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  • 401. Blomqvist, My
    et al.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Holmberg, Kirsten
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dahlloö, Göran
    Cognitive ability and dental fear and anxiety2013In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 117-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental fear and anxiety (DFA), as well as dental behavior management problems, are common in children and adolescents. Several psychological factors in the child, and parental DFA, have been studied and found to correlate to the child's DFA. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive ability and DFA in a population-based group of children with identified behavior and learning problems. In conjunction with a dental examination at 11yr of age, 70 children were assessed with regard to DFA using the Children's Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), and their cognitive ability was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. In addition, parental DFA was measured using the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale. The results revealed that DFA was significantly correlated to verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) but not to any other cognitive index. A significant correlation was found between parental DFA and child DFA. The results indicate that the child's verbal capacity may be one factor of importance in explaining dental fear in children.

  • 402. Bloomfield, Kim
    et al.
    Grittner, Ulrike
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Piontek, Daniela
    Drinking patterns at the sub-national level: What do they tell us about drinking cultures in European countries?2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 342-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    A drinking pattern is not only a major drinking variable, but is also one indicator of a country's drinking culture. In the present study, we examine drinking patterns within and across the neighbouring countries of Denmark and Germany. The aim of the research is to determine to what extent drinking patterns differ or are shared at the sub-national level in the two countries.

    Method:

    Data came from the German 2012 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Use (n = 9084) 18-64 years (response rate 54%), and the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research's 2011 Danish national survey (n = 5133) 15-79 years (response rate 64%), which was reduced to a common age range, producing a final n = 4016. The drinking pattern variable included abstention, moderate drinking, heavy drinking, risky single occasion drinking (RSOD), and was investigated with bivariate statistics and gender-specific hierarchical cluster analysis.

    Results:

    For men three clusters emerged: one highlighting abstention and RSOD, moderate/heavy drinking, RSOD and RSOD + heavy drinking. For women, two clusters appeared: one highlighting abstention and moderate/heavy drinking and the other highlighting RSOD and RSDO + heavy drinking. The clusters revealed different geographical patterning: for men, a west vs. east divide; for women, a north-south gradient.

    Conclusions:

    The analysis could identify for each gender clusters representing both separate and shared drinking patterns as well as distinctive geographical placements. This new knowledge can contribute to a new understanding of the dynamics of drinking cultures and could indicate new approaches to prevention efforts and policy initiatives.

  • 403.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    An explorative review of the Lean office concept2013In: Journal of Corporate Real Estate, ISSN 1463-001X, E-ISSN 1479-1048, Vol. 15, no 3/4, p. 167-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The concept of Lean office design has emerged, claiming to support an efficient labour process. This article aims to investigate how the two main perspectives identified in the Lean office: the neo-Tayloristic approach and the team-based approach, based in different historical backgrounds, use the office design to shorten lead time and free up time.

    Design/methodology/approach – An extensive review is done in the article of what the Lean office concept means for different research areas and to practitioners.

    Findings – The study presents the two Lean office perspectives in relation to each other, something that has not been done before since it is only recently the team-based Lean office was introduced. The study also presents possible risk and benefits of two perspectives from an employee and organizational perspective.

    Research limitations/implications – Since this is a first exploratory review of the Lean office concept based on theories and examples from design practice, further empirical studies are needed to determine risks and benefits of the concept.

    Practical implications – The clarifying examples in the article make it useful for people involved in the design and building process of offices.

    Originality/value – The article brings together the fields of labour process, office research and facility management with the design practice and presents the two perspectives Lean office design in relation to each other, which has not been done before since the team-based Lean office has only recently been introduced.

  • 404.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Are you sitting comfortably? Office design and worker wellbeing2014In: Safety Management, ISSN 1069-2118, Vol. 16, p. 17-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 405.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lean i arbetslivet: Lean inom kontorsdesign2013In: Lean i arbetslivet / [ed] Per Sederblad, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 162-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 406.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    L'impact de la conception architecturale des bureaux sur le confort et le bien-être desemployés (Eng. The impact of architectural design offices in the comfort andwell-being of employees): Le confort au travail : Quenous apprend la psychologie environnementale? (Eng. Comfort at work: What canwe learn from environmental psychology?)2013In: L'impact de la conception architecturale des bureaux sur le confort et le bien-être desemployés / [ed] L. Rioux, J. Le Roy, L. Rubens & J. Le Conte, Quebec City,Canada: Presses Universitaires de Laval , 2013, 1, p. 17-39Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 407.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. School of Architecture, School of Architecture & Built Environment, The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Office type's association to employees' welfare: Three studies2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 779-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The workplace is important for employees' daily life and well-being. This article investigates exploratory the office design's role for employees' welfare from different perspectives.

    OBJECTIVE: By comparing different studies of the office, type's influence on different factors of employees' welfare the aim is to see if any common patterns exist in office design's impact.

    METHODS: The three included studies investigate office type's association with employees' welfare by measuring its influence on: a) perception of leadership, b) sick leave, and c) job satisfaction.The sample consists of office employees from a large, national representative work environment survey that work in one of the seven identified office types in contemporary office design: (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Statistical method used is multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis with adjustment for background factors.

    RESULTS: Overall results show that shared-room office, traditional open plan offices and flex-office stand out negatively, but to different degree(s) on the different outcomes measured.

    CONCLUSIONS: This explorative comparison of different studies finds a pattern of office types that repeatedly show indications of negative influence on employees' welfare, but further studies are needed to clarify this.

  • 408.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Office design's impact on sick leave rates:  2014In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 139-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. Practitioner Summary: A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  • 409. Bodin, Maja
    et al.
    Stern, Jenny
    Käll, Lisa Folkmarson
    Centre for Gender Research, Humanistiskt centrum, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Dementia Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tydén, Tanja
    Larsson, Margareta
    Coherence of pregnancy planning within couples expecting a child2015In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 973-978Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 410.
    Bognar, Greg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy. La Trobe University, Australia.
    Is disability mere difference?2016In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 46-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 411.
    Bogren, Alexandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alcohol short-circuits important part of the brain': Swedish newspaper representations of biomedical alcohol research2017In: Addiction Research and Theory, ISSN 1606-6359, E-ISSN 1476-7392, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 177-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The media has a central role in communicating and constructing health knowledge, including communicating research findings related to alcohol consumption. However, research on news reporting about alcohol is still a relatively small field; in particular, there are few studies of the reporting of biomedical alcohol and drug research, despite the assumed increasing popularity of biomedical perspectives in public discourse in general. The present article addresses the representational `devices' used in Swedish press reporting about biomedical alcohol research, drawing on qualitative thematic analysis of the topics, metaphors, and optimist versus critical frames used in presenting biomedical research findings. In general, the press discourse focuses on genetic factors related to alcohol problems, on the role of the brain and the reward system in addiction, and on medication for treating alcohol problems. Metaphors of `reconstruction' and `reprograming' of the reward system are used to describe how the brain's function is altered in addiction, whereas metaphors of `undeserved reward' and `shortcuts' to pleasure are used to describe alcohol's effects on the brain. The study indicates that aspects of the Swedish press discourse of biomedical alcohol research invite reductionism, but that this result could be understood from the point of view of both the social organization of reporting and the intersection of reporting, science, and everyday understandings rather than from the point of view of the news articles only. Moreover, some characteristics of the media portrayals leave room for interpretation, calling for research on the meanings ascribed to metaphors of addiction in everyday interaction.

  • 412. Bohman, H
    et al.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Päären, A
    Jonsson, U
    Somatic symptoms in adolescence as a predictor of inpatient care for mental disorders in adulthood2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 413. Bohman, Hannes
    et al.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Päären, Aivar
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood: a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years2017In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 17, article id 117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Earlier research has investigated the association between parental separation and long-term health outcomes among offspring, but few studies have assessed the potentially moderating role of mental health status in adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze whether parental separation in childhood predicts depression in adulthood and whether the pattern differs between individuals with and without earlier depression. Methods: A community-based sample of individuals with adolescent depression in 1991-93 and matched non-depressed peers were followed up using a structured diagnostic interview after 15 years. The participation rate was 65% (depressed n = 227; non-depressed controls n = 155). Information on parental separation and conditions in childhood and adolescence was collected at baseline. The outcome was depression between the ages 19-31 years; information on depression was collected at the follow-up diagnostic interview. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. Results: Our analyses showed that depressed adolescents with separated parents had an excess risk of recurrence of depression in adulthood, compared with depressed adolescents with non-separated parents. In addition, among adolescents with depression, parental separation was associated with an increased risk of a switch to bipolar disorder in adulthood. Among the matched non-depressed peers, no associations between parental separation and adult depression or bipolar disorder were found. Conclusions: Parental separation may have long-lasting health consequences for vulnerable individuals who suffer from mental illness already in adolescence.

  • 414. Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Wistén, Pelle
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kulturen – en viktig insats för hållbar folkhälsa: seminarier, antologi och underlag för fortsatta insatser2015In: Kultur & folkhälsa: antologi om forskning och praktik / [ed] Eva Bojner Horwitz, Christer Hogstedt, Pelle Wistén och Töres Theorell, Stockholm: Tolvnitton förlag , 2015, p. 9-11Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 415. Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Wistén, Pelle
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Varför har inte fler studier publicerats? Reflektioner om seminarieserien om kultur och folkhälsa2015In: Kultur & folkhälsa: antologi om forskning och praktik / [ed] Eva Bojner Horwitz, Christer Hogstedt, Pelle Wistén, Töres Theorell, Stockholm: Tolvnitton förlag , 2015, p. 239-246Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 416. Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Osika, Walter
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hållbarhetstestning och implementering av kulturaktiviteter – forskarsamhällets roll2015In: Kultur & folkhälsa: antologi om forskning och praktik / [ed] Eva Bojner Horwitz, Christer Hogstedt, Pelle Wistén, Töres Theorell, Stockholm: Tolvnitton förlag , 2015, p. 107-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 417. Bokenberger, Kathleen
    et al.
    Ström, Peter
    Aslan, Anna K. Dahl
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Shift work and cognitive aging: a longitudinal study2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 485-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The few studies of shift work and late life cognitive functioning have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to estimate the association between shift-work experience and change in cognitive performance before and after retirement age among older adults who were gainfully employed. Methods Five hundred and ninety five participants with no dementia were followed up for a mean of 17.6 standard deviation (SD) 8.8 years from a Swedish population-based sample. Participants had self-reported information on any type of shift-work experience (ever/never) in 1984 and measures of cognitive performance (verbal, spatial, memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability) from up to 9 waves of cognitive assessments during 1986-2012. Night work history (ever/never) from 1998-2002 was available from a subsample (N = 320). Early adult cognitive test scores were available for 77 men. Results In latent growth curve modeling, there were no main effects of any-type or night shift work on the mean scores or rate of change in any of the cognitive domains. An interaction effect between any-type shift work and education on cognitive performance at retirement was noted. Lower-educated shift workers performed better on cognitive tests than lower-educated day workers at retirement. Sensitivity analyses, however, indicated that the interactions appeared to be driven by selection effects. Lower-educated day workers demonstrated poorer cognitive ability in early adulthood than lower-educated shift workers, who may have selected jobs entailing higher cognitive demand. Conclusion There was no difference in late-life cognitive aging between individuals with a history of working shifts compared to those who had typical day work schedules during midlife.

  • 418. Bokenberger, Kathleen
    et al.
    Ström, Peter
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Johansson, Anna L. V.
    Gatz, Margaret
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Association Between Sleep Characteristics and Incident Dementia Accounting for Baseline Cognitive Status: A Prospective Population-Based Study2017In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 134-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although research has shown that sleep disorders are prevalent among people with dementia, the temporal relationship is unclear. We investigated whether atypical sleep characteristics were associated with incident dementia while accounting for baseline cognitive functioning.

    METHODS: Screening Across the Lifespan Twin (SALT) study participants were 11,247 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry who were at least 65 years at baseline (1998-2002). Sleep and baseline cognitive functioning were assessed via the SALT telephone screening interview. Data on dementia diagnoses came from national health registers. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios for dementia.

    RESULTS: After 17 years of follow-up, 1,850 dementia cases were identified. Short (≤6 hours) and extended (>9 hours) time in bed (TIB) compared to the middle reference group (hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.85; hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.24, respectively) and rising at 8:00 AM or later compared to earlier rising (hazard ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.24) were associated with higher dementia incidence. Bedtime, sleep quality, restorative sleep, and heavy snoring were not significant predictors. Findings stratified by baseline cognitive status indicated that the association between short TIB and dementia remained in those cognitively intact at the start.

    CONCLUSIONS: Short and extended TIB and delayed rising among older adults predicted increased dementia incidence in the following 17 years. The pattern of findings suggests that extended TIB and late rising represent prodromal features whereas short TIB appeared to be a risk factor for dementia.

  • 419. Bolad, Ahmed
    et al.
    Farouk, Salah E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Israelsson, Elisabeth
    Dolo, Amagana
    Doumbo, Ogobara K.
    Nebié, Issa
    Maiga, Boubacar
    Kouriba, Bourema
    Luoni, Gaia
    Sirima, Bienveu S.
    Distinct interethnic differences in IgG class/subclass and IgM antibody responses to malaria antigens but not in IgG responses to non-malarial antigens in sympatric tribes living in West Africa2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 380-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-established relative resistance to malaria observed in the Fulani as compared with other sympatric tribes in West Africa has been attributed to their higher levels of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to malarial antigens. In this study, we confirm and extend the previous findings by analyses of the levels of IgM, IgG and IgG subclasses of anti-malarial antibodies in asymptomatic individuals of different sympatric tribes in Burkina Faso (Fulani/Mossi) and Mali (Fulani/Dogon). The Fulani showed significantly higher median concentrations of anti-malarial IgG and IgM antibodies than the sympatric tribes at both locations. Although the overall subclass pattern of antibodies did not differ between the tribes, with IgG1 and IgG3 as dominant, the Fulani showed consistently significantly higher levels of these subclasses as compared with those of the non-Fulani individuals. No significant differences were seen in the levels of total IgG between the tribes, but the Fulani showed significantly higher levels of total IgM than their neighbours in both countries. While the antibody levels to some nonmalarial antigens showed the same pattern of differences seen for antibody levels to malaria antigens, no significant such differences were seen with antibodies to other nonmalarial antigens. In conclusion, our results show that the Fulani in two different countries show higher levels of anti-malarial antibodies than sympatric tribes, and this appears not to be a reflection of a general hyper-reactivity in the Fulani.

  • 420. Bolad, Ahmed
    et al.
    Farouk, Salah E.
    Modiano, David
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Israelsson, Elisabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Dolo, Amagana
    Doumbo, Ogobara K.
    Nebié, Issa
    Maiga, Boubacar
    Kouriba, Bourema
    Luoni, Gaia
    Sirima, Bienveu Sodiomon
    Distinct interethnic differences in IgG class/subclass and IgM antibody responses to malaria antigens but not in IgG responses to non-malarial antigens in sympatric tribes living in West Africa2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 380-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-established relative resistance to malaria observed in the Fulani ascompared with other sympatric tribes in West Africa has been attributed totheir higher levels of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to malarialantigens. In this study, we confirm and extend the previous findings by analysesof the levels of IgM, IgG and IgG subclasses of anti-malarial antibodies inasymptomatic individuals of different sympatric tribes in Burkina Faso(Fulani/Mossi) and Mali (Fulani/Dogon). The Fulani showed significantlyhigher median concentrations of anti-malarial IgG and IgM antibodies thanthe sympatric tribes at both locations. Although the overall subclass pattern ofantibodies did not differ between the tribes, with IgG1 and IgG3 as dominant,the Fulani showed consistently significantly higher levels of these subclasses ascompared with those of the non-Fulani individuals. No significant differenceswere seen in the levels of total IgG between the tribes, but the Fulani showedsignificantly higher levels of total IgM than their neighbours in both countries.While the antibody levels to some nonmalarial antigens showed the same patternof differences seen for antibody levels to malaria antigens, no significant suchdifferences were seen with antibodies to other nonmalarial antigens. In conclusion,our results show that the Fulani in two different countries show higherlevels of anti-malarial antibodies than sympatric tribes, and this appears not tobe a reflection of a general hyper-reactivity in the Fulani.

  • 421.
    Bolad, Ahmed Kamal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Antibody responses in Plasmodium falciparum malaria and their relation to protection against the disease2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protective immunity against Plasmodium falciparum may be obtained after repeated exposure to infection. Several studies indicate that immunity against the blood stages of the P. Falciparum infection is mainly antibody mediated. Protective antibodies may act either on their own, mediate antibody-dependent phagocytosis and/or cell-mediated neutralization of parasites. This thesis describes several aspects of humoral immune responses to P. falciparum infection in individuals of different age groups, different genetic background and with different degrees of malaria exposure.

    Several target antigens for antibody-mediated inhibition of parasite growth or invasion have been identified. One such antigen is Pf332, which appears on the surface of parasitized erythrocytes at late trophozoite and schizont stage. This surface exposure makes the antigen a possible target for opsonizing antibodies. We optimized an in vitro assay for studying cellmediated parasite neutralization in the presence of Pf332-reactive antibodies. Our data demonstrate that, Pf332 specific antibodies are able to inhibit parasite growth on their own and in cooperation with human monocytes.

    The P. falciparum parasites have evolved several mechanisms to evade the host neutralizing immune responses. In this thesis, we show that freshly isolated P. falciparum parasites from children living in a malaria endemic area of Burkina Faso were less sensitive for growth inhibition in vitro by autologous immunoglobulins (Ig) compared with heterologous ones. Analyses of two consecutive isolates taken 14 days apart, with regard to genotypes and sensitivity to growth inhibition in vitro, did not give any clear-cut indications on possible mechanisms leading to a reduced inhibitory activity in autologous parasite/antibody combinations. The frequent presence of persisting parasite clones in asymptomatic children indicates that the parasite possesses as yet undefined mechanisms to evade neutralizing immune responses.

    Transmission reducing measures such insecticide treated nets (ITNs) have been shown to be effective in reducing morbidity and mortality from malaria. However, concerns have been raised that ITNs usage could affect the acquisition of malaria immunity. We studied the effect of the use of insecticide treated curtains (ITC) on anti-malarial immune responses of children living in villages with ITC since birth. The use of ITC did neither affect the levels of parasite neutralizing immune responses nor the multiplicity of infection. These results indicate that the use of ITC does not interfere with the acquisition of anti-malarial immunity in children living in a malaria hyperendemic area.

    There is substantial evidence that the African Fulani tribe is markedly less susceptible to malaria infection compared to other sympatrically living ethnic tribes. We investigated the isotypic humoral responses against P. falciparum asexual blood stages in different ethnic groups living in sympatry in two countries exhibiting different malaria transmission intensities, Burkina Faso and Mali. We observed higher levels of the total malaria-specific-IgG and its cytophilic subclasses in individuals of the Fulani tribe as compared to non-Fulani individuals. Fulani individuals also showed higher levels of antibodies to measles antigen, indicating that the intertribal differences are not specific for malaria and might reflect a generally activated immune system in the Fulani.

  • 422. Bolelli, K.
    et al.
    Musdal, Yaman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Aki-Yalcin, E.
    Mannervik, Bengt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Yalcin, I.
    Synthesis and activity mechanism of some novel 2-substituted benzothiazoles as hGSTP1-1 enzyme inhibitors2017In: SAR and QSAR in environmental research (Print), ISSN 1062-936X, E-ISSN 1029-046X, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 927-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human GSTP1-1 is one of the most important proteins, which overexpresses in a large number of human tumours and is involved in the development of resistance to several anticancer drugs. So, it has become an important target in cancer treatment. In this study, 12 benzothiazole derivatives were synthesized and screened for their in vitro inhibitory activity for hGSTP1-1. Among these compounds, two of them (compounds #2 and #5) have been found to be the leads when compared with the reference drug etoposide. In order to analyse the structure-activity relationships (SARs) and to investigate the binding side interactions of the observed lead compounds, a HipHop pharmacophore model was generated and the molecular docking studies were performed by using CDocker method. In conclusion, it is observed that the lead compounds #2 and #5 possessed inhibitory activity on the hGSTP1-1 by binding to the H-site as a substrate in which the para position of the phenyl ring of the benzamide moiety on the benzothiazole ring is important. Substitution at this position with a hydrophobic group that reduces the electron density at the phenyl ring is required for the interaction with the H side active residue Tyr108.

  • 423.
    Bolsi, Alessandra
    et al.
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.
    Peroni, Marta
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.
    Amelio, Dante
    Proton Therapy Centre Azienda Provinciale per I Servizi Sanitari (APSS), Italy.
    Dasu, Alexandru
    The Skandion Clinic, Sweden.
    Stock, Markus
    MedAustron Ion Therapy Center, Austria.
    Toma-Dasu, Iuliana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Witt Nyström, Petra
    The Skandion Clinic, Sweden; Danish Centre for Particle Therapy, Denmark.
    Hoffmann, Aswin
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; OncoRay, Germany.
    Practice patterns of image guided particle therapy in Europe: A 2016 survey of the European Particle Therapy Network (EPTN)2018In: Radiotherapy and Oncology, ISSN 0167-8140, E-ISSN 1879-0887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Image guidance is critical in achieving accurate and precise radiation delivery in particle therapy, even more than in photon therapy. However, equipment, quality assurance procedures and clinical workflows for image-guided particle therapy (IGPT) may vary substantially between centres due to a lack of standardization. A survey was conducted to evaluate the current practice of IGPT in European particle therapy centres.

    Material and methods: In 2016, a questionnaire was distributed among 19 particle therapy centres in 12 European countries. The questionnaire consisted of 30 open and 37 closed questions related to image guidance in the general clinical workflow, for moving targets, current research activities and future perspectives of IGPT.

    Results: All centres completed the questionnaire. The IGPT methods used by the 10 treating centres varied substantially. The 9 non-treating centres were in the process to introduce IGPT. Most centres have developed their own IGPT strategies, being tightly connected to their specific technical implementation and dose delivery methods.

    Conclusions: Insight into the current clinical practice of IGPT in European particle therapy centres was obtained. A variety in IGPT practices and procedures was confirmed, which underlines the need for harmonisation of practice parameters and consensus guidelines.

  • 424. Boman, Krister K
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hjern, Anders
    Long-term outcomes of childhood cancer survivors in Sweden: A population-based study of education, employment, and income2010In: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 116, no 5, p. 1385-1391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

     Studies of different national populations were indispensable for estimating the impact of illness-related disability on social outcomes in adult childhood cancer survivors. The effects of childhood cancer on educational attainment, employment, and income in adulthood in a Swedish setting were studied. METHODS:: The study population was a national cohort of 1.46 million Swedish residents, including 1716 survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed before their 16th birthday, followed up in 2002 in registries at >25 years of age. Main outcomes were educational attainment, employment, and net income. Markers of persistent disability were considered, and outcomes were analyzed with multivariate linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic indicators of the childhood households. RESULTS:: Non-central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors had similar education, employment, and income as the general population in adjusted models, whereas survivors of CNS tumors more often had no more than basic (</=9 years) education (relative risk [RR], 1.80 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.45-2.23]), less often attained education beyond secondary school (RR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.58-0.81]), and less often were employed (RR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.77-0.94]). Predicted net income from work was lower in CNS tumor survivors (P <.001) than in the general population, even after the exclusion of individuals who received economic disability compensation. CONCLUSIONS:: CNS tumor survivors had poorer social outcomes compared with the general population, whereas outcomes for survivors of other childhood cancers were similar to the general population. Established late effects highlighted the importance of improved, safer pediatric CNS tumor treatment protocols and surveillance that identified individual needs for preventive and remedial measures.

  • 425.
    Bonath, Franziska
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Domingo-Prim, Judit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Tarbier, Marcel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Friedländer, Marc
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Visa, Neus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Next-generation sequencing reveals two populations of damage- induced small RNAs at endogenous DNA double-strand breaksIn: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 426. Bonde, Jens Peter
    et al.
    Hansen, Johnni
    Kolstad, Henrik A.
    Mikkelsen, Sigurd
    Olsen, Jorgen H.
    Blask, David E.
    Harma, Mikko
    Kjuus, Helge
    de Koning, Harry J.
    Olsen, Jorn
    Moller, Morten
    Schernhammer, Eva S.
    Stevens, Richard G.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Work at night and breast cancer - report on evidence-based options for preventive actions2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 380-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), primarily based on experimental and epidemiologic evidence for breast cancer. In order to examine options for evidence-based preventive actions, 16 researchers in basic, epidemiological and applied sciences convened at a workshop in Copenhagen 26-27 October 2011. This paper summarizes the evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies and presents possible recommendations for prevention of the effects of night work on breast cancer. Among those studies that quantified duration of shift work, there were statistically significant elevations in risk only after about 20 years working night shift. It is unclear from these studies whether or not there is a modest but real elevated risk for shorter durations. Hence, restriction of the total number of years working night shift could be one future preventive recommendation for shift workers. The diurnal secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland with peak in secretory activity during the night is a good biochemical marker of the circadian rhythm. Disruption of the diurnal melatonin secretion pattern can be diminished by restricting the number of consecutive night shifts. Reddish light and reduced light intensity during work at night could potentially help diminish the inhibitory activity of light with strong intensity on the melatonin secretion, but further mechanistic insight is needed before definite recommendations can be made. Earlier or more intensive mammography screening among female night shift worker is not recommended because the harm benefit ratio in this age group may not be beneficial. Preventive effects of melatonin supplementation on breast cancer risk have not been clearly documented, but may be a promising avenue if a lack of side effects can be shown even after long-term ingestion. Women with previous or current breast cancer should be advised not to work night shifts because of strong experimental evidence demonstrating accelerated tumor growth by suppression of melatonin secretion. Work during the night is widespread worldwide. To provide additional evidence-based recommendations on prevention of diseases related to night shift work, large studies on the impact of various shift schedules and type of light on circadian rhythms need to be conducted in real work environments.

  • 427. Boraxbekk, C. J.
    et al.
    Hagkvist, Filip
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Umeå University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Motor and mental training in older people: Transfer, interference, and associated functional neural responses2016In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 89, p. 371-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning new motor skills may become more difficult with advanced age. In the present study, we randomized 56 older individuals, including 30 women (mean age 70.6 years), to 6 weeks of motor training, mental (motor imagery) training, or a combination of motor and mental training of a finger tapping sequence. Performance improvements and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to investigate performance gains and associated underlying neural processes. Motor only training and a combination of motor and mental training improved performance in the trained task more than mental-only training. The fMRI data showed that motor training was associated with a representation in the premotor cortex and mental training with a representation in the secondary visual cortex. Combining motor and mental training resulted in both premotor and visual cortex representations. During fMRI scanning, reduced performance was observed in the combined motor and mental training group, possibly indicating interference between the two training methods. We concluded that motor and motor imagery training in older individuals is associated with different functional brain responses. Furthermore, adding mental training to motor training did not result in additional performance gains compared to motor-only training and combining training methods may result in interference between representations, reducing performance.

  • 428. Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Nordin, Annelie
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia Ten Years prior to Clinical Diagnosis: Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study2015In: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra, E-ISSN 1664-5464, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111) and group 2 after 1-10 years (n = 280); group 3 showed no deterioration towards dementia during the study period (n = 2,855). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the predictive value of tests reflecting episodic memory performance, semantic memory performance, visuospatial ability, and prospective memory performance. Results: Age-and education-corrected performance on two free recall episodic memory tests significantly predicted dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. Free recall performance also predicted dementia 11-22 years prior to diagnosis when controlling for education, but not when age was added to the model. Conclusion: The present results support the suggestion that two free recall-based tests of episodic memory function may be useful for detecting individuals at risk of developing dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis.

  • 429. Borell, Lena
    et al.
    Nygård, Louise
    Asaba, Eric
    Gustavsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Qualitative approaches in occupational therapy research2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 521-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Development of research in occupational therapy requires a continuous critical discussion concerning methodological approaches. In this paper the authors wish to contribute to such a discussion by introducing the Formal Data-Structure Analysis approach (FDSA) as a method for understanding people's experiences. Methods and results: A review of selected publications from occupational therapy journals between 2003 and 2005 illustrated that qualitative articles within occupational therapy publications were mainly descriptive in nature. This finding raises questions about how to develop new knowledge that contributes to occupational therapy. Conclusions: In this paper the authors suggest that it is possible to apply the FDSA approach not only when describing and categorizing qualitative phenomena, but also when aiming to reach an in-depth understanding of issues related to human meaning-making; for example, how we understand engagement in occupations or living with a disability. Examples of the application of the FDSA approach are included and discussed.

  • 430. Borg, D.
    et al.
    Bogdanska, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Nobel, S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Håkansson, H.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    DePierre, J. W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Halldin, K.
    Bergstrom, U.
    Tissue distribution of S-35-labelled perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in C57Bl/6 mice following late gestational exposure2010In: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 558-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure of rodents in utero to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) impairs perinatal development and survival Following intravenous or gavage exposure of C57Bl/6 mouse dams on gestational day (GD) 16 to S-35-PFOS (12 5 mg/kg) we determined the distribution in dams fetuses (GD18 and GD20) and pups (postnatal day 1 PND1) employing whole-body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting In dams levels were highest in liver and lungs After placental transfer S-35-PFOS was present on GD18 at 2-3 times higher levels in lungs liver and kidneys than in maternal blood In PND1 pups levels in lungs were significantly higher than in GD18 fetuses A heterogeneous distribution of S-35-PFOS was observed in brains of fetuses and pups with levels higher than in maternal brain This first demonstration of substantial localization of PFOS to both perinatal and adult lungs is consistent with evidence describing the lung as a target for the toxicity of PFOS at these ages.

  • 431. Borg, Saskia
    et al.
    Seubert, Janina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lipids in Eating and Appetite Regulation - A Neuro-Cognitive Perspective2017In: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, ISSN 1438-7697, E-ISSN 1438-9312, Vol. 119, no 12, article id 1700106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foods high in dietary fat provide a particularly energy-rich source of nutrition. A preferred food choice in humans, their intake is thought to contribute substantially to the current obesity epidemic. Fat has recently been proposed to constitute a basic taste; yet, its diverse sensory properties in the olfactory and somatosensory domain, as well as its postingestive effects have made the exact attributes that make its consumption so appealing difficult to disentangle. Recent scientific advances have shed light on the different molecular mechanisms underlying the sensory detection of fat in the periphery, and described their relevance for perceptual experience and eating behavior. However, these different analysis levels are to date poorly integrated, both within each sensory modality, and from a multisensory perspective.

  • 432. Borisovsky, Gilad
    et al.
    Silberberg, Gilad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics.
    Wygnanski-Jaffe, Tamara
    Spierer, Abraham
    Results of congenital cataract surgery with and without intraocular lens implantation in infants and children2013In: Graefe's Archives for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, ISSN 0721-832X, E-ISSN 1435-702X, Vol. 251, no 9, p. 2205-2211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operations for congenital cataract in children in the past had resulted in aphakia. Improvement in surgical tools and techniques as well as in intraocular lens (IOL) implantation has led to correction of the aphakia by IOL implantation. We report the outcome of cataract surgery with and without IOL on these children in our institution between 1991-2008. In this retrospective cohort study, the medical records of all children who underwent surgery for congenital cataract were reviewed. The final study group included 144 children (218 eyes). Postoperative visual acuity (VA) was tested either by Teller Acuity Cards (in preverbal children) or by the Snellen chart. Data on VA status and postoperative complications were retrieved. Patients with bilateral cataract had better postoperative VA than patients with unilateral cataract (logMAR 0.559 +/- 0.455 vs. 0.919 +/- 0.685, respectively, P < 0.001). Children who underwent IOL implantation had better postoperative VA than those who did not, but the type of surgery had no significant effect after correction for the child's age at surgery (P = 0.346). Secondary cataract occurred more frequently in the extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE) + IOL implantation group than in the ECCE only group (20.6 % vs. 8.3 %, respectively, P = 0.018). Patients with bilateral cataract had better postoperative VA compared with those with unilateral cataract. The type of surgery had no effect on final VA, but there was a higher rate of secondary cataract in the ECCE + IOL patients compared to the ECCE only patients.

  • 433. Bosnes, O.
    et al.
    Dahl, O. -P.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Including a subject-paced trial may make the PASAT more acceptable for MS patients2015In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 132, no 4, p. 219-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is regularly used in the evaluation of cognition in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the test may impose frustration, distress, and anxiety in patients, which may result in refusal to participate by many patients. ObjectivesIn this study, a subject- and experimenter-paced PASAT was compared and analyzed, with regard to independent measures of cognitive functions, as well as disability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. MethodsA population-based sample of patients with MS (n=34; mean age 47.28.6) was examined with the PASAT, including a subject-paced condition, in addition to the standard experimenter-paced conditions using three levels of interstimuli intervals (ISI: 3.0, 2.5, and 2.0s). A comprehensive set of neuropsychological tests, measures of disease severity, fatigue, anxiety, and depression were studied as potentially associated factors. ResultsSubject- and experimenter-paced PASAT performance correlated significantly and the subject-paced administration correlated even higher with measures of information processing speed, executive function, attention, and working memory than standard experimenter-paced administration of PASAT. DiscussionThe associations between PASAT performance and measures of fatigue, anxiety, and depression were not significant. ConclusionThe results indicate that the altered PASAT procedure measures the same cognitive functions in MS as the standard procedure. At the same time, the altered procedure may make the PASAT more user-friendly for patients with MS.

  • 434. Bould, H.
    et al.
    Sovio, U.
    Koupil, Illona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Dalman, C.
    Micali, N.
    Lewis, G.
    Magnusson, C.
    Do eating disorders in parents predict eating disorders in children? Evidence from a Swedish cohort2015In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 132, no 1, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We investigated whether parental eating disorders (ED) predict ED in children, using a large multigeneration register-based sample.

    Method: We used a subset of the Stockholm Youth Cohort born 1984-1995 and resident in Stockholm County in 2001-2007 (N=286232), The exposure was a diagnosed eating disorder in a parent; the outcome was any eating disorder diagnosis in their offspring, given by a specialist clinician, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. A final study sample of 158697 (55.4%) had data on these variables and confounding factors and contributed a total of 886241personyears to the analysis.

    Results: We found good evidence in support of the hypothesis that ED in either parent are independently associated with ED in their female children (HR 1.97 (95% CI: 1.17-3.33), P=0.01) and that ED in mothers are independently associated with ED in their female children (HR 2.35 (95% CI: 1.39-3.97) P=0.001). Numbers were too low to permit separate analysis of ED in parents and their male children.

    Conclusion: Eating disorders in parents were associated with ED in children. This study adds to our knowledge about the intergenerational transmission of ED, which will help identify high-risk groups and brings about the possibility of targeted prevention.

  • 435. Bould, Helen
    et al.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Dalman, Christina
    De Stavola, Bianca
    Lewis, Glyn
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Parental mental illness and eating disorders in offspring2015In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 383-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring.

    METHOD: We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic.

    RESULTS: Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p < 0.0001). Risk of eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p < 0.0001). There is a lack of statistical evidence for an association with parental schizophrenia (AHR 1.41 (95% CI 0.96, 2.07), p = 0.08), and somatoform disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57).

    DISCUSSION: Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring.

  • 436. Bourdieu, Pierre
    et al.
    Fagrell, Birgitta
    Larsson, Håkan
    Stockholm University.
    Redelius, Karin
    Larsson, Bengt
    Stockholm University.
    Åhs, Olle
    Svender, Jenny
    Patriksson, Göran
    Nilsson, Per
    Stockholm University.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholm University.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Backman, Erik
    Stockholm University.
    Lindroth, Jan
    Linné, Agneta
    Meckbach, Jane
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    Liljekvist, Åsa
    Gustafsson, Tommy
    Strand, Leif
    Ljung, Bengt-Olov
    Leve idrottspedagogiken: En vänbok tillägnad Lars-Magnus Engström2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vem ägnar sig åt idrott? Vilken betydelse har fritiden i barns och ungdomars liv? Vad innebär hälsa i skolämnet idrott och hälsa?

    Leve idrottspedagogiken! tillägnas Lars-Magnus Engström. Texterna i boken speglar delar av det idrottspedagogiska forskningsområdet i Sverige, vars framväxt Lars-Magnus Engström varit den främste företrädaren för. Läsaren får här ta del av exempelvis idrottskulturen, fritidskulturen och skolans ämne idrott och hälsa. Genomgående handlar texterna om villkoren för barns och ungdomars deltagane och om de olika lärprocesser som sker i anslutning till idrottsutövning.

    Lars-Magnus Engström har gjort betydande insatser som forskare och lärare samt som professor vid Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm och vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan. I snart fyrtion år har han arbetat med studier kring påverkans- och lärprocesser i idrott. Hans forskning har främst kretsat kring människors idrottsvanor och vilka som utvecklar en fysiskt aktiv livsstil. Idrotts- och motionsutövningar ger både ett så kallat egenvärde och investeringsvärde. Med dessa begrepp bland många andra har Lars-Magnus Engström bidragit till en fördjupad vetenskaplig förståelse av idrottskulturen.

    De flesta författarna har eller har haft Lars-Magnus Engström som handledare och tillhör forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. Redaktörer för boken är Karin Redelius och Håkan Larsson.

  • 437. Bowden, Jacqueline A.
    et al.
    Delfabbro, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Miller, Caroline L.
    Wilson, Carlene
    Alcohol consumption and NHMRC Guidelines: has the message got out, are people conforming and are they aware that acohol causes cancer?2014In: Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, ISSN 1326-0200, E-ISSN 1753-6405, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 66-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine self-reported alcohol consumption and relationships betweenconsumption, awareness of the 2009 NHMRC guidelines of no more than two standard drinksper day, drinking in excess of the guideline threshold and perceptions of alcohol as a risk factorfor cancer.

    Methods: Questions were included in annual, cross-sectional surveys of about 2,700 SouthAustralians aged 18 years and over from 2004 to 2012. Consumption data for 2011 and 2012were merged for the majority of analyses.

    Results: In 2011 and 2012, 21.6% of adults drank in excess of the guideline threshold (33.0%males; 10.7% females). While 53.5% correctly identified the NHMRC consumption thresholdfor women, only 20.3% did so for men (39.0% nominated a higher amount). A large minoritysaid they did not know the consumption threshold for women (39.2%) or men (40.4%). In2012, only 36.6% saw alcohol as an important risk factor for cancer. Important predictors ofexcess consumption for men were: higher household income; and not perceiving alcohol as animportant risk factor for cancer. Predictors for women were similar but the role of householdincome was even more prominent.

    Conclusions: Men were nearly three times as likely to drink in excess of the guidelines aswomen. The majority of the population did not see an important link between alcoholand cancer. Awareness of the latest NHMRC guidelines consumption threshold is still low,particularly for men.

    Implications: A strategy to raise awareness of the NHMRC guidelines and the link betweenalcohol and cancer is warranted.

  • 438. Bowden, Jacqueline A.
    et al.
    Delfabbro, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Miller, Caroline L.
    Wilson, Carlene
    Prevalence, perceptions and predictors of alcohol consumption and abstinence among South Australian school students: a cross-sectional analysis2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol consumption by young people (particularly early initiation) is a predictor for poorer health in later life. In addition, evidence now clearly shows a causal link between alcohol and cancer. This study investigated prevalence, predictors of alcohol consumption among adolescents including perceptions of the link between alcohol and cancer, and the role of parents and peers. Methods: A sample of Australian school students aged 12-17 years participated in a survey (n = 2885). Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine predictors. Results: Alcohol use increased with age and by 16, most had tried alcohol with 33.1% of students aged 12-17 reporting that they drank at least occasionally (95% CI = 31.0-35.2). Awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer was low (28.5%). Smoking status and friends' approval were predictive of drinking, whereas parental disapproval was protective. Those aged 14-17 who did not think the link between alcohol and cancer was important were more likely to drink, as were those living in areas of least disadvantage. The only factors that predicted recent drinking were smoking and the perception that alcohol was easy to purchase. Conclusions: An education campaign highlighting the link between alcohol and cancer may have positive flow-on effects for young people, and schools should incorporate this messaging into any alcohol education programs. Consideration should be given to factors that serve to regulate under-aged accessibility of alcohol.

  • 439.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Södertörn University College, Sweden.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Kerstin
    Effects of benthos, temperature, and dose on the fate of hexabromocyclododecane in experimental coastal ecosystems2015In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1246-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors studied the fate of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) added in a particulate suspension to experimental ecosystems assembled from brackish (Baltic Sea) coastal bays. Two experiments examined how benthic macrofauna (over 21 d) and increased temperature (14 d) affected HBCDD concentrations and fractionation of , , and diastereomers in the water, sediment, and biota. A third experiment run over 3 seasons (231 d), studied the effect of HBCDD dose on the same endpoints. In all treatments of the 3 experiments, HBCDD partitioned mainly to the sediment, and this proportion increased with time. Presence of macrofauna tended to increase the HBCDD concentration in the sediment and decreased its concentration in the water. Increased temperature (+5 degrees C) decreased the amount of HBCDD in sediment and water but not in the filter- and deposit-feeding infaunal bivalves (Macoma balthica). The partitioning between water, sediment, and biota was not concentration dependent. In all treatments, sediment became enriched in -HBCDD, M. balthica in -HBCDD, and water in - and -HBCDD. Bioaccumulation of HBCDD in M. balthica was high in all experiments (log biota-sediment accumulation factor [BSAF] > 1.25), the diastereomer contributing the most (log BSAF 2.1-5.2). There is a risk of trophic transfer of HBCDD from benthic to pelagic food webs, as well as secondary poisoning of marine consumers. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1246-1257.

  • 440. Brady, Geraldine
    et al.
    Lowe, Pam
    Olin Lauritzen, Sonja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Connecting a sociology of childhood perspective with the study of child health, illness and wellbeing: introduction2015In: Sociology of Health and Illness, ISSN 0141-9889, E-ISSN 1467-9566, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades we have seen a growing interest in research into children's own experiences and understandings of health and illness. This development, we would argue, is much stimulated by the sociology of childhood which has drawn our attention to how children as a social group are placed and perceived within the structure of society, and within inter-generational relations, as well as how children are social agents and co-constructors of their social world. Drawing on this tradition, we here address some cross-cutting themes that we think are important to further the study of child health: situating children within health policy, drawing attention to practices around children's health and well-being and a focus on children as health actors. The paper contributes to a critical analysis of child health policy and notions of child health and normality, pointing to theoretical and empirical research potential for the sociology of children's health and illness.

  • 441. Brandli, Rahel C.
    et al.
    Breedveld, Gijsbert D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tributyltin Sorption to Marine Sedimentary Black Carbon and to Amended Activated Carbon2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 503-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under marine conditions, tributyltin (TBT) is speciated mainly as an uncharged hydroxyl complex (TBTOH) that is expected to have a similar fate to hydrophobic organic contaminants. Earlier studies indicated that for the later compounds, sorption to black carbon (BC) can be more than two orders of magnitude stronger than sorption to organic carbon, notably at low and environmentally relevant concentrations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sorption strength of spiked TBT to a sediment and its BC isolate. It was observed that carbon-normalized sorption coefficients were in the same range for the sediment total organic carbon (TOC) and for its BC (log K-TOC 5.05 L/kg(TOC) and log K BC 5.09 L/kg(BC), respectively). This indicates that TBT does not sorb as strongly to BC as other hydrophobic organic contaminants. Activated carbon (AC), a strong man-made sorbent, has the potential to be used for in situ remediation of contaminated sediments and soils, in particular for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. In the present study, both granular and powdered AC were found to strongly sorb TBT under marine conditions, with a log sorption coefficient of 6.8 L/kg(carbon). Tributyl- and dibutyltin concentrations in the pore water of a natively contaminated sediment were reduced by more than 70% on addition of 2% of powdered AC, whereas granular AC did not show a similar reduction. The results indicate that powdered AC might be a feasible remediation agent for sediments contaminated by organotins.

  • 442. Braun, Barbara
    et al.
    Ludwig, Monika
    Sleczka, Pawel
    Buehringer, Gerhard
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Gamblers seeking treatment: Who does and who doesn't?2014In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 189-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: As only a minority of pathological gamblers (PGr) presents for treatment, further knowledge about help-seeking behavior is required in order to enhance treatment utilization. The present study investigated factors associated with treatment participation in gamblers in Germany. As subclinical pathological gamblers (SPGr, fulfilling one to four DSM-IV-criteria) are target of early intervention due to high risk of transition to pathological gambling, they were subject of special interest. Methods: The study analyzed data from a general population survey (n = 234, SPGr: n = 198, PGr: n = 36) and a treatment study (n = 329, SPGr: n = 22, PGr: n = 307). A two-step weighting procedure was applied to ensure comparability of samples. Investigated factors included socio-demographic variables, gambling behavior, symptoms of pathological gambling and substance use. Results: In PGr, regular employment and non-German nationality were positively associated with being in treatment while gambling on the Internet and gaming machines and fulfilling more DSM-IV-criteria lowered the odds. In SPGr, treatment attendance was negatively associated with married status and alcohol consumption and positively associated with older age, higher stakes, more fulfilled DSM-IV criteria and regular smoking. Conclusions: In accordance to expectations more severe gambling problems and higher problem awareness and/or external pressure might facilitate treatment entry. There are groups with lower chances of being in treatment: women, ethnic minorities, and SPGr. We propose target group specific offers, use of Internet-based methods as possible adaptions and/or extensions of treatment offers that could enhance treatment attendance.

  • 443.
    Brehmer, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Bellander, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Westerberg, Helena
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Neural correlates of training-related working-memory gains in old age2011In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 1110-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM) functioning declines in old age. Due to its impact on many higher-order cognitive functions, investigating whether training can modify WM performance has recently been of great interest. We examined the relationship between behavioral performance and neural activity following five weeks of intensive WM training in 23 healthy older adults (M = 63.7 years). 12 participants received adaptive training (i.e. individually adjusted task difficulty to bring individuals to their performance maximum), whereas the others served as active controls (i.e. fixed low-level practice). Brain activity was measured before and after training, using fMRI, while subjects performed a WM task under two difficulty conditions. Although there were no training-related changes in WM during scanning, neocortical brain activity decreased post training and these decreases were larger in the adaptive training group than in the controls under high WM load. This pattern suggests intervention-related increases in neural efficiency. Further, there were disproportionate gains in the adaptive training group in trained as well as in non-trained (i.e. attention, episodic memory) tasks assessed outside the scanner, indicating the efficacy of the training regimen. Critically, the degree of training-related changes in brain activity (i.e. neocortical decreases and subcortical increases) was related to the maximum gain score achieved during the intervention period. This relationship suggests that the decreased activity, but also specific activity increases, observed were functionally relevant.

  • 444.
    Brehmer, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany.
    Shing, Yee Lee
    Heekeren, Hauke R.
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Training-induced changes in subsequent-memory effects: No major differences among children, younger adults, and older adults2016In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 131, p. 214-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neural correlates of encoding mode, or the state of forming new memory episodes, have been found to change with age and mnemonic training. However, it is unclear whether neural correlates of encoding success, termed subsequent-memory (SM) effects, also differ by age and mnemonic skill. In a multi-session training study, we investigated whether SM effects are altered by instruction and training in a mnemonic skill, and whether such alterations differ among children, younger adults, and older adults. Before and after strategy training, fMRI data were collected while participants were memorizing word pairs. In all age groups, participants receiving training showed greater performance gains than control group participants. Analysis of task-relevant regions showed training-induced reductions in SM effects in left frontal regions. Reductions in SM effects largely generalized across age and primarily reflected greater training-induced activation increases for omissions than for remembered items, indicating that training resulted in more consistent use of the mnemonic strategy. The present results reveal no major age differences in SM effects in children, younger adults, and older adults.

  • 445.
    Brehmer, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Westerberg, Helena
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Working-memory training in younger and older adults: training gains, transfer, and maintenance2012In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 6, no 63, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM), a key determinant of many higher-order cognitive functions, declines in old age. Current research attempts to develop process-specific WM training procedures, which may lead to general cognitive improvement. Adaptivity of the training as well as the comparison of training gains to performance changes of an active control group are key factors in evaluating the effectiveness of a specific training program. In the present study, 55 younger adults (20–30 years of age) and 45 older adults (60–70 years of age) received 5 weeks of computerized training on various spatial and verbal WM tasks. Half of the sample received adaptive training (i.e., individually adjusted task difficulty), whereas the other half-worked on the same task material but on a low task difficulty level (active controls). Performance was assessed using criterion, near-transfer, and far-transfer tasks before training, after 5 weeks of intervention, as well as after a 3-month follow-up interval. Results indicate that (a) adaptive training generally led to larger training gains than low-level practice, (b) training and transfer gains were somewhat greater for younger than for older adults in some tasks, but comparable across age groups in other tasks, (c) far-transfer was observed to a test on sustained attention and for a self-rating scale on cognitive functioning in daily life for both young and old, and (d) training gains and transfer effects were maintained across the 3-month follow-up interval across age.

  • 446. Breidbach, O
    et al.
    Dircksen, Heinrich
    Institute of Zoophysiology, University of Bonn, Germany.
    Wegerhoff, R
    Common general morphological pattern of peptidergic neurons in the arachnid brain: crustacean cardioactive peptide-immunoreactive neurons in the protocerebrum of seven arachnid species.1995In: Cell and Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, E-ISSN 1432-0878, Vol. 279, no 1, p. 183-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polyclonal antiserum raised against crustacean cardioactive peptide labels 14 clusters of immunoreactive neurons in the protocerebrum of the spiders Tegenaria atrica and Nephila clavipes, and the harvestman (opilionid) Rilaena triangularis. In all species, these clusters possess the same number of neurons, and share similar structural and topological characteristics. Two sets of bilateral symmetrical neurons associated with the optic lobes and the arachnid "central body" were analysed in detail, comparing the harvestman R. triangularis and the spiders Brachypelma albopilosa (Theraphosidae), Cupiennius salei (Lycosidae), Tegenaria atrica (Agelenidae), Meta segmentata (Metidae) and Nephila clavipes (Araneidae). Sixteen neurons have been identified that display markedly similar axonal pathways and arborization patterns in all species. These neurons are considered homologues in the opilionid and the araneid brains. We presume that these putative phylogenetically persisting neurons represent part of the general morphological pattern of the arachnid brain.

  • 447. Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Norredam, Marie
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Duration of residence and psychotropic drug use in recently settled refugees in Sweden - a register-based study2014In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, p. 122-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Recently settled refugee populations have consistently been reported to have high rates of mental health problems, particularly Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among young adult refugees according to duration of residence during the first 10 years in Sweden. Methods: Cross-sectional register study of a national cohort of 43 403 refugees and their families (23-35 years old) from Iraq, Iran, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Afghanistan and a comparison population of 1.1 million Swedish-born residents. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between duration of residence in Sweden and the dispensing of at least one psychotropic medication during 2009 in four categories (any drug, neuroleptics, antidepressants and anxiolytics/hypnotics), adjusting for age, gender and domicile. Results: Rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees were low, compared to the Swedish-born, with an increase with duration of residence. For refugee men and women from Iraq/Iran who had resided for 0-3 years the adjusted ORs compared to Swedish natives, were 0.83 (95% CI 0.77-0.90) and 0.48 (0.44-0.53) respectively; for men and women from the Horn of Africa the ORs were 0.50 (0.42-0.61) and 0.36 (0.30-0.41) respectively. After 7-10 years of residence, the ORs in these refugee groups approached the Swedish comparison population. Refugees from Afghanistan presented ORs similar to the Swedish-born, with no consistent trend by duration of residence. Women from the Horn of Africa and Iraq/Iran consumed less psychotropic drugs compared with men from these regions of origin, relative to the Swedish-born (p < 0.01). The ORs for dispensed neuroleptics were similar between the different refugee study groups, while the ORs for dispensed antidepressants differed fourfold between the group with the lowest (Horn of Africa) and the highest (Afghanistan). Conclusion: The rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs in the newly settled refugee populations in this study were low, with an increase with longer duration of residence. This pattern suggests barriers to access mental health care. Interventions that can lower these barriers are needed to enable newly settled refugees to access mental health care on equal terms with the native population.

  • 448. Brenner, M. Harvey
    et al.
    Andreeva, Elena
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Imbernon, Ellen
    Bonnaud, Sophie
    Organizational downsizing and depressive symptoms in the European recession: the experience of workers in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United kingdom2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, article id e97063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizational downsizing has become highly common during the global recession of the late 2000s with severe repercussions on employment. We examine whether the severity of the downsizing process is associated with a greater likelihood of depressive symptoms among displaced workers, internally redeployed workers and lay-off survivors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving telephone interviews was carried out in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The study analyzes data from 758 workers affected by medium-and large-scale downsizing, using multiple logistic regression. Main Results: Both unemployment and surviving layoffs were significantly associated with depressive symptoms, as compared to reemployment, but the perceived procedural justice of a socially responsible downsizing process considerably mitigated the odds of symptoms. Perception of high versus low justice was assessed along several downsizing dimensions. In the overall sample, chances to have depressive symptoms were significantly reduced if respondents perceived the process as transparent and understandable, fair and unbiased, well planned and democratic; if they trusted the employer's veracity and agreed with the necessity for downsizing. The burden of symptoms was significantly greater if the process was perceived to be chaotic. We further tested whether perceived justice differently affects the likelihood of depressive symptoms among distinct groups of workers. Findings were that the odds of symptoms largely followed the same patterns of effects across all groups of workers. Redeploying and supporting surplus employees through the career change process-rather than forcing them to become unemployed-makes a substantial difference as to whether they will suffer from depressive symptoms. Conclusions: While depressive symptoms affect both unemployed and survivors, a just and socially responsible downsizing process is important for the emotional health of workers.

  • 449. Britton, Sven
    et al.
    Britton, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Ebolaepidemin – få smittade men många indirekt drabbade2016In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 450.
    Britton, Tom
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    House, Thomas
    Lloyd, Alun L.
    Mollison, Denis
    Riley, Steven
    Trapman, Pieter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Five challenges for stochastic epidemic models involving global transmission2015In: Epidemics, ISSN 1755-4365, E-ISSN 1878-0067, Vol. 10, p. 54-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most basic stochastic epidemic models are those involving global transmission, meaning that infection rates depend only on the type and state of the individuals involved, and not on their location in the population. Simple as they are, there are still several open problems for such models. For example, when will such an epidemic go extinct and with what probability (questions depending on the population being fixed, changing or growing)? How can a model be defined explaining the sometimes observed scenario of frequent mid-sized epidemic outbreaks? How can evolution of the infectious agent transmission rates be modelled and fitted to data in a robust way?

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