HR measured in a reporter construct is impaired in ERCC1-defective cells. These data suggest that ERCC1-XPF plays a role in completion of HR in ICL repair. We also find no additional sensitivity to cisplatin by siRNA co-depletion of XRCC3 and ERCC1, showing that the two proteins act on the same pathway to promote survival.

  • 3215. Al-Minawi, Ali Z
    et al.
    Saleh-Gohari, Nasrollah
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    The ERCC1/XPF endonuclease is required for efficient single-strand annealing and gene conversion in mammalian cells.2007In: Nucleic Acids Res, ISSN 1362-4962Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3216.
    Al-Minawi, Ali Z
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Saleh-Gohari, Nasrollah
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    The ERCC1/XPF endonuclease is required for efficient single-strand annealing and gene conversion in mammalian cells2008In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mammalian ERCC1-XPF endonuclease has a suggested role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by single-strand annealing (SSA). Here, we investigated the role of ERCC1 in homologous recombination in mammalian cells, and confirm a role of ERCC1 in SSA. Interestingly, we also report an unexpected role for ERCC1 in gene conversion. This provides support that gene conversion in mammalian somatic cells is carried out through synthesis-dependent strand annealing, rather than through a double Holliday Junction mechanism. Moreover, we find low frequencies of SSA and gene conversion in G1-arrested cells, suggesting that SSA is not a frequent DSB repair pathway in G1-arrested mammalian cells, even in the presence of perfect repeats. Furthermore, we find that SSA is not influenced by inhibition of CDK2 (using Roscovitine), ATM (using Caffeine and KU55933), Chk1 (using CEP-3891) or DNA-PK (using NU7026).

  • 3217.
    Alminder, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Den kreativa gården: En studie av barns lek på en I Ur och skur-förskolegård2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies övergripande syfte har varit att titta närmare på utemiljöns möjligheter till kreativ fantasifull lek på en I Ur och Skur-förskolegård. Det är främst lek med naturmaterial som står i fokus för studien. Även pedagogens roll gentemot barnen är viktig i detta sammanhang och den medagerande pedagogen får här betydelse för barnens lek. En intressant frågeställning är då vilken betydelse det lösa naturmaterialet och pedagogen har för lekens utveckling. Tidigare forskning visar att en variationsrik miljö med natur bidrar till en mer varierad och utvecklad lek hos barnen. I Ur och skur pedagogiken förespråkas den aktiva pedagogen/ledaren som sätter barnet i centrum. Pedagogiska tankar kring utformningen av gården belyses också i viss mån.

    Studiens kvalitativa empiriska material består av en intervju med en pedagog/förskollärare som även förekommer i de sju observationerna av 18 barns lek som ligger till grund för studien. Då detta är en fallstudie av just den här verksamheten går resultatet inte att generalisera vidare.

    Några slutsatser man sannolikt kan dra (det empiriska materialet är tunt) är att det lösa natur-materialets egenskaper, dess transformerbarhet, icke-färdiga form och flyttbarhet gör det utmanande i leken – lekutveckling sker. Pedagogen bidrar till lekens utveckling genom att vara tillåtande, bejakande och uppmuntrande i de lekaktiviteter barnen sätter igång, samt genom att tillföra naturmaterial. Begreppet medagerande pedagog kommer här in i bilden, en pedagog som är medvetet närvarande i det han gör.  Just att gå in och ”störa” i barns lek är ett omtvistat ämne. Detta synsätt, sammantaget med min närvaro som observatör och pedagogens lust att fixa saker på gården kan stå i motsättning till eller hindra ett aktivt deltagande /medagerande i barnens lek på gården. Men närvaron av en aktiv vuxen i konkret arbete kan å andra sidan smitta av sig på barnen som i sin tur uppmuntras till lek på annat håll. Detta kan anknytas till Bronfenbrenners miljöekologiska teori där barnet utvecklas i samspel med den omgärdande miljön. Barnet utvecklas genom de aktiviteter det deltar i, de roller barnet möter och får sig tilldelade. Samt i de sociala relationer som blir till på förskolegården. I detta sammanhang får gårdens utformning, tillgången till ett varierat och utmanande lekmaterial samt pedagogens aktiva roll gentemot barnen betydelse för lekens utveckling och barnens lärande på gården.

  • 3218.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adveen, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Henning, L.
    Tallberg, I. M.
    Estimation of premorbid cognitive function based on word knowledge: The Swedish Lexical Decision Test (SLDT)2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 271-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In clinical neuropsychology, the present status of a patient is evaluated in relation to the assumed premorbid status. However, in Sweden, existing methods to assess premorbid status are far from optimal. In the present study, the design and evaluation of a Swedish Lexical Decision Test (SLDT) for premorbid global cognitive function (i.e., premorbid intelligence) is described. The design was based on the empirical finding that, in general adult population, word knowledge is strongly associated with measures of global cognitive functioning. Linear stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that SLDT findings accounted for 48% of the variance of global cognitive function as assessed by the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R). Demographic variables alone accounted for 31% and a combination of SLDT results and demographics accounted for 60%. Psychometric properties are presented using data from 109 healthy individuals stratified according to age, gender, and level of education. In addition, a case of Alzheimer's disease is presented to illustrate the relationship between SLDT performance and cognitive function. Finally, the theoretical foundation for the relationship between word knowledge and global cognitive function is discussed.

  • 3219.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Bosnes, Ingunn
    Stordal, Eystein
    Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory: a population-based HUNT study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e013586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. Objective: To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. Methods: In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). Results: A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Conclusions: Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases.

  • 3220.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Bosnes, Ingunn
    Stordal, Eystein
    Subjective working and declarative memory in dementia and normal aging2019In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 140, no 2, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Subjective memory complaints are common in both elderly individuals and patients with dementia. This study investigated the power of subjective memory, divided into declarative and working memory, to differentiate between patients with dementia and normal elderly individuals.

    Method: Two groups of participants, patients with dementia (n = 117) and normal elderly individuals (n = 117), individually matched with regard to age, gender, and education. All subjects had participated in the third wave of the HUNT population health survey in Nord-Trondelag County in Norway and completed the Meta-Memory Questionnaire (MMQ) in the HUNT study. The MMQ was subdivided into two components, one associated with declarative memory (episodic and semantic) and the other with working memory.

    Results: Patients with dementia reported significantly more subjective memory concerns than normal elderly individuals. The difference between working and declarative memory components was significantly greater in patients with dementia than in normal elderly individuals. This finding made it possible to differentiate patients with dementia from the normal elderly individuals. Mental and somatic health conditions did not significantly add power to differentiating the two groups.

    Conclusion: In clinical and research applications, subjective memory components could contribute to differentiation of patients with dementia and normal elderly individuals by using self-reported impairment in working memory, rather than declarative memory.

  • 3221.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kadir, Ahmadul
    Nordberg, Agneta
    Degree of abnormality is associated with rate of change in measures of beta-amyloid, glucose metabolism and cognition in an autopsy-verified Alzheimer’s disease case2015In: Neurocase, ISSN 1355-4794, E-ISSN 1465-3656, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 738-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The degree of abnormality and rate of change in cognitive functions, positron emission tomography Pittsburg compound B (PET PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measures were studied for 8 years in an autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patient, who died 61 years old (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score 7). At first encounter with medical care, the patient was very mildly demented (MMSE score 27). She had four cognitive assessments and two examinations with PET PIB and FDG in 23 bilateral brain regions. The onset of cognitive decline was retrospectively estimated to have started in the early forties. The degree of impairment was inversely related to the rate of decline. A similar relationship was seen between the rate of change and the level of abnormality in both PIB and FDG. To conclude, rate of change in cognition, PIB, and FDG was associated with the degree of abnormality.

  • 3222.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena
    Thordardottir, Steinunn
    Amberla, Kaarina
    Axelman, Karin
    Basun, Hans
    Kinhult-Ståhlbom, Anne
    Lilius, Lena
    Remes, Anne
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Viitanen, Matti
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Graff, Caroline
    Predicting Cognitive Decline across Four Decades in Mutation Carriers and Non-carriers in Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer's Disease2017In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive performance including preclinical and clinical disease course in carriers and non-carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (adAD) in relation to multiple predictors, that is, linear and non-linear estimates of years to expected clinical onset of disease, years of education and age. Methods: Participants from five families with early-onset autosomal-dominant mutations (Swedish and Arctic APP, PSEN1 M146V, H163Y, and I143T) included 35 carriers (28 without dementia and 7 with) and 44 non-carriers. All participants underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including neuropsychological assessment at the Memory Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. The time span of disease course covered four decades of the preclinical and clinical stages of dementia. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess premorbid and current global cognition, verbal and visuospatial functions, short-term and episodic memory, attention, and executive function. Results: In carriers, the time-related curvilinear trajectory of cognitive function across disease stages was best fitted to a formulae with three predictors: years to expected clinical onset (linear and curvilinear components), and years of education. In non-carriers, the change was minimal and best predicted by two predictors: education and age. The trajectories for carriers and non-carriers began to diverge approximately 10 years before the expected clinical onset in episodic memory, executive function, and visuospatial function. Conclusions: The curvilinear trajectory of cognitive functions across disease stages was mimicked by three predictors in carriers. In episodic memory, executive and visuospatial functions, the point of diverging trajectories occurred approximately 10 years ahead of the clinical onset compared to non-carriers.

  • 3223.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. KI, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Cognitive decline from estimated premorbid status predicts neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease2009In: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 117-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the relationship between premorbid and current cognitive function with respect to the clinical features of patients with various types of neurodegeneration in the form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), as compared with a healthy control group (C). Clinical features (MMSE, cognitive and depressive symptoms), genetics (apolipoprotein E; APOE) and measures of neurodegeneration (Aβ-sub(42), t-tau, and p-tau) were examined, as well as present cognitive function. Various methods of assessing premorbid cognitive function were compared, including a Swedish NART-analogous test (Irregularly Spelled Words; ISW), a Swedish lexical decision test (SLDT), a Hold test (Information in WAIS-R), Best current performance test, and combined demographic characteristics. Results showed that cognitive decline (premorbid minus current cognitive function) based on SLDT and ISW was a significant predictor for MMSE and Aβ-sub(42), whereas corresponding associations for present cognitive function and decline measures based on other methods were less powerful. Results also showed that specific verbal abilities (e.g., SLDT and ISW) were insensitive to AD and that these abilities indicated premorbid cognitive function in retrospect. In conclusion, cognitive decline from premorbid status reflects the disease processes.

  • 3224.
    Almlöf, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Pertot, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hur socialarbetare kan hjälpa ungdomar ut ur depression: en kvalitativ studie ur ett socialarbetarperspektiv2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att öka kunskapen och förståelsen kring det sociala arbetet med deprimerade ungdomar. Detta genom att ta reda på vad socialarbetare anser vilka faktorer som påverkar ungdomar i åldern 13-19 år att hitta ut ur sin depression. Syftet var även att belysa likheter och skillnader i socialarbetarnas arbetsmetoder med deprimerade ungdomar. För att uppfylla detta syfte ställdes följande frågor: Vilka metoder använder de intervjuade socialarbetarna i arbetet med tonåringar som har depression? Hur hjälper socialarbetaren ungdomen att komma ur sin depression? På vilket sätt finns det likheter och skillnader i socialarbetarnas arbetssätt med deprimerade ungdomar? Studien genomfördes med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer med socialarbetare utifrån en temainriktad intervjuguide. Resultaten analyserades utifrån ett kognitivt, systemteoretiskt och nätverks perspektiv. Resultaten i studien visar att det är flera olika faktorer som påverkar ungdomen att komma ur sin depression. Dessa är att socialarbetaren skapar god kontakt och ger uppmärksamhet till ungdomen och att föräldrarna får stöd och hjälp att samspela med den deprimerade ungdomen. Socialarbetarna använder olika arbetsmetoder för att uppnå detta.

  • 3225.
    Almolqi Svedberg, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Frontex, ett försvar mot immigrationen i EU?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att beskriva och analysera om inrättandet av Frontex har bidragit till att immigrationen i EU framställs som en utveckling vilket riskerar EU:s inre trygghet. Frontex samordnar verksamheten för EU medlemsländers gränskontrollmyndigheter. Det hävdas att EU:s yttre gränser står inför starka immigrationstryck vilket innebär att en effektivisering av gränsarbetet är nödvändig för att stärka säkerheten.

    Materialet analyseras utifrån säkerhetiseringsprocessen som innebär att en politisk fråga pekas ut som risk. Denna risk behöver inte nödvändigtvis existera utan enbart presenteras och argumenteras som sådan. Den frågeställning som besvaras görs så utifrån utvalda dokument publicerade om Frontex samt intervjuer. Frågeställningen lyder: Med vilka resonemang framställs immigrationen till EU och hur går dessa att tolkas ur ett säkerhetiseringsperspektiv?

    Som metod har en triangulering av kvalitativ innehållsanalys och kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts. Materialet som underbygger studien består av offentliga dokument publicerade av Frontex och EU Kommissionen. De kvalitativa intervjuerna genomfördes i syfte att stärka den analytiska förmågan hos mig som forskare och komplettera den kvalitativa innehållsanalysen.

    Resultatet som undersökningen kommer fram till är att det pågår ett kontinuerligt arbete i syfte att stärka de yttre gränserna. Immigranter delas upp i grupper och talas kring ur olika risknivåer. Det som önskas stoppas i högsta grad är kriminella nätverk, men även illegala immigranter som söker sig till EU i syfte att söka arbete. Immigranter vars syfte är att söka skydd talas om i termer som offer, dessa önskas inte ses stoppade. Det betonas att ett stödjande av ekonomisk tillväxt i tredjeland är önskvärt, för att underlätta levnadsförhållanden i tredjeland. En effektivisering av den verksamhet som Frontex koordinerar sker även, vilket innebär att resurser för akuta situationer som kan uppstå ska kunnas sättas in under snabba former. Dessa akuta situationer har ännu inte uppstått. Dock har villkoren för tredjelandsmedborgare inte förändrats och Frontex arbetar aktivt för att främja mänskliga rättigheter. Den diskussion som förs om immigrationen i EU hamnar inom det säkerhetspolitiska området. De motmedel som används görs så utan presenterade grunder och trots detta sker en kontinuerlig utvidgning av dessa motmedel.

  • 3226. Almond, Douglas
    et al.
    Currie, Janet
    Simeonova, Emilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Public vs. private provision of charity care?: Evidence from the expiration of Hill-Burton requirements in Florida2011In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the consequences of the expiration of charity care requirements imposed on private hospitals by the Hill-Burton Act. We examine delivery care and the health of newborns using the universe of Florida births from 1989 to 2003 combined with hospital data from the American Hospital Association. We find that charity care requirements were binding on hospitals, but that private hospitals under obligation cream skimmed the least risky maternity patients. Conditional on patient characteristics, they provided less intensive maternity services but without compromising patient health. When obligations expired, private hospitals quickly reduced their charity caseloads, shifting maternity patients to public hospitals. The results in this paper suggest, perhaps surprisingly, that requiring private providers to serve the underinsured can be effective.

  • 3227. Almond, Douglas
    et al.
    Edlund, Lena
    Joffe, Michael
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    An adaptive significance of morning sickness? Trivers-Willard and Hyperemesis Gravidarum2016In: Economics and Human Biology, ISSN 1570-677X, E-ISSN 1873-6130, Vol. 21, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nausea during pregnancy, with or without vomiting, is a common early indication of pregnancy in humans. The severe form, Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG), can be fatal. The aetiology of HG is unknown. We propose that HG may be a proximate mechanism for the Trivers-Willard (T-W) evolutionary hypothesis that mothers in poor condition should favor daughters. Using Swedish linked registry data, 1987-2005, we analyze all pregnancies that resulted in an HG admission and/or a live birth, 1.65 million pregnancies in all. Consistent with the T-W hypothesis, we find that: (i) HG is associated with poor maternal condition as proxied by low education; (ii) HG in the first two months of pregnancy is associated with a 7% point increase in live girl births; and (iii) HG affected pregnancies have a 34-percent average rate of inferred pregnancy loss, higher among less educated women.

  • 3228. Almond, Douglas
    et al.
    Edlund, Lena
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Chernobyl's subclinical legacy: prenatal exposure to radioactive fallout and school outcomes in sweden2009In: Quarterly Journal of Economics, ISSN 0033-5533, E-ISSN 1531-4650, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 1729-1772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use prenatal exposure to Chernobyl fallout in Sweden as a natural experiment inducing variation in cognitive ability. Students born in regions of Sweden with higher fallout performed worse in secondary school, in mathematics in particular. Damage is accentuated within families (i.e., siblings comparison) and among children born to parents with low education. In contrast, we detect no corresponding damage to health outcomes. To the extent that parents responded to the cognitive endowment, we infer that parental investments reinforced the initial Chernobyl damage. From a public health perspective, our findings suggest that cognitive ability is compromised at radiation doses currently considered harmless.

  • 3229.
    Almquist B., Ylva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Hammarström, Anne
    Associations between social support and depressive symptoms: social causation or social selection – or both?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between social support and health, almost regardless of how social support and health have been conceptualised or measured. Even so, the issue of causality has not yet been sufficiently addressed. This issue is particularly challenging for mental health problems such as depressive symptoms. The aim of the present study is to longitudinally assess structural and functional aspects of social support in relation to depressive symptoms in men and women, through a series of competing causal models that, in contrast to many other statistical methods, allow for bi-directional effects. Methods: Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 1001) were utilised for the years 1995 (age 30) and 2007 (age 42). Associations were analysed by means of gender-specific structural equation modelling, with structural and functional support modelled separately. Results: Both structural and functional support were associated with depressive symptoms at ages 30 and 42, for men and women alike. A higher level of support, particularly functional support, was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms over time among men. Among women, there were bi-directional effects of social support and depressive symptoms over time. Conclusion: Concerning social support and health, the social causation hypothesis seems relevant for men whereas, for women, the associations appear to be more complex. We conclude that preventive and health promoting work may need to consider that the presence of depressive symptoms in itself impedes on women’s capability to increase their levels of social support.

  • 3230.
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A class of origin: The school class as a social context and health disparities in a life-course perspective2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis is to examine various aspects of the school-class structure and their links to health in a life-course perspective. The empirical studies are based on two longitudinal data materials of cohorts born in the 1950s, followed up until middle age.

    In the first study, the overall status distribution in the school class was shown to be associated with both minor psychiatric disorder in childhood and self-rated health in adulthood. Thus, ill-health was more common among individuals who attended school classes less equal in terms of status.

    The second study demonstrated that it was more common among those who had fewer mutual friendships in the school class to report poorer health as adults. Socioeconomic career emerged as the primary explanation for men while, for women, these findings were largely unaccounted for by any of the included child and adult circumstances.

    Findings from the third study suggested the child’s status position in the school class, i.e. peer status, to be related to a wide range of health outcomes in adulthood. In particular, lower peer status was linked to an excess risk of mental and behavioural disorders, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Childhood social class did not confound these associations to any large extent.

    The fourth study examined two types of social isolation in the school class: marginalisation (low peer status) and friendlessness. Hospitalisation due to any disease was more common among marginalised children compared to among non-isolates, whereas no corresponding association was found for the friendless. For both types of isolates, the number of hospitalisations was greater than among non-isolated individuals. Of the studied childhood factors, scholastic ability emerged as an important mechanism.

    In sum, this thesis points to the relevance of the school class for health development across the life course and to the complexity of pathways through which influences of the school class may operate.

  • 3231.
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Peer status in school and adult disease risk: A 30-year follow-up study of disease-specific morbidity in a Stockholm cohort2009In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 63, no 12, p. 1028-1034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Children have a social status position of their own, apart from that of the family, that may have an impact on short-term and long-term health. The aim of the present study was to analyse the associations between childhood social status in school (ie, peer status) and disease-specific morbidity in adulthood.

    Methods: Data were derived from a longitudinal study using a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden: The Stockholm Birth Cohort Study (1953–2003). Peer status was sociometrically assessed in sixth grade (1966). Hazard ratios for adult disease-specific morbidity based on information on inpatient care (1973–2003) were calculated by peer status category for men and women separately, using Cox regression.

    Results: The results indicate that the lower the childhood peer status, the higher the overall adult disease risk. There were, however, differences in the degree and magnitude to which disease-specific inpatient care varied with peer status. Some of the steepest gradients were found for mental and behavioural disorders (eg, alcohol abuse and drug dependence), external causes (eg, suicide) and various lifestyle-related diseases (eg, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes). The results were not explained by childhood social class.

    Conclusion: The present study underlines the importance of recognising children’s social position, apart from that of their family, for later health. Not only psychologically related diseases but also those related to behavioural risk factors demonstrate some of the largest relative differences by peer status, suggesting that health-related behaviour may be one important mechanism in the association between peer status and morbidity.

  • 3232.
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Social isolation in the classroom and adult health:  A longitudinal study of a 1953 cohort2011In: Advances in Life Course Research, ISSN 1569-4909, E-ISSN 1879-6974, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical evidence of long-term health effects of social isolation in young people is limited. In childhood, the school class emerges as a central context, wherein social disadvantages may be detrimental for health development. The purpose of this study was to examine social isolation in the school class and its association with adult disease. Data was derived from a longitudinal study using a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 14,294). Two types of social isolation in the classroom, friendlessness and marginalisation, were sociometrically assessed in 6th grade (1966). Information on adult health was gathered through registry-data on in-patient care (1973–2003). Analyses were based on logistic regression and Poisson regression. The results demonstrated that both types of social isolation in the school class were related to various adverse individual, school-related and family-related aspects. Moreover, while marginalisation was associated with the odds of becoming hospitalised, friendlessness was not. However, if ever being hospitalised, both types of isolates had significantly more hospital care events. These results were largely unexplained by the included individual, school-related and family-related aspects.

  • 3233.
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The school class as a social network and contextual effects on childhood and adult health: Findings from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Cohort study2011In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 281-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the health consequences of the school class as a social network. The present study asked whether overall school-class structure has contextual effects on psychiatric problems in childhood and adult self-rated health. From longitudinal data on a Scottish cohort, measures of school-class structure (centralisation, degree of reciprocity and proportion of isolates) were constructed based on sociometric information. Multilevel analysis demonstrated significant effects of centralisation on both health outcomes. It is suggested that highly centralised classes are characterised by inequality, resulting in a low level of integration, with subsequent negative consequences for health.

  • 3234.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Childhood origins and adult destinations: The impact of childhood living conditions on coexisting disadvantages in adulthood2016In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 176-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyse linkages between childhood living conditions and coexisting disadvantages in adulthood. Analyses were based on the Stockholm Birth Cohort, consisting of more than 14,000 individuals born in 1953, followed up until 2007. Based on education, labour market outcomes, economic poverty and health, four outcome profiles with varying levels of disadvantage were identified by means of latent class analysis. Coexisting disadvantages were present in approximately one-fifth of the individuals. Low educational attainment, social welfare recipiency and mental health problems simultaneously occurred in two of the profiles, suggesting that these dimensions are highly interconnected. Results from multinomial regression analysis showed that individuals who had experienced disadvantaged childhood conditions had particularly high risks of ending up in these two outcome profiles, with or without the presence of unemployment.

  • 3235.
    Almquist, Ylva B
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hälsosamt samspel i skolan - långsiktiga effekter2014In: På väg in : ungdomars liv och försörjning: Rapport från forskarseminariet i Umeå 15–16 januari 2014, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2014, , p. 73-82p. 73-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3236.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School performance as a precursor of adult health: Exploring associations to disease-specific hospital care and their possible explanations2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: While past research has shown that school performance is associated with some specific health outcomes in adulthood, few studies have taken a general approach to the link between school performance and adult disease. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate sixth grade school performance in relation to disease-specific hospital care in adulthood and, moreover, to examine whether other conditions in childhood could account for any such associations. Methods: The data used was the Stockholm Birth Cohort, consisting of 14,294 individuals born in 1953. Associations between school performance and disease-specific hospital care were analysed by means of Cox regression. Results: Poor school performance was shown to be linked to a variety of diseases in adulthood, e.g. drug dependence, stomach ulcer, cerebrovascular diseases, and accidents. Some differences according to gender were found. Most associations, but not all, were explained by the simultaneous inclusion of various family-related and individual factors (e.g. social class, cognitive ability, and behavioural problems). Conclusions: In sum, the results of this study suggest that poor school performance may be an essential part of risk clustering in childhood with important implications for the individual's health career.

  • 3237.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hälsosamt samspel i skolan2012In: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, no 3, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3238.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Skolan som social arena och elevers psykiska ohälsa2012In: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Mikael Rostila, Susanna Toivanen, Stockholm: Liber, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3239.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Childhood Adversity and Trajectories of Disadvantage Through Adulthood: Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2018In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 136, no 1, p. 225-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children whose parents experience adverse social, economic, or health-related living conditions are more likely to face similar types of disadvantage in their adult life. However, a limitation of many earlier studies is that they do not account for the multidimensionality of the concept of living conditions, and that the child generation’s life courses are targeted as static and independent from the societal context in which they are imbedded. The current investigation addressed these aspects by focusing on the complexity, duration, and timing of disadvantage with regard to how adverse circumstances in the family of origin are associated with trajectories of social, economic, and health-related living conditions across adulthood. We also examined the role of educational attainment for these associations. Analyses were based a Swedish cohort born in 1953 (n = 14,294). We first conducted sequence analysis, followed by hierarchical cluster analysis, to generate ‘outcome profiles’, i.e. trajectories of adult disadvantage. Second, several indicators of adverse circumstances in childhood were analysed by means of multinominal regression analysis, showing the odds of ending up in the different trajectories. The results indicated that individuals who grew up under adverse conditions were more likely to experience disadvantaged social, economic, and health-related trajectories. This was particularly the case for trajectories characterised by a high degree of complexity, i.e. coexisting disadvantages, and—among men only—by a longer duration of disadvantage. Educational attainment was identified as a powerful mediator, suggesting that efforts to increase equal educational opportunity may be a way of reducing the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage.

  • 3240.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Childhood friendships and the clustering of adverse circumstances in adulthood - a longitudinal study of a Stockholm cohort2013In: Longitudinal and life course studies, ISSN 1124-9064, E-ISSN 1757-9597, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 180-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friendships constitute a central feature of childhood, yet little is known about the developmental significance extending beyond childhood and adolescence. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the association between childhood friendships and adult outcomes. Since many outcomes in adulthood go hand in hand, the outcome pattern as a whole was targeted. Based on a longitudinal data material consisting of more than 14,000 individuals born in Stockholm in 1953, a cluster analysis of adult circumstances (1992-2007) was first conducted. Second, the association between three indicators of childhood friendships (1966) and the outcome profiles was analysed by means of multinomial regression analysis. The results indicated that children who lacked leisure time friends and a best friend in the school class had increased risks of ending up in the more adverse clusters as adults, whereas the opposite association was found for those who reported being solitary. The effect of childhood friendships was rather consistent across both single and multiple problems, suggesting that the disadvantages of being without friends in childhood do not accumulate over the life course to any large extent. Generally, the results were the same for males and females. It is concluded that childhood friendships are important for adverse circumstances in adulthood, for both genders. As far as the long-lasting effects of children's friendships involve varying access to social support, school-based interventions should compensate for the scarcity of support following the lack of childhood friends.

  • 3241.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Childhood Peer Status and the Clustering of Adverse Living Conditions in Adulthood2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the context of the school class, children attain a social position in the peer hierarchy to which varying amounts of status are attached. Several studies have shown that children’s peer status is associated with a wide range of social and health-related outcomes. These studies commonly target separate outcomes, paying little attention to the fact that such circumstances are likely to go hand in hand. The overarching aim of the present study was therefore to examine the impact of childhood peer status on the clustering of living conditions in adulthood. Based on a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden, multinomial regression analysis demonstrated that children who had lower peer status also had exceedingly high risks of ending up in more problem-burdened clusters as adults. Moreover, these associations remained after adjusting for a variety of family-related circumstances. We conclude that peer status constitutes a central aspect of children’s upbringing with important consequences for subsequent life chances, over and above the influences originating from the family.

  • 3242.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Childhood Peer Status and the Clustering of Social, Economic, and Health-related Circumstances in Adulthood2014In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 105, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the school-class context, children attain a social position in the peer hierarchy to which varying amounts of status are attached. Studies have shown that peer status – i.e. the degree of acceptance and likeability among classmates – is associated with adult health. However, these studies have generally paid little attention to the fact that health problems are likely to coincide with other adverse circumstances within the individual. The overarching aim of the current study was therefore to examine the impact of childhood peer status on the clustering of social, economic, and health-related circumstances in adulthood. Using a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 14,294), four outcome profiles in adulthood were identified by means of latent class analysis: ‘Average’, ‘Low education’, ‘Unemployment’, and ‘Social assistance recipiency and mental health problems’. Multinomial regression analysis demonstrated that those with lower peer status had exceedingly higher risks of later ending up in the more adverse clusters. This association remained after adjusting for a variety of family-related and individual factors. We conclude that peer status constitutes a central aspect of children's upbringing with important consequences for life chances.

  • 3243.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Do trajectories of economic, work- and health-related disadvantages explain child welfare clients’ increased mortality risk? A prospective cohort study2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Past research has shown that individuals who have had experiences of out-of-home care (OHC) in childhood have increased risks of premature mortality. Prior studies also suggest that these individuals are more likely to follow long-term trajectories that are characterised by economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages, compared to majority population peers. Yet, we do not know the extent to which such trajectories may explain their elevated mortality risks. The aim of this study is therefore to examine whether trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages in midlife mediate the association between OHC experience in childhood and subsequent all-cause mortality.

    Methods

    Utilising longitudinal Swedish data from a 1953 cohort (n = 14,294), followed from birth up until 2008 (age 55), this study applies gender-specific logistic regression analysis to analyse the association between OHC experience in childhood (ages 0–19; 1953–1972) and all-cause mortality (ages 47–55; 2000–2008). A decomposition method developed for non-linear regression models is used to estimate mediation by trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages (ages 39–46; 1992–1999), as indicated by social welfare receipt, unemployment, and mental health problems. To account for selection processes underlying placement in OHC, an alternative comparison group of children who were investigated by the child welfare committee but not placed, is included.

    Results

    The results confirm that individuals with experience of OHC have more than a two-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality, for men (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.42–3.11) and women (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.39–3.59) alike. Approximately one-third (31.1%) of the association among men, and one-fourth (27.4%) of the association among women, is mediated by the long-term trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages. The group who were investigated but not placed shows similar, yet overall weaker, associations.

    Conclusions

    Individuals who come to the attention of the child welfare services, regardless of whether they are placed in out-of-home care or not, continue to be at risk of adverse outcomes across the life course. Preventing them from following trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages could potentially reduce their risk of premature death.

  • 3244.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Högnäs, Robin S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Only the lonely? All-cause mortality among children without siblings and children without friends2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In childhood, relations with siblings and friends lie at the core of social interaction. Lacking either type of relationship may reflect lower levels of social support. While social support is known to be negatively associated with premature death, there are still no long-term follow-ups of mortality risks among children without siblings (‘only-children’) and children without friends (‘lonely-children’). The aim of the present study was therefore to examine and compare all-cause mortality in these two groups.

    Methods: Cox regression analysis was based on a Stockholm cohort born in 1953 (n = 15,117). Individuals were identified as only-children if there were no records of siblings before age 18. Derived from sociometric data collected at age 13, lonely-children were defined as not being nominated by classmates as one of three best friends. The follow-up of all-cause mortality covered ages 20-56.

    Results: Both only-children and lonely-children had increased risks of premature mortality. When adjusted for a wide range of family-related and individual factors, the risk ratio for only-children increased in strength whereas the risk ratio for lonely-children was reduced. The former finding may be explained by suppressor effects: for example, both only-children and those whose parents had alcohol problems had higher mortality risks but only-children were less likely to have parents with alcohol problems. The latter finding was primarily due to adjustment for scholastic ability.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that while only-children and lonely-children have similar risks of all-cause mortality, the processes leading up to premature death appear to be rather different. Yet, interventions targeted at improving social learning experiences may be beneficial for both groups.

    Key messages:

    • Only-children have higher risks of premature mortality but the mechanisms remain unclear.

    • Lonely-children are at risk of premature mortality primarily due to poorer scholastic ability.

  • 3245.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Forsman, Hilma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gauffin, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    A decade lost: does educational success mitigate the increased risks of premature death among children with experience of out-of-home care?2018In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 997-1002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Past research has consistently identified children with experience of out-of-home care (OHC) as a high-risk group for premature mortality. While many have argued that educational success is a key factor in reducing these individuals’ excessive death risks, the empirical evidence has hitherto been limited. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine the potentially mitigating role of educational success for the association between OHC experience and premature mortality.

    Methods: Drawing on a Stockholm cohort born in 1953 (n=15,117), we analysed the associations between placement in OHC (ages 0-12), school performance (ages 13, 16, and 19), and premature all-cause mortality (ages 20-56) by means of Cox and Laplace regression analysis.

    Results: The Cox regression models confirmed the increased risk of premature mortality among individuals with OHC experience. Unadjusted Laplace regression models showed that these children died more than a decade, based on median survival time, before their majority population peers. However, among individuals who performed well at school, i.e. scored above-average marks at age 16 (grade 9) and age 19 (grade 12), respectively, the risks of premature mortality did not significantly differ between the two groups.

    Conclusion: Educational success seems to mitigate the increased risks of premature death among children with experience of OHC.

  • 3246.
    Almquist, Ylva B
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Landstedt, E.
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hammarström, A.
    Growing through asphalt: What counteracts the long-term negative health impact of youth adversity?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Adversity in the family of origin tends to translate into poor health development. Yet, the fact that this is not the always the case has been seen an indicator of resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status.

    Methods

    The study was based on the Northern Swedish Cohort born in 1965 (n = 1,001). Measures of social and material adversity, health, and protective factors related to school, peers, and spare time, were derived from questionnaires distributed to the cohort members and their teachers at age 16. Self-rated health was measured at age 43. The main associations were examined by means of ordinal regression analysis, with the role of the protective factors being assessed through interaction analysis.

    Results

    Social and material adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among males and females alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time – particularly in terms of being seen as having good educational and work prospects, as well as a high-quality spare time – appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health.

    Conclusions

    There are several factors outside the context of the family that seemingly have the potential to buffer against the negative health consequences stemming from having experienced a disadvantaged upbringing. Initiatives targeted at increasing academic motivation and commitment as well as social capital and relationships in youth, may here be of particular relevance.

    Key messages:

    • While the experience of disadvantageous living conditions in adolescence tends to translate into poor health development across the life course, this is not always the case.

    • Advantages related to school, peers, and spare time have the potential of counteracting the negative health impact of an adverse family context.

  • 3247.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Prevailing over Adversity: Factors Counteracting the Long-Term Negative Health Influences of Social and Material Disadvantages in Youth2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 1842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. However, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n = 908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.

  • 3248.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Popular peers and firstborn siblings are better off2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 313-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘The apple doesn’t fall far from the tree’ is an idiom that ultimately is reflected in the reproduction of inequality patterns across generations. Representatives of the child’s own generation, such as siblings and peers, may however play a key role by either reinforcing or counteracting this reproduction. Based on a Stockholm cohort now approaching retirement, we explore whether the inheritance of parents’ misfortunes, here reflected through poverty, varies in strength depending on the cohort members’ position in the sibship or peer group.

  • 3249.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Augustine, Lilly
    Peer acceptance in the school class and subjective health complaints: a multilevel approach2013In: Journal of School Health, ISSN 0022-4391, E-ISSN 1746-1561, Vol. 83, no 10, p. 690-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Feeling accepted by peers is important for young people's health but few studies have examined the overall degree of acceptance in school and its health consequences. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether health complaints among Swedish students can be attributed to the acceptance climate in their school class even when the health effects of their own (individual) acceptance score have been taken into account. METHODS: The data used were from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study for the years 2001 to 2002, 2005 to 2006, and 2009 to 2010, consisting of 13,902 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade Swedish students nested into 742 school classes. The statistical analyses were performed by means of linear regression multilevel analysis. RESULTS: The results indicated that the variation in subjective health complaints could be ascribed partly to the school-class level (boys: 5.0%; girls: 13.5%). Peer acceptance at the individual level demonstrated a clear association with health: the lower the acceptance, the higher the complaint scores. For girls, but not for boys, the overall degree of peer acceptance in the school class demonstrated a contextual effect on health, net of acceptance at the student level. Interaction analyses also revealed an increasingly favorable health among poorly accepted girls as the acceptance climate in the school class declined. CONCLUSIONS: A lower overall degree of peer acceptance in the school class is associated with poorer health among girls. However, girls who

  • 3250.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Social relationships and subsequent health-related behaviours: linkages between adolescent peer status and levels of adult smoking in a Stockholm cohort2012In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 629-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Peer status reflects the extent to which an individual is accepted by the group. Some studies have reported that low peer status in adolescence is associated with a higher risk of smoking, while others found the reverse. No studies have investigated peer status influences on adult smoking. The aim of the study was therefore to examine the relationship between adolescents' peer status and the intensity of smoking in adulthood.

    Design: Prospective cohort study.

    Setting: Stockholm, Sweden.

    Participants: A subsample (n = 2329) of the cohort with information about adult smoking.

    Measurements: Peer status was assessed sociometrically at age 13 and information on smoking was gathered through a questionnaire at age 32. Relative risks (RR) for self-reported level of smoking were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Several family-related and individual variables were included as control variables.

    Findings: Lower peer status in adolescence was associated with smoking of any intensity in adulthood. For example, the risk of heavy smoking was more than threefold (RR = 3.67) among individuals in the lowest status positions. The association with occasional smoking was abolished by controlling for factors related to adolescents' attitude to school and cognitive ability. For regular and heavy smoking the relationship was attenuated by controlling for these factors.

    Conclusions: Low peer status in adolescence appears to be a risk factor for smoking in adulthood. Part of this association may be explained by adolescents' feelings towards school and cognitive ability. However, being unpopular in adolescence remains a strong risk factor for regular and heavy smoking in adulthood.

62636465666768 3201 - 3250 of 105349
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf