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  • 4851. Zuo, Nianming
    et al.
    Salami, Alireza
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Liu, Hao
    Yang, Zhengyi
    Jiang, Tianzi
    Functional maintenance in the multiple demand network characterizes superior fluid intelligence in aging2020Inngår i: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 85, s. 145-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The multiple demand network (MDN) is conceptualized as the core processing system for multi-tasking. Increasing evidence also provides strong support for the involvement of the MDN in fluid intelligence (gF), that is, the ability to solve new problems. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of declining intelligence in old age are poorly explored, particularly whether maintenance of the functional architecture of the MDN can characterize superior intelligence in successful aging. Here, we used eigenvector centrality (EC) to explore the resting-state functional architecture of the MDN in terms of its communication across the entire brain. We found gF to be negatively associated with age and that the MDN EC competitively mediated age-related decline in gF over the aging lifespan, suggesting that excessive cross-talk from the MDN is deleterious for intelligence. Critically, older individuals with comparable MDN EC as younger individuals exhibited superior gF compared with their age-matched counterparts. Taken together, these data provide support for the maintenance of youth-like functional architecture of the MDN and its implication for superior intelligence in successful aging.

  • 4852.
    Älmdalen, Linnea
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Salame, Maya
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Stress bland kvinnliga och manliga lärare - betydelsen av socialt stöd och kontext2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Stress uppstår när det sker en obalans mellan vad som krävs av individen och de resurser som hon har tillgång till. Arbetsrelaterad stress är något som allt oftare förekommer bland lärare idag. Denna stress kan bland annat vara orsakad av ökat ansvar samt tillgänglighet för eleverna. Socialt stöd från omgivningen är en viktig faktor för att reducera stress. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka betydelsen av socialt stöd och skolrelaterad kontext (stökig och ostökig) för kvinnliga och manliga lärares upplevda stress. Urvalet bestod av 120 lärare för varierande årskurser på sex olika skolor runt om i Stockholm. Av dessa ingick 87 lärare i föreliggande studie. Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure användes för att mäta den upplevda stressen och Berlin Social Support Scales användes för att mäta det sociala stödet. En korrelationsanalys genomfördes och visade att lärare i en stökig kontext upplevde fler stressymptom än lärare i en stökig kontext. Det sociala stödet skildes sig också mellan kontexten där lärare i en stökig kontext upplevde ett mindre socialt stöd än lärare i en stökig kontext. Beträffande skillnaden mellan könen upplevde de kvinnliga lärarna fler stressymptom samt mindre socialt stöd än de manliga lärarna. Den multipla regressionsanalysen visade att lärarnas kön var av störst betydelse för den upplevda stressen. Även socialt stöd och kontext visade sig vara av betydelse för den upplevda stressen. Dessa resultat bör motivera vidare forskning på lärares välbefinnande. Det vore även intressant att se om elevernas prestation är en effekt av lärarnas välbefinnande.

  • 4853.
    Änggård, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete.
    Föräldrars tankar om naturens betydelse för barn2009Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4854.
    Ängsås, Isabelle
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sambandet mellan upplevd delaktighet och arbetstillfredsställelse hos anställda i en facklig organisation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Mot bakgrund av teori och tidigare forskning inom området arbetstillfredsställelse kan antas att en viktig faktor som bidrar till att skapa arbetstillfredsställelse är upplevd delaktighet i arbetet (Spreitzer 2007). Denna studie syftar till att undersöka ett eventuellt samband mellan upplevd delaktighet och arbetstillfredsställelse i en facklig organisation, och om någon aspekt av delaktighet (autonomi, information eller påverkan) har större inflytande på ett eventuellt samband. Studien utfördes genom en enkätundersökning på kansliet hos en facklig organisation (n=53). För att mäta arbetstillfredsställelse användes ett mätinstrument utarbetat av Hellgren, Sjöberg och Sverke (1997). För att mäta upplevd delaktighet användes ett eget mätinstrument som utformats och testats i en pilotstudie. Resultaten visade ett signifikant positivt samband mellan upplevd delaktighet och arbetstillfredsställelse hos de anställda. Variansen i arbetstillfredsställelse tycktes förklaras i störst utsträckning av påverkan. Det funna sambandet mellan upplevd delaktighet och arbetstillfredsställelse, och att det till största delen förklarades av påverkan, behöver undersökas vidare i studier med större stickprov och gärna utförda över tid.

  • 4855.
    Åberg, Carola S.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The novelty/encoding hypothesis: relies on a genuine but elusive effect2002Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4856.
    Åberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Löfström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av bildskapandets betydelse i en självhjälpsgrupp med fritt bildskapande och samtal: - En kvalitativ studie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bildterapeutiskt arbete kan vara ett sätt att stärka psykisk hälsa. Lite är dock skrivet om upplevelsen att använda sig av bildskapande i självhjälpsgrupper. Föreliggande studie avsåg att undersöka detta. Respondenter var fem deltagare samt projektansvarig bildterapeut med erfarenheter från självhjälpsgrupper innehållande fritt bildskapande och samtal. Intervjuer genomfördes och analyserades genom tematisk analys. Tre teman framkom (Personlig utveckling, Bildskapandet samt Sammanhang) innehållande tolv kategorier (Agentskap/empowerment, Att utmana sig själv, Ökad livskvalité, Lust, Kravlöshet/prestigelöshet, Bildens symboliska värde, Nya verktyg, Bearbetning/insikter, Flow, Gemenskap med andra, Kulturen i vården och samhället samt Lokalens betydelse). Resultatet indikerar att deltagarna upplevt ökad hälsa, större agentskap och gemenskap där bildskapandet varit en viktig del. Ytterligare forskning behövs dock för att styrka sambandet mellan bildskapande och ökat välmående.

    Nyckelord: självhjälpsgrupper, bildterapi,

  • 4857.
    Åhlén, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Pilotstudie av FRIENDS: Ett preventionsprogram för ångestproblematik hos skolbarn2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ångestsyndrom tillhör den vanligaste psykiatriska problematiken hos barn. Ångestsyndrom börjar ofta i tidig ålder, medför stort lidande och predicerar psykiatrisk problematik senare i livet. Det är viktigt att undersöka hur ångestsyndrom kan förebyggas eftersom få barn med denna problematik kommer i kontakt med behandling. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om FRIENDS, ett preventionsprogram från Australien, fungerar i en svensk kontext. Femtio barn i nioårsåldern undervisades i FRIENDS under tio lektioner. Barnens ångestsymptom, depressionssymptom och generella psykiska hälsa mättes vid tre tillfällen med formulären SCAS, CDI och SDQ. Mätningarna skedde tio veckor innan interventionen, veckan innan och veckan efter interventionen. Resultaten visade att FRIENDS minskade barnens depressionssymptom samt minskade ångest hos barn med förhöjd risk för ångestproblematik. Efter FRIENDS skattade lärarna lägre tendens till psykisk ohälsa hos barnen. Enligt utvärderingen var barn och föräldrar nöjda med programmet. Sammantaget visar studien att FRIENDS är en lovande intervention i en svensk kontext.

  • 4858. Åhlén, Johan
    et al.
    Edberg, Ellen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Di Schiena, Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bergström, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cognitive behavioural group therapy for emetophobia: an open study in a psychiatric setting2015Inngår i: Clinical Psychologist, ISSN 1328-4207, E-ISSN 1742-9552, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 96-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Emetophobia is a neglected area within clinical research. Only case studies have been performed examining treatment effectiveness. The present study aimed to examine the preliminary acceptability and effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy developed specifically for the treatment of emetophobia.

    Method: The present study design was a one-group pretest, post-test, follow-up design with a double pretest. Twenty-three patients, in three treatment groups, participated in the study. Four assessment time points were conducted (1) five weeks prior to treatment, (2) before the first treatment session, (3) after the final session and (4) 3 months after the final session. Participants completed the emetophobia questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Montgomery-angstrom sberg Depression Rating Scaleself assessment at all assessments.

    Results: After treatment, patients showed a significantly lower degree of emetophobic symptoms. About half of the patients were clinically significantly improved or recovered after treatment, and two thirds were improved or recovered at follow-up. Participation at sessions was high, and patients were satisfied with treatment.

    Conclusions: The results from this study, the largest trial yet for emetophobia, indicate that cognitive behavioural therapy may be an efficacious treatment for emetophobia. The study design involves several limitations, and further studies should include independent control groups, randomisation, and longer follow-up assessments.

  • 4859.
    Åhsberg, Elizabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Perceived fatique related to work1998Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived fatigue at work is important because it may be unpleasant for the individual, it may interfere with productivity, and prolonged fatigue without recovery may lead to work-related disorders. This thesis presents a comprehensive approach towards assessment of work-related perceived fatigue. The thesis is based on the notion that perceived fatigue is a multi-dimensional construct, and the principal aim is to identify these dimensions. The aim is further to develop an instrument for measuring work-related perceived fatigue based on self-reports, and to validate the importance of these fatigue dimensions during different types of work. An instrument, the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI), was developed for measuring fatigue based on self-reports. In a questionnaire survey 705 employees from different occupations described their perceived fatigue by rating 95 verbal expressions. Factor analyses resulted in five dimensions of work-related perceived fatigue. These dimensions were called Lack of energy, Physical exertion, Physical discomfort, Lack of motivation, and Sleepiness. The SOFI consisted of 25 items, and each of the five dimensions were assessed by five items.

    The proposed five-dimensional model of perceived fatigue was evaluated in two laboratory experiments and one field study. The first experiment focused on fatigue after physical work, whereas the second experiment focused on fatigue after mental work. The field study was conducted among industrial three-shift workers, who answered a questionnaire after each shift. The results indicated a reasonably good validity of the instrument, in the sense that it showed an ability to reflect different fatigue dimensions in different types of work. That is, perceived fatigue due to physical work was primarily described by Lack of energy, Physical exertion and Physical discomfort, fatigue due to mental work primarily by Lack of energy, Lack of motivation and Sleepiness, and fatigue due to night work primarily by Sleepiness. The results also add to previous knowledge by showing that night work is not only associated with perceived Sleepiness, but also with Lack of energy and Lack of motivation.

    The proposed five-dimensional model of perceived fatigue was cross-validated in a new occupational population, using the SOFI to assess fatigue in different work situations. Linear structural equation analyses (LISREL) of the results suggested a slightly revised model for perceived fatigue, still comprising five dimensions, but with a reduced number of variables - 20 instead of 25. Lack of energy was defined as a latent factor directly related to all observed variables, indicating its general character.

    The results in this thesis also showed common gender differences of perceived fatigue in field settings: women reported more fatigue than men. However, gender did not differ in fatigue during simulated work in the laboratory, irrespective of whether the work consisted of similar mental workload or individually adjusted physical workload. This indicates that work-related perceived fatigue is influenced by factors other than the work task.

    In conclusion, work-related perceived fatigue can be described as being composed of five dimensions. An instrument, the SOFI, has been developed. The results indicated a reasonably good validity for the SOFI.

  • 4860.
    Åhslund, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Medveten närvaro, välbefinnande och borderlinesymptom: en studie av patienter som avslutat dialektisk beteendeterapi2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Dialektisk Beteendeterapi (DBT) är en beforskad behandling avsedd för personer med borderline personlighetsstörning. Medveten närvaro (mindfulness) ingår som en del i DBT. Det är oklart hur de olika delarna i behandlingen påverkar helhetseffekten av DBT. Syftet med denna studie var att se i vilken utsträckning patienter som avslutat DBT-behandling för minst 6 månader sedan använder sig av medveten närvaro och om detta användande har samband med ökat välbefinnande och minskade borderlinesymtom. Korrelationer och multipel regressionsanalys användes för att undersöka dessa samband. Hänsyn togs till relevanta bakgrundsvariabler. Resultatet bekräftade samband mellan mindfulnessanvändande och större välbefinnande, respektive mindre självskadebeteende och mindre identitetsproblem. Studien är en korrelationsstudie och inga kausala slutsatser kan dras.

  • 4861.
    Åkerlund, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    Lindahl, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Time discounting and criminal behavior2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, nr 22, s. 6160-6165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most basic predictions of almost any model of crime is that individual time preferences matter. However, empirical evidence on this fundamental property is essentially nonexistent. To our knowledge, this paper provides the first pieces of evidence on the link between time discounting and crime. We use a unique dataset that combines a survey-based measure of time discount rates (at age 13) with detailed longitudinal register data on criminal behavior spanning over 18 y. Our results show that individuals with short time horizons have a significantly higher risk of criminal involvement later in life. The magnitude of the relationship is substantial and corresponds to roughly one-third of the association between intelligence and crime.

  • 4862.
    Åkerlund, Kerstin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Information, råd och stöd till barn som är anhöriga på en neurologisk klinik: en pilotstudie2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn till neurologiskt sjuka föräldrar löper en förhöjd risk för egen psykisk ohälsa. Av detta skäl är det en laglig rättighet för barn i Sverige att få stöd som anhöriga. Internationella studier och en tidigare kartläggning på Neurologiska kliniken på Karolinska universitetssjukhuset visade att stödet ska vara familjeinriktat och att metoder behövde provas ut. Beardsleés familjeintervention, BFI är en metod vid föräldradepression. Föreliggande studie hade två syften; dels att prova ut BFI på Neurologiska kliniken med de deltagande familjemedlemmarnas utvärdering och dels att via intervjuer med fyra läkare undersöka intresset hos de medicinskt ansvariga att förmedla familjer till BFI intervention. Under datainsamlingen inkom endast en remiss lämpad för BFI varför resultatet kom att fokusera på läkarintervjuerna och läkarnas roll som portvakt (gate keepers). Resultatet i studien lyfter fram de svårigheter som är förknippade med implementering av ett barn och familje- perspektiv i den somatiska vuxenvården.

  • 4863. Åkerstedt Miley, Anna
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Comparing two versions of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS)2016Inngår i: Sleep and Biological Rhythms, ISSN 1446-9235, E-ISSN 1479-8425, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 257-260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) is frequently used to study sleepiness in various contexts. However, it exists in two versions, one with labels on every other step (version A), and one with labels on every step (version B) on the 9-point scale. To date, there are no studies examining whether these versions can be used interchangeably. The two versions were here compared in a 24 hr wakefulness study of 12 adults. KSS ratings were obtained every hour, alternating version A and B. Results indicated that the two versions are highly correlated, do not have different response distributions on labeled and unlabeled steps, and that the distributions across all steps have a high level of correspondence (Kappa = 0.73). It was concluded that the two versions are quite similar.

  • 4864.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gruber, Georg
    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny
    Lindberg, Eva
    Short sleep-poor sleep? A polysomnographic study in a large population-based sample of women2019Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, nr 4, artikkel-id e12812Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of studies on the association between total sleep time (TST) and other polysomnographical parameters. A key question is whether a short sleep is an expression of habitual short sleep, or whether it reflects temporary impairment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between TST and amount of sleep stages and sleep continuity measures, in a large population-based sample of women (n = 385), sleeping at home in a normal daily life setting. The results show that sleep efficiency, N1 (min), N2 (min), REM (min), REM% and proportion of long sleep segments, increased with increasing TST, whereas the number of awakenings/hr, the number of arousals/hr, N1% and REM intensity decreased. In addition, longer sleep was more associated with TST being perceived as of usual duration and with better subjective sleep quality. TST was not associated with habitual reported sleep duration. It was concluded that short TST of a recorded sleep in a real-life context may be an indicator of poor objective sleep quality for that particular sleep episode. Because individuals clearly perceived this reduction, it appears that self-reports of poor sleep quality often may be seen as indicators of poor sleep quality. It is also concluded that PSG-recorded sleep duration does not reflect habitual reported sleep duration in the present real-life context.

  • 4865. Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Altered sleep/wake patterns and circadian rhythms: laboratory and field studies of sympathoadrenomedullary and related variables1979Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4866.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Discacciati, Andrea
    Habel, Henrike
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Psychosocial work demands and physical workload decrease with ageing in blue-collar and white-collar workers: a prospective study based on the SLOSH cohort2019Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id e030918Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Psychosocial work demands and physical workload are important causes of ill health. The dramatic demographic changes in society make it important to understand if such factors change with ageing, but this is presently not known. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether psychosocial work demands and physical workload change across 8years of ageing, whether occupational groups show different trajectories of change and if such trajectories are reflected in sleep or fatigue. Methods A cohort of 5377 participants (mean age: 47.611.6 (SD) years, 43.2% males, 40.2% blue-collar workers) was measured through self-report in five biannual waves across 8 years. Mixed model regression analyses was used to investigate change across ageing. Results Psychosocial work demands decreased significantly across 8 years (Coeff: -0.016 +/- 0.001), with the strongest decrease in the high white-collar group (Coeff=-0.031 +/- 0.003) and the oldest group. Physical workload also decreased significantly (Coeff=-0.032 +/- 0.002), particularly in the blue-collar group (Coeff=-0.050 +/- 0.004) and in the oldest group. Fatigue decreased, and sleep problems increased with ageing, but with similar slopes in the occupational groups. All effect sizes were small, but extrapolation suggests substantial decreases across a working life career. Conclusions The decrease in psychosocial work demands and physical workload suggests that the burden of work becomes somewhat lighter over 8 years. The mechanism could be 'pure' ageing and/or increased experience or related factors. The gradual improvement in the work situation should be considered in the discussion of the place of older individuals in the labour market, and of a suitable age for retirement. The results also mean that prospective studies of work and health need to consider the improvement in working life with ageing.

  • 4867.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Discacciati, Andrea
    Miley-Åkerstedt, Anna
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Aging and the Change in Fatigue and Sleep - A Longitudinal Study Across 8 Years in Three Age Groups2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue is prevalent in the population and usually linked to sleep problems, and both are related to age. However, previous studies have been cross-sectional. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the trajectories of sleep and fatigue across 8 years of aging in a large group (N > 8.000) of individuals. A second purpose was to investigate whether fatigue trajectories would differ between age groups, and whether different trajectories of fatigue would be reflected in a corresponding difference in trajectories for sleep variables. Results from mixed model analyses showed that fatigue decreased across 8 years in all age groups, while sleep problems increased, non-restorative sleep decreased, weekend sleep duration decreased, and weekday sleep duration showed different patterns depending on age. Furthermore, the larger the decrease in fatigue, the larger was the increase in sleep duration across years, the lower was the increase of sleep problems, and the larger was the decrease of non-restorative sleep. The results suggest that aging has positive effects on fatigue and sleep and that these changes are linked.

  • 4868.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Garefelt, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. North West University, South Africa.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Work and Sleep - A Prospective Study of Psychosocial Work Factors, Physical Work Factors, and Work Scheduling2015Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, nr 7, s. 1129-1136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: There is limited knowledge about the prospective relationship between major work characteristics (psychosocial, physical, scheduling) and disturbed sleep. The current study sought to provide such knowledge. Design: Prospective cohort, with measurements on two occasions (T1 and T2) separated by two years. Setting: Naturalistic study, Sweden. Participants: There were 4,827 participants forming a representative sample of the working population. Measurements and Results: Questionnaire data on work factors obtained on two occasions were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Competing models were compared in order to investigate temporal relationships. A reciprocal model was found to fit the data best. Sleep disturbances at T2 were predicted by higher work demands at T1 and by lower perceived stress at T1. In addition, sleep disturbances at T1 predicted subsequent higher perception of stress, higher work demands, lower degree of control, and less social support at work at T2. A cross-sectional mediation analysis showed that (higher) perceived stress mediated the relationship between (higher) work demands and sleep disturbances; however, no such association was found longitudinally. Conclusions: Higher work demands predicted disturbed sleep, whereas physical work characteristics, shift work, and overtime did not. In addition, disturbed sleep predicted subsequent higher work demands, perceived stress, less social support, and lower degree of control. The results suggest that remedial interventions against sleep disturbances should focus on psychosocial factors, and that such remedial interventions may improve the psychosocial work situation in the long run.

  • 4869.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    d'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gruber, G.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Women sleep better and have a stronger response to late night curtailed sleep than men, particularly in older individuals - effects on polysomnographical sleep2016Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, s. 156-156, artikkel-id P206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Higher age is associated with poorer sleep and women report more sleep problems than men, despite indications of better physiological sleep. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether a common daily life sleep problem, late night curtailed sleep, would have different effects depending on gender and age. Methods: 60 healthy individuals (equal groups of gender and age (20–30 and 65–75 years)) participated in an experiment with a full night’s sleep and one night with reduced sleep between 0400 h and 0700 h, in a balanced design. Sleep was recorded through standard polysomnography (PSG) at home. Results: The results showed the expected main effect of sleep loss. Older participants had a lower TST, N3%, sleep efficiency, but more N1%, longer N3 latency, and fewer awakenings. Women had more N3%, more REM%, more N3%, and shorter N3 latency compared with men. The curtailed late night sleep caused a stronger increase in N3%, and more pronounced reductions in REM%, a stronger reduction in N1%, and N3 latency in women than men. In the higher age group the N3% response in men was strongly attenuated compared to that of women. Conclusions: The results show that women, apart form getting more N3% and less N1% even in the normal sleep condition, have a stronger response to late night sleep, particularly in higher age groups.

  • 4870.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, S.
    d'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Petrovic, P.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gray Matter Volume Correlates Of Sleepiness: A Voxel-based Morphometry Study In Younger And Older Adults2018Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 41, s. A58-A58, artikkel-id 0149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sleepiness is prevalent in society, often linked to disturbed sleep, shift work, stress, or diseases. It is also associated with an increased risk of accidents. Sleepiness may be related to brain metabolism and, we hypothesize that it is associated with brain gray matter (GM) volume. The present study investigated the association between sleepiness and GM volume in thalamus and insula, with a special focus on age, since both sleepiness and GM volume change with age.

    Methods: In all, 84 healthy individuals participated in the experiment, of which 46 were in the age range 20–30 years and 38 ranging between 65–75 years. Data was collected in a 3 T scanner during a 5 minute anatomical scan (first in a several sessions in the scanner) in the evening after a full night of sleep. Momentary sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) was rated 7 times during the time in the scanner.

    Results: Results showed that, in older, relative to younger adults, areas within bilateral insular cortex and thalamus GM regions of interest were negatively associated (FWE-corrected) with sleepiness (Z=4.02, p=.015 left insula and Z=4.42, p=.009 for right insula; Z=3.75, p=.020 for left thalamus and Z=4.60, p=.001 for right thalamus). Larger volume was associated with low sleepiness in the older group, but not in the older group. The effect in the insula was mainly present in the mid-anterior parts of the structure.. In addition, after applying a conservative small volume correction including all ROIs simultaneously, age-interaction effects remained significant.

    Conclusion: It was concluded that self-rated momentary sleepiness in a monotonous situation is negatively associated with GM volume in areas within both thalamus and insula in older individuals. The results are in line with notions of thalamus as a driver of arousal and of anterior insula as a structure evaluating the state of the organism. Possibly, a larger GM volume in these structures may be protective against sleepiness in older individuals, a hypothesis that needs confirmation in further studies.

  • 4871.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    D'onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Effects of late-night short-sleep on in-home polysomnography: relation to adult age and sex2018Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27, nr 4, artikkel-id e12626Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bedtime is frequently delayed by many factors in life, and a homeostatic response to the delay may compensate partly for increased time awake and shortened sleep. Because sleep becomes shorter with age and women complain of disturbed sleep more often than men, age and sex differences in the homeostatic response to a delayed bedtime may modify the homeostatic response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of late-night short-sleep (3 h with awakening at about 07:00 hours) on in-home recorded sleep in men and women in two age groups (20-30 and 65-75 years). Results (N = 59) showed that late-night short-sleep was associated with an increase in percentage of N3 sleep and a decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, as well as decreases in several measures of sleep discontinuity and rapid eye movement density. Men showed a smaller decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep than women in response to late-night short-sleep, as did older individuals of both sexes compared with younger. Older men showed a weaker percentage of N3 sleep in response to late-night short-sleep than younger men. In general, men showed a greater percentage of rapid eye movement sleep and a lower percentage of N3 sleep than women, and older individuals showed a lower percentage of N3 sleep than younger. In particular, older men showed very low levels of percentage of N3 sleep. We conclude that older males show less of a homeostatic response to late-night short-sleep. This may be an indication of impaired capacity for recovery in older men. Future studies should investigate if this pattern can be linked to gender-associated differences in morbidity and mortality.

  • 4872.
    Åkerström, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Molin, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Trogen arbetsgivaren eller redo att byta jobb?: Betydelsen av ledarskap och arbetsrelaterade attityder2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En ökad grad av uppsägningar har på senare år blivit ett problem inom vården och ledarskapsstil har visat sig vara av betydelse när det gäller intentionen till uppsägning hos de anställda. Arbetsrelaterade attityder har också visat sig vara viktiga när det gäller att motverka intentionen till uppsägning. Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka om de arbetsrelaterade attityderna arbetstillfredsställelse, arbetsinlevelse och organisationssamhörighet har en medierande effekt på relationen mellan respektive ledarskapsstil och intentionen till uppsägning hos de anställda. Data inhämtades från tre akutsjukhus i Stockholmsregionen. Resultatet visade ett signifikant negativt samband mellan ledarskapsstil och intention till uppsägning. Den arbetsrelaterade attityden arbetstillfredsställelse visades mediera denna effekt. Vid brister i ledarskapet kan konkreta åtgärder vidtas för att höja arbetstillfredsställelsen och skapa gynnsamma arbetsmiljöer i syfte att minska intentionen till uppsägning.

  • 4873.
    Åkesson, Gertrud
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Norell, Alexandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Publicering - en väg till framgång inom akademisk medicin2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Publicering är guldmyntet av forskningsarbete och det är genom publicering som forskningsframgång uppnås. Tidigare studier visar att manliga läkare publicerar fler artiklar än vad kvinnliga läkare gör och föreliggande studies resultat är i linje med detta. Syftet med denna studie var att utreda samband mellan olika faktorer och publiceringsgrad inom medicinsk akademisk forskning. Här togs sociodemografiska och arbetsrelaterade faktorer i beaktning. Undersökningen ingår i projektet HOUPE, “Health and Organisation among University hospital Physicians in Europe”. Datamaterialet utgjordes av enkäter från 503 disputerade läkare. Resultat från logistisk regressionsanalys visade att äldre läkare publicerade mer än yngre läkare samt att samarbete med tidigare handledare predicerade högre publiceringsgrad. Möjlighet att styra över sin arbetstid och skattad hälsa inverkade också på antal publicerade artiklar. Angeläget är att föra en diskussion kring kvinnliga läkares underrepresentation som artikelförfattare då detta är avgörande för framtida forskning.

  • 4874.
    Ålund, Helene
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Har vinexperter bättre luktsinnesförmågor än noviser?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Luktsinnet är komplext och innefattar många olika psykologiska aspekter, varav de fyra mest studerade är förmågan att känna svaga lukter (detektion), känna skillnad på olika lukter (diskrimination), para ihop lukter med dess namn (identifikation) samt att utan ledtrådar säga vad det är man luktar på (namngivning). Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka huruvida vinexperters luktförmåga, genom sin utbildning och träning har fått bättre olfaktoriska förmågor. Vinexperterna (n = 15) jämfördes med icke-experter, noviser, (n = 29) i ett standardiserat lukttest, TDI, som innefattade detektion, diskriminering, identifikation och namngivning, och undersöktes om vinexperterna har en generellt bättre luktkänslighet än noviserna. Resultatet visar att experterna presterade bättre på tröskeltestet och diskrimineringstestet än noviserna. Däremot var det ingen skillnad mellan grupperna på att namnge och identifiera lukter. Sammanfattningsvis visade denna studie att vinexperter troligtvis har genom sin utbildning, förvärvat sensoriska fördelar i förmågan att känna svaga lukter och även  att kunna diskriminera lukter från varandra.

  • 4875.
    Åslund, Lie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Arnberg, Filip
    Kanstrup, Marie
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Cognitive and Behavioral Interventions to Improve Sleep in School-Age Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2018Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (JCSM), ISSN 1550-9389, E-ISSN 1550-9397, Vol. 14, nr 11, s. 1937-1947Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives

    Sleep problems are common in children and adolescents and can aggravate comorbid disorders. This meta-analysis examined the effect of cognitive and behavioral sleep interventions (with four or more treatment sessions) from randomized controlled trials on school-age children and adolescents.

    Methods

    In a systematic literature search, six randomized controlled trials were identified (n = 528; mean age = 14.6 years; female = 63%) that reported total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset, and daytime sleepiness from ratings and actigraphy.

    Results

    After intervention, no effect was seen on self-reported TST, but when measured with actigraphy, an effect favoring the intervention group was observed (+11.47 minutes, P = .05). SOL decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group after intervention as measured by both sleep diaries (−9.31 minutes, P = .007) and actigraphy (−19.48 minutes, P < .0001). Effect sizes ranged from small to large. No effect was found for wake after sleep onset or daytime sleepiness. Short-term (4 to 8 weeks) follow-up data from four studies indicated maintained positive effects on SOL: sleep diaries −15.85 minutes (P = .01) and actigraphy −23.67 minutes (P < .0001). At follow-up, the effects on wake after sleep onset from ratings (−14.41 minutes, P = .001) and actigraphy (−7.54 minutes, P = .01) were significant, favoring the intervention group (moderate to large effect sizes). No effect on TST was indicated.

    Conclusions

    Cognitive and behavioral sleep interventions are indicated to improve sleep in school-age children and adolescents. However, because treatment protocols were heterogeneous and risk of bias high, results should be interpreted with caution. Large and rigorous trials are needed.

  • 4876.
    Åström Anastassiadis, Mia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Att leva med högkänslighet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Högkänsliga personer sägs registrera fler nyanser i sin omgivning än andra människor och även bearbeta och reflektera kring intrycken på ett djupare sätt. Därför kan de också ibland bli överstimulerade av alla sinnesintryck. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vad det kan innebära att leva som högkänslig. Med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer som hölls via chattprogrammet Skype samlades information in från elva högkänsliga personer. Samtliga deltagare var medlemmar i SFH, Sveriges Förening för Högkänsliga. Genom att analysera intervjuerna med tematisk analys framträdde olika situationer och sammanhang i deltagarnas liv där högkänsligheten på olika sätt har betydelse. Resultatet tyder på att högkänslighet både kan begränsa och berika i vardagen. Bland annat i det sociala livet då det är ätt att bli påverkad av andras känslolägen men även att ha lätt att förstå människor och skapa kontakt. Det handlar om en balansgång där det är viktigt att lyssna på sina behov och ta hand om sig.

  • 4877.
    Ödhammar, Gabrielle
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Utvärdering av Group Development Questionnaire-interventioner på svenska arbetsgrupper2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsteam har blivit en allt mer vanlig tillämpad organisationsform på dagens arbetsplatser. Att utforma bra metoder för att stödja arbetsgruppers utveckling är därför av stor vikt. Group Development Questionnaire (GDQ) är en metod framställd för att arbeta med grupper ur ett utvecklingsperspektiv. Denna studie utvärderar resultaten av GDQ-interventioner som genomförts på tolv svenska arbetsgrupper, i syfte att undersöka om positiva förändringar skett i grupperna. Resultaten visade inte på några större signifikanta förändringar i gruppernas fasutveckling. De sammanlagda gruppernas mått på produktivitet var signifikant högre efter intervention. Man fann ett signifikant positivt samband mellan gruppens ålder och effektivitet samt ett signifikant samband i att grupper som befann sig i de högre utvecklingsfaserna själva ansåg sig vara mer produktiva. GDQ-metodens användbarhet på en svensk population samt den svenska översättningen av GDQ-enkäten diskuteras. Slutsatsen som dras är att fler studier, med mer rigorös vetenskaplig design, behövs för att pröva metodens användbarhet på en svensk population.

  • 4878.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bertling, Ulla
    Boalt Boëthius, Siv
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Editorial2012Inngår i: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 73-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of Nordic Psychology, as well as the next one, is devoted to papers presented at the Nordic Conference Psychotherapy and Supervision Research in Dialogue. The conference, which took place at the Stockholm University Department of Psychology on 21 and 22 October 2011, was arranged jointly by the Working Party for Psychotherapy Research in Sweden and the Department of Psychology (http://w3.psychology.su.se/terapiforskning).

    We hope that these two issues of Nordic Psychology will contribute to an interesting sample of ongoing research in the Nordic countries. Our ambition for the conference and the present publications is to stimulate Nordic collaboration and networking in these domains. This first issue focuses on psychotherapy research, current themes in Nordic psychotherapy research and the Nordic network. The next issue of Nordic Psychology will focus on professional development and supervision.

  • 4879.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bertling, Ulla
    Boalt Boëthius, Siv
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Professional development and psychotherapy supervision2012Inngår i: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 64, nr 3, s. 147-149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As with the previous issue of Nordic Psychology, this edition is also devoted to papers presented at the Nordic Conference “Psychotherapy and Supervision Research in Dialogue: A Nordic Conference and Network Development”, October 2011. While the previous issue included an analysis of the discussion of these themes at the same conference and was focused on psychotherapy research, this time the emphasis is on research into professional development and supervision in psychotherapy. The main idea for the conference was to introduce these two research areas as being closely related and dependent on each other.

  • 4880.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Boalt Boëthius, Siv
    En pedagogisk metod med stora möjligheter2011Inngår i: Matrix, ISSN 0109-646X, E-ISSN 2387-600X, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 309-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har handlednig i grupp kommit att bli allt vanligare inom olika verksamhetsområden och inom utbildningar på olika nivåer. Kostnadsskäl gjorde ursprungligen att grupphandledning föredrogs framför individualhandledning inom utbildningar. Efterhand har också grupphandledning som en unik pedagogisk form kommit att bli alltmer uppmärksammad. Forskning och erfarenheter inom området har bidragit till detta.

  • 4881.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Boethius, Siv
    Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Sundin, Eva
    Grupphandledning i psykoterapi inom ramen för utbildningar.2005Inngår i: Matrix, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 389-403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport, som har fokus på grupphandledning i psykoterapiutbildning, ger en sammanfattande bild av resultat som erhållits genom ett samarbetsprojekt mellan ett flertal svenska universitet och universitetsrelaterade utbildningsenheter. Projektet bygger på studier av grupphandledning på tre olika utbildningsnivåer; grundläggande psykoterapiutbildning, psykoterapeutbildning och handledarutbildning. Olika teoretiska inriktningar är representerade. Grupperna har omfattat tre eller fyra handledda och en handledare. Kvantitativa och kvalitativa data har samlats in i början, mitten och slutet av respektive utbildning. De studier som presenteras här undersöker och belyser olika aspekter av grupphandledning som upplevelsen av handledning på olika utbildningsnivåer, skillnader och likheter mellan olika psykoterapeutiska inriktningar utifrån att handledningen sker i form av grupphandledning samt upplevelser av gruppklimat och betydelsen av handledarens förhållningssätt. Ett viktigt fynd är att både handledare och handledda betonar behovet av att grupprocesser och fenomen som har sina rötter i såväl samspelet gruppdeltagarna emellan som handledarens förhållningssätt och utbildningens ramar uppmärksammas mer i grupphandledning i psykoterapi.

  • 4882.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Boëthius, Siv Boalt
    Sundin, Eva
    From psychotherapist to supervisor: The significance of group format and supervisors’ function as role models in supervisor training2008Inngår i: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 3-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study was performed on a Swedish postgraduate training program for prospective supervisors. The two-year supervisor training program consisted of weekly theoretical seminars and group supervision of the prospective supervisors’ supervision of a prospective psychotherapist who had a patient in psychotherapy. The training program was based on psychodynamic theory. Supervisees’ and supervisors’ experiences of the group format for supervision, the impact of the supervisor’s style and the supervisor as a role model for the prospective supervisors were explored in semi-structured individual interviews. Both supervisees and supervisors emphasized that the group format was experienced as particularly suitable for this training level. The “super-supervisor’s” style was considered important, as he or she served as a role model for the supervisors in training. The shift of role from psychotherapist to supervisor was specifically emphasized.

  • 4883.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Boëthius, Siv Boalt
    Sundin, Eva
    Grupphandledning i psykoterapi inom ramen för utbildningar.: Group supervision in psychotherapy within the framework of training.2005Inngår i: Matrix: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Psykoterapi, ISSN 0109-646X, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 389-402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    The focus of this paper is group supervision within psychotherapy training. Results emanating from studies performed in collaboration between a number of Swedish universities and university affiliated training units are summarized. The findings are drawn from studies where data is collected from supervisors and supervisees at several different measurement points, levels of training, and psychotherapeutic orientations. The studies presented here examine and highlight different aspects of group supervision, e.g. the experience of supervision on various training levels and psychotherapeutic orientations with regard to the impact of the group format. Moreover, experiences of supervisor style and group climate are examined. A major finding is that both supervisors and supervisees emphasize the need for paying more attention to group processes and phenomena within group supervision.

  • 4884.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Carl-Otto
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sundin, Eva
    Group Supervision in Psychotherapy: The Relationship Between Focus, Group Climate, and Perceived Attained Skill.2005Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0021-9762, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 373-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined supervisees and supervisors' view on focus and group climate in group supervision and their relationship with supervisees' attained skill. After supervision, supervisees completed a revised version of Buckley's measure of psychotherapeutic skill. Supervisees and supervisors' experience of focus and climate in the supervision was measured with a questionnaire. Topics and Climate (TAG). The results showed that supervisors' ratings of the extent to which different foci were used in the supervision were significantly higher compared to supervisees' ratings. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that differences in supervisor style were related to supervisees' experience of attained skill. Supervisees' experience of the degree to which focus in supervision was on psychodynamic processes was positively related to perceived attained skill, whereas focus on Theoretical aspects was negatively related. These findings underline the importance of research work with topics and group processes in group supervision.

  • 4885.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Siv, Boalt Boëthius
    Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Grupphandledning inom psykoterapiutbildningar.2008Inngår i: Mellanrummet, ISSN 1404-5559, Vol. 19, s. 61-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna bli en bra terapeut behövs något mer än teoretiska kunskaper. En yrkesskicklighet behöver växa fram genom att teori integreras med tillämpning. Handledning på psykoterapeutisk behandling har en lång tradition som en av tre hörnpelare (teori, egenpsykoterapi och kliniskt arbete under handledning) inom psykoterapiutbildningar på olika nivåer. Tillgång till kontinuerlig handledning har dessutom visat sig fylla en viktig funktion för vidare utveckling och fördjupning för psykoterapeuter för att motverka stagnation och utbrändhet i yrkesrollen.

  • 4886.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Klinisk psykologi.
    Siv, Boalt Boëthius
    Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Organizational structure and framework.: A case study of Swedish training programs in psychotherapy.2008Inngår i: Organizational and Social Dynamics: An international Journal for the Integration of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives, ISSN 1474 2780, Vol. 8, nr 22, s. 256-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to highlight the design and functioning of the organizational framework supporting psychotherapy supervision at psychotherapy training institutions at postgraduate level in Sweden. The study was based on data from course coordinators and supervisors, who are the two main categories of employees involved in these programs. Two questionnaires were constructed (Course Coordinator Questionnaire and Supervisor Questionnaire).

    Our results indicated that the organizational framework for different training institutions were fairly similar with regard to the perceived primary task, i.e. supervision goals and its overall framework. However, according to the course coordinators, there were certain differences with regard to the management of role distribution, group composition, information, routines, regularity and accessibility. Also, economic and geographical conditions had a substantial influence on the design and functioning of the framework. The supervisors stressed the importance of explicit organizational frames, clear information and routines for, e.g. evaluation, how to deal with conflicts and failing, and above all the need for a competent and flexible course coordinator. The collected information might be used for further discussion of a functional framework supporting psychotherapy supervision in a training context.

  • 4887.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sundin, Eva
    Experiences of the group format in psychotherapy supervision.2007Inngår i: The Clinical Supervisor, Vol. 25, nr 1-2, s. 69-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4888.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sundin, Eva
    Gruppens inverkan på lärandeprocessen.: (Ingår i rapporten Resultatdialog 2006. Forskning inom utbildningsvetenskp.)2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Despite the fact that group supervision in psychotherapy appears to be the most frequently used modality in many training institutions (Holmes, Stader, Swaim, Haigler, & deRosset, 1998; Ögren, Jonsson, & Sundin, 2005), relatively few systematic studies of psychotherapy supervision in group have been published. GUT (Group Supervision in Psychotherapy in an Academic Context) is a research project that studies aspects of group supervision in psychotherapy training. The project is performed in collaboration between a number of Swedish universities and university-affiliated institutions. Four questionnaires have been developed; 1) Attained knowledge and skill, 2) Group climate, 3) Supervisor style, 4) Actual and ideal usage of the group format. In this project, data is collected from psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral supervisors and their supervisees who work at different training institutions and different training levels. The supervisors and supervisees complete self-ratings at three measurement points during a supervision period of 1.5 to 2 years. Up until now, data has been collected during a five-year period (2002 to 2006), and a data-base with data from 150 supervision groups has been developed. Results from this project have been published in a number of articles.

    Our main findings of this net-work project is summerized as well as major limitations of this project and its design. Implications for future research is discussed.

  • 4889.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sundin, Eva
    Intervjuer som prognosinstrument för studieframgång: Interviews as instrument of prognosis for student development.2005Inngår i: Nordisk Psykologi, ISSN 0029-1463, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 271-287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic tests and high school grades/scholastic tests/interview) to the five-year Master's Program in Professional Psychology at Stockholm University were examined. The analyses were based on data from students who were admitted on a combination of high school grades/scholastic test and interview, and students who were admitted based only on high school grades/scholastic test. In the final semester of the five-year Psychologist Program, the students and their supervisors rated the student's development of psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills, and their relation to the supervisor and the supervision group. A self rating scale was used. The results showed that students who were admitted upon interview and their supervisors, rated significantly higher on all factors. Moreover, students admitted upon interview rated their development of psychotherapeutic skill significantly higher than students admitted traditionally. The corresponding difference between supervisor ratings was not significant. Both student and supervisor ratings indicated that the students admitted by an interview had a better relation to their supervisor and to their supervision group.

  • 4890.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sundin, Eva C.
    Nottingham Trent University.
    Group supervision in psychotherapy: Main findings from a Swedish research project on psychotherapy supervision in a group format2009Inngår i: British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, ISSN 0306-9885, E-ISSN 1469-3534, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 129-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychotherapy supervision is considered crucial for psychotherapists in training on different levels. During the last decades, group supervision has been the most frequently used format of psychotherapy supervision in many countries. Nevertheless, until recently, very few studies had evaluated the small-group format for training of beginner psychotherapists and psychotherapy supervisors. This article aims to summarise and discuss main findings from a research project which used questionnaires to collect supervisee and supervisor reports about various issues of psychotherapy supervision in group. One such finding is that, in several studies, the group format contributed to an in-depth clinical experience. Also, both supervisors and supervisees reported that the working climate in their groups improved over time: a more flexible and collaborative style of interaction over time; the communication became more flexible, the group members took less rigid positions; and fewer dysfunctional subgroups were maintained. These results also suggested that strong efforts to establish close relationships in the group can limit group member involvement and hinder group development. A third finding suggested that there was no difference between supervisees and supervisors who worked with different psychotherapy orientations (psychodynamic, CBT) in terms of how they perceived that the group actually had been used as a didactic tool. In contrast, both supervisees and supervisors with a psychodynamic approach reported that more focus ideally should be on group process issues. Another study finding suggested that the organisational framework for psychotherapy supervision is of considerable importance for the learning process. This finding opens up a new area of research which needs to be explored in future studies. A conclusive discussion relates these findings to the general aim of this research, which is to identify and systematically examine issues of considerable clinical interest, and thus build bridges between academia and clinical practice. Recommendations for future research endeavours are also outlined.

  • 4891.
    Öhman, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Föräldraskap som faktor i psykologiskt välbefinnande och utbrändhet hos studenter2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den psykiska ohälsan ökar alltmer i samhället och en utsatt grupp är universitetsstudenter. Ett uttryck för psykisk ohälsa är utbrändhet, som består av tre dimensioner: emotionell utmattning, cynism samt bristande upplevd prestation. Positiv hälsa har av tradition inte studerats lika mycket, men har kommit att intressera allt fler forskare. Ett begrepp inom positiv hälsa är psykologiskt välbefinnande, som består av sex olika dimensioner. Föräldraskapets betydelse för den psykiska hälsan har visat sig variera, varför syftet med studien var att undersöka hur föräldraskapet påverkar det psykologiska välbefinnandet och graden av utbrändhet hos studenter. En enkät fylldes i av 98 psykologistudenter. Resultaten visade på en lägre grad av utbrändhet hos studenterna med hemmavarande barn än hos övriga men inga skillnader i psykologiskt välbefinnande uppvisades mellan studenter med och utan barn. Studenter med barn tycks således inte ha sämre psykisk hälsa än de utan barn, vilket delvis går emot tidigare forskning.

  • 4892. Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Longitudinal analysis of the relation between moderate long-term stress and health2007Inngår i: Stress and Health, Vol. 23, s. 131-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4893.
    Öhrstedt, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Vilken inverkan har kön på bedömningen av en arbetssökande?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    På arbetsmarknaden idag är det fortfarande en sned fördelning mellan män och kvinnor, kvinnorna har administrativa arbeten och männen innehar de högre positionerna. Flera forskare skriver om de rollförväntningar som finns på de båda könen, kvinnor förväntas vara communal medan männen bör vara agentic. Rollförväntningarna på männen är mer överensstämmande med ledarrollen. Föreliggande undersökning består av en enkät om en hypotetisk rekryteringssituation. Enkäten består av två versioner där innehållet är detsamma men namnen på de sökande bytts ut. Syftet var att undersöka en tendens att utvärdera arbetssökande för en chefstjänst olika beroende på om denne är man eller kvinna. Vidare undersöktes om män uppfattas mer agentic och kvinnor mer communal. Resultatet visar viss interaktionseffekt mellan könet på deltagaren och vilken version av enkäten de besvarat. Detta tolkas som att vissa könsskillnader i bedömningen av en arbetssökande finns.

  • 4894.
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Approaches to learning and perceived stress among first-semester psychology students2015Inngår i: EARLI 2015 Book of Abstracts, 2015, s. 728-729Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests an interplay between students’ well-being, learning activities, and learning outcomes. This study explores the linkages between students’ approaches to learning, perceived stress, as well as expected and final grades within a sample of first-semester psychology students at a Swedish university. The results suggest that students adopting surface approaches to learning perceive higher levels of stress, while strategic approaches seem associated with lower levels of perceived stress. There was no association between deep approaches to learning and perceived stress. Students adopting surface approaches or reporting high levels of perceived stress expected lower course grades than students adopting deep or strategic approaches to learning. Students adopting surface approaches or perceiving high levels of stress typically overestimated their final course grades. The highest levels of perceived stress were reported by students who achieved quite good, but not excellent grades. The discussion relates these findings to the potential influence of various factors such as perceived demands and feelings of control. Possible practical applications of the findings are also discussed.

  • 4895.
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Diversity in students’ approaches to learning in parallel psychology courses2015Inngår i: NoFa5 Book of Abstracts, 2015, s. 153-153Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The SAL (Student Approaches to Learning) tradition focuses on mapping and assessing students’ approaches to learning in the learning context of higher education. Previous research suggests that approaches to learning are indeed sensitive to modifications in the learning context, and influence the quality of student learning. However, the knowledge regarding variations in student approaches relating to learning flexibility is still limited.

    This study investigates whether a natural learning context, providing parallel and resembling courses, involves different approaches to learning. Second semester psychology students were asked to describe their approaches to learning separately for two parallel courses. The analyses suggest that even though individual students seem to exhibit a consistent core regarding their approaches to learning, alternations between similar learning contexts can bring about large changes in both surface and deep approaches to learning. Strategic approaches to learning seem less flexible, but not unaffected.

    The findings add to the theoretical idea of considering approaches to learning as a flexible construct, which is sensitive to smaller transitions in learning contexts. From a practical view, the results support the idea that there are ways of designing powerful learning environments.

  • 4896.
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Högskolestudenters lärande: Ett lärstrategiskt perspektiv på studier i psykologi2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    University students’ approaches to learning influence academic achievement and qualities in learning outcomes. Approaches to learning develop in a process where student factors interact with factors of the learning context. Students’ subjective perceptions of their learning environment seem to be crucial.

    This thesis draws on an established research stand in aiming to contribute to a deeper understanding of how students adapt their approaches to learning to perceived contextual factors in a specific learning context. In three studies, conceptions for development and variation of approaches to learning among psychology students at a Swedish university are examined.

    Study I examined how approaches to learning vary with expected and final course grades, and student abilities to predict academic achievement (N = 189). Overall, students had low self-assessment skills, with students adopting surface approach to learning having the poorest skills. Students adopting a strategic approach to learning achieved high grades, while students adopting a surface approach to learning had poorer performances. Students adopting a deep approach to learning expected high grades but the exam did not favour a deep approach.

    Study II aimed at describing similarities in factors that psychology students themselves, despite them adopting different approaches to learning, considered influenced their studying activities. A selective student sample described their studying activities in repeated interviews (N = 11, N = 7). The development of approaches to learning was described as a negotiation where different aspects of learning were related to each other. The students described a common set of reference points: 1) previous studying activities, 2) course recommendations, 3) learning outcomes, 4) assessment demands, and 5) estimated effort. Despite great variation in students’ tendencies to adapt approaches to learning, the adaption process resulted in a gradual homogenization of studying activities.

    Study III examined whether minor variations in parallel learning contexts would give rise to differences in students’ regulation of approaches to learning and whether tendencies to vary differed between students with different approaches to learning (N = 195). All approaches to learning varied between learning contexts, but the strategic approach to learning varied less than surface and deep approaches. Students with a low surface, a high deep or a high strategic approach to learning varied most, while students with a high surface, a low deep or a low strategic approach to learning were more stable.

    The results show that approaches to learning among psychology students seem to develop in a process of negotiation where different aspects of learning are interrelated. For strategic reasons, examinations seem to drive students towards a surface approach to learning. Students’ shared interpretations of factors of the learning context seem to result in a gradual homogenisation of studying activities, despite different students showing different tendencies to adapt their approaches to learning to a specific learning context. A strategic approach seems optimal for academic achievement. In summary, this thesis shows how fine-grained studies can contribute to a deeper understanding of the context specific development of students’ approaches to learning.

  • 4897.
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Självskattad stress och prestation i experimentella minnestest2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I en delstudie till IDA-projektet har 185 kvinnor i 40-årsåldern skattat sin stress med PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) och genomfört fyra episodiska minnestest. Ett omvänt U-format samband med PSS som oberoende faktor och prestation i de olika minnestesterna som beroende faktor har prövats. Ett linjärt samband har sökts post hoc. Både explicit och implicit minnesprestation har mätts, liksom primär- och sekundärminnesprestation. Hög- och lågutbildade deltagare analyserades separat. Ett signifikant resultat för ett omvänt U-format samband kan noteras i ett explicit minnestest (återgivningstest) för gruppen Högutbildade. Inga andra signifikanta samband erhölls och inga signifikanta skillnader mellan högutbildades och lågutbildades stresskattningsnivåer eller minnesprestationer kan konstateras. Resultaten diskuteras ur ett biologiskt, kognitivt och socialpsykologiskt perspektiv med hjälp av bl a teorier kring kortisolnivåer och arbetsminnets begränsade kapacitet.

  • 4898.
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Studieapproach, stress, studieresultat och förmåga att bedöma egen prestation2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Med avsikt att bidra till ökad förståelse för stressrelaterad ohälsa i utbildningsmiljöer undersöks relationerna mellan studieapproach, självskattad stress, studieresultat (estimerat och reellt) och självbedömningsförmåga, med hjälp av en enkätstudie bland 128 psykologistudenter på grundnivå. För att kartlägga studieapproach används en nyöversatt svensk version av ASSIST medan PSS nyttjas för att mäta självskattad stress. Självskattad stress visar sig korrelera positivt med ytinriktad studieapproach och negativt med strategiskt inriktad studieapproach. Studieapproach har inte någon inverkan på reellt men däremot på estimerat studieresultat. Självskattad stress samvarierar både med reellt och med estimerat studieresultat. Självbedömningsförmåga påverkas inte av vare sig studieapproach eller självskattad stress. Nödvändigheten av kvalitativ analys av studiekontext och studieprestation för att kunna förklara inverkan av studieapproach betonas. Studien utmynnar i hypotesen att studenters självskattade stressnivå kan reduceras med hjälp av en studiekontext som gynnar utveckling av strategiskt inriktad studieapproach medan ytinriktad studieapproach missgynnas.

     

  • 4899.
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    First-semester students’ capacity to predict academic achievement as related to approaches to learning2019Inngår i: Journal of Further and Higher Education, ISSN 0309-877X, E-ISSN 0013-1326, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. 1420-1432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While expecting high grades is important for achieving high grades, previous research suggests that students’ ways of approaching their studies relate to academic outcomes. Focusing on first-semester students being new to a discipline, this study investigated how approaches to learning and expectations were related to expected and final academic outcomes within an educational setting. Before a written examination, psychology students (N = 189) completed the 52-item version of ASSIST and estimated course grades. Later, final grades were added. Results showed that 18 per cent of the students provided perfect ratings of their final grades while most underestimated their grades. A surface approach was associated with expecting lower grades while the strategic and deep approaches were associated with expecting better grades. Both surface and high strategic approaches were associated with better final grades while there was no statistically significant association for the deep approach. Taken together, students being new to a discipline have difficulties estimating their grades. Overall students reporting either a surface or strategic approach achieved the grades they expected. For the deep approach, there was no such association. To conclude, the variations between approaches probably relate to the discipline being new and to the examination favoring a strategic approach.

  • 4900.
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Linkages between approaches to learning, perceived stress and expected and actual academic outcomes among first-semester psychology students2018Inngår i: Journal of Further and Higher Education, ISSN 0309-877X, E-ISSN 0013-1326, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 116-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that higher educational students’ perceptions of stress are in part related to the teaching and learning context, and influence academic outcomes. This study intends to deepen our understanding of these processes by examining the linkages between approaches to learning, perceived stress and expected and actual academic outcomes within a specific educational setting. First-semester psychology students (N = 191) completed a questionnaire, including short versions of ASSIST and PSS, and estimated their course grade before a written examination. Later, actual grades were added. The results suggest that surface approach to learning is positively associated with high levels of perceived stress, and reflected in lower levels of expected grades. The relationships between deep and strategic approaches to learning and perceived stress seem to be more ambivalent, despite positive associations with expected grades. Coping and motivational aspects of the concepts of surface and strategic approaches to learning seem to be crucial to understanding the linkages between the examined factors. Also, the significance of a strategic approach in relation to actual academic outcomes is highlighted.

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