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  • 4851.
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Psychology students’ perceptions of the correspondence between approaches to learning and outcomes2015Ingår i: EARLI 2015 Book of Abstracts, 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychology students' perceptions of the correspondence between approaches to learning and academic outcome were mapped and compared with actual influence. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analysed. Preliminary results suggest a successive homogenization of student activities related to coursework. The perception of applying more "efficient" ways of dealing with coursework, corresponding better to examination demands, was identified as an important driver. Although the development towards perceived efficacy could be described as students successively adopting higher levels of surface approaches to learning, students in general judged such approaches as resulting in poorer examination grades, compared to deep approaches. However, surface approaches to learning were negatively correlated to examination grades, but to a lesser extent than students thought, while deep approaches turned out to be less influential. Strategic approaches to learning stood out as having the most positive impact on course grades, both as judged by the students and in actual fact.

  • 4852.
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Targeting efficient studying ­­– first-semester psychology students’ experiences2018Ingår i: Educational research (Windsor. Print), ISSN 0013-1881, E-ISSN 1469-5847, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 80-96Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research indicates that critical student features, such as approaches to learning and decisions of how to organise studying activities, develops in bi-directional interactions between personal and learning environmental factors. However, attempts to influence students’ studying activities in certain directions by manipulating the learning environment often prove unsuccessful. A deeper analysis of the student perspective is needed, since students’ subjective perceptions of the learning environment to a great extent will influence their individual ways of going about studying and learning.  In particular, we need to clarify which aspects steer students’ towards focusing on certain studying activities in a particular course context.

    Purpose: This study aimed at elaborating the student perspective of the process of selection of studying activities by searching for similarities in references to factors perceived as guiding this process among students representing very different combinations of approaches to learning.

    Sample, design and methods: Students’ approaches to learning were evaluated with the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) in two successive psychology introductory courses (N=261). A random (N=5) and a purposive (N=6) student sample was then selected and interviewed. Seven of the students also took part in follow-up interviews six months later. The qualitative analysis aimed at mapping and extracting similarities in students’ perceptions of and dealing with the selection of studying activities.

    Results: Despite great differences in students’ approaches to learning and reported actual studying activities, all students interviewed referred to a common set of reference points perceived as guiding their ways of studying, i.e. their perception of 1) previous studying experiences, 2) course recommendations, 3) learning outcomes, 4) assessment demands, and 5) time and effort spent on studying.

    Conclusions: Students’ selections of studying activities are suggested to be seen as a process of negotiation based on input from certain reference points. In the course context under study the targeting process resulted in a general homogenization of studying activities and permitted students to feel they were studying efficiently. Although possible generalization of the results remains to be investigated, it is suggested that understanding students’ perceptions of reference points and general understanding of the targeting process could contribute to a better grasp of how student factors, course contexts, and students’ perceptions of these, interact.

  • 4853. Öjemyr-Joelsson, Maria
    et al.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Frenckner, Björn
    Nisell, Margret
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Children with high and intermediate imperforate anus: Remembering and talking about medical treatment carried out early in life2008Ingår i: Pediatric surgery international (Print), ISSN 0179-0358, E-ISSN 1437-9813, Vol. 24, nr 9, s. 1009-1015Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of children with high and intermediate imperforate anus entails several different surgical procedures during the first 3–12 months of life, which are accompanied by a strict follow-up treatment regimen. It has not been studied whether the children remember this treatment carried out early in life. Research has shown that small children may demonstrate so-called non-verbal memories of salient events occurring in early childhood. The purpose was to examine whether children with imperforate anus showed distressing memories of previous medical treatment and whether parent–child dialog about medical treatment is related to the child’s psychosocial functioning later in life. Parents of 25 children (9 boys, 16 girls) with high and intermediate imperforate anus participated in the study. The mean age among the children was 10.5 years (range 8.0–13.6). A comparison group of 30 children (5 boys and 25 girls) with juvenile chronic arthritis also participated in the study. The mean age was 10.6 years (range 7.8–13.6). All parents answered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4-18) and a study-specific questionnaire. Children in both groups were reported to show distressing memories of early treatment. Children who had been talked to showed good psychosocial function and were in a better mood and less angry than those who had not been talked to. Parent–child discussions about the child’s experiences of medical treatment did not seem to be harmful or in any other way detrimental to the child, instead such discussions seemed to facilitate the child’s psychosocial functioning.

  • 4854.
    Öjmertz, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Roller-Möte-Nytta-Utveckling: En kvalitativ studie av akademikers upplevelse av medarbetarsamtal2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vara en god ledare och samtidigt driva en organisation till lönsamhet är en utmaning för dagens chefer. Medarbetarsamtalet kan ses som ett viktigt instrument för att skapa gott samarbete och en god dialog i organisationen. Samtalet visar dock på en komplexitet utifrån parternas olika maktpositioner, deras möjlighet att skapa förståelse genom kommunikation och hur deras relation är. Syftet med denna uppsats var att studera medarbetarnas upplevelse av medarbetarsamtalet. Intervjuer hölls med sju personer från olika organisationer. En tematisk analys genomfördes och som teman framkom bland annat förtroende och engagemang, oro och osäkerhet och negativ återkoppling. Deltagarna såg stor nytta i att få avsatt tid och återkoppling från sin chef. Chefens engagemang och förtroendet för chefen ansågs ha inverkan på deras relation, kommunikation och huruvida de såg medarbetarsamtalet som meningsfullt.

  • 4855.
    Örnólfsdóttir, Unnur Ósk
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Swedish women´s self-esteem, body dissatisfaction and health2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported mental health problems have increased dramatically among young female high school (Swedish: gymnasium) and university students in Sweden since the 1990’s. The reasons for this increase are mostly unknown but self-esteem and body image might be important factors behind this problem. The aim of this study was to test whether self-esteem and body dissatisfaction predict health. All correlation directions were in accordance with previous studies on the subject. There was no age group difference in levels of self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or health among the women. Multiple regression analysis revealed that global self-esteem was the strongest single predictor of health. These results give support for the importance of global self-esteem for subjective health. This should be considered in future studies and in the battle against the development of depression, anxiety and eating disorders among women.

  • 4856.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Att utvärdera psykoterapi och kritiskt granska psykoterapistudier2016Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur avgör du som terapeut på ett tillförlitligt sätt att dina patienter blir bättre? Vad menas egentligen med begreppet evidens? Hur kan du bedöma om en studie är välgjord?

    Denna bok hjälper dig som kliniker att utvärdera den behandling du bedriver på ett systematiskt och evidensbaserat sätt. Paradoxalt nog har forskning visat att psykoterapeuter har svårt att bedöma om deras patienter förbättras eller försämras under behandlingens gång. Därför har Lars-Göran Öst här samlat beprövade utvärderingsskalor som är lämpliga att använda session för session, samt före, efter och vid uppföljning av behandling. 

    I boken finns även en mall för att granska och förstå den metodologiska kvaliteten hos psykoterapistudier i vetenskapliga tidskrifter. Med hjälp av denna kan du på ett säkrare sätt bedöma vilka slutsatser som kan dras och vilken användbarhet en studie har för ditt eget kliniska arbete. I grunden handlar detta om att dina patienter ska få bästa möjliga vård.

    Boken vänder sig till både blivande och yrkesverksamma psykologer, psykoterapeuter samt till alla andra som vill veta mer om evidensbaserad psykoterapi.

  • 4857.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders: 40 years of progress2008Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 62, nr Suppl 47, s. 5-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT) have been evaluated in randomized controlled studies (RCT) and anxiety disorders since 1966 and for each disorder there are at least two CBT methods that are considered evidence based (empirically supported) today. Numerous meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of these methods against various control conditions. However, none has looked at whether modern CBT studies lead to better treatment effects than were obtained 10-40 years ago. The aim of this paper is to present a meta-analysis focusing on the mean extent of change achieved by the CBT treatments across decades (from the 1970s onwards). Database searches yielded a total of 432 RCTs for the anxiety disorders combined and 364 of these allowed calculation of within-group effect size (ES) or percentage clinical improvement. Separate ESs were calculated for three central measures: independent assessor rating, self-report and behavioral approach test. The results showed that in most instances there was no significant change in ES across time. In a few instances, the treatment effects were greater in modern studies. However, it was more common with a negative development, or a mixed development (first positive then negative or vice versa). There was no significant change in proportion of clinical improvement. Treatment time and attrition either increased or remained stable. If the single studies that gave the highest ES each decade were compared, all anxiety disorders besides panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder showed a positive development. Possible explanations to the results are discussed.

  • 4858.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Det empiriska stödet för KBT vid psykiska störningar2013Ingår i: KBT inom psykiatrin / [ed] Lars-Göran Öst, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, s. 389-407Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4859.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Efficacy of the third wave of behavioral therapies: A systematic review and meta-analysis2008Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 296-321Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades a number of therapies, under the name of the third wave of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have been developed: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), and integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT). The purposes of this review article of third wave treatment RCTs were: (1) to describe and review them methodologically, (2) to meta-analytically assess their efficacy, and (3) to evaluate if they currently fulfil the criteria for empirically supported treatments. There are 13 RCTs both in ACT and DBT, 1 in CBASP, 2 in IBCT, and none in FAP. The conclusions that can be drawn are that the third wave treatment RCTs used a research methodology that was significantly less stringent than CBT studies; that the mean effect size was moderate for both ACT and DBT, and that none of the third wave therapies fulfilled the criteria for empirically supported treatments. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve future RCTs to increase the possibility of them becoming empirically supported treatments.

  • 4860.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Forskningsdesigner2012Ingår i: Att göra effektutvärderingar / [ed] Knut Sundell, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2012, 1, s. 91-140Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokinformation: Varje år berörs hundratusentals personer av psykosociala och pedagogiska interventioner. Det handlar exempelvis om behandling av missbruk, insatser för utsatta barn och läsundervisning i grundskolan. Endast undantagsvis har dessa interventioner utvärderats, vilket innebär att vi inte vet vilken effekt de har eller om de rentav kan skada. I antologin Att göra effektutvärderingar beskrivs hur man genomför effektutvärderingar, som ger kunskap om hur interventioner fungerar. Boken ger detaljerad och praktisk vägledning som är till nytta för alla som är intresserade av att lära sig mer om effektutvärderingar – både forskarstuderande och forskare som redan ansvarat för effektutvärderingar. Ämnen som tas upp är bland annat forskningsetik, studiedesign, mätinstrument, urval och rekrytering av undersökningspersoner, datainsamling, ekonomiska analyser, dataanalys och tolkning samt rapportskrivning. Bokens författare har lång erfarenhet inom området och representerar olika discipliner såsom psykologi, folkhälsovetenskap, socialt arbete, pedagogik, statistik, epidemiologi, sociologi, evolutionsbiologi, medicinsk vetenskap och datavetenskap. Redaktör för boken är Knut Sundell, docent i psykologi och socialråd på Socialstyrelsen, som har lång erfarenhet av att utvärdera interventioner inom förskola, skola och socialtjänst.

  • 4861.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Inventing the wheel once more or learning from the history of psychotherapy research methodology: Reply to Gaudiano's comments on Öst's (2008) review2009Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 47, nr 12, s. 1071-1073Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Gaudiano's criticism of one part of my review of ACT outcome research (Öst, 2008) is refuted on all issues but one. It is clear that the average amount of grant support for the ACT-studies was smaller than that of CBT-studies, even if the proportion of studies having grant support was not lower. However, that fact should only influence 25% (2 out of 8) of the methodology variables on which ACT-studies had lower mean scores than CBT-studies. It is not acceptable that a relatively new treatment, such as ACT, should be evaluated by more lenient criteria than already established therapies like CBT. If proponents of a new treatment wish to claim that their therapy is empirically supported then they have to accept to be evaluated by the APA Task Force criteria. It is time that ACT researchers start using the current psychotherapy research methodology.

  • 4862.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    KBT inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Här beskrivs hur KBT kan tillämpas vid de vanligaste psykiatriska tillstånden hos barn och unga. Boken inleds med en beskrivning av vad som är utmärkande för arbete med barn, ungdomar, och deras familjer och nätverk. De diagnoser som tas upp är bland annat social ångest, generaliserat ångestsyndrom, tvångssyndrom, PTSD, stresstörning, depression, ADHD och autism. Författarna visar hur KBT-modellen och beteendeanalysen kan se ut, beskriver olika behandlingsvägar och ger belysande fallvinjetter. Boken avslutas med en genomgång av det ökande empiriska stödet för KBT vid de olika tillstånden.

  • 4863.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Klinisk signifikans2012Ingår i: Att göra effektutvärderingar / [ed] Knut Sundell, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2012, s. 493-502Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokinformation: Varje år berörs hundratusentals personer av psykosociala och pedagogiska interventioner. Det handlar exempelvis om behandling av missbruk, insatser för utsatta barn och läsundervisning i grundskolan. Endast undantagsvis har dessa interventioner utvärderats, vilket innebär att vi inte vet vilken effekt de har eller om de rentav kan skada. I antologin Att göra effektutvärderingar beskrivs hur man genomför effektutvärderingar, som ger kunskap om hur interventioner fungerar. Boken ger detaljerad och praktisk vägledning som är till nytta för alla som är intresserade av att lära sig mer om effektutvärderingar – både forskarstuderande och forskare som redan ansvarat för effektutvärderingar. Ämnen som tas upp är bland annat forskningsetik, studiedesign, mätinstrument, urval och rekrytering av undersökningspersoner, datainsamling, ekonomiska analyser, dataanalys och tolkning samt rapportskrivning. Bokens författare har lång erfarenhet inom området och representerar olika discipliner såsom psykologi, folkhälsovetenskap, socialt arbete, pedagogik, statistik, epidemiologi, sociologi, evolutionsbiologi, medicinsk vetenskap och datavetenskap. Redaktör för boken är Knut Sundell, docent i psykologi och socialråd på Socialstyrelsen, som har lång erfarenhet av att utvärdera interventioner inom förskola, skola och socialtjänst.

  • 4864.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    One-Session Treatment: Principles and Procedures with Adults2012Ingår i: Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias / [ed] Thompson E. Davis III, Thomas H. Ollendick, & L.-G. Öst, Springer , 2012, 1, s. 59-95Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When I started research and clinical work with specific phobics in the mid 1970s, very little differentiation was made in the research literature between agoraphobia, social phobia, and specific phobia regarding the number of therapy sessions. Thus, I used eight 1-hour sessions in my early studies on specific phobias. After having worked with that format for about 5 years I started getting bored seeing the same patients week after week. I also began to question why behavior therapists should follow the same format as devised by psychodynamic short-term therapy (i.e. one session per week for 12–20 weeks).

  • 4865.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Rebuttal of Atkins et al. (2017) critique of the Öst (2014) meta-analysis of ACT2017Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 97, s. 273-281Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Atkins et al. strongly criticize my (Öst, 2014) systematic review and meta-analysis of ACT. The bulk of their re-examination of my article is divided into four parts: a) Selection of studies, b) Ratings of methodological quality, c) Meta-analysis, and d) Judgments of quality of evidence. It is evident from my paper that I have refuted their claims regarding each of these parts. Regarding a) Selection of studies I showed that only four studies had a cell size of less than 10 and their inclusion did not change the mean effect size or increased variability. Concerning b) Ratings of methodological quality I have showed that my ratings were reliable and had accuracy. As for c) Meta-analysis, I have demonstrated that I got very similar results to those of A-Tjak et al. (2015) that Atkins et al. describes as a much better meta-analysis. Regarding d) Judgments of quality of evidence, Atkins et al. brought up 23 studies for which they argued that I have done an incorrect evaluation but for every single study I have disproved their arguments and maintain my 2014 evaluation of the evidence base of ACT. Thus, there is no reason to follow Atkins et al. suggestion that my review “should now be set aside in making decisions regarding the treatment efficacy of ACT.”

  • 4866.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Specifik fobi2013Ingår i: KBT inom psykiatrin / [ed] Lars-öran Öst, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, s. 75-92Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4867.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Klinisk psykologi.
    The Claustrophobia Scale: A psychometric evaluation2007Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 1053-1064Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a psychometric evaluation of the Claustrophobia Scale (CS), consisting of one subscale for measuring anxiety (20 items, 0-4) and one for avoidance (18 items, 0-2). Participants were 87 claustrophobic patients and 200 normal controls randomly selected from the community. The results show that CS has excellent internal consistency, high test--retest reliability, concurrent and discriminant validity. The patients and controls differ significantly on the total scores of anxiety and avoidance, as well as on each individual item scores. The CS was also found to be sensitive to change after cognitive behavioral treatment. Preliminary factor analyses yielded two factors for each subscale; "Being in small enclosed spaces" and "Other people present", accounting for large proportions of the variance. The CS is useful both as a state, and as an outcome self-report measure of claustrophobia.

  • 4868.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis2014Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 61, s. 105-121Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT) has attracted a lot of interest during the last 10-15 years with a strong increase of the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The present review and meta-analysis includes 60 RCTs (4234 participants) on psychiatric disorders, somatic disorders, and stress at work. The mean effect size across all comparisons was small (0.42). Compared to the Ost (2008) meta-analysis there was no significant improvement in methodological quality and deterioration in effect size (from 0.68). When ACT was compared to various forms of cognitive or behavioral treatfnents a small and non-significant effect size of 0.16 was obtained. An evidence-base evaluation showed that ACT is not yet well-established for any disorder. It is probably efficacious for chronic pain and tinnitus, possibly efficacious for depression, psychotic symptoms, OCD, mixed anxiety, drug abuse, and stress at work, and experimental for the remaining disorders.

  • 4869.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Training Therapists in One-Session Treatment and Assessing Their Competence2012Ingår i: Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias / [ed] Thompson E. Davis III, Thomas H. Ollendick, & L.-G. Öst, Springer , 2012, 1, s. 161-175Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no formalized training for therapists to do one-session treatment (OST), at least not any which has been empirically evaluated. However, a description follows of the way the training for people aspiring to become a protocol therapist in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), or just wanting to work clinically with OST, has been arranged. The major part of this chapter consists of a detailed description of the different items included in the competence rating scale, and explanations of why the respective competencies are important for carrying out OST successfully. This means that the training should focus on providing therapists with adequate skills in the areas covered by the rating scale.

  • 4870.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cederlund, Rio
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Behavioral treatment of social phobia in youth: Does parent education training improve the outcome?2015Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 67, s. 19-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social phobia is one of the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, and it runs a fairly chronic course if left untreated. The goals of the present study were to evaluate if a parent education course would improve the outcome for children with a primary diagnosis of social phobia and if comorbidity at the start of treatment would impair the outcome of the social phobia. A total of 55 children, 8-14 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) Child is treated, 2) Child is treated and parent participates in the course, or 3) A wait-list for 12 weeks. The treatment consisted of individual exposure and group social skills training based on the Beidel, Turner, and Morris (2000) SET-C. Children and parents were assessed pre-, post-, and at one year follow-up with independent assessor ratings and self-report measures. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two active treatments and both were better than the wait-list. The treatment effects were maintained or furthered at the follow-up. Comorbidity did not lead to worse outcome of social phobia. Comorbid disorders improved significantly from pre-to post-treatment and from post-to follow-up assessment without being targeted in therapy.

  • 4871.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Karlstedt, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Widén, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The Effects of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Delivered by Students in a Psychologist Training Program: An Effectiveness Study2012Ingår i: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 160-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively little is known about the efficacy of clinically inexperienced student therapists carrying out cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) under supervision during a professional, psychologist training program. The current study evaluated this by collecting pre- and posttreatment data on 591 consecutive patients receiving treatment at the Psychotherapy Clinic of the Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden, over an 8-year period. The patients had mainly anxiety disorders or depression with a mean duration of 15 years, and received individual CBT for a mean of 18 sessions. They improved significantly on both general measures (Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI], Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], and Quality of Life Inventory [QOLI]) and disorder-specific self-report scales. The proportions of recovered patients on the BAI (63%) and the BDI (60%) were higher than those of a comparison effectiveness study. On the specific self-report scales the current sample improved as much as the samples in extant efficacy trials. We conclude that clinically inexperienced student therapists who receive supervision from experienced supervisors can achieve treatment effects that are on a par with those of experienced licensed psychotherapists.

  • 4872.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Ollendick, Thomas H.
    Brief, intensive and concentrated cognitive behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis2017Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 97, s. 134-145Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common disorders affecting youths in the general population, with up to 10% of children and 20% of adolescents meeting criteria for an anxiety disorder at any one point in time. Cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT), varying between 9 and 18 weeks of treatment, are considered evidence-based for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. During the last two decades treatments that are brief, intensive, or concentrated (BIC) have been developed and this meta-analysis includes 23 RCTs of these new approaches across the anxiety disorders. BIC yielded a lower attrition (2.3%) than standard CBT (6.5%). The effect sizes (ES) for comparison of BIC with waiting-list (1.47) and placebo (0.91) were significant, whereas that with standard CBT (0.01) was not. Regarding remission at post/recovery at follow-up BIC (54%/64%) and standard CBT (57%/63%) were comparable and both were significantly higher than placebo (26%/35%), which was higher than WLC (7%/9%). Within-group ES at post and follow-up were 1.50 and 1.53 for BIC, and 0.98 and 1.05 for standard CBT, indicating maintenance of the effects up to 12 months after therapy. Advantages and disadvantages of BIC are discussed and we suggest that BIC-interventions represent a paradigm shift in the delivery of services for youth with anxiety disorders.

  • 4873.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Specific phobias2013Ingår i: CBT for Anxiety Disorders: a practitioner book / [ed] G. Simos, S. G. Hofmann, Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2013, s. 107-133Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarizes the state of the art for the specific phobias, bringing both updates and discussion on the preliminary recommendations put forward to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) work group. It discusses diagnostic criteria for specific phobia, and two important issues: how we might categorize dental phobia and test anxiety, and the boundary between specific phobia and agoraphobia. It also highlights clinical features (e.g., age of onset, gender, focus of fear, neurobiology and physiology, comorbidity, impairment, risk factors, and treatment response) of specific phobia. Then, it presents a broad overview of evidence-based treatment methods (variants of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)) and the efficacy of these. The chapter concludes with a description of the treatment of a complex case of specific phobia.

  • 4874.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Riise, Eili N.
    Wergeland, Gro Janne
    Hansen, Bjarne
    Kvale, Gerd
    Cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatments of OCD in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis2016Ingår i: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 43, s. 58-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is ranked by the World Health Organization (WHO) among the 10 most debilitating disorders. The treatments which have been found effective are cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI). This meta-analysis includes all RCTs of CBT (25) and SRI (9) for OCD in youth using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (C-YBOCS). CBT yielded significantly lower attrition (12.7%) than SRI (23.5%) and placebo (24.7%). The effect sizes for comparisons of CBT with waiting-list (1.53), placebo (0.93), and SRI with placebo (0.51) were significant, whereas CBT vs. SRI (0.22) and Combo (CBT + SRI) vs. CBT (0.14) were not. Regarding response rate CBT (70%) and Combo (66%) were significantly higher than SRI (49%), which was higher than placebo (29%) and WLC (13%). As for remission CBT (53%) and Combo (49%) were significantly higher than SRI (24%), placebo (15%), and WLC (10%), which did not differ from each other. Combo was not more effective than CBT alone irrespective of initial severity of the samples. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have a number of methodological problems and recommendations for improving research methodology are discussed as well as clinical implications of the findings.

  • 4875.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Wicksell, R.
    Moderatorer, mediatorer och verkningsmekanismer2012Ingår i: Att göra effektutvärderingar / [ed] Knut Sundell, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2012, s. 425-466Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokinformation: Varje år berörs hundratusentals personer av psykosociala och pedagogiska interventioner. Det handlar exempelvis om behandling av missbruk, insatser för utsatta barn och läsundervisning i grundskolan. Endast undantagsvis har dessa interventioner utvärderats, vilket innebär att vi inte vet vilken effekt de har eller om de rentav kan skada. I antologin Att göra effektutvärderingar beskrivs hur man genomför effektutvärderingar, som ger kunskap om hur interventioner fungerar. Boken ger detaljerad och praktisk vägledning som är till nytta för alla som är intresserade av att lära sig mer om effektutvärderingar – både forskarstuderande och forskare som redan ansvarat för effektutvärderingar. Ämnen som tas upp är bland annat forskningsetik, studiedesign, mätinstrument, urval och rekrytering av undersökningspersoner, datainsamling, ekonomiska analyser, dataanalys och tolkning samt rapportskrivning. Bokens författare har lång erfarenhet inom området och representerar olika discipliner såsom psykologi, folkhälsovetenskap, socialt arbete, pedagogik, statistik, epidemiologi, sociologi, evolutionsbiologi, medicinsk vetenskap och datavetenskap. Redaktör för boken är Knut Sundell, docent i psykologi och socialråd på Socialstyrelsen, som har lång erfarenhet av att utvärdera interventioner inom förskola, skola och socialtjänst.

  • 4876.
    Östanskog-Rothoff, Fredrika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Svenska Generation Y:s drivkrafter i arbetet2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning på vad som motiverar Generation Y är begränsad då generationen är relativt ny på arbetsmarknaden. Trots detta finns det mycket föreställningar om hur denna generation beter sig. Dagens arbetsgivare står inför utmaningen att uppfatta vad den nya generationen på väg in på arbetsmarknaden drivs av i arbetet samt att kunna tillgodose detta. Syftet med studien var att beskriva vilka drivkrafter den svenska Generation Y upplever att de har i relation till arbetet. Undersökningen utgick från en kvalitativ ansats och utgjordes av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Deltagarna bestod av sex personer som var mellan 21 och 31 år. Resultatet indikerar att deltagarna drivs av återkoppling, utvecklingsmöjligheter, varierande arbetsuppgifter samt möjligheten till att kunna påverka sina arbetstider och uttrycka sina åsikter. Deltagarna är oavsett ålder, roll och branschtillhörighet relativt samstämmiga om vilka drivkrafter som de upplever att de har i relation till arbetet. Resultatet går i linje med vad tidigare forskning och studier har indikerat på.

  • 4877. Östberg, Per
    et al.
    Fernaeus, Sven-Erik
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bogdanovic, Nenad
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Impaired verb fluency: A sign of mild cognitive impairment.2005Ingår i: Brain and Language, ISSN 0093-934X, Vol. 95, nr 2, s. 273-279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment differed significantly from Subjective Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Reduced verb fluency thus appears to be a linguistic marker for incipient dementia. One possibility is that the verb fluency deficit in Mild Cognitive Impairment results from degenerative processes known to occur in the parahippocampal region.

  • 4878.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Folkesson, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The Complexity of Stress in Mid-Adolescent Girls and Boys2015Ingår i: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 403-423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many Western countries adolescents, especially girls, report high levels of stress and stress-related health complaints. In this study we investigate the concept of stress in a group of 14-15 year-olds (grade 8 in two Stockholm schools) using a multiple methods approach. The aim is to analyse stress, and gender differences in stress, as indicated by a measure of perceived stress (questionnaires, n = 212), the diurnal variation in the biomarker cortisol (saliva samples, n = 108) and the students' own accounts of stress (semi-structured interviews, n = 49). The results were generated within the traditional framework of each method and integrated at the point of interpretation. The hypothesis that adolescent girls experience more stress than boys was confirmed by all methods used. In the questionnaire, the most commonly experienced aspects of perceived stress were the same among girls and boys, but girls consistently reported higher frequencies. The saliva samples showed that girls had greater cortisol output in the morning. In the individual semi-structured interviews, girls and boys discussed stress in similar ways but both acknowledged a gender gap to the disadvantage of girls. The results as a whole suggests an interpretation of gender differences that focuses girls' attitudes, perceived expectations and coping strategies in relation to school performance, with their focus on achievement, marks, hard work, and worries about the future. The findings point to a need of an increased awareness about the role of perceived expectations in the stress process, and that these expectations and their impact on stress may differ by the gender of the student.

  • 4879.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Folkesson, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Triangulation of stress in adolescence2012Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, nr supplement 2, s. 220-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large scale surveys show that perceived stress and stress-related complaints are common among young people. Perceived stress increase with age and are more common in girls than boys, resulting in late adolescent girls reporting the highest frequencies. The knowledge is however more limited regarding other measurements and meanings of stress. The purpose of this study is to use a small-scale multiple methods data collection to perform an empirical triangulation of stress in the age group 14–15 years, i.e. to analyse stress, and gender differences in stress, as it appears in questionnaires, biomarkers and interviews within the same population. The study population includes all pupils in the 8th and 9th grades (ages 14–16 years) in two elementary schools in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 545). The data collection was divided into three parts where information was gathered through class room questionnaires (n = 413), saliva sampling (5 time points during the day, number of students delivering complete samples = 190) and semi-structured qualitative interviews (49 pupils in grade 8, mean length 50 minutes).

    In the questionnaires, girls consistently report higher levels of perceived stress. This is true for the activation scale (mean value boys = 2.51, girls = 3.11, p < 0.00) and the pressure scale (boys = 2.62, girls = 3.33, p < 0.00). According to the saliva sampling, girls have higher cortisol concentration both at awakening and 30 minutes later (p < 0.00). According to the qualitative interviews, no distinct differences in boys’ and girls’ associations with the word “stress” were found. However, both male and female interviewees had a perception of girls being more stressed about schoolwork than boys. Many times they linked this to girls way of thinking or coping with life demands, including worries about the future. In conclusion, the picture of adolescent girls being more stressed than boys is largely confirmed by all methods used here.

  • 4880.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bullying and stress in mid-adolescent girls and boys2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to analyze if exposure to bullying among mid-adolescent girls and boys was associated with a range of self-reported stress measures in terms of somatic pain, perceived global stress, pressure and activation (measured through the validated PAS scale), as well as output of salivary cortisol, which is a hormone of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system that reflects stress. Theoretical framework: Bullying is a serious problem in schools and a major stressor for those who are exposed. Exposure to bullying has been linked to adverse mental health outcomes in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, and it is reasonable to assume that it is associated with outcomes such as perceived stress and biomarkers of stress. Methodology: The data were derived from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS), conducted in 2010. The study population comprised all students in grades 8 and 9 (ages 14-16 years) in two elementary schools in Stockholm, Sweden (n=545). A questionnaire was distributed in classrooms and students were asked to sample saliva five times a day during two school days. The questionnaire was completed by 413 students and complete information for all variables used in the present study was available for 95% of these (n=392). Exposure to bullying was self-reported and measured by multiple items. Data on cortisol was derived from the saliva samples; in the current study, we used saliva samples from day 1 (n=180). The statistical methods used were binary logistic and linear (OLS) regression. Findings: The results showed that being bullied on a weekly basis was associated with an excess risk of somatic pain and perceived global stress, pressure and activation. Students who were bullied had lower diurnal cortisol output (AUCG) as compared to those who were not bullied. Among boys, exposure to bullying was also associated with a lower cortisol awakening response (CARG). The lower cortisol output among bullied students indicates that this group may exhibit HPA-axis dysregulation following chronic stress exposure. Conclusions: The study supports the assumption that exposure to bullying, as a chronic stressor, is related to self-reported somatic pain and stress, but also to one of the major bodily stress systems. This underlines the importance of continuously working against bullying in schools.

  • 4881.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bullying as a Stressor in Mid-Adolescent Girls and Boys–Associations with Perceived Stress, Recurrent Pain, and Salivary Cortisol2018Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, nr 2, artikel-id 364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying involves repeated exposure to negative actions while also invoking a power asymmetry between the involved parties. From a stress perspective, being bullied can be seen as a severe and chronic stressor, and an everyday social-evaluative threat, coupled with a shortage of effective social resources for dealing with this particular stressor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to bullying among mid-adolescent girls and boys is associated with subjective and objective stress-related outcomes in terms of perceived stress, recurrent pain, and salivary cortisol. The data came from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS) including students in grades 8–9 in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2010 (study sample n = 392; cortisol subsample n = 198). Bullying was self-reported and measured by multiple items. The statistical analyses included binary logistic and linear (OLS) regression. Being bullied was associated with greater perceived stress and an increased risk of recurrent pain, among both boys and girls. Also, bullied students had lower cortisol output (AUCG) and lower cortisol awakening response (CARG) as compared to those who were not bullied. Gender-stratified analyses demonstrated that these associations were statistically significant for boys but not for girls. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that being bullied was related to both subjective and objective stress markers among mid-adolescent girls and boys, pointing to the necessity of continuously working against bullying.

  • 4882.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Plenty, Stephanie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Låftman, Sara B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    School Demands and Coping Resources - Associations with Multiple Measures of Stress in Mid-Adolescent Girls and Boys2018Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, nr 10, artikel-id 2143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress, and stress-related health complaints, are common among young people, especially girls. Since studies have shown that school demands are an important driver of stress in adolescents, identifying if school-based resources can protect against stress is highly relevant. The aim of this study was to analyse task-related demands and task-related coping resources as aspects of the school work environment of potential relevance for stress in mid-adolescent girls and boys. The data came from “The School Stress and Support study” (TriSSS) conducted among students in grades 8 and 9 (aged 14–16 years). Self-reports of demands, coping resources, stress, as well as recurrent pain, were collected through questionnaires (n = 411). A subsample of students (n = 191–198) also provided salivary samples, which were analysed for the stress marker cortisol. Linear (OLS) and binary logistic regression analyses showed that higher demands were associated with more perceived stress, a higher likelihood of recurrent pain, and a lower cortisol awakening response. Greater coping resources were associated with less perceived stress and a lower likelihood of recurrent pain, but there was no association with cortisol. The strength of the associations differed by gender. The findings suggest that schools can promote student wellbeing by providing clear and timely information and teacher support to the students, especially for boys. Identifying specific features of the schoolwork that give rise to stress and to modify these accordingly is also of importance, especially for girls.

  • 4883.
    Österberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Brännmark, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    "We all go a little mad sometimes": En kvalitativ studie om framställningen av psykopati i film2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie har undersökt psykopati som begrepp i populärkulturen och i relation till film. Psykopaten i film framställs som alltifrån en sadistisk våldtäktsman, en charmig gentleman till en våldsam seriemördare. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur väl bilden av filmpsykopaten stämmer överens med den kliniska definitionen och Hares Psykopatichecklista, PCL-R.

    Nitton filmer valdes ut som underlag där minst en karaktär beskrevs som psykopat. Vid analys noterades huruvida en specifik bedömningspunkt på PCL-R förekom hos en filmkaraktär eller inte. Således jämfördes karaktärerna med den kliniska psykologins bedömning av psykopati. Resultatet antydde att endast 6 av 20 filmkaraktärer kunde klassas som psykopater. Detta på grund av att filmskapare eftertraktar en intressant karaktär, och kan då överdriva vissa drag samt utnyttja de rådande stereotyperna av psykopati för att skapa spänning. Konsekvensen av detta kan bli att allmänheten får en förvrängd bild av psykopati på grund av hur det porträtteras i populärkulturen.

  • 4884.
    Östh, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Socialt stöd – en viktig komponent för engagemang i arbetslivet?2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning pekar på att engagerad personal är mer produktiv, positiv och har bättre hälsa än oengagerad. Socialt stöd har i tidigare forskning visat sig ha en buffrande effekt på bland annat stress samtidigt som chefers stöd har visat sig vara en viktig komponent för anställdas hälsa och engagemang. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka om det finns samband mellan socialt stöd och work engagement. En enkät delades ut till anställda (N=561) på ett revisionsföretag. Ett positivt signifikant samband mellan socialt stöd och work engagement påvisas. En hierarkisk regressionsanalys indikerar att stöd från chefen är en starkare prediktor för work engagement än stöd från kollegor eller familj/vänner. Socialt stöd från kollegor visade sig även vara en signifikant prediktor. Resultatet beror möjligen på att arbetsrelaterat stöd har en direkt påverkan på arbetet, och därmed på engagemanget, jämfört med stöd som fås utanför arbetsplatsen.

  • 4885.
    Östling, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Unga människors upplevelser av att ha en far eller mor i fängelse2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn till frihetsberövade är en osynlig grupp i vårt samhälle. Separationen från den frihetsberövade föräldern påverkar barnet olika beroende på barnets ålder, straffets längd och tidigare separationer. Ingen forskning har tidigare genomförts på denna grupp i Sverige. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att söka förstå och beskriva de upplevelser som barn till frihetsberövade har. Sex intervjuer genomfördes med sex unga människor i åldrarna 13- 22 år som hade/hade haft en eller båda föräldrarna i fängelse. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades med induktiv tematisk analys. Resultatet visade att barn till frihetsberövade ofta lever under utsatta förhållanden. Erfarenheter av övergivanden, separationer och traumatiska händelser var vanligt. Undersökningen visade också på betydelsen av väsentlig information om förälderns frihetsberövande och av vänner. Stöd från samhället, genom bland annat bättre samverkan mellan myndigheter, efterfrågas.

  • 4886. Östlund, G.
    et al.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sunnhagen, K.S.
    Borg, K.
    Vitality among Swedish post-polio patients: A physiological phenomenon2008Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, Vol. 40, s. 709-714Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate quality of life, especially vitality and fatigue, in patients with postpolio syndrome (PPS), and the relative contributions of physiological and psychological parameters for level of vitality. Design: Multi-center study. Subjects: 143 patients, diagnosed with PPS from four Swedish post-polio out-clinics. Methods: Inventories of background information, quality of life (SF36), fatigue (MFI20) and sleep quality (SQS) were used. Pain was evaluated by a VAS scale. Descriptive statistics were used for examinations of demographic data, pain, quality of life, fatigue and sleep. Correlations included all selected parameters. Hierarchical regression models were constructed to examine predictors of variations in vitality, pain, reduced activity and physical fatigue. Results: General fatigue accounted for 68% of the variation in vitality. Of this, 91% was in turn accounted for by physiological indicators. After control for age, the physiological block of variables accounted for 56.6% and 25% of the variation in vitality, if entered before and after the psychological block of variables, respectively, while the impact of the psychological block almost disappeared after accounting for the physiological indicators. Physical fatigue, age and sleep quality were associated with variation in pain, whereas BMI, pain and sleep quality accounted for differences in reduced activity and physical fatigue. Conclusions: The phenomenon of vitality in PPS patients is mostly dependent on physiological parameters and mental fatigue is not a prominent predictor of vitality in PPS. The existence of subgroups of PPS patients with and without fatigue, independent of age or polio duration, needs further study.

  • 4887. Östlund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina S.
    Borg, Kristian
    Post polio syndrome: Fatigued patients a specific subgroup?2011Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 39-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine characteristics of fatigued and non-fatigued post-polio patients and, to define potential subgroups across the fatigue continuum. Design: Multi-center study. Subjects: 143 post-polio patients were, by using the Multi Fatigue Inventory 20 General fatigue ratings, subdivided on the basis of percentile distribution into a fatigue, reference, and non-fatigue group. Methods: Data on background, quality of life, fatigue and pain were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlations in each group and Analysis of Variance and Chi2 for group comparisons were performed. To evaluate differences in the strength of associations between physical and mental fatigue, on the one hand, and vitality on the other, non-linear regressions were employed. Results: The fatigued group was younger, had shorter polio duration, more pain, higher Body Mass Index, lower quality of life and were more physically and mentally fatigued. More had contracted polio after 1956 and were under 65 years of age. Mental fatigue had a relatively higher explanatory value than physical fatigue for differences in vitality in the fatigued group, reversed patterns were seen in the other groups. Conclusions: It may be clamed that the fatigued PPS patients may be considered as a subgroup.

  • 4888.
    Östlund, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Rollspel som verktyg: Ett försök att träna mentaliseringsförmågan2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn använder låtsasleken för att undersöka samspelet mellan människor och göra det mer begripligt. Rollspel är en typ av låtsaslek för vuxna. Studiens syfte var att undersöka om rollspel förbättrar vuxna människors mentaliseringsförmåga, samt metodutveckling och generellt utökande av kunskap. En undersökning genomfördes där rollspel användes som verktyg för att försöka förbättra mentaliseringsförmågan. I grupper om fem personer genomfördes en intervention bestående av tre träffar om vardera tre timmar. Jämförelser gjordes med en kontrollgrupp och totalt deltog 22 personer. Metoderna som användes var scener, formulär, reflekterande diskussioner och uppgifter. Inga signifikanta förändringar erhölls på de två skattningsinstrumenten som avsåg att mäta mentaliseringsförmåga, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test – Revised Version och Experts rating sheet. Metodologiska brister resulterade i att frågeställningen inte kunde besvaras. Vidare forskning rekommenderas. Studien ledde till nya idéer om hur rollspel kan användas för att träna mentaliseringsförmåga. Deltagarutvärderingar antydde att interventionen hjälpte deltagarna att utveckla ett mentaliserande förhållningssätt, vilket kan vara intressant att undersöka vidare.

  • 4889.
    Östman, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Roch-Norlund, Pie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Origo2: internetadministrerad självhjälpsbehandling för generaliserat ångestsyndrom med kbt respektive pdt2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    GAD är en vanligt förekommande psykiatrisk åkomma och behovet att utveckla behandlingsformer som kan nå fler ur denna patientgrupp är stort. Syftet med denna randomiserade kontrollerade studie, Origo2, var att replikera den åtta veckor långa kognitiva beteendeterapeutiska behandling som genomförts i studien Origo 2006, och att pröva om en motsvarande internetadministrerad psykodynamisk behandling skulle få lika god effekt. Utfallsmåtten var åtta självskattningsskalor samt kliniska bedömningar av diagnos och psykisk hälsa. Sammanlagt deltog 81 personer i 3 grupper med 27 personer i varje, varav en väntelistkontroll. Resultaten visade signifikanta förbättringar för båda de aktiva behandlingarna vid eftermätning samt vid 3-månadersuppföljning. Även kontrollgruppen uppvisade signifikanta förbättringar. De aktiva behandlingsgruppernas större effektstyrkor, färre diagnoser vid eftermätning samt mindre orossymptom vid 3-månadersuppföljningen, indikerar att det är möjligt att bedriva effektiv behandling av GAD över internet, inte bara med kognitiv beteendeterapi utan även på psykodynamisk grund.

  • 4890.
    Öström, Karl
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Strategier vid enstaka och upprepade Ultimatumspel2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    All förhandling kan delas upp i enstaka eller upprepad förhandling. Vid en upprepad förhandling ställs större krav på att alla parter är nöjda. Ultimatumspelet är ett viktigt verktyg för forskare som vill studera beslutsfattande vid förhandling. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om deltagarnas agerande skiljde sig åt vid ett enstaka samt upprepat ultimatumspel. 26 försökspersoner deltog i två ultimatumspel, ett där samma tilldelare och mottagare förhandlade hela spelet och ett annat med randomiserad matchning. Skillnader i utfall för tilldelare, mottagare och antal förkastade krav beräknades. Tilldelarnas utfall och antal förkastade krav skiljde sig signifikant åt vid de två spelen. Deltagarnas beteende skiljer sig i viss mån vid de olika spelen, men uppvisar samtidigt stora likheter. Det verkar som om mottagarna i större utsträckning lyckas skilja de två spelen åt än vad tilldelarna lyckas göra.

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