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  • 3301.
    Almqvist, Roland
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Wällstedt, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Managing public sector organizations: Strategic choices within changing paradigms2013In: Management: an advanced introduction, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 203-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3302.
    Almqvist, Roland
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Wällstedt, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Modern verksamhetsstyrning är mångrationell2013In: Kommunal Ekonomi, ISSN 0282-0099, no 4, p. 25-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3303.
    Almqvist, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Straffvärdebedömningar vid sexualbrott2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3304.
    Almroth, Amanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Shirley Jackson's Scapegoats: The Scapegoat Mechanism in We Have Always Lived in the Castle and "The Lottery"2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shirley Jackson’s writing often deals with the subject of marginalized characters and the theme of the scapegoat. René Girard argued that societies need the scapegoat in order to control violence and form a unity. This essay discusses the scapegoat mechanism in two of Jackson’s most famous works, “The Lottery” and We Have Always Lived in the Castle, and shows how the figure of the scapegoat functions differently in the two narratives. In “The Lottery” the process is laid bare by an omniscient narrator while in We Have Always Lived in the Castle, the narrator is a scapegoat as well as a creator of scapegoats. The essay also examines how the scapegoat mechanism turns the characters into either passive objects or active subjects.

  • 3305.
    Almroth, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Synen på djur och rättigheter i svensk djurskyddslagstiftning: En lagstiftningsanalys med utgångspunkt i Tom Regans rättighetssyn2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animal rights are a controversial topic that engage people no matter their own views on the topic. The late philosophy professor Tom Regan’s rights view explain the importance of animal rights and the way reason is used to conclude that animals and other moral objects have the right to be treated with respect and what this entails.

    The Swedish animal protection law addresses animal issues and gives them legal protection. But what does this law entail? Does it truly protect animals in a sense that is acceptable according to the rights view? The essay reviews the current animal protection law as well as its successor, which comes in force April 1, 2019 to find out how well it complies with the rights view and if the laws assign rights to animals.

    Firstly, Regan’s rights view is examined through a literature study of some of Regan’s work. Secondly, relevant parts of the animal protection laws are elected and briefed as a base for the analysis. The last section compares the laws and applies the rights view with the goal to find the way animals are seen by the animal protection laws and if this complies with the values of the rights view. The analysis will be a strict review of the legal text and will not cover all applicable Swedish or European law.

    The analysis concludes that the animal protection laws seem to give animals good protection prima facie, but at a closer look it does not provide the absolute rights to respect for animals that Regan’s rights view call for. The rights view would arguably not accept a law with paragraphs that protect animals from abuse in the first sentence but then follows with multiple exceptions in the next sentence, and which is based on a system that is fundamentally unjust according to the rights view.

    The animal protection laws, while in some sense protect animals, cannot be said to assign animals absolute rights by viewing them as moral objects that are inherently worthy of respect as the rights view requires. Therefore, the animal protection laws donot match the requirements in Tom Regan’s right view.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-20 13:37
  • 3306.
    Almroth, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Knuts, Anette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    ”Man måste kriga för att få bra betyg”: En kvalitativ studie om elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter och deras upplevelser av betygsystemet i Lgr11 med fokus på ämnet svenska2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska skolan har genom historien haft flera olika betygssystem. 1994 infördes mål- och kriterierelaterade betyg och 2011 fick Sverige en ny läroplan Lgr11. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur elever, vilka är i läs- och skrivsvårigheter, i årskurs 6-9 upplever kunskapskraven, bedömningsprocess och betygssättning enligt Lgr11 i ämnet svenska. Arbetet byggdes på fokusgruppsintervjuer med totalt 15 elever, verksamma vid en grundskola i Mellansverige våren 2016.  

    Studien har en fenomenologisk ansats där vi genom halvstrukturerade fokusgruppintervjuer ville ta reda på hur elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter upplevde kunskapskraven samt bedömningsprocessen enligt Lgr11. De teoretiska perspektiv som har använts för att analysera vårt empiriska material är Husserls livsvärldsteori, det situerade perspektivet på lärande och bedömning samt det relationella perspektivet på specialpedagogik. Resultatet visar att eleverna upplever att betyget är viktigt för sin framtid och de ser det som ett kvitto på sitt lärande. Vidare lägger eleverna det största ansvaret för sitt betyg på sig själva och de upplever nuvarande betygsystem som svårt att förstå. Vi ser också att de uttrycker en osäkerhet kring vilka kunskaper som bedöms i skolan. Eleverna ger också uttryck för upplevelser av oro, besvikelse, stress, uppgivenhet, vanmakt, ilska, osmarthet och glädje. Vår tolkning av resultatet är att eleverna upplever att lärarnas bedömningspraktik och läroplanens kunskapskrav kan utgöra hinder för dem i sin strävan att nå ett högre betyg.

  • 3307.
    Almroth, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Azimi, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Goodwill - ett förändrat synsätt i och med införandet av IFRS2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Goodwill är en företeelse som länge har diskuterats. Det centrala i diskussionerna har varit hur goodwill skall redovisas, om dess livslängd är befintlig eller obefintlig och därmed om det är en tillgång som skall skrivas av eller skrivas ned. Idag redovisar svenska börsnoterade företag goodwill som en tillgång med befintlig livslängd och det resulterar i att avskrivningsmetoden används. Från och med årsskiftet 2004/2005 kommer dock detta att förändras. Då skall svenska börsnoterade företag gå från att redovisa enligt redovisningsrådets rekommendationer till att redovisa enligt IASB:s rekommendationer. Enligt IASB har goodwill en obefintlig livslängd och skall till följd av detta löpande testas för nedskrivning.

  • 3308. Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    et al.
    Eilola, Kari
    Kuznetsov, Ivan
    Hall, Per O. J.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    A new approach to model oxygen dependent benthic phosphate fluxes in the Baltic Sea2015In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 144, p. 127-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new approach to model the oxygen dependent phosphate release by implementing formulations of the oxygen penetration depths (OPD) and mineral bound inorganic phosphorus pools to the Swedish Coastal and Ocean Biogeochemical model (SCOBI) is described. The phosphorus dynamics and the oxygen concentrations in the Baltic proper sediment are studied during the period 1980-2008 using SCOBI coupled to the 3D-Rossby Centre Ocean model. Model data are compared to observations from monitoring stations and experiments. The impact from oxygen consumption on the determination of the OPD is found to be largest in the coastal zones where also the largest OPD are found. In the deep water the low oxygen concentrations mainly determine the OPD. Highest modelled release rate of phosphate from the sediment is about 59 x 10(3) t P year(-1) and is found on anoxic sediment at depths between 60-150 m, corresponding to 17% of the Baltic proper total area. The deposition of organic and inorganic phosphorus on sediments with oxic bottom water is larger than the release of phosphorus, about 43 x 10(3) t P year(-1). For anoxic bottoms the release of total phosphorus during the investigated period is larger than the deposition, about 19 x 10(3) t P year(-1). In total the net Baltic proper sediment sink is about 23.7 x 10(3) t P year(-1). The estimated phosphorus sink efficiency of the entire Baltic Sea is on average about 83% during the period.

  • 3309.
    Almryd, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Mindfulness som aktivitet i förskolan: En videoetnografisk fallstudie om pedagogers didaktiska design2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien har jag behandlat frågor som rör alla barn i förskolan samt de pedagoger som dagligen arbetar med barnen. En kvalitativ studie har genomförts genom videoobservationer som tydligt har visat hur pedagoger designar mindfulness-aktiviteter i förskolan. Studiens syfte var att, utifrån ett multimodalt designteoretiskt perspektiv, få ökad kunskap om hur pedagoger designar mindfulness-aktiviteter i förskolans praktik. I resultat och slutsats framkom det att mindfulness-aktiviteter kan designas på olika sätt beroende på vilka förutsättningar förskolan har. Det framkom även att i användningen av mindfulness-aktiviteter använder pedagoger sig av flera teckensystem såsom, gester, rörelser, ljud, röst, positionering, volym etc. i kommunikationen med barn, vilka även barnen använde sig av. Resultat tyder också på att barn designar sina egna lärvägar i aktiviteter, genom de teckensystem som finns tillgängliga i pedagogers design av aktiviteter.

  • 3310.
    Almskog, Liv
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Läkares och patienters bedömningar av smärta med VAS och Borg CR100 skalan®2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Smärta är det vanligaste symptomet som rapporteras till vårdgivare, därför är det viktigt att studera hur vårdgivare och patienter skattar upplevelsen av symptom såsom smärta. Underskattning av smärta hos patienterna kan i värsta fall leda till underbehandling och sämre resultat av behandling. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om det fanns skillnader mellan hur läkare och patienter bedömer patientens upplevda smärta på en VAS- respektive Borg CR100-skala, samt skillnader i resultatet mellan de två skalorna. 36 kvinnliga patienter och 8 läkare på kvinnoklinikens gynmottagning vid Norra Älvsborgs länssjukhus och Uddevalla sjukhus deltog i studien. Både läkare och patienter skattade patientens upplevda smärta både innan och efter patientens läkarbesök på en VAS- respektive Borg CR100-skala. Resultatet visade att det fanns en signifikant skillnad i hur läkare och patienter skattade patienternas upplevda smärta, samt skillnader mellan de två skalorna. Läkare skattade patienternas smärta som lägre än patienterna själva, och skalan som föredrogs av patienterna och som visar på fler fördelar då man skall skatta smärta visades vara Borg CR100-skalan. 

  • 3311.
    Almström, Josefin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Hultberg, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Heta Händer på fondmarknaden?: En undersökning av svenskförvaltade aktiefonder 1996-20012001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är skriven med syftet att undersöka om det finns fondförvaltare som har en förmåga att år efter år generera en överavkastning. Undersökningen omfattar 42 Sverige-fonder, 15 Europafonder samt 24 Globalfonder. Samtliga fonder i urvalet är förvaltade av Svenska fondförvaltningsbolag. Undersökningsperioden är från år 1996 till och med år 2001.

  • 3312.
    Almström Persson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University.
    Berättelser kan förklara komplexa saker2019In: Klarspråk. Bulletin från Språkrådet, no 1, p. 2-2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3313.
    Almström Persson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Det politiska reportaget: Om ögonvittnesskildring som persuasivt medel2018In: Kritiska text- och diskursstudier / [ed] Daniel Wojahn, Charlotta Seiler Brylla, Gustav Westberg, Hudding: Södertörns högskola, 2018, Vol. 6, p. 161-177Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper use rhetorical criticism methodology when investigating linguistic and rhetorical means in the reportage genre. The concept of eye-witness is explored in six reportage from the GDR-propaganda published in 1962. Through analysis of dialogue and perception in text, the notion of presence is discussed. An assumption is that presence in text can be of paramount importance for the technique of persuasion. It  is claimed that presence might be communicated though dialogues. However the main impact of presence is connected to the perceptivity of the narrator. Values and arguments are highly emphasized when detailed descriptions are experienced by the narrator. Consequently the conclusion of the analysis is associated with the rhetorical concept evidentia. Finally it is claimed that the GDR-propaganda use reportage from industries and construction sites to show western countries the advantages of East German version of socialism. The concept of political myth is introduced and is in the final discussion connected to the myth of technical development and the myth of progress. The theoretical frame-work consists of rhetoric, linguistics, and literary studies.

  • 3314.
    Almström Persson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    "Kredd till dig för vår senaste tweet": Kommunikativa val på Twitter under terrorattentatet på Drottninggatan2018In: Grammatik, kritik, didaktik: Nordiska studier i systemisk-funktionell lingvistik och socialsemiotik, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2018, Vol. 34, p. 79-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3315.
    Almström Persson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Retorik och argumenterande skrivande2018Other (Other academic)
  • 3316.
    Almström Persson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Samtalsretorik - är det tid för retorikvetenskapen att räcka ut handen till samtalsforskningen?2015In: Retorik och lärande: Kunskap - bildning - ansvar / [ed] Anders Sigrell, Sofi Qvarnström, Lund: Lunds universitet , 2015, p. 103-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En utgångspunkt i det här arbetet är att den (politiska) offentligheten har intimiserats, något som får konsekvenser för språket och villkoren för den språkliga interaktionen. Som en följd av detta har en samtalslik retorik vuxit fram. Därför diskuteras beröringsytor mellan retorisk teori och samtalsforskning. Artikeln fokuserar individens handlingsutrymme i en specifik situation, eller retorisk agens, i relation till samtalssymmetri och dominasstrukturer. I arbetet föreslås att samtalsforskningens kunskap som utgår från gedigen empiri kring roller och samtalsmönster, kan bidra i analysen av retorisk agens i intimiserade retoriska praktiker.

  • 3317.
    Almström Persson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Språkriktighetsboken då, nu och i framtiden: En brukarundersökning2017Report (Other academic)
  • 3318.
    Almström Persson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Valsymposium 2018: Inledningstal2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3319.
    Almström Persson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University.
    Valsymposium 2018: Inltedningstal2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3320.
    Almström Persson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Blomström, Vendela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Wirdenäs, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Språk i samspel: Retorik för pedagoger2016Book (Other academic)
  • 3321. Almuzzaini, Bader
    et al.
    Sarshad, Aishe A.
    Rahmanto, Aldwin S.
    Hansson, Magnus L.
    Von Euler, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Sangfelt, Olle
    Visa, Neus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Percipalle, Piergiorgio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    In beta-actin knockouts, epigenetic reprogramming and rDNA transcription inactivation lead to growth and proliferation defects2016In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 2860-2873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Actin and nuclear myosin 1 (NM1) are regulators of transcription and chromatin organization. Using a genome-wide approach, we report here that beta-actin binds intergenic and genic regions across the mammalian genome, associated with both protein-coding and rRNA genes. Within the rDNA, the distribution of beta-actin correlated with NM1 and the other subunits of the B-WICH complex, WSTF and SNF2h. In beta-actin(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we found that rRNA synthesis levels decreased concomitantly with drops in RNA polymerase I (Pol I) and NM1 occupancies across the rRNA gene. Reintroduction of wild-type beta-actin, in contrast to mutated forms with polymerization defects, efficiently rescued rRNA synthesis underscoring the direct role for a polymerization-competent form of beta-actin in Pol I transcription. The rRNA synthesis defects in the beta-actin(-/-) MEFs are a consequence of epigenetic reprogramming with up-regulation of the repressive mark H3K4me1 (mono-methylation of lys4 on histone H3) and enhanced chromatin compaction at promoter-proximal enhancer (T0 sequence), which disturb binding of the transcription factor TTF1. We propose a novel genome-wide mechanism where the polymerase-associated beta-actin synergizes with NM1 to coordinate permissive chromatin with Pol I transcription, cell growth, and proliferation.

  • 3322. Almuzzaini, Bader
    et al.
    Sarshad, Aishe A.
    Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Percipalle, Piergiorgio
    Nuclear myosin 1 contributes to a chromatin landscape compatible with RNA polymerase II transcription activation2015In: BMC Biology, ISSN 1741-7007, E-ISSN 1741-7007, Vol. 13, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) is emerging as a regulator of transcription and chromatin organization. Results: Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in combination with molecular analyses, we investigated the global association of NM1 with the mammalian genome. Analysis of the ChIP-Seq data demonstrates that NM1 binds across the entire mammalian genome with occupancy peaks correlating with distributions of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) and active epigenetic marks at class II gene promoters. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts subjected to RNAi mediated NM1 gene silencing, we show that NM1 synergizes with polymerase-associated actin to maintain active Pol II at the promoter. NM1 also co-localizes with the nucleosome remodeler SNF2h at class II promoters where they assemble together with WSTF as part of the B-WICH complex. A high resolution micrococcal nuclease (MNase) assay and quantitative real time PCR shows that this mechanism is required for local chromatin remodeling. Following B-WICH assembly, NM1 mediates physical recruitment of the histone acetyl transferase PCAF and the histone methyl transferase Set1/Ash2 to maintain and preserve H3K9acetylation and H3K4trimethylation for active transcription. Conclusions: We propose a novel genome-wide mechanism where myosin synergizes with Pol II-associated actin to link the polymerase machinery with permissive chromatin for transcription activation.

  • 3323.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Attanasio, Orazio
    Jalan, Jyotsna
    Oteiza, Francisco
    Vigneri, Marcella
    Using data differently and using different data2018In: Journal of Development Effectiveness, ISSN 1943-9342, E-ISSN 1943-9407, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 462-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of adequate measures is often an impediment to robust policy evaluation. We discuss three approaches to measurement and data usage that have the potential to improve the way we conduct impact evaluations. First, the creation of new measures, when no adequate ones are available. Second, the use of multiple measures when a single one is not appropriate. And third, the use of machine learning algorithms to evaluate and understand programme impacts. We motivate the relevance of each of the categories by providing examples where they have proved useful in the past. We discuss the challenges and risks involved in each strategy and conclude with an outline of promising directions for future work.

  • 3324.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Auglaend Johnsen, Ashild
    The cost of a growth miracle - reassessing price and poverty trends in China2018In: Review of economic dynamics (Print), ISSN 1094-2025, E-ISSN 1096-6099, Vol. 30, p. 239-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China's economic development in recent decades has been tremendous, but also subject to debate. This paper uses Engel curves to identify price levels and real incomes that are comparable across both time and space. Based on these, new poverty trends are presented. We find that the urban and coastal areas that have experienced the fastest economic development have also seen smaller price increases than the poorer rural and inland areas. Our measures reveal that China has experienced substantial poverty reduction in a time with high economic growth, but compared to both the World Bank measures and those based on official CPI adjustments, our measures suggest a more moderate poverty reduction. Our findings imply that poverty was reduced by 40 and not 66 percent using the $1 dollar a day measure.

  • 3325.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics.
    Cappelen, Alexander
    Haaland, Inger
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Rettferdig ulikhet2015In: Magma - Tidsskrift for økonomi og ledelse, ISSN 1500-0788, E-ISSN 1500-6069, Vol. 6, p. 38-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3326.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. NHH Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Sorensen, Erik O.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    What Explains the Gender Gap in College Track Dropout? Experimental and Administrative Evidence2016In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 106, no 5, p. 296-302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3327.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Sørensen, Erik Ø.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Fairness and family background2017In: Politics, Philosophy and Economics, ISSN 1470-594X, E-ISSN 1741-3060, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fairness preferences fundamentally affect individual behavior and play an important role in shaping social and political institutions. However, people differ both with respect to what they view as fair and with respect to how much weight they attach to fairness considerations. In this article, we study the role of family background in explaining these heterogeneities in fairness preferences. In particular, we examine how socioeconomic background relates to fairness views and to how people make trade-offs between fairness and self-interest. To study this, we conducted an economic experiment with a representative sample of 14- to 15-year-old and matched the experimental data to administrative data on parental income and education. The participants made two distributive choices in the experiment. The first choice was to distribute money between themselves and another participant in a situation where there was no difference in merit. The second choice was to distribute money between two other participants with unequal merits. Our main finding is that there is a systematic difference in fairness view between children from low-socioceconomic status (SES) families and the rest of the participants; more than 50 percent of the participants from low-SES families are egalitarians, whereas only about 20 percent in the rest of the sample hold this fairness view. In contrast, we find no significant difference in the weight attached to fairness between children from different socioeconomic groups.

  • 3328.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. NHH, Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Grewal, Mandeep
    Hvide, Marielle
    Ugurlu, Serhat
    The PPP approach revisited: A study of RMB valuation against the USD2017In: Journal of International Money and Finance, ISSN 0261-5606, E-ISSN 1873-0639, Vol. 77, p. 18-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the alleged undervaluation of the Chinese renminbi against the US dollar through an application of the relative PPP hypothesis, the PPP approach. The PPP approach measures the relative misalignment of a currency by estimating the relationship between log price levels and log per capita real incomes from a cross section of countries. We estimate this relationship by using ICP 2011 and incorporating model selection tests. Our results confirm that price level-real income relationship is best approximated by a quadratic functional form. We show that, using this functional form, the PPP approach does not reveal any evidence of renminbi undervaluation as of 2011, and this result is robust to various sensitivity tests.

  • 3329.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Kjelsrud, Anders
    Rags and Riches: Relative Prices, Non-Homothetic Preferences, and Inequality in India2017In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 97, p. 102-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that consumption patterns change with income. Relative price changes would therefore affect rich and poor consumers differently. Yet, the standard price indices are not income-specific, and hence, they cannot account for such differences. In this paper, we study consumption inequality in India, while fully allowing for non-homotheticity. We show that the relative price changes during most of the period from 1993 to 2012 were pro-poor, in the sense that they favored the poor relative to the rich. As a result, we also find that conventional measures significantly overstate the rise in real consumption inequality during this period. The main lesson from our study is the importance of accounting for non-homotheticity when measuring inequality. The price index literature has, as of yet, paid relatively little attention to this. In our application, however, it turns out that the allowance for nonhomotheticity is quantitatively much more important than much discussed adjustments, such as those for substitution in consumption.

  • 3330.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Kjelsrud, Anders
    Somanathan, Rohini
    A Behavior-Based Approach to the Estimation of Poverty in India2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 182-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of poverty in India are crucial inputs for the understanding of world poverty, yet there is much disagreement about the numbers and the legitimacy of methods used to derive them. In this paper, we propose and justify an alternative approach to identify the poor, which uses the proportion of income spent on food. Our estimates have weaker data requirements than official methods, and they compare favorably with several validation tests. Most notably, households around our state poverty lines obtain their calories from similar sources, whereas this is not true of official poverty lines. We also find that rates of self-reported hunger are higher in states that we classify as poor.

  • 3331. Almén, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Vehmaa, Anu
    Brutemark, Andreas
    Bach, Lennart
    Lischka, Silke
    Stuhr, Annegret
    Furuhagen, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Paul, Allanah
    Bermudez, J. Rafael
    Riebesell, Ulf
    Engström-Öst, Jonna
    Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production2016In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1037-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean acidification is caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide dissolving in the oceans leading to lower seawater pH. We studied the effects of lowered pH on the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis during a mesocosm experiment conducted in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea. We measured copepod reproductive success as a function of pH, chlorophyll a concentration, diatom and dinoflagellate biomass, carbon to nitrogen (C : N) ratio of suspended particulate organic matter, as well as copepod fatty acid composition. The laboratory-based experiment was repeated four times during 4 consecutive weeks, with water and copepods sampled from pelagic mesocosms enriched with different CO2 concentrations. In addition, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of animals from the mesocosms was measured weekly to test whether the copepod's defence against oxidative stress was affected by pH. We found no effect of pH on offspring production. Phytoplankton biomass, as indicated by chlorophyll a concentration and dinoflagellate biomass, had a positive effect. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the females was reflected in the eggs and had a positive effect on offspring production, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of the females were reflected in their eggs but had no significant effect. ORAC was not affected by pH. From these experiments we conclude that E. affinis seems robust against direct exposure to ocean acidification on a physiological level, for the variables covered in the study. E. affinis may not have faced acute pH stress in the treatments as the species naturally face large pH fluctuations.

  • 3332.
    Almén, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Portabilitetsförordningen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3333.
    Almén, Rickard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Azzam, Daad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Kvinnliga verkställande direkörer: marknadens reaktion när en kvinna tillträder VD-posten2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En mycket liten andel av världens börsnoterade företag har en kvinnlig VD. Dessa förhållanden gäller även på den svenska marknaden. Tidigare har det gjorts en hel del genusforksning om bakomliggande orsaker till detta. Syftet med denna uppsats är emellertid att studera hur aktiemarknaden reagerar när den möts av informationen att en kvinnlig VD inom kort kommer att tillträda. Normalt sett brukar sådan reaktioner vara försiktigt positiva, även om tidigare forskningsresultat gått i lite olika riktningar och ofta inte givit signifikanta resultat. Undersökningen omfattar alla bolag noterade på Stockholmsbörsens A-lista som mellan åren 2000-2005 utsett en kvinnlig VD. Genom en s.k. eventstudie har dessa bolagsaktiers avvikelseavkastning kunnat mätas och resultaten visar att marknaden tenderar att ge en negativ reaktion. Detta tros till viss del bero på tankesättet ”hon har fått positionen eftersom hon är en kvinna”, men även pga den osäkerhet som allmänhet medförs vid VD-byten.

  • 3334.
    Al-Naib, Zahra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Blomgren, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Hagström, Tåve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    "Närmare varandra": - hur den fysiska lärmiljön kan främja delaktighet och acceptans2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utformandet av våra klassrum och fysiska lärmiljöer har i stort sett varit detsamma i flera hundra år, trots att villkoren och syftet med undervisningen har förändrats. För att “en skola för alla” verkligen ska kunna tillgodose allas rätt till likvärdig utbildning måste delaktigheten öka i den pedagogiska, sociala och fysiska lärmiljön. Denna studie tar till vara specialpedagogikens tvärvetenskapliga ambitioner och har för avsikt att få en ökad förståelse för hur vi i skolan kan ändra de traditionella klassrummen och göra dem mer inkluderande. Vi lutar oss också mot Vygotskij och den sociokulturella teorin samt det relationella perspektivet. Studien kommer att svara på hur elever och lärare upplever att deras klassrum främjar delaktighet och vad det har för betydelse. I detta arbete har vi i forskning samt med en etnografiskt inspirerad forskningsansats undersökt hur alternativa fysiska lärmiljöer kan främja ökad delaktighet. Vi presenterar forskning kring delaktighet och lärmiljöer, och lyfter de hinder och framgångsfaktorer som framkommer där. Vi har tolkat observationer, fokusgruppssamtal och enskilda intervjuer. I våra resultat blev tre teman tydliga: Samspel, gemenskap och relationer; Arbetsro och motivation samt Acceptans av olikheter. Alla teman leder till begreppet delaktighet, varav det sista temat är det med störst specialpedagogisk relevans. Resultaten bekräftar att de elever och lärare som hade tillgång till ett klassrum med alternativ lärmiljö upplever att detta främjar delaktigheten, både den pedagogiska och den sociala. De alternativa fysiska lärmiljöerna är mer flexibla och inkluderande och erbjuder eleverna anpassningar utan att dessa blir utmärkande. Vidare framkommer att lärarna reflekterar mer över sin undervisning och sitt ledarskap i dessa miljöer, samt att de alternativa lärmiljöerna generellt bidrar till en känsla av arbetsro, kreativitet, sammanhållning och acceptans för olikheter, samt att man kommer närmare varandra på olika plan.

  • 3335.
    Al-Najar, Sally
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Samma eller likartad verksamhet: en studie av skatteeffekterna vid generationsskifte i fåmansföretag2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3336. Alneberg, Johannes
    et al.
    Sundh, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Bennke, Christin
    Beier, Sara
    Lundin, Daniel
    Hugerth, Luisa W.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Kisand, Veljo
    Riemann, Lasse
    Jürgens, Klaus
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Andersson, Anders F.
    BARM and BalticMicrobeDB, a reference metagenome and interface to meta-omic data for the Baltic Sea2018In: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 5, article id 180146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is one of the world's largest brackish water bodies and is characterised by pronounced physicochemical gradients where microbes are the main biogeochemical catalysts. Meta-omic methods provide rich information on the composition of, and activities within, microbial ecosystems, but are computationally heavy to perform. We here present the Baltic Sea Reference Metagenome (BARM), complete with annotated genes to facilitate further studies with much less computational effort. The assembly is constructed using 2.6 billion metagenomic reads from 81 water samples, spanning both spatial and temporal dimensions, and contains 6.8 million genes that have been annotated for function and taxonomy. The assembly is useful as a reference, facilitating taxonomic and functional annotation of additional samples by simply mapping their reads against the assembly. This capability is demonstrated by the successful mapping and annotation of 24 external samples. In addition, we present a public web interface, BalticMicrobeDB, for interactive exploratory analysis of the dataset. [GRAPHICS] .

  • 3337.
    Alneng, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Book review of:: Finding meaning in pleasure travel by Julia Harrison, 2003.2005In: Ethnos, ISSN 0014-1844, E-ISSN 1469-588X, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 273-274Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3338.
    Alneng, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Review of: Beyond the Beach: an Ethnography of Modern Travellers in Asia, by Klaus Westerhausen2004In: Pacific affairs, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 99-101Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3339.
    Alneng, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    The modern does not cater for natives: Travel ethnography and the conventions of form2002In: Tourist Studies, ISSN 1468-7976, E-ISSN 1741-3206, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 119-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a response to editors Adrian Franklin and Mike Crang’s outline of ‘the trouble with tourism and travel theory’, this article sketches some further troubles. It is argued that researchers have adopted modernist spatio-temporal distinctions that reproduce a singularity of the Tourist-as-Westerner. Meanwhile non-Westerners are mostly seen as immobile pre-modern participants of Western tourism. As non-Western tourism involves considerably more people than Western tourism, tourism theories on the whole do not necessarily fit most tourists of the world today, and they may even serve to re-enforce the global geopolitical hierarchy. Illustrated with ethnographic examples from Vietnam, it is suggested that a radical questioning of autocentric spatio-temporal distinctions is needed to arrive at a more heterogeneous and complex view of both modernity and tourism. While this will open up the field of inquiry, a sensitivity to socio-cultural diversities and, more importantly, global inequalities and the situated knowledge production is needed.

  • 3340.
    Alneng, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    The Right Price: Local Bargains for Global Players2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3341.
    Alneng, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    What the Fuck is a Vietnam?: Touristic Phantasms and the Popcolonization of (the)Vietnam (War)2002In: Critique of anthropology, ISSN 0308-275X, E-ISSN 1460-3721, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 461--489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the introduction of the reform project doi moi in 1986, Vietnam turned to tourism as a major new economic resource. Demands from international visitors have entailed a commodification of the Vietnam War. This article approaches tourism as an ideologically saturated nexus where identities and worldviews are continuously being represented, consumed, reconfirmed, negotiated and modified. Practices and narrations of Western backpackers, who travel to Vietnam spurred by phantasms of Vietnam as a war, are related to discourses of Vietnam in tourism literature, popular media, academia, journalism and politics, and traced to a `popcolonial' fantasy of Western superiority. At the core are the hegemonic implications the `been there, done that' cliché carries when war and tourism go hand in hand. It is argued that the dichotomies of here/there and war/peace need to be dislodged in order to understand the ideologies of both tourism and war.

  • 3342.
    Alneng, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Zen and the art of tourism maintenance: a meditation on so-called prototourism in Vietnam2009In: Domestic tourism in Asia: diversity and divergence / [ed] Shalini Singh, London: Earthscan , 2009, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3343.
    Alneskog, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lusten till lärande: Dokumentationsarbete i förskolans läraoplan som verktyg för regementalitet och normalisation2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att belysa hur dokumentation som arbetsform kan förstås som ett redskap för regementalitet och normalisation i förskolans verksamhet. I studien har förskolans läroplan, samt två ytterligare dokument från skolverket och regeringen studerats med diskursanalytisk metod och begrepp hämtade från Foucault. Detta med syfte att bilda förståelse för hur dessa instanser skapar förutsättningar för förskolans dokumentationsarbete. Studien belyser hur dessa givna förutsättningar söker bidra till att barn styrs till att utveckla vissa specifika förmågor, som kommer att utgöra norm för förskolans barn. Vidare visar studien att dokumentation förväntas utsätta också pedagogerna för styrningstekniker då de genom detta arbete ska bli utsatta för synliggörande praktiker, och granskade, av sig själva och sina medarbetare. Detta ska åstadkommas genom att ge pedagoger möjlighet att övervaka förskolans verksamhet och individerna som verkar där. Resultatet visar att dokumentation i det studerade materialet förs fram som ett redskap med vilket pedagoger  kan övervaka barn, andra pedagoger och sig själva samt styra individer mot ett sanktionerat beetende. Studien belyser också på vilket sätt den diskurs som de studerade dokumenten är en del av fungerar normaliserande i förhållande till utvecklandet av vissa förmågor, bland annat lust till lärande.

  • 3344.
    Alnevall, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Fortunes of Feminism: From State-Managed Capitalism to Neoliberal Crisis: Fraser's Feminism in Three Acts: Women's Liberation, Identity Politics and Anti-Capitalism2014In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 338-340Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3345.
    Al-Neyazi, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Lagom Stockholm: Studie av förhållandet mellan Stockholms marknadsföring och utbytesstudenters syn på staden.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om det finns en glappa i marknadsföringen av Stockholm samt hur besökare upplever Stockholm, genom att göra forskning i hur staden marknadsförs som och hur turismen upplevs i staden. Med hjälp av studien kan det göras vidare forskning inom turismbranschen för att i framtiden locka ännu fler besökare och därmed få turismbranschen att växa. Studien är fokuserad på utbytesstudenter som har studerat på Stockholms universitet i ett eller två terminer inom perioden hösten 2004 och hösten 2014. I studien ingår en enkätundersökning samt några intervjuer för att få en djupare förståelse av studenternas upplevelser och aktiviteter i Stockholm.

    Resultatet visar att de flesta utbytesstudenter har gjort aktiviteter som Stockholm har som avsikt att marknadsföra. Marknadsföringen sker internationellt för både affärsresenärer och fritidsresande. Studien visar att Stockholm marknadsför sig till en bred kategori av människor med flera aktiviteter för att matcha med så många människor som möjligt. 

  • 3346.
    Alonso Aller, Elisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Effects of Marine Protected Areas on Tropical Seagrass Ecosystems2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrass beds are highly productive coastal ecosystems that sustain a rich and diverse associated fauna and flora. Increasing anthropogenic pressures threaten seagrass ecosystems and have already led to major seagrass losses across the world. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have become one of the key strategies to manage coastal ecosystems and associated resources worldwide and have been often shown to successfully protect marine ecosystems. However, relatively few studies have assessed the effects of MPAs on seagrass ecosystems, and there are indications that MPAs may not be able to fully protect seagrasses, especially from disturbances originating outside their boundaries. Within this context, this thesis aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects (those mediated by biotic interactions) of MPAs on tropical seagrasses, associated fish communities, and ecosystem processes.

    The thesis consists of three parts. First, we used 10-years of seagrass monitoring data within a MPA to evaluate the temporal variability in seagrass cover and species composition in relation to changes in environmental conditions (Paper I). Second, we investigated the potential of MPAs to enhance the temporal stability of seagrass ecosystems using a 10-month field study. We surveyed seagrass-associated fish communities (Paper II) and estimated seagrass growth and herbivory rates (Paper III) during three different seasons within MPAs and unprotected sites. Finally, to evaluate the effects of MPAs and land-use on seagrass ecosystems we surveyed seagrass species and trait composition within government-managed MPAs, community-managed MPAs, and unprotected sites (Paper IV).

    The seagrass bed monitored in Paper I showed a high temporal and spatial variability, with a temporal decline in cover and change in species composition, followed by a period of recovery. This pattern could not be associated with any of the climate and tidal variables considered, suggesting that potential drivers of decline may have originated outside MPA boundaries. The results from the seasonal field study showed that MPAs increased the temporal stability of seagrass-associated fish communities, particularly juvenile fish (Paper II), and strengthened a positive link between herbivorous fish, herbivory rates, and seagrass growth (Paper III), suggesting the presence of a positive feedback that promotes stability. Finally, MPAs affected seagrass species and trait composition (by selecting for more stress-sensitive species) but did not seem to be able to protect seagrasses from land-use effects, with seagrasses showing similar changes in species and trait composition within and outside MPAs (Paper IV). Considering these results, this thesis builds to a body of literature indicating that MPAs alone may not be sufficient to protect seagrass ecosystems and that improved management strategies may be necessary to preserve these important coastal habitats.

  • 3347.
    Alonso Aller, Elisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kloiber, Ulrike
    Linderholm, Hans W.
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Monitoring of a protected multi-specific tropical seagrass meadow reveals a pattern of decline and recoveryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a changing environment, there is an increasing interest to monitor ecosystems to understand their responses to environmental change. Seagrass meadows are highly important ecosystems, but at the same time they are under a constant threat from human activities, as well as climate impacts, and marked declines have been observed worldwide. Despite increasing efforts, monitoring of multi-specific tropical seagrass meadows is scarce, particularly in developing regions. Here we analysed data from the first 10 years of a monitoring programme in a marine protected area in Zanzibar (Tanzania) to assess temporal changes in seagrass cover and species composition and to detect potential drivers of change. The seagrass meadow experienced a strong gradual decline in seagrass cover and changes in species composition, followed by a period of recovery. However, the timing and length of these temporal patterns varied in space (between transects). Of the climate variables considered, cloud cover, temperature, storm occurrence, sunspot activity and the height of the diurnal low tide seemed to influence seagrass cover, although only to a small extent, suggesting that the monitored seagrass meadow may be influenced by other unmeasured factors. Considering our results, seagrass meadows seem to be highly dynamic at small spatial scales even in the absence of major local anthropogenic impacts. Further monitoring programmes should be developed in the region to gain a better understanding of seagrass temporal variability and causes of change.

  • 3348.
    Alonso Aller, Elisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Eveleens Maarse, Floriaan K. J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gren, Michaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. WIO CARE, Zanzibar, Tanzania.
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Single and joint effects of regional- and local-scale variables on tropical seagrass fish assemblages2014In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 161, no 10, p. 2395-2405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrass beds are highly important for tropical ecosystems by supporting abundant and diverse fish assemblages that form the basis for artisanal fisheries. Although a number of local- and regional-scale variables are known to influence the abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of seagrass-associated fish assemblages, few studies have evaluated the relative and joint (interacting) influences of variables, especially those acting at different scales. Here, we examined the relative importance of local- and regional-scale factors structuring seagrass-associated fish assemblages, using a field survey in six seagrass (Thalassodendron ciliatum) areas around Unguja Island (Zanzibar, Tanzania). Fish density and assemblage structure were mostly affected by two regional-scale variables; distance to coral reefs, which positively affected fish density, and level of human development, which negatively affected fish density. On the local scale, seagrass biomass had a positive (but weaker) influence on fish density. However, the positive effect of seagrass biomass decreased with increasing level of human development. In summary, our results highlight the importance of assessing how multiple local and regional variables, alone and together, influence fish communities, in order to improve management of seagrass ecosystems and their services.

  • 3349.
    Alonso Aller, Elisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Fishing weakens a positive link between herbivore abundance and plant growth in tropical seagrass bedsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Herbivory is a key process influencing the structure and function of both terrestrial and aquatic systems. In seagrass ecosystems, moderate levels of herbivory may stimulate plant growth, compensating for the loss of eaten tissue. However, the relationship between herbivory and seagrass growth can be influenced by an array of factors, such as seasonality, herbivore abundance, and presence of epiphytes, many of which can be directly or indirectly affected by human activities like fishing. Here, we used data from a multi-season field survey in fished and protected seagrass beds to assess how fishing and seasonality affect the link between herbivores, herbivory, and plant growth in seagrasses. Path analyses revealed an interactive effect of seasonality and protection. In protected seagrass beds, seasonally high herbivore abundance positively affected herbivory rates, which in turn enhanced seagrass growth. This link was however not apparent in seagrass beds subjected to fishing activities. At the same time, seasonality effects seemed stronger in fished areas, suggesting that in addition to weakening a positive herbivory-plant growth interaction, fishing increases temporal instability of ecosystems. Our results highlight the need for evaluating not only the direct effects of fisheries exploitation on fish populations, but also the potential indirect effects on ecosystems, to improve fisheries management.

  • 3350.
    Alonso Aller, Elisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 8, article id e0183999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones) and two unprotected (open-access) sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania). We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated) effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

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