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  • 3451.
    Alonso Aller, Elisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Eveleens Maarse, Floriaan K. J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gren, Michaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. WIO CARE, Zanzibar, Tanzania.
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Single and joint effects of regional- and local-scale variables on tropical seagrass fish assemblages2014In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 161, no 10, p. 2395-2405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrass beds are highly important for tropical ecosystems by supporting abundant and diverse fish assemblages that form the basis for artisanal fisheries. Although a number of local- and regional-scale variables are known to influence the abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of seagrass-associated fish assemblages, few studies have evaluated the relative and joint (interacting) influences of variables, especially those acting at different scales. Here, we examined the relative importance of local- and regional-scale factors structuring seagrass-associated fish assemblages, using a field survey in six seagrass (Thalassodendron ciliatum) areas around Unguja Island (Zanzibar, Tanzania). Fish density and assemblage structure were mostly affected by two regional-scale variables; distance to coral reefs, which positively affected fish density, and level of human development, which negatively affected fish density. On the local scale, seagrass biomass had a positive (but weaker) influence on fish density. However, the positive effect of seagrass biomass decreased with increasing level of human development. In summary, our results highlight the importance of assessing how multiple local and regional variables, alone and together, influence fish communities, in order to improve management of seagrass ecosystems and their services.

  • 3452.
    Alonso Aller, Elisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Fishing weakens a positive link between herbivore abundance and plant growth in tropical seagrass bedsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Herbivory is a key process influencing the structure and function of both terrestrial and aquatic systems. In seagrass ecosystems, moderate levels of herbivory may stimulate plant growth, compensating for the loss of eaten tissue. However, the relationship between herbivory and seagrass growth can be influenced by an array of factors, such as seasonality, herbivore abundance, and presence of epiphytes, many of which can be directly or indirectly affected by human activities like fishing. Here, we used data from a multi-season field survey in fished and protected seagrass beds to assess how fishing and seasonality affect the link between herbivores, herbivory, and plant growth in seagrasses. Path analyses revealed an interactive effect of seasonality and protection. In protected seagrass beds, seasonally high herbivore abundance positively affected herbivory rates, which in turn enhanced seagrass growth. This link was however not apparent in seagrass beds subjected to fishing activities. At the same time, seasonality effects seemed stronger in fished areas, suggesting that in addition to weakening a positive herbivory-plant growth interaction, fishing increases temporal instability of ecosystems. Our results highlight the need for evaluating not only the direct effects of fisheries exploitation on fish populations, but also the potential indirect effects on ecosystems, to improve fisheries management.

  • 3453.
    Alonso Aller, Elisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 8, article id e0183999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones) and two unprotected (open-access) sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania). We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated) effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  • 3454. Alonso, D.
    et al.
    Bellini, E.
    Ferreira, P. G.
    Zumalacárregui, Miguel
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics and University of California at Berkeley, USA.
    Observational future of cosmological scalar-tensor theories2017In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 95, no 6, article id 063502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation of surveys will greatly improve our knowledge of cosmological gravity. In this paper we focus on how Stage IV photometric redshift surveys, including weak lensing and multiple tracers of the matter distribution and radio experiments combined with measurements of the cosmic microwave background will lead to precision constraints on deviations from general relativity. We use a broad subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor theories to forecast the accuracy with which we will be able to determine these deviations and their degeneracies with other cosmological parameters. Our analysis includes relativistic effects, does not rely on the quasistatic evolution and makes conservative assumptions about the effect of screening on small scales. We define a figure of merit for cosmological tests of gravity and show how the combination of different types of surveys, probing different length scales and redshifts, can be used to pin down constraints on the gravitational physics to better than a few percent, roughly an order of magnitude better than present probes. Future cosmological experiments will be able to constrain he Brans-Dicke parameter at a level comparable to Solar System and astrophysical tests.

  • 3455.
    Alonso, Irasema
    et al.
    Yale University.
    Prado, Jr., Jose Mauricio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Ambiguity Aversion, the Equity Premium, and the Welfare Costs of Business Cycles2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the potential importance of consumer ambiguity aversion for asset prices and how consumption fluctuations influence consumer welfare. First, considering a simple Mehra-Prescott-style endowment economy with a representative agent facing consumption fluctuations calibrated to match U.S. data, we study to what extent ambiguity aversion can deliver asset prices that are consistent with data: a high return on equity and a low return on riskfree bonds. For some configurations of preference parameters – a discount factor, a degree of relative risk aversion, and a measure of ambiguity aversion – we find that it can. Then, we use these parameter configurations to investigate how much consumers would be willing to pay to reduce endowment fluctuations to zero, thus delivering a Lucas-style welfare cost of fluctuations. These costs turn out to be very large: consumers are willing to pay over 10% of consumption in permanent terms.

  • 3456.
    Alonso, Juan M.
    Stockholm University.
    Contributions to certain problems in algebraic topology1984Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 3457.
    Alonso Mori, Roberto
    et al.
    Universita di Camerino, Italy.
    Paris, E.
    Universita di Camerino, Italy.
    Giuli, G.
    Universita di Camerino, Italy.
    Eeckhout, S.G.
    European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF).
    Kavčič, M.
    J. Stefan Institute, Slovenia.
    Žitnik, M.
    J. Stefan Institute, Slovenia.
    Bučar, K.
    J. Stefan Institute, Slovenia.
    Pettersson, Lars G.M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Glatzel, Pieter
    European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF).
    Sulfur-Metal Orbital Hybridization in Sulfur-Bearing Compounds Studied by X-ray Emission Spectroscopy2010In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 49, p. 6468-6473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

     

    The electronic structure and ligand environment of sulfur was investigated in various sulfur-containing compounds with different structures and chemical states by using X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). Calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the StoBe code. The sulfur chemical state and atomic environment is discussed in terms of the molecular orbitals and partial charges that are obtained from the calculations. The main spectral features can be modeled using our calculational approach. The sensitivity of the K β

    emission to thecation and the local symmetry is discussed.

  • 3458. Alonso-Mori, Roberto
    et al.
    Kern, Jan
    Gildea, Richard J.
    Sokaras, Dimosthenis
    Weng, Tsu-Chien
    Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt
    Tran, Rosalie
    Hattne, Johan
    Laksmono, Hartawan
    Hellmich, Julia
    Glöckner, Carina
    Echols, Nathaniel
    Sierra, Raymond G.
    Schafer, Donald W.
    Sellberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Kenney, Christopher
    Herbst, Ryan
    Pines, Jack
    Hart, Philip
    Herrmann, Sven
    Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.
    Latimer, Matthew J.
    Fry, Alan R.
    Messerschmidt, Marc M.
    Miahnahri, Alan
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Zwart, Petrus H.
    White, William E.
    Adams, Paul D.
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Boutet, Sébastien
    Williams, Garth J.
    Zouni, Athina
    Messinger, Johannes
    Glatzel, Pieter
    Sauter, Nicholas K.
    Yachandra, Vittal K.
    Yano, Junko
    Bergmann, Uwe
    Energy-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser in a shot-by-shot mode2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 47, p. 19103-19107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultrabright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray free-electron lasers open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of systems beyond what is possible with synchrotron sources. Recently, this probe-before-destroy approach has been demonstrated for atomic structure determination by serial X-ray diffraction of microcrystals. There has been the question whether a similar approach can be extended to probe the local electronic structure by X-ray spectroscopy. To address this, we have carried out femtosecond X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at the Linac Coherent Light Source using redox-active Mn complexes. XES probes the charge and spin states as well as the ligand environment, critical for understanding the functional role of redox-active metal sites. K beta(1,3) XES spectra of Mn-II and Mn-2(III,IV) complexes at room temperature were collected using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer and femtosecond X-ray pulses with an individual dose of up to > 100 MGy. The spectra were found in agreement with undamaged spectra collected at low dose using synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that the intact electronic structure of redox active transition metal compounds in different oxidation states can be characterized with this shot-by-shot method. This opens the door for studying the chemical dynamics of metal catalytic sites by following reactions under functional conditions. The technique can be combined with X-ray diffraction to simultaneously obtain the geometric structure of the overall protein and the local chemistry of active metal sites and is expected to prove valuable for understanding the mechanism of important metalloproteins, such as photosystem II.

  • 3459. Alonzo, Frederic
    et al.
    Hertel-Aas, Turid
    Real, Almudena
    Lance, Emilie
    Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Vives i Baffle, Jordi
    Oughton, Deborah H.
    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline
    Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups2016In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 152, p. 46-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we modelled population responses to chronic external gamma radiation in 12 laboratory species (including aquatic and soil invertebrates, fish and terrestrial mammals). Our aim was to compare radiosensitivity between individual and population endpoints and to examine how internationally proposed benchmarks for environmental radioprotection protected species against various risks at the population level. To do so, we used population matrix models, combining life history and chronic radiotoxicity data (derived from laboratory experiments and described in the literature and the FRED ERICA database) to simulate changes in population endpoints (net reproductive rate R-0, asymptotic population growth rate lambda, equilibrium population size N-eq) for a range of dose rates. Elasticity analyses of models showed that population responses differed depending on the affected individual endpoint (juvenile or adult survival, delay in maturity or reduction in fecundity), the considered population endpoint (R-0, lambda or N-eq) and the life history of the studied species. Among population endpoints, net reproductive rate R-0 showed the lowest EDR10 (effective dose rate inducing 10% effect) in all species, with values ranging from 26 mu Gy h(-1) in the mouse Mus musculus to 38,000 mu Gy h(-1) in the fish Oryzias latipes. For several species, EDR10 for population endpoints were lower than the lowest EDR10 for individual endpoints. Various population level risks, differing in severity for the population, were investigated. Population extinction (predicted when radiation effects caused population growth rate lambda to decrease below 1, indicating that no population growth in the long term) was predicted for dose rates ranging from 2700 mu Gy h(-1) in fish to 12,000 mu Gy h(-1) in soil invertebrates. A milder risk, that population growth rate lambda will be reduced by 10% of the reduction causing extinction, was predicted for dose rates ranging from 24 mu Gy h(-1) in mammals to 1800 mu Gy h(-1) in soil invertebrates. These predictions suggested that proposed reference benchmarks from the literature for different taxonomic groups protected all simulated species against population extinction. A generic reference benchmark of 10 mu Gy h(-1) protected all simulated species against 10% of the effect causing population extinction. Finally, a risk of pseudo-extinction was predicted from 2.0 mu Gy h(-1) in mammals to 970 mu Gy h(-1) in soil invertebrates, representing a slight but statistically significant population decline, the importance of which remains to be evaluated in natural settings.

  • 3460.
    Alp, Berivan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nilsson, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Beslöjade avslöjanden: En kvalitativ undersökning med sex slöjbärande muslimska flickor2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Veiled unveilings

  • 3461. Alp, Dennis
    et al.
    Larsson, Josefin
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Gabler, Michael
    Wongwathanarat, Annop
    Janka, Hans-Thomas
    X-Ray Absorption in Young Core-collapse Supernova Remnants2018In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 864, no 2, article id 175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The material expelled by core-collapse supernova (SN) explosions absorbs X-rays from the central regions. We use SN models based on three-dimensional neutrino-driven explosions to estimate optical depths to the center of the explosion, compare different progenitor models, and investigate the effects of explosion asymmetries. The optical depths below 2 keV for progenitors with a remaining hydrogen envelope are expected to be high during the first century after the explosion due to photoabsorption. A typical optical depth is 100 t(4)(-2 )E(-2), where t(4) is the time since the explosion in units of 10,000 days (similar to 27 years) and E is the energy in units of keV. Compton scattering dominates above 50 keV, but the scattering depth is lower and reaches unity at similar to 1000 days at 1 MeV. The optical depths are approximately an order of magnitude lower for hydrogen-stripped progenitors. The metallicity of the SN ejecta is much higher than that in the interstellar medium, which enhances photoabsorption and makes absorption edges stronger. These results are applicable to young SN remnants in general, but we explore the effects on observations of SN 1987A and the compact object in Cas A in detail. For SN 1987A, the absorption is high and the X-ray upper limits of similar to 100 L-circle dot on a compact object are approximately an order of magnitude less constraining than previous estimates using other absorption models. The details are presented in an accompanying paper. For the central compact object in Cas A, we find no significant effects of our more detailed absorption model on the inferred surface temperature.

  • 3462. Alp, Dennis
    et al.
    Larsson, Josefin
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Indebetouw, Remy
    Jerkstrand, Anders
    Ahola, Antero
    Burrows, David
    Challis, Peter
    Cigan, Phil
    Cikota, Aleksandar
    Kirshner, Robert P.
    van Loon, Jacco Th.
    Mattila, Seppo
    Ng, C. -Y.
    Park, Sangwook
    Spyromilio, Jason
    Woosley, Stan
    Baes, Maarten
    Bouchet, Patrice
    Chevalier, Roger
    Frank, Kari A.
    Gaensler, B. M.
    Gomez, Haley
    Janka, Hans-Thomas
    Leibundgut, Bruno
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Marcaide, Jon
    Matsuura, Mikako
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sonneborn, George
    Staveley-Smith, Lister
    Zanardo, Giovanna
    Gabler, Michael
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Wheeler, J. Craig
    The 30 Year Search for the Compact Object in SN 1987A2018In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 864, no 2, article id 174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite more than 30 years of searching, the compact object in Supernova (SN) 1987A has not yet been detected. We present new limits on the compact object in SN 1987A using millimeter, near-infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray observations from ALMA, VLT, HST, and Chandra. The limits are approximately 0.1 mJy (0.1 x 10(-26) erg s(-1) cm(-2) Hz(-1)) at 213 GHz, 1 L-circle dot (6 x 10(-29) erg s(-1) cm(-2) Hz(-1)) in the optical if our line of sight is free of ejecta dust, and 10(36) erg s(-1) (2 x 10(-30) erg s(-1) cm(-2) Hz(-1) ) in 2-10 keV X-rays. Our X-ray limits are an order of magnitude less constraining than previous limits because we use a more realistic ejecta absorption model based on three-dimensional neutrino-driven SN explosion models. The allowed bolometric luminosity of the compact object is 22 L-circle dot if our line of sight is free of ejecta dust, or 138L(circle dot) if dust-obscured. Depending on assumptions, these values limit the effective temperature of a neutron star (NS) to <4-8 MK and do not exclude models, which typically are in the range 3-4 MK. For the simplest accretion model, the accretion rate for an efficiency 77 is limited to <10(-11) eta(-1) M-circle dot yr(-1), which excludes most predictions. For pulsar activity modeled by a rotating magnetic dipole in vacuum, the limit on the magnetic field strength (B) for a given spin period (P) is B less than or similar to 10(14) P-2 G s(-2), which firmly excludes pulsars comparable to the Crab. By combining information about radiation reprocessing and geometry, we infer that the compact object is a dust-obscured thermally emitting NS, which may appear as a region of higher-temperature ejecta dust emission.

  • 3463. Alp, Dennis
    et al.
    Larsson, Josefin
    Maeda, Keiichi
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Wongwathanarat, Annop
    Gabler, Michael
    Janka, Hans-Thomas
    Jerkstrand, Anders
    Heger, Alexander
    Menon, Athira
    X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Emission from Core-collapse Supernovae: Comparison of Three-dimensional Neutrino-driven Explosions with SN 1987A2019In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 882, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first few hundred days after the explosion, core-collapse supernovae (SNe) emit down-scattered X-rays and gamma-rays originating from radioactive line emissions, primarily from the Ni-56 -> Co-56 -> Fe-56 chain. We use supernova (SN) models based on three-dimensional neutrino-driven explosion simulations of single stars and mergers to compute this emission and compare the predictions with observations of SN 1987A. A number of models are clearly excluded, showing that high-energy emission is a powerful way of discriminating between models. The best models are almost consistent with the observations, but differences that cannot be matched by a suitable choice of viewing angle are evident. Therefore, our self-consistent models suggest that neutrino-driven explosions are able to produce, in principle, sufficient mixing, although remaining discrepancies may require small changes to the progenitor structures. The soft X-ray cutoff is primarily determined by the metallicity of the progenitor envelope. The main effect of asymmetries is to vary the flux level by a factor of similar to 3. For the more asymmetric models, the shapes of the light curves also change. In addition to the models of SN 1987A, we investigate two models of SNe II-P and one model of a stripped-envelope SN IIb. The Type II-P models have observables similar to those of the models of SN 1987A, but the stripped-envelope SN model is significantly more luminous and evolves faster. Finally, we make simple predictions for future observations of nearby SNe.

  • 3464.
    Alp, Efrim Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Swedish Upper-secondary school students’ exposure to and acquisition of the English language2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this sociolinguistic essay was to investigate differences and similarities between how the English language is encountered and used in a suburban school compared to an inner-city school. Moreover, the primary material was collected with the use of a questionnaire, answered by 22 and 26 students between the ages of 16-19 years old from two upper-secondary schools. The results obtained from this study highlight that the students irrespective of their social backgrounds encountered and used the English language in similar ways. However, in relation to the acquisition of the language, the results highlighted that the students who came from a high socio-economic background had an advantage compared to their peers who shared an immigrant or migrant background in the sense that they to a higher extent came from an academic household which can be beneficial regarding language exposure and acquisition. Nevertheless, the differentiating factors behind that advantage were reduced to some extent by the role of social media.

  • 3465.
    Alpay, Sahin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Turkar i Stockholm: En studie av invandrare, politik och samhälle1980Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 3466. Alpcan, Tansu
    et al.
    Everitt, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Hutter, Marcus
    Can we measure the difficulty of an optimization problem?2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Can we measure the difficulty of an optimization problem? Although optimization plays a crucial role in modernscience and technology, a formal framework that puts problemsand solution algorithms into a broader context has not beenestablished. This paper presents a conceptual approach which gives a positive answer to the question for a broad class of optimization problems. Adopting an information and computational perspective, the proposed framework builds upon Shannon and algorithmic information theories. As a starting point, a concrete model and definition of optimization problems is provided. Then, a formal definition of optimization difficulty is introduced which builds upon algorithmic information theory. Following an initial analysis, lower and upper bounds on optimization difficulty are established. One of the upper-bounds is closely related to Shannon information theory and black-box optimization. Finally, various computational issues and future research directions are discussed.

  • 3467.
    Alpe, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis of oligosaccharides related to the capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9 and of Cryptococcus neoformans2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present investigation, synthesis of oligosaccharides corresponding to structural elements present in the capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Cryptococcus neoformans has been achieved. The first two sections describe the synthesis of spacer-equipped oligosaccharides corresponding to structures from the CPS of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 9N, 9A and 9L, the production of which involved synthetic challenges such as the construction of β-ManNAc and α-GlcA linkages. The former challenge was met by employing azide displacement of a 2-O-triflate substituent on a β-glucoside, whereas the latter task was accomplished utilizing thioethyl glucuronic acid donors in the presence of various promoters. The pentasaccharide product obtained correspond to the complete repeating unit of the CPS of serotype 9A.

    The last two sections of this thesis describe the construction of thioglycoside di- and trisaccharide building blocks containing α-Man, β-Xyl, β-GlcA and 6-O-acetyl motifs, as well as subsequent assembly of these building blocks into oligosaccharides corresponding to the repeating units of the capsular polysaccharide of the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. The GlcA moiety was introduced via trichloroacetimidate coupling involving the peracetylated glucuronic acid methyl ester donor, after which the subsequent necessary benzylation was performed with the di- and trisaccharides. All of the target oligosaccharides were synthesized as amino-spacer glycosides in order to make conjugation to a carrier protein possible.

  • 3468. Alpedrinha, João
    et al.
    Rodrigues, Leonor R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Magalhaes, Sara
    Abbott, Jessica
    The virtues and limitations of exploring the eco-evolutionary dynamics of sexually selected traits2019In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 128, no 10, p. 1381-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies on eco-evolutionary feedbacks concern the influence of abiotic factors, or predator-prey and host-parasite interactions, while studies involving sexual interactions are lagging behind. This is at odds with the potential of these interactions to engage in such processes. Indeed, there is now ample evidence that sexual selection is affected by ecological change and that sexually selected traits can evolve rapidly, which may modify the ecological context of populations, and thus the selection pressures they will be exposed to. Here we review evidence for such eco-evolutionary processes. We discuss examples of eco-evolutionary change in an attempt to understand the challenges related with identifying and characterizing such processes. In particular, we focus on the challenges associated with accurately identifying the components of the feedback as well as their causal relation. Finally, we evaluate scenarios where understanding eco-evolutionary feedbacks of sexual selection may help us appreciate the effects of sexual selection in shaping evolutionary processes.

  • 3469. Alpgård, Kim
    Properties of strange particles produced in proton-proton interactions at 19 GeV/c1979Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 3470.
    Alpsten, Agnes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Abraha, Nadab
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Individuellt miljöansvar, politisk konsumtion och klass: En kvantitativ studie om sambanden mellan upplevelse av individuellt miljöansvar, deltagande i politisk konsumtion och klasstillhörighet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka betydelsen av objektiv och subjektiv klasstillhörighet i upplevelsen av individuellt miljöansvar och deltagande i politisk konsumtion, samt om det finns skillnader mellan betydelsen av den objektiva och subjektiva klasstillhörigheten. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten för individuellt miljöansvar och politisk konsumtion är Ulrich Becks teorier om risksamhälle, modernisering och individualisering. Pierre Bourdieus kapitalteori definierar objektiv klasstillhörighet, medan subjektiv klasstillhörighet behandlas utifrån ett kognitivt perspektiv som bland annat innefattar yrkestillhörighet. Ansatsen är kvantitativ och deduktiv. Datamaterialet som används är ”Hållbart medborgarskap”, som samlades in av Michele Micheletti vid Stockholms Universitet genom ett riksrepresentativt OSU år 2009 och innefattar 3000 individer mellan 18 och 78 år. Sambanden undersöks med multivariat linjär regressionsanalys. Resultaten visar inte generaliserbara samband mellan objektiv klasstillhörighet eller subjektiv klasstillhörighet och upplevelse av individuellt miljöansvar, men mellan kulturellt kapital som beståndsdel av objektiv klasstillhörighet och upplevelsen av individuellt miljöansvar kan det. Betydelsen av objektiv klasstillhörighet eller subjektiv klasstillhörighet för deltagande i politisk konsumtion kan inte stärkas genom generaliserbara samband, men sambanden mellan kulturellt och socialt kapital som beståndsdelar av objektiv klasstillhörighet och deltagande i politisk konsumtion kan det. Samtliga resultat går i linje med hypoteserna, att högre objektiv respektive subjektiv klasstillhörighet indikerar en starkare upplevelse av individuellt miljöansvar samt att individen i större utsträckning deltar i politisk konsumtion.

  • 3471.
    Alpsten, Anna
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Skolgården - En värdefull miljö: Jämförande studie av en skolgårds värden ur elevperspektiv i relation till dokument som utgör underlag för en upprustning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftade till att lyfta en utvald skolgårds värden ur elevers perspektiv för att sedan jämföra detta med de värden som ett upprustningsförslag tagit hänsyn till och arbetat mot. Denna beskriver de kvalitativt olika sätt som människor uppfattar en skolgård. Genom att identifiera värden som skolgården har för barn och vilken typ av värden som dokumenterats i underlaget kunde en jämförelse visa hur den planerade förändringen påverkar befintliga värden. Som metod användes observationer och intervjuer av elever samt studie av ritningar och andra handlingar kring upprustningsförslaget. Analysen tog stöd av begreppet KASAM och det salutogena perspektivet som fokuserar på vad som främjar hälsa och skolgårdens värden sorterades och bearbetades med hjälp av tre perspektiv; det fysiskt interaktiva, det sociala och det semiotiska. Resultatet visade att flera av skolgårdens värden ur elevernas ögon riskerar att förbises om en upprustning sker utifrån ett vuxenperspektiv därför att vuxna ser på skolgården med ögonen medan barn använder den med hela kroppen. Ett vuxenperspektiv medför ett intresse av att förändra ytor som ser fula och slitna ut medan de mycket väl kan vara de mest värdefulla miljöerna för barn därför att leken är mer fri där. En vacker plantering får man bara titta på medan en skolträdgård i träda tillåter att man plockar, springer omkring och leker bland växterna vilket stimulerar hela barnet och gör att hon rör sig, känner och trivs. Barn är inte konsumenter av lek utan producenter. Elevers värdering av omgivningen framkommer inte utan kunskap om vad som stimulerar barn. En skolgård är elevernas verklighet som skall ge dem möjlighet till utveckling; socialt, emotionellt, motoriskt och kunskapsmässigt.

  • 3472.
    Alrawi, Loey
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    DNA Analysis on a Viking-age boat grave from Sala hytta Västmanland, grave A22017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Viking-age boat grave burials are a less common but still repeatedly used way to bury the dead during the late Iron Age. Boat burials are exceptional in many aspects, not only due to placing the individual in a boat with numerous burial gifts including animals, but also by burying the individual without prior cremation, a common practice during the Iron Age. The aim of this thesis is to genetically analyse inhumation boat graves and compare the genetic composition of the ancient individuals with modern populations through population genetic analyses. This will highlight these particular human remains in a mobility context. A total of 11 individuals was analysed, but only one yielded enough DNA for further statistical analyses. This one individual proved genetically exceptionally well preserved. The results clearly show that the individual (a female) has a genetic affinity to populations in northern Europe. However, the results do not discriminate between modern Baltic/Scandinavian populations, depending on the statistical test.

  • 3473.
    Alrawi, Loey
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Förekomsten av den genetiska varianten laktapersistens hos neolitiska grupper från Öland: The contribution of the genetic variant Lactase persistence among Neolithic people from the Baltic island Öland in Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the contribution of the genetic variant lactase persistence among Neolithic people from the Baltic Island Öland. Skeletal remains from twelve individuals went through DNA sequencing in order to find the mutation that allows adult individuals to digest milk sugar. The twelve individuals were chosen from two different Neolithic sites, where the archaeological and isotopic data suggest that the individuals from Köpingsvik were hunters and gatherers and the individuals from Resmo were early farmers. The individuals with the genetic variant lactase persistence can be described with selection and genetic flow.  Only five individuals produced results and the mutation was found in two of the subjects. All the individuals who were successfully sequenced came from Resmo, whereasno individuals from Köpingsvik yielded any results.  

  • 3474.
    Alroth, Brita
    et al.
    Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Antikens kultur och samhällsliv, Uppsala universitet.
    Scheffer, CharlotteStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Attitudes towards the Past in Antiquity. Creating Identities: Proceedings of an International Conference held at Stockholm University 15-17 May 20092014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume brings together twenty-eight papers from an International conference on attitudes towards the past and the creating of identities in Antiquity. The volume addresses many different approaches to these issues, spanning over many centuries, ranging in time from the Prehistoric periods to the Late Antiquity, and covering large areas, from Britain to Greece and Italy and to Asia Minor and Cyprus.

    The papers deal with several important problems, such as the use of tradition and memory in shaping an individual or a collective identity, continuity and/or change and the efforts to connect the past with the present. Among the topics discussed are the interpretation of literary texts, e.g. a play by Plautus, the Aeneid, a speech by Lykurgos, poems by Claudian and Prudentius, and of historical texts and inscriptions, e.g. funerary epigrams, and the analysis of the iconography of Roman coins, Etruscan reliefs, Pompeian and Etruscan frescoes and Cypriote sculpture, and of architectural remains of houses, tombs and temples. Other topics are religious festivals, such as the Lupercalia, foundation myths, the image of the emperor on coins and in literature, the significance of intra-urban burials, forgeries connected with the Trojan War, Hippocrates and Roman martyrs.

  • 3475.
    Alrup, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    ”Välj vego”: En argumentations- och legitimeringsanalytisk studie av Djurens Rätts webbtexter.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks språkliga strategier i tre webbtexter från den ideella organisationen Djurens Rätt. Djurens Rätt måste i sina texter möta kommunikativa utmaningar i form av en diversifierad målgrupp och att fylla olika syften, eller funktioner, i texterna. Dessa funktioner innebär dels att försöka väcka intresse hos mottagaren för innehållet i texterna och dels att försöka påverka mottagarens attityder till en djurvänlig livsstil. För att undersöka olika strategier använder jag mig av argumentationsanalys och legitimeringsanalys.

     

    Undersökningen visar på olika fynd, bland annat att Djurens Rätt i sina webbtexter arbetar mycket med auktoriteter, konsekvenser och exempel, men att de däremot inte arbetar med berättelser, explicita teser eller analogier. Dessa strategier verkar för att beroende av ämnet i den aktuella texten väcka mottagarens intresse eller påverka dennes attityder. Användningen av argument och legitimeringar beror på flera faktorer: ämnet, den tänkta målgruppen och den tänkta funktionen i den specifika texten. Djurens Rätt verkar även arbeta mycket med kunskap och förmedlingen av denna. Genom språket legitimeras denna kunskap, och att följa en vegansk kost.

  • 3476.
    Alsaati Edsman, Selma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    BDSM och samtycke: straffrihet för våld som utövas i sexuella sammanhang2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3477.
    Alsalehi, Alana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Är det lönsamt att bygga om ett industriområde?: Omvandling av industriområdet Kvarnholmen i Stockholm2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Omvandling av industriområden till bostadsområden har blivit allt mer vanligt på grund av den eftertraktade markytan. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka omvandlingen av industribyggnader till moderna bostäder på Kvarnholmen i Stockholm. Genom semitstrukturerade intervjuer med privata respektive offentliga aktörer utreds underliggande orsaker till valet mellan bevarande eller rivning av gamla industribyggnader, företagens prisbild mellan ombyggda och nyproducerade bostäder samt utvecklingens inverkan på kulturmiljön. Teorin som används i studien är hur kultur och ekonomi associeras genom platsmarknadsföring för att attrahera invånare och företag till en plats. Studien visar att en stor del av bebyggelsen har bevarats för att omvandlas till bostäder samtidigt som nyproducerade bostäder har tillkommit på Kvarnholmen. Byggföretagen anser att detkostar mer att bygga om industribyggnader till bostäderän att riva ner och bygga nytt. Det som styr priset på bostädernaär byggnadens geografiska läge, närheten till kommunikation och bekvämligheter, standard på bostäderna, bostadsmarknadens läge och ekonomiska kalkyler. Det förekommer inte någon prisskillnad mellan en omvandlad eller nyproducerad bostad för bostadsköparen. Bostadsköparna väljer inte att bo i en omvandlad industribyggnad.Synen på kulturmiljön har mer eller mindre blivit påverkad, med andra ord en del gamla industribyggnader har bevarats, men det sker en stor förändring på området.

  • 3478. Alsarve, Jenny
    et al.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Inte bara jämställdhet: Beslutet om föräldraledighet, moderskaps- och faderskapsideal och idéer om barns bästa2012In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 103-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3479.
    Alsarve, Jenny
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Man vill ha det lite jämställt sådär: planer för föräldraledighet och arbetsdelning bland blivande föräldrar2011Report (Other academic)
  • 3480. Alsarve, Jenny
    et al.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roman, Christine
    Realized plans or revised dreams? Swedish parents’ experiences of care, parental leave and paid work after childbirth2019In: New parents in Europe: work-care practices, gender norms and family policies / [ed] Daniela Grunow, Marie Evertsson, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, p. 68-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3481. Alsarve, Jenny
    et al.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roman, Christine
    The crossroads of equality and biology: The child’s best interests and constructions of motherhood and fatherhood in Sweden2016In: Couples' transitions to parenthood: analysing gender and work in Europe / [ed] Daniela Grunow, Marie Evertsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3482.
    Alsberg,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kärsrud,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Broms, S.
    Gleisner, M.
    Provningsjämförelse 2007 - Bestämning av petroleumkolväten i standardlösningar, vatten och jord med GC/MS2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3483.
    Alsberg, T
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kärsrud, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gleisner, M.
    Provningsjämförelse 2008 - Bestämning av petroleumkolväten i standardlösningar, vatten och jord med GC/MS2008Report (Other academic)
  • 3484.
    Alsberg, T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Minten, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Haglund, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Törnqvist, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Determination of hydroxyalkyl derivatives of cobalamin (vitamin B12) using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and ultraviolet diode array detection2001In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 15, no 24, p. 2438-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and ultraviolet diode array detection (UV-DAD), coupled on-line to reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was used for the characterization of hydroxyalkyl derivatives of cob(I)alamin. The reduced form of vitamin B12, cob(I)alamin, denoted a supernucleophile due to its high nucleophilic strength, has shown promise as an analytical tool in studies of electrophilically reactive compounds in vitro and in vivo. A method for analysis of DNA-phosphate adducts was developed earlier utilizing the supernucleophilicity of cob(I)alamin to transfer alkyl groups from the phosphotriester configuration in DNA, with the formation of a Co-substituted alkyl-cobalamin (alkyl-Cbl) complex. For the purpose of identification and quantification of alkyl-Cbls at high sensitivity, an MS/MS method has been developed with application to a number of 2-hydroxyalkyl-cobalamins (OHalkyl-Cbls). The precursor oxiranes were reacted with cob(I)alamin, followed by clean-up and mass spectrometric analysis of the resulting OHalkyl-Cbls. It was found that ionization was highly dependent on solvent composition. By using acetonitrile/water/trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (eluent I), the base peak was the doubly protonated molecule [M + 2H](2+), whereas acetonitrile/water/1-methylpiperidine (eluent II) yielded the singly protonated molecule [M + H](+) as the base peak. Excellent separation was obtained with eluent II, with good separation between stereoisomers, thus enabling the characterization of these by means of UV spectra. Limits of quantitation for 2-hydroxypropyl-cobalamin (OHPr-Cbl) were 0.2 and 2 pg/microL (or 0.1 and 1 fmol/microL) using selected ion recording (SIR) with eluent I and II, respectively. The obtained detection level should be sufficient for analysis of alkyl-Cbls from a wide range of toxicological applications.

  • 3485.
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University.
    Chemical analysis of complex mixtures with regard to potentially genotoxic organic compounds1984Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 3486.
    Alsbjer, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    La cultura sueca traducida al español: Un análisis de la traducción al español de la novela "Låt den rätte komma in"2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es investigar y analizar la traducción al español de la novela “Låt den rätte komma in” de John Ajvide Lindqvist, con el enfoque en los elementos de la cultura sueca. Aunque la traductología es una disciplina relativamente nueva en el campo de la ciencia, ya se han desarollado una multitud de teorías, y por tanto hay varios posibles puntos de partida para hacer un análisis. Tomamos el nuestro en la teoría del skopos de Reiss y Vermeer, que es apta para clasificar los modos de traducir y para analizar la intención de la traductora. Defendemos la hipótesis de que la traductora habrá usado las estrategias de traducción filológica y comunicativa, para lograr un texto terminal que es adaptado a las necesidades de los lectores de la cultura meta. Para realizar la investigación comparamos las partes del texto original que contengan elementos culturales relevantes con el texto terminal y hacemos un análisis en cada caso. Concluimos que la traductora ha usado más las estrategias de traducción literal y filológica, aunque a veces usa la estrategia literal a costa de la coherencia del texto terminal.

  • 3487.
    Al-Shamaa, Khadija
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Genrepedagogik i klassrummet: En kvalitativ och deskriptiv studie om mellanstadielärares tillämpning av och tankar kring genrepedagogisk undervisning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie som är kvalitativ och deskriptiv till sin karaktär var att undersöka hur mellanstadielärare genomför och tänker kring sin genrepedagogiska undervisning. Detta undersöktes med hjälp av tre frågeställningar som handlar om hur det sociokulturella perspektivet, den funktionella grammatiken samt cirkelmodellen förekommer i den genrepedagogiska undervisningen och beskrivs av lärarna. Metoderna som användes för att besvara frågeställningarna var klassrumsobservationer och intervjuer. Resultatet visade att det sociokulturella perspektivet, den funktionella grammatiken samt cirkelmodellen har en tydlig förankring i lärarnas undervisning och förekommer på olika sätt. Det sociokulturella perspektivets förekomst kännetecknas av mycket interaktion och stöttning samt meningsfulla och kognitivt utmanande uppgifter. Den funktionella grammatikens förekomst kännetecknas av ett gemensamt metaspråk samt en medvetenhet kring språk och språkanvändning. Cirkelmodellens förekomst kännetecknas av en explicit språk- och ämnesintegrerad undervisning med fokus på kunskapsinhämtning, något som är tidskrävande men gynnsamt.

  • 3488.
    Alshamani, Mariam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Principen om non-refoulement: en studie om förhållandet mellan exklusionsbestämmelserna från skyddsstatus i utlänningslagen och principen om non-refoulement samt det absoluta förbudet mot tortyr2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3489.
    Alsheikhly, Abdul-Razzak
    Stockholm University.
    Virus mediated induction of antibody independent cytotoxicity (VDCC) and enhancement of antibody dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) in human lymphocytes in vitro1984Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 3490.
    Alshoufani, Rama
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mobile Learning and Self-Worth: The Case of Syrian Refugees from a Kantian Perspective2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the war in Syria is about to enter its seventh year, Syrians continue to head towards Europe to seek safety and protection. This challenges European countries to provide urgent relief and services including education for a high number of Syrian refugees every year. However, the journey of Syrian refugees does not end with their arrival to safety. The refugee experience presents many difficulties including issues of wellbeing and self-worth. This qualitative comparative study examines the different platforms and solutions Mobile Learning could offer to refugees. In addition to that, it also discusses the possibility of leveraging Mobile Learning as a mean for Syrian refugees in Europe to achieve a sense of self-worth from the Kantian perspective of agency. The study starts with a comprehensive overview of the meaning of the term ‘refugee’ and the refugee experience, then it moves on to identify Mobile Learning and its impact and relationship to the recent refugee crisis. Then, the study introduces the Kantian philosopher Christine Korsgaard and her idea of agency, action, identity and value. The literature review after that discusses Korsgaard’s philosophy and links it to refugees and Mobile Learning. After viewing the research methods and methodology, the study comparatively analyses and discusses findings drawn from semi-structured interviews of 10 participants pertaining to the use of Mobile Learning platforms for higher education and language learning. The implications of these findings are that Syrian refugees in Europe have access to Mobile Learning platforms that vary in use and quality. However, when these platforms are used successfully, they do have the potential to support refugees’ sense of self-worth. The study then ends with a conclusion and suggestions for future research.

  • 3491.
    Alsin, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kaufeldt Lönn, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Motsatsen till relativism... stavas absolutism": En kritisk diskursanalys av LVM i svensk nyhetspress2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study have been to examine how lagen (1988:870) om vård av missbrukare i vissa fall [LVM] (involuntary treatment for addicts) is constructed in Swedish news press and what discourses are being produced regarding LVM and involuntary treatment. Out of the 195 articles that fit the search criteria, extending a period of ten years, 36 were selected and analyzed, using a critical discourse analysis according to the three-dimensional model proposed by Fairclough. The theoretical perspective derives from the hypothesis of social constructionism. This study shows that LVM is subject to a silent assumption of an economic constraints discourse that´s being produced in news press, regarding the shortage of funds in public sector. In turn, this discourse also exhibits close relationship with the greater addiction discourse, which deems drug- and alcohol abuse as sickness, or disease. Furthermore, a set of minor discourses are identified, that to some degree stems from the economic constraints discourse. The media depiction presents an ongoing medicalization process that in social practice results in a higher death rate among drug abusers. The notion that medicinal treatment of addiction is more cost effective than LVM, nonetheless spurs society in adding evermore medicinal treatment of addicts.

  • 3492.
    Alsing, Justin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Flatiron Institute, USA; Imperial College London, UK.
    Charnock, Tom
    Feeney, Stephen
    Wandelt, Benjamin
    Fast likelihood-free cosmology with neural density estimators and active learning2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 488, no 3, p. 4440-4458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Likelihood-free inference provides a framework for performing rigorous Bayesian inference using only forward simulations, properly accounting for all physical and observational effects that can be successfully included in the simulations, The key challenge for likelihood-free applications in cosmology, where simulation is typically expensive, is developing methods that can achieve high-fidelity posterior inference with as few simulations as possible. Density estimation likelihood-free inference (DELFI) methods turn inference into a density-estimation task on a set of simulated data-parameter pairs, and give orders of magnitude improvements over traditional Approximate Bayesian Computation approaches to likelihood-free inference. In this paper, we use neural density estimators (NDEs) to learn the likelihood function from a set of simulated data sets, with active learning to adaptively acquire simulations in the most relevant regions of parameter space on the fly. We demonstrate the approach on a number of cosmological case studies, showing that for typical problems high-fidelity posterior inference can be achieved with just 0(103) simulations or fewer. In addition to enabling efficient simulation-based inference, for simple problems where the form of the likelihood is known, DELFI offers a fast alternative to Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling, giving orders of magnitude speed-up in some cases. Finally, we introduce PYDELFI a flexible public implementation of DELFI with NDFs and active learning - available at haps://github.com/justinalsing/pydelfi.

  • 3493.
    Alsing, Justin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Flatiron Institute, USA; Imperial College London, UK.
    Wandelt, Benjamin
    Nuisance hardened data compression for fast likelihood-free inference2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 488, no 4, p. 5093-5103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how nuisance parameter marginalized posteriors can be inferred directly from simulations in a likelihood-free setting, without having to jointly infer the higher dimensional interesting and nuisance parameter posterior first and marginalize a posteriori. The result is that for an inference task with a given number of interesting parameters, the number of simulations required to perform likelihood-free inference can be kept (roughly) the same irrespective of the number of additional nuisances to be marginalized over. To achieve this, we introduce two extensions to the standard likelihood-free inference set-up. First, we show how nuisance parameters can be recast as latent variables and hence automatically marginalized over in the likelihood-free framework. Secondly, we derive an asymptotically optimal compression from N data to n summaries - one per interesting parameter - such that the Fisher information is (asymptotically) preserved, but the summaries are insensitive to the nuisance parameters. This means that the nuisance marginalized inference task involves learning n interesting parameters from n nuisance hardened' data summaries, regardless of the presence or number of additional nuisance parameters to be marginalized over. We validate our approach on two examples from cosmology: supernovae and weak-lensing data analyses with nuisance parametrized systematics. For the supernova problem, high-fidelity posterior inference of Omega(m) and w(0) (marginalized over systematics) can be obtained from just a few hundred data simulations. For the weak-lensing problem, six cosmological parameters can be inferred from just simulations, irrespective of whether 10 additional nuisance parameters are included in the problem or not.

  • 3494.
    Alsing, Rolf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Literature and History of Ideas, History of Literature.
    Modernism på vischan: En studie av Tage Aurells kortroman Martina2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tage Aurell (1895-1976) var en originell författare som fick ett senkommet erkännande på 1940-talet. Kortromaner han gav ut på 1930-talet gick inte hem vare sig hos kritiker eller läsare. Varför?

    Min uppsats syftar till attklarlägga vad det var som gjorde Aurell så egenartad. Det sker genom en noggrann läsning och undersökningav hansroman Martina från 1937. Det skerockså genom att berättelsen analyseras med hjälp av begrepp somlitteraturforskarna Wayne CBooth, Seymor Chatman och Gerald Prince lanserat och diskuterat. Jag vill också pröva vad för slags bok Martinaär. En roman, en novell, en berättelse på prosa? Genretillhörigheten är inte självklar.

    Arbetet har lett fram till följande slutsatser: Martina är snarareen novell än en roman. Aurell är modernist men ingen vanlig modernist med intresse för den stora staden och livet där. Hans miljö är landsbygden. Inspirerad av främst Gustave Flaubert och Herman Bang är han också impressionist och har en berättarteknik som är karakteristisk för denna riktning: en berättare som håller distans, fri indirekt anföring, scenfragment, glimtar och antydningar, till exempel.Inget psykologiserande. Protagonisterna får avslöja sig genom handlingar och repliker. Närheten till dramat är påfallande.

    Aurell skrev kortprosa och var extremt sparsmakad med orden när andra med framgång skrev tjocka ordrika romaner. Han ville inte skriva många böcker, bara några små, men de böckerna skulle vara bra, sade han själv.

  • 3495.
    Alsterlund, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Olsson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Arbetslöshet - dina vänners fel?: En analys av våra personliga nätverks betydelse för anställning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Finns det ett samband mellan sannolikheten för att ha ett arbete och hur ditt nätverk ser ut? I så fall på vilket sätt? Denna studie undersöker om antalet nära vänner har betydelse för om du har arbete eller inte. Studien syftar även till att ta reda på vilka egenskaper hos nära vänner som kan gynna eller missgynna individen i arbetssökandet. Nära vänner med eller utan arbete, födda i Sverige eller utlandet; vilka är till gagn på arbetsmarknaden och vilka har mindre att tillföra? Denna kvantitativa studie är grundad i ett nationellt representativt datamaterial och undersöker sambanden mellan att vara anställd eller arbetslös och innehållet i ens personliga nätverk – dem man kallar sina nära vänner.

    Studiens hypoteser bygger på nätverksteori och teori om socialt kapital, samt forskning som tidigare gjorts på området. Genom logistiska regressioner har sedan sambanden undersökts och analyserats utifrån en deduktiv ansats.

    Resultaten visar att det inte finns något samband mellan antalet vänner och sannolikheten för att ha ett arbete. Inte heller att vännerna är födda utomlands är signifikant för sambandet. Däremot finns det ett negativt samband mellan sannolikheten för att ha ett arbete och antalet vänner som är arbetslösa.

    Detta analyseras vidare och diskuteras utifrån individ- och samhällsnivå. Avsnittet utmynnar slutligen i förslag på framtida forskning.

  • 3496.
    Alstermark, Helny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Das Arzneibuch des Johan van Segen1977Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 3497.
    Alström, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Rajnai, Kristian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Betalningsmodellens betydelse för relationen reklambyrå/kund.2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utgår från att det existerar ett utbrett missnöje kring relationen mellan reklambyråer och deras kunder. Missnöjda kunder menar bland annat att problemen i deras relation med reklambyråer grundar sig i att kostnaderna för reklambyråernas tjänster ej motsvarar nedlagt arbete samt att reklambyråerna inte har varit tillräckligt seriösa som leverantörer. Missnöjda reklambyråer upplever till exempel att företagsledningar ofta är fega och oförstående om vad reklamen kan bidra med i marknadsföringsmixen. Att reklambyråcheferna ger sina kunder låga betyg i branschundersökningar kan ses som ett bevis på detta. Vad som är av intresse i denna undersökning är att de lösningarna som presenteras sällan berör hur missnöjet i relationen kan överbryggas med hjälp av olika betalningsmodeller. Syftet med studien är att med hjälp av en kvalitativ undersökning utreda: dels hur reklambyråer och deras kunder i Stockholm ser på relationen dem emellan; dels vad som påverkar dem vid val av betalningsmodell och slutligen hur detta val inverkar på aktörernas upplevda relation? För att uppnå detta kommer studien använda ett kvalitativt intervjuförfarande med tolv respondenter. Teorin som används i undersökningen är bland annat tidigare studier kring relationen mellan reklambyrå och kunder. Agentteori används för att visa hur ett företag med hjälp av betalningsmodeller kan förhålla sig gentemot byråer. Slutligen beskrivs de olika formerna av betalningsmodeller som används mellan reklambyråer och deras kunder: det första innebär att byråns ersättning baseras på mediebudgeten, den andra modellen utgörs vanligtvis av olika former av arvoden, den tredje är modeller som är grundade på resultat. Slutsatsen är att vissa kunder och reklambyråer via betalningsmodeller försöker underlätta relationen. De finns även andra som inte tycks ta hänsyn till relationen vid val av betalningsmodeller, utan ser betalningsmodeller som ett medel för att uppnå kostnadskontroll.

  • 3498.
    Alström, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Stenberg, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Platsen: Platsens betydelse för företagets positionering2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen handlar om platsen och dess betydelse för företagets positionering. Några av de samhällsvetenskapliga teoriernas syn på platsen och positionering kartläggs. För att applicera de samhällsvetenskapliga teorierna på ett verkligt fall, så har även empirisk information från Konsthantverkarna använts.

  • 3499. Alström, Per
    et al.
    Höhna, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Gelang, Magnus
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Olsson, Urban
    Non-monophyly and intricate morphological evolution within the avian family Cettiidae revealed by multilocus analysis of a taxonomically densely sampled dataset2011In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 11, p. 352-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The avian family Cettiidae, including the genera Cettia, Urosphena, Tesia, Abroscopus and Tickellia and Orthotomus cucullatus, has recently been proposed based on analysis of a small number of loci and species. The close relationship of most of these taxa was unexpected, and called for a comprehensive study based on multiple loci and dense taxon sampling. In the present study, we infer the relationships of all except one of the species in this family using one mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. We use traditional gene tree methods (Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood bootstrapping, parsimony bootstrapping), as well as a recently developed Bayesian species tree approach (*BEAST) that accounts for lineage sorting processes that might produce discordance between gene trees. We also analyse mitochondrial DNA for a larger sample, comprising multiple individuals and a large number of subspecies of polytypic species. Results: There are many topological incongruences among the single-locus trees, although none of these is strongly supported. The multi-locus tree inferred using concatenated sequences and the species tree agree well with each other, and are overall well resolved and well supported by the data. The main discrepancy between these trees concerns the most basal split. Both methods infer the genus Cettia to be highly non-monophyletic, as it is scattered across the entire family tree. Deep intraspecific divergences are revealed, and one or two species and one subspecies are inferred to be non-monophyletic (differences between methods). Conclusions: The molecular phylogeny presented here is strongly inconsistent with the traditional, morphology-based classification. The remarkably high degree of non-monophyly in the genus Cettia is likely to be one of the most extraordinary examples of misconceived relationships in an avian genus. The phylogeny suggests instances of parallel evolution, as well as highly unequal rates of morphological divergence in different lineages. This complex morphological evolution apparently misled earlier taxonomists. These results underscore the well-known but still often neglected problem of basing classifications on overall morphological similarity. Based on the molecular data, a revised taxonomy is proposed. Although the traditional and species tree methods inferred much the same tree in the present study, the assumption by species tree methods that all species are monophyletic is a limitation in these methods, as some currently recognized species might have more complex histories.

  • 3500. Alsubai, Khalid
    et al.
    Mislis, Dimitris
    Tsvetanov, Zlatan I.
    Latham, David W.
    Bieryla, Allyson
    Buchhave, Lars A.
    Esquerdo, Gilbert A.
    Bramich, D. M.
    Pyrzas, Stylianos
    Vilchez, Nicolas P. E.
    Mancini, Luigi
    Southworth, John
    Evans, Daniel F.
    Henning, Thomas
    Ciceri, Simona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Germany.
    Qatar Exoplanet Survey: Qatar-3b, Qatar-4b, and Qatar-5b2017In: Astronomical Journal, ISSN 0004-6256, E-ISSN 1538-3881, Vol. 153, no 4, article id 200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of Qatar-3b, Qatar-4b, and Qatar-5b, three new transiting planets identified by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey. The three planets belong to the hot Jupiter family, with orbital periods of P-Q3b = 2.50792 days, P-Q4b = 1.80539 days, and P-Q5b = 2.87923 days. Follow-up spectroscopic observations reveal the masses of the planets to be M-Q3b = 4.31 +/- 0.47 M-J, M-Q4b = 6.10 +/- 0.54 M-J, and M-Q5b = 4.32 +/- 0.18 M-J, while model fits to the transit light curves yield radii of R-Q3b = 1.096 +/- 0.14 RJ, R-Q4b = 1.135 +/- 0.11 R-J, and R-Q5b = 1.107 +/- 0.064 R-J. The host stars are low-mass main sequence stars with masses and radii M-Q3 = 1.145 +/- 0.064 M circle dot, M-Q4 = 0.896 +/- 0.048 M circle dot, M-Q5 = 1.128 +/- 0.056 M circle dot and R-Q3 = 1.272 +/- 0.14 R circle dot, R-Q4 = 0.849 +/- 0.063 R circle dot, and R-Q5 = 1.076 +/- 0.051 R circle dot for Qatar-3, 4, and 5 respectively. The V magnitudes of the three host stars are V-Q3 = 12.88, V-Q4 = 13.60, and V-Q5 = 12.82. All three new planets can be classified as heavy hot Jupiters (M > 4 M-J).

67686970717273 3451 - 3500 of 109554
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