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  • 501.
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    The promise of a bridging organisation for matching social and ecological scales: Structural and functional bridging of a Swedish River Basin District AuthorityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 502.
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ecosystem Services Linking Social and Ecological Systems: River Brownification and the Response of Downstream Stakeholders2011In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 21-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical framework of ecosystem services and that of resilience thinking are combined in an empiricalcase study of a social-ecological system. In the River Helge å catchment in southern Sweden, a slow increase in dissolved organiccarbon (DOC) results in brownification of the water with consequences on ecosystem services in the lower part of the catchmentof concern by local resource managers. An assessment of ecosystem service delivery was conducted to (1) identify plausibledrivers of brownification in the study site and assess future ecosystem service delivery for stakeholders in downstream areas.An analysis of the perspective of beneficiaries, using qualitative methods, was pursued to (2) evaluate the impacts ofbrownification on downstream stakeholders.

  • 503.
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Response strategy assessment: a tool for evaluating resilience for the management of social–ecological systems2012In: Resilience and the Cultural Landscape: Understanding and Managing Change in Human-Shaped Environments / [ed] Tobias Plieninger and Claudia Bieling, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 504. Tuvendal, Magnus
    et al.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Krishnaswamy, Jagdish
    Ecosystem services: Managing trade-offs between provisioning and regulating services2010In: Valuation of Regulating Services of Ecosystems: Methodology and Applications / [ed] Kumar, Pushpam and Michael D Wood, Routledge, 2010, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 505. Tuvendal, Magnus
    et al.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Scoping appropriate scale for successful wetland managementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 506.
    Ulanova, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Busse, Svenja
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Snoeijs, Pauli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    COASTAL DIATOM-ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS IN THE BRACKISH BALTIC SEA2009In: Journal of Phycology, ISSN 0022-3646, E-ISSN 1529-8817, Vol. 45, p. 54-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-quality calibration data sets are required when diatom assemblages are used for monitoring ecological change or reconstructing palaeo-environments. The quality of such data sets can be validated, in addition to other criteria, by the percentage of significant unimodal species responses as a measure of the length of an environmental gradient. This study presents diatom-environment relationships analyzed from a robust data set of diatom communities living on submerged stones along a 2,000 km long coastline in the Baltic Sea area, including 524 samples taken at 135 sites and covering a salinity gradient from 0.4 to 11.4. Altogether, 487 diatom taxa belonging to 102 genera were recorded. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis showed that salinity was the overriding environmental factor regulating diatom community composition, while exposure to wave action and nutrient concentrations were of secondary importance. Modeling the abundances of the 58 most common diatom taxa yielded significant relationships with salinity for 57 taxa. Twenty-three taxa showing monotonic responses were species with optimum distributions in freshwater or marine waters. Thirty-four taxa showing unimodal responses were brackish-water species with maximum distributions at different salinities. Separate analyses for small (cell biovolume <1,000 μm3) and large (≥1,000 μm3) taxa yielded similar results. In previous studies along shorter salinity gradients, large and small epilithic diatom taxa responded differently. From our large data, we conclude that counts of large diatom taxa alone seem sufficient for indicating salinity changes in coastal environments with high precision.

  • 507. Urban, M.C.
    et al.
    Leibold, M. A.
    Amarasekare, P.
    De Meester, L.
    Gomulkiewicz, R.
    Hochberg, M.E.
    Klausmeier, C. A.
    Loeuille, N.
    de Mazancourt, C.
    Norberg, J.
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Pantel, J.H.
    Strauss, S.Y.
    Vellend, M.
    Wade, M.J.
    The Evolutionary Ecology of Metacommunities2008In: Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 23, p. 311-317Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 508. Vahtera, Emil
    et al.
    Gustafsson, BG
    Kuosa, H
    Pitkänen, H
    Savchuk, Oleg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Tamminen, T
    Viitasalo, M
    Voss, M
    Wasmund, N
    Wulff, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Internal ecosystem feedbacks enhance nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria blooms and complicate management in the Baltic Sea2007In: Ambio, Vol. 36, no 2-3, p. 186-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 509. van der Heide, Tjisse
    et al.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. University of Groningen, The Netherlands; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    van Nes, Egbert H.
    van der Zee, Els M.
    Donadi, Serena
    Weerman, Ellen J.
    Olff, Han
    Eriksson, Britas Klemens
    Ecosystem Engineering by Seagrasses Interacts with Grazing to Shape an Intertidal Landscape2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 8, article id e42060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-facilitation through ecosystem engineering (i.e., organism modification of the abiotic environment) and consumer-resource interactions are both major determinants of spatial patchiness in ecosystems. However, interactive effects of these two mechanisms on spatial complexity have not been extensively studied. We investigated the mechanisms underlying a spatial mosaic of low-tide exposed hummocks and waterlogged hollows on an intertidal mudflat in the Wadden Sea dominated by the seagrass Zostera noltii. A combination of field measurements, an experiment and a spatially explicit model indicated that the mosaic resulted from localized sediment accretion by seagrass followed by selective waterfowl grazing. Hollows were bare in winter, but were rapidly colonized by seagrass during the growth season. Colonized hollows were heavily grazed by brent geese and widgeon in autumn, converting these patches to a bare state again and disrupting sediment accretion by seagrass. In contrast, hummocks were covered by seagrass throughout the year and were rarely grazed, most likely because the waterfowl were not able to employ their preferred but water requiring feeding strategy ('dabbling') here. Our study exemplifies that interactions between ecosystem engineering by a foundation species (seagrass) and consumption (waterfowl grazing) can increase spatial complexity at the landscape level.

  • 510. van Gerven, Luuk P. A.
    et al.
    Brederveld, Robert J.
    de Klein, Jeroen J. M.
    DeAngelis, Don L.
    Downing, Andrea S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Faber, Michiel
    Gerla, Daan J.
    't Hoen, Jochem
    Janse, Jan H.
    Janssen, Annette B. G.
    Jeuken, Michel
    Kooi, Bob W.
    Kuiper, Jan J.
    Lischke, Betty
    Liu, Sien
    Petzoldt, Thomas
    Schep, Sebastiaan A.
    Teurlincx, Sven
    Thiange, Christophe
    Trolle, Dennis
    van Nes, Egbert H.
    Mooij, Wolf M.
    Advantages of concurrent use of multiple software frameworks in water quality modelling using a database approach2015In: Fundamental and Applied Limnology, ISSN 1863-9135, Vol. 186, no 1-2, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water quality modelling deals with multidisciplinary questions ranging from fundamental to applied. Addressing this broad range of questions requires multiple analysis techniques and therefore multiple frameworks. Through the recently developed database approach to modelling (DATM), it has become possible to run a model in multiple software frameworks without much overhead. Here we apply DATM to the ecosystem model for ditches PCDitch and its twin model for shallow lakes PCLake. Using DATM, we run these models in six frameworks (ACSL, DELWAQ, DUFLOW, GRIND for MATLAB, OSIRIS and R), and report on the possible model analyses with tools provided by each framework. We conclude that the dynamic link between frameworks and models resulting from DATM has the following main advantages: it allows one to use the framework one is familiar with for most model analyses and eases switching between frameworks for complementary model analyses, including the switch between a 0-D and 1-D to 3-D setting. Moreover, the strength of each framework - including runtime performance - can now be easily exploited. We envision that a community-based further development of the concept can contribute to the future development of water quality modelling, not only by addressing multidisciplinary questions but also by facilitating the exchange of models and process formulations within the community of water quality modellers.

  • 511. Vanhoudt, Nathalie
    et al.
    Vandenhove, Hildegarde
    Real, Almudena
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Stark, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    A review of multiple stressor studies that include ionising radiation2012In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 168, p. 177-192Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies were reviewed that investigated the combined effects of ionising radiation and other stressors on non-human biota. The aim was to determine the state of research in this area of science, and determine if a review of the literature might permit a gross generalization as to whether the combined effects of multi-stressors and radiation are fundamentally additive, synergistic or antagonistic. A multiple stressor database was established for different organism groups. Information was collected on species, stressors applied and effects evaluated. Studies were mostly laboratory based and investigated two-component mixtures. Interactions declared positive occurred in 58% of the studies, while 26% found negative interactions. Interactions were dependent on dose/concentration, on organism's life stage and exposure time and differed among endpoints. Except for one study, none of the studies predicted combined effects following Concentration Addition or Independent Action, and hence, no justified conclusions can be made about synergism or antagonism.

  • 512. Vehmaa, Anu
    et al.
    Hogfors, Hedvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brutemark, Andreas
    Holmborn, Towe
    Engström-Öst, Jonna
    Projected marine climate changes: effects on copepod oxidative status and reproductionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of their important role between primary producers and fish, it is crucial to address zooplankton responses when predicting effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. For realistic community-level predictions, several biotic and abiotic climate-related variables should be examined in combination. We studied the combined effects of ocean acidification and global warming predicted for year 2100 with toxic cyanobacteria on a calanoid copepod, Acartia bifilosa. Together, acidification and temperature increase reduced copepod antioxidant capacity. Egg viability, nauplii development and oxidative status also decreased at above-ambient temperature. Exposure to cyanobacteria and its toxin had a negative effect on egg production but, surprisingly, a positive effect on oxidative status and egg viability. This resulted in no net effects on viable egg production. Additionally, nauplii development was enhanced by presence of cyanobacteria, which partially alleviated the otherwise negative effects of forecasted climate change on the copepod population.

  • 513. Vehmaa, Anu
    et al.
    Kremp, Anke
    Tamminen, Timo
    Hogfors, Hedvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Spilling, Kristian
    Engstrom-Ost, Jonna
    Copepod reproductive success in spring-bloom communities with modified diatom and dinoflagellate dominance2012In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 351-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dinoflagellates have increased and diatoms decreased in the Baltic Sea in recent decades, possibly because of changes in the climate and altered patterns of stratification. The hypothesis that grazing copepods would benefit from the change in species composition was tested experimentally by studying the reproductive output of the crustacean copepod Eurytemora affinis in five Baltic Sea phytoplankton spring communities dominated by different dinoflagellates (Biecheleria baltica, Gymnodinium corollarium) and diatoms (Chaetoceros cf. wighamii, Skeletonema marinoi, and Thalassiosira baltica). After a 5-d acclimation and a 4-d incubation, egg production, egg hatching success, and the RNA: DNA ratio of E. affinis were measured. Egg production was highest on a G. corollarium-dominated diet and lowest on a S. marinoi-dominated diet and on a B. baltica-dominated natural spring bloom, but there were no differences in hatching success. The results demonstrate strong species-specific effects unconstrained by the dominating group. Hence, the hypothesis of specific effects derived from a diatom or dinoflagellate diet is too simplistic, and there is a need to explore phytoplankton taxa at a species level to reveal the reasons for copepod reproductive success.

  • 514. Viktorsson, L.
    et al.
    Ekeroth, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Nilsson, M.
    Kononets, M.
    Hall, P. O. J.
    Phosphorus recycling in sediments of the Central Baltic Sea2012In: Biogeosciences Discussions, ISSN 1810-6277, E-ISSN 1810-6285, Vol. 9, p. 15459-15500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) were measured in situ in the Eastern Gotland Basin (EGB), Central Baltic Sea, using benthic landers. A total of 40 flux measurements on 13 stations at water depths ranging from 30–210 m and under different oxygen regimes were carried out on three cruises during three consecutive years (2008–2010) in August–September. Our study is the first to report in situ DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper, and it provides the most comprehensive data set of benthic DIP fluxes in the Baltic Proper existing to date. DIP fluxes increased with increasing water depth and with decreasing bottom water oxygen concentration. Average fluxes were calculated for oxic bottom water conditions (−0.003 ± 0.040 mmol m−2 d−1), hypoxic conditions (0.027 ± 0.067 mmol m−2 d−1) and anoxic conditions (0.376 ± 0.214 mmol m−2 d−1). The mean flux on anoxic bottoms was ca. 5–10 times higher than previous estimates based on ex situ measurements, but agreed well with previous flux estimations from changes in the basin water DIP pool. The DIP flux was positively correlated with the organic carbon inventory of sediment and the benthic flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) on anoxic stations, but these variables were uncorrelated on oxic stations. The positive correlation between DIP and DIC fluxes suggests that the benthic DIP flux on anoxic bottoms in the Baltic Proper is mainly controlled by rates of deposition and degradation of organic matter. The flux from anoxic sediment was very P rich in relation to both C and N, and the average C:P ratio in fluxes on anoxic accumulation bottoms was 69 ± 15, which is well below the Redfield C:P ratio of 106:1. On oxic stations, however, the C:P flux ratio was much higher than the Redfield ratio, consistent with well-known P retention mechanisms associated with iron and bacteria in oxidized sediment. Using a benthic mass balance approach, a burial efficiency of 4% was calculated for the anoxic part of the EGB, which suggests that anoxic Baltic sediments are very efficient in recycling deposited P. Based on the measured fluxes and recent estimates of the areal extent of anoxic and hypoxic bottoms, an internal load of 146 kton yr−1 was calculated. This is 7–12 times higher than recent estimates of the external load and clearly highlights the dominance of anoxic sediments as a P source in the Baltic Sea.

  • 515. Vinther, Hanne Fogh
    et al.
    Norling, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kristensen, Per Sand
    Dolmer, Per
    Holmer, Marianne
    Effects of coexistence between the blue mussel and eelgrass on sediment biogeochemistry and plant performance2012In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 447, p. 139-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The habitat-modifying suspension-feeding mussel Mytilus edulis may have facilitating or inhibiting effects on seagrass meadows depending on the environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of M. edulis on sediment biogeochemistry in Zostera marina meadows under eutrophic conditions in Flensborg fjord, Denmark. Sediment and plant samples were collected at 5 stations with Z. marina (Eelgrass), 5 with Z. marina and M. edulis (Mixed), and at 2 unvegetated ones, 1 with mussels (Mussel) and 1 with sand (Sand). The Mixed sediment was en riched in fine particles (2 to 3 times), nutrients and sulphides compared to Eelgrass stations. In creased sediment nutrient availability at the Mixed stations was reflected in increased N and P content in eelgrass. However, the plant biomass did not differ significantly between stations, while shoot features (number of leaves and leaf area) were significantly reduced at Mixed stations, suggesting an inhibiting effect of M. edulis on Z. marina. Negative correlations between eelgrass measures and sediment sulphide at Mixed stations indicate that the presence of mussels increases sulphide invasion in the plants. A survey of 318 stations in Danish fjords suggests a threshold of 1.6 kg M. edulis m(-2) beyond which no coexistence between Z. marina and M. edulis was found.

  • 516. von der Meden, C.E.O.
    et al.
    Porri, F.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    McQuaid, C.D.
    Coastline topography affects the distribution of indigenous and invasive mussels.2008In: Marine ecology progress series, Vol. 372, p. 135-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastline topography has important effects on nearshore oceanography, larval transport, settlement and the adult distribution of benthic organisms. The resultant physical regime also influences interactions between invasive and indigenous species. Such interactions can alter intertidal communities dramatically, including the local extinction and replacement of native species. We examined the effect of bays and their associated headlands on the distribution of indigenous (Perna perna) and invasive (Mytilus galloprovincialis) mussels along 500 km of the south coast of South Africa. Within this single biogeographic region, mussel cover was estimated at 22 sites across 4 bays and the intervening open coast. Given that mussel biomass is greater at intermediate levels of wave exposure and that wave exposure is strongly dependent upon coastline topography, we hypothesised that mussel cover would be greater in bays, and that bays would specifically favour M. galloprovincialis which is more easily disturbed by strong waves. The 2 species show partial vertical separation into 3 zones within the lower eulittoral zone. Both species had significantly greater cover within bays. There was, however, an interaction between bay and zone for P. perna, and the effect of bays was strongest within the preferred zones of each species. Although the overall effect of bay was stronger for M. galloprovincialis than for P. perna, this resulted from the strong spatial structure identified for the M. galloprovincialis distribution using semivariogram analysis. Overall findings illustrate how coastline topography and local processes operate in synchrony to affect the dynamics of invasive and indigenous intertidal species.

  • 517.
    von Heland, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Rowing social-ecological systems: morals, culture and resilience2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift from management and governance of ecosystems to relational complex adaptive social-ecological systems (SES) emphasizes a dynamic and integrated humans-in-nature perspective. Such a shift also needs to investigate how diversity and differences in cultures and morals relate to the existence of SES. The papers of this thesis relate these dimensions to SES resilience theory. Paper I analyzes cultural and landscape ecological aspects of trees and tree planting in Androy, Madagascar. Culturally, planting trees serves as a symbol of renewal, purification, agreement and boundary-making. Ecologically, planting trees contributes to the generation of ecosystem services in an otherwise fragmented landscape. Paper II tests the role of forest patches for generating pollination services to local beans that constitute an important protein staple in Androy. The results indicate a significant effect of insect pollination on bean yields and a strong spatial pattern of locating bean plots closer to forests than expected by chance, improving rural food security. Paper III addresses the adaptive capacity of the indigenous forest management in Androy with regard to religious and climatic drivers of change. Paper IV is concerned with cultural analysis of the robustness of provisioning ecosystem services in Androy and the interdependence of morality, cultural practices and generated ecosystem services. Paper V explores how social-ecological memory (SEM) can be seen both as a source of inertia and path dependence and a source of adaptive capacity for renewal and reorganization in the emerging theory about social-ecological systems. Paper VI analyses the film Avatar and discusses ethical–epistemic obligations of researchers as cross-scale knowledge brokers in emerging forms of global environmental politics. The thesis has interdependencies between the social and the ecological and shown that cultural and moral analyses bring important insights and challenges to resilience thinking.

  • 518.
    von Heland, Jacob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological memories as a source of general and specific resilience2012In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 519.
    von Heland, Jacob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad, Institutionen för filosofi och teknikhistoria .
    Works of doubt and leaps of faith: An Augustinian challenge to Planetary Boundaries2012In: Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture, ISSN 1749-4907, E-ISSN 1749-4915, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 151-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the role held by researchers as providers of science based advice in emerging forms of global environmental politics. The field ‘resilience thinking’ pioneered propositions about the critical role of local, traditional and indigenous knowledge to understand and manage human-nature relations. Recently there have been attempts to address sustainability beyond the local. However, the most significant attempt at a leap to the planetary scale again rendered the diversity of knowledge traditions invisible by devising an epistemic space that only took into account experimental scientific knowledge. Using insights from the scientist Dr. Augustine in Avatar, it is possible to discuss historical and current authority claims in local and planetary science-policy. While there is need to discuss resilience beyond the ‘local’, doing so needs to address moral and epistemological aspects of knowledge and politics that cohere with current understandings of the world as living and complex.

  • 520.
    Walker, Brian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barrett, Scott
    Polasky, Stephen
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Engström, Gustav
    Ackerman, Frank
    Arrow, Ken
    Carpenter, Stephen
    Chopra, Kanchan
    Daily, Gretchen
    Ehrlich, Paul
    Hughes, Terry
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Levin, Simon
    Mäler, Karl-Göran
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Shogren, Jason
    Vincent, Jeff
    Xepapadeas, Tasos
    de Zeeuw, Aart
    Looming Global-Scale Failures and Missing Institutions.2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5946, p. 1345-1346Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 521.
    Wallin, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Nyström Sandman, Antonia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Wikström, Sofia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Blomqvist, Mats
    Kautsky, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Spatially dependent relationships between environmental factors and phytobenthic communities along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea, a numeric model approachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The phytobenthic plant and animal communities are important components in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. In order to properly manage and monitor these communities the knowledge of structuring factors is important. In this study we used multivariate analyses to test the relative importance of environmental variables structuring the phytobenthic communities along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast, how the importance of these factors change with spatial scale and between the three main Baltic Sea sub-basins, the Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. We also studied the effect of these environmental factors for different species groups. The environmental factors included were salinity, wave exposure, substrate slope, depth and substrate type. For the analysis a large dataset of 1362 diving transects performed with comparable methods was used, describing the phytobenthic plant and animal species depth distribution and coverage. The environmental factors changed in importance at the different scales. The community-environment relationships also differed between the sub-basins, especially in the Bothnian Bay compared to the Baltic proper and Bothnian Sea. In the calculated best combination of factors correlating with the phytobenthic community the depth and the substrate were included in a majority of the analyses, both at different scales and in the different sub-basins. Differences in the correlation between the phytobenthic community and the environmental factors were also found between species groups. The differences between the spatial scales, the sub-basins and the species groups indicate that the criteria for environmental status, and stratification of sampling during local monitoring assessments, have to be area specific.

  • 522.
    Wallin, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Qvarfordt, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Norling, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Benthic communities in relation to wave exposure and spatial = sitions on sublittoral boulders in the Baltic Sea2011In: Aquatic Biology, ISSN 1864-7782, E-ISSN 1864-7790, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 119-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boulders are an important substrate for Baltic Sea benthic communities. Although previous studies have examined benthic species on sublittoral boulders in the Baltic Sea, information on benthic assemblages and how they vary in relation to structuring factors is limited. The aim of the present study was to describe the benthic communities, including both algae and animal taxa, on sublittoral boulders in relation to spatial positions on the boulders (4 levels) and differences in wave exposure (2 levels). The multivariate results, including 29 algae and 25 animal taxa, from the field sampling showed a significant interaction between the 2 main factors. Changes in the biomass of both annual an perennial macroalgae as well as Mytilus edulis and Balanus improvisus, were found among different positions on wave-exposed boulders, a pattern which was less clear on boulders from sheltered sites, showing that water movement influences small-scale spatial patterns on sublittoral boulders. Apart from water movement, the physical factors substrate slope and light intensity were also associated with the small-scale patterns found in benthic communities. The difference in these factors may influence both settlement and post-settlement processes for both algae and animals, and possible mechanisms leading to the patterns found are discussed.

  • 523.
    Walve, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. marin ekologi.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. marin ekologi.
    Blooms of Baltic Sea Aphanizomenon sp. (Cyanobacteria) collapse after internal phosphorus depletion2007In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, Vol. 49, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 524.
    Walve, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Seasonal changes in Baltic Sea seston stoichiometry: the influence of diazotrophic cyanobacteria2010In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 407, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied nutrient deficiency of Baltic Sea phytoplankton, as indicated by C:N:P ratios in filamentous N-2-fixing (diazotrophic) cyanobacteria and size-fractions of seston. Samples were collected during an annual cycle in the NW Baltic proper (1998, Landsort Deep) and in 2 summers in the central Baltic proper (1997 and 1998, Gotland Basin). Generally, seston C:N:P ratios in the top 20 m were close to Redfield values. There was a transient increase in the C:N ratio at the end of the phytoplankton spring bloom (to similar to 9 mol:mol), concomitant with the depletion of dissolved inorganic N (DIN), but not dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), indicating that phytoplankton became N-limited at the end of the spring bloom. In early summer (May-June), seston C:N:P ratios indicated weak N limitation of the community of small phytoplankton. From June through summer, seston size-fractions < 10 mu m accumulated mainly C and N, resulting in a September peak in seston C:P and N:P ratios (201 and 23 mol:mol, respectively) in the surface water. This change occurred in parallel with an increase in C:P and N:P ratios of diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria to levels indicative of severe P limitation of cyanobacterial growth. This suggests that the cyanobacterial P demand and new N from their N-2 fixation caused a weak P deficiency also in non-diazotrophs. However, the small increase in seston N:P, as well as a seston C:N above the Redfield ratio, indicate that N and P are nearly co-limiting for non-diazotrophs at the culmination of the cyanobacterial bloom in late summer.

  • 525. Warren-Rhodes, Kymberley
    et al.
    Schwarz, Anne-Maree
    Boyle, Linda
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Mangrove ecosystem services and the potential for carbon revenue programmes in Solomon Islands2011In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 485-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mangroves are an imperilled biome whose protection and restoration through payments for ecosystem services (PES) can contribute to improved livelihoods, climate mitigation and adaptation. Interviews with resource users in three Solomon Islands villages suggest a strong reliance upon mangrove goods for subsistence and cash, particularly for firewood, food and building materials. Village-derived economic data indicates a minimum annual subsistence value from mangroves of US$ 345–1501 per household. Fish and nursery habitat and storm protection were widely recognized and highly valued mangrove ecosystem services. All villagers agreed that mangroves were under threat, with firewood overharvesting considered the primary cause. Multivariate analyses revealed village affiliation and religious denomination as the most important factors determining the use and importance of mangrove goods. These factors, together with gender, affected users’ awareness of ecosystem services. The importance placed on mangrove services did not differ significantly by village, religious denomination, gender, age, income, education or occupation. Mangrove ecosystem surveys are useful as tools for raising community awareness and input prior to design of PES systems. Land tenure and marine property rights, and how this complexity may both complicate and facilitate potential carbon credit programmes in the Pacific, are discussed.

  • 526.
    Wasmund, Norbert
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Busch, Susanne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Gromisz, Slawomira
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Höglander, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Jaanus, Andres
    Estonian Marine Institute, Tartu University, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Johansen, Marie
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Oceanographic Unit, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Jurgensone, Iveta
    Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology, Marine Monitoring Center, Riga, Latvia.
    Karlsson, Chatarina
    Umeå Marine Science Center, Umeå Univeristy, Sweden.
    Kownacka, Janina
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Krasniewski, Wojciech
    Institute of Meterology and Water Management, Maritime Branch, Gdynia, Poland.
    Olenina, Irina
    Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Marine Research, Klaipeda, Lithuania.
    Cyanobacteria biomass indicator2012Report (Other academic)
  • 527. Whitmarsh, Lorraine
    et al.
    Turnpenny, John
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Beyond the regime: can Integrated Sustainability Assessment address the barriers to effective sustainable passenger mobility policy?2009In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 973-991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability policy making is hampered by a tendency towards sector-based, short-term and often techno-fix perspectives. This paper describes a novel policy development and assessment framework - Integrated Sustainability Assessment (ISA) - that may help address problems of unsustainability in a more integrated and strategic manner. ISA involves two primary methods: transition analysis and stakeholder engagement. The ISA case study on sustainable passenger mobility suggests ISA is well equipped to produce a holistic analysis of mobility systems, illustrate radical alternatives to the status quo and foster social learning. Further research should explore its potential to induce long-term behavioural or institutional change.

  • 528. Wijnbladh, Erik
    et al.
    Jönsson, Bror Fredrik
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Marine ecosystem modeling beyond the box: Using GIS to study carbon fluxes in a coastal ecosystem2006In: Ambio, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 484-495Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 529.
    Wikstrom, Sofia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Hillebrand, Helmut
    Invasion by mobile aquatic consumers enhances secondary production and increases top-down control of lower trophic levels2012In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 168, no 1, p. 175-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased biological diversity due to invasion by non-indigenous species (NIS) is a global phenomenon with potential effects on trophic interactions and ecosystem processes in the invaded habitat. We assessed the effects of resource availability and invasion of three non-indigenous invertebrate grazers (two crustaceans and a snail) on secondary production, relative dominance of NIS grazers and resource depletion in experimental freshwater mesocosms. The relative dominance of NIS grazers increased with increasing initial resource availability, although the effect was largest for one of the three species. The effect was due to the fact that all the included non-indigenous grazers were able to expand their populations quickly in response to resource addition. For the most dominating species, the increased grazer diversity due to invasion in turn resulted in higher production of grazer biomass and a more efficient depletion of the periphyton resource. The effect was largest at high initial resource availability, where NIS dominance was most pronounced. Our results show that an invasion-induced increase in species diversity can increase resource depletion and consequently production, but that the effect depends on identity of the introduced species. The results also suggest that properties of the recipient system, such as resource availability, can modulate ecosystem effects of NIS by affecting invader success and dominance.

  • 530.
    Wilkinson, Cathy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Social-ecological resilience and planning: an interdisciplinary exploration2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite considerable expansion in the scope and function of the state with respect to environmental protection, the world’s biological diversity and ecosystem services continue to deteriorate. Finding ways to better govern human-nature relations in cities is an important part of addressing this decline. The aim of this thesis is to explore the potential of social-ecological resilience to inform urban governance in theory and practice, through a focus on strategic spatial planning. Resilience has become an increasingly important urban policy discourse and much hope is placed in its potential to improve urban governance. However, there is an acknowledged gap between social-ecological resilience as an ideal and the ability to govern towards it in practice. At the time this doctoral research commenced there had been no engagement with social-ecological resilience in the planning theory literature and minimal engagement by empirical planning research. It is to this gap the thesis contributes. Social-ecological resilience scholarship is found to offer planning theory a partly new way of understanding complex human-nature relations. This is relevant to calls by planning theorists for more attention to matters of substance, including ecological processes. With respect to practice, planners see potential for social-ecological resilience to critically inform strategic spatial planning, including through the framing of problems, tools for analysis/synthesis and governance options. There are also however, lessons for social-ecological resilience scholarship that emerge from the detailed empirical research which suggests that attention to the politics of the everyday activities of administrators, elected officials, planning officials, conservationists and citizens operating within the so-called ‘mangle of practice’ is critical to explaining the gap between the ideal of governing for urban resilience, and what happens in practice.

  • 531.
    Wilkinson, Cathy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Toomas, Saarne
    Garry, Peterson
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Johan, Colding
    Strategic spatial planning and the ecosystem services concept: an historical explorationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 532.
    Wilkinson, Cathy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Wagenaar, Hendrik
    Enacting Resilience: a performative account of governing for urban resilienceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 533.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lake warming mimics fertilization2012In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 2, p. 771-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful nutrient management has helped many lakes recover from the effects of phosphorus pollution. Now research suggests that climate warming can cause some of the same problems to return.

  • 534.
    Winder, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Berger, Stella A.
    Lewandowska, Aleksandra
    Aberle, Nicole
    Lengfellner, Kathrin
    Sommer, Ulrich
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Spring phenological responses of marine and freshwater plankton to changing temperature and light conditions2012In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 159, no 11, p. 2491-2501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifts in the timing and magnitude of the spring plankton bloom in response to climate change have been observed across a wide range of aquatic systems. We used meta-analysis to investigate phenological responses of marine and freshwater plankton communities in mesocosms subjected to experimental manipulations of temperature and light intensity. Systems differed with respect to the dominant mesozooplankton (copepods in seawater and daphnids in freshwater). Higher water temperatures advanced the bloom timing of most functional plankton groups in both marine and freshwater systems. In contrast to timing, responses of bloom magnitudes were more variable among taxa and systems and were influenced by light intensity and trophic interactions. Increased light levels increased the magnitude of the spring peaks of most phytoplankton taxa and of total phytoplankton biomass. Intensified size-selective grazing of copepods in warming scenarios affected phytoplankton size structure and lowered intermediate (20-200 mu m)-sized phytoplankton in marine systems. In contrast, plankton peak magnitudes in freshwater systems were unaffected by temperature, but decreased at lower light intensities, suggesting that filter feeding daphnids are sensitive to changes in algal carrying capacity as mediated by light supply. Our analysis confirms the general shift toward earlier blooms at increased temperature in both marine and freshwater systems and supports predictions that effects of climate change on plankton production will vary among sites, depending on resource limitation and species composition.

  • 535.
    Winder, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Sommer, Ulrich
    Phytoplankton response to a changing climate2012In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 698, no 1, p. 5-16Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton are at the base of aquatic food webs and of global importance for ecosystem functioning and services. The dynamics of these photosynthetic cells are linked to annual fluctuations of temperature, water column mixing, resource availability, and consumption. Climate can modify these environmental factors and alter phytoplankton structure, seasonal dynamics, and taxonomic composition. Here, we review mechanistic links between climate alterations and factors limiting primary production, and highlight studies where climate change has had a clear impact on phytoplankton processes. Climate affects phytoplankton both directly through physiology and indirectly by changing water column stratification and resource availability, mainly nutrients and light, or intensified grazing by heterotrophs. These modifications affect various phytoplankton processes, and a widespread advance in phytoplankton spring bloom timing and changing bloom magnitudes have both been observed. Climate warming also affects phytoplankton species composition and size structure, and favors species traits best adapted to changing conditions associated with climate change. Shifts in phytoplankton can have far-reaching consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning. An improved understanding of the mechanistic links between climate and phytoplankton dynamics is important for predicting climate change impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

  • 536. Worm, B
    et al.
    Barbier, EB
    Beaumont, N
    Duffy, JE
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Halpern, BS
    Jackson, JBC
    Lotze, HK
    Micheli, F
    Palumbi, SR
    Sala, E
    Selkoe, KA
    Stachowicz, JJ
    Watson, R
    Biodiversity loss in the ocean: How bad is it? Response2007In: Science, Vol. 316, p. 1282-1285Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 537. Worm, B
    et al.
    Barbier, EB
    Beaumont, N
    Duffy, JE
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Halpern, BS
    Jackson, JBC
    Lotze, HK
    Micheli, F
    Palumbi, SR
    Sala, E
    Selkoe, KA
    Stachowicz, JJ
    Watson, R
    Response to comments on “Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services”2007In: Science, Vol. 316, p. 1285d-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 538.
    Wulff, F.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Humborg, C.
    Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Elmgren, R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Conley, D.
    Rosenberg, R.
    Bonsdorff, E.
    Carstensen, J.
    Oseriöst att förneka Östersjöns problem.2008In: Svenska DagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 539.
    Wulff, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Is there a future for the Baltic?2008In: NEFCO Newsletter December 10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 540.
    Wulff, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Eyre, Bradley D.
    Johnstone, Ron
    Nitrogen versus phosphorus limitation in a subtropical coastal embayment (Moreton Bay; Australia): Implications for management2011In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 222, no 1, p. 120-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach combining nutrient budgets, dynamic modelling, and field observations of phytoplankton and nitrogen (N(2))-fixing Lyngbya majuscula following changes in wastewater N loads, was used to demonstrate that Moreton Bay is potentially phosphorus (P) limited. Modelling and nutrient budgeting shows that benthic N-fixation loads are high, allowing the system to overcome any potential N-limitation. Phytoplankton biomass has shown little change from 1991 to 2006 in the sections of Moreton Bay most impacted by wastewater effluents, despite a large reduction in wastewater N loads from 2000 to 2002. This is consistent with modelling that also showed no reduction in primary productivity associated with reduced N loads. Most importantly, there have been rapid increases in the occurrence of N-fixing L majuscula in Moreton Bay as wastewater P loads have increased relative to wastewater N loads. This is also consistent with modelling. This work supports the premise that there may be fundamental differences in nutrient limitation of primary production between subtropical and temperate coastal systems due to differences in the importance of internal nitrogen sources and sinks (N-fixation and denitrification). These differences need to be recognised for optimum management of coastal systems.

  • 541.
    Wulff, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Savchuk, O.
    Sokolov, A.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Management options and effects on a marine ecosystem: Assessing the future of the Baltic2007In: Ambio, Vol. 37, p. 237-243Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 542.
    Wulff, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. marin ekologi.
    Savchuk, Oleg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mörth, C-M
    Management options and effects on a marine ecosystem: assessing the future of the Baltic Sea2007In: Ambio, Vol. 36, no 2-3, p. 243-249Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 543.
    Yahya, Saleh A. S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Andersson, Mathias H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Mgaya, Yunus D.
    Lindahl, Ulf
    Coral bleaching and habitat effects on colonisation of reef fish assemblages: an experimental study2011In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 16-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation and mortality of corals is increasing worldwide and is expected to have significant effects on coral reef fish; hence studies on these effects are essential. In the present study, a field experiment was set up within Mafia Island Marine Park in Tanzania (East Africa) to examine the effects of bleaching and habitat structure on colonisation of coral reef fish assemblages. Live and bleached staghorn coral Acropora formosa was transplanted onto plots in a site dominated by sand and rubble, and the experimental design comprised of three treatments: live coral, bleached coral and eroded coral rubble. There was an immediate increase (within 24 h) in fish abundance and diversity in the two treatments with standing corals. Overall, live and bleached coral plots showed similar effects, but differed from the eroded coral plots which had a much lower abundance and diversity of fish. In general, fish species diversity changed with time over the study period while fish abundance did not. Multivariate analyses showed that while there were differences in fish assemblage structure between standing corals and the eroded coral treatment, there was neither a difference between live and bleached coral treatments nor any temporal effects on fish assemblage structure. Our findings suggest that physical structure and complexity of habitat have stronger effects on colonisation of reef fish assemblages than changes in coral health (such as bleaching) which do not affect coral structure. This may have important implications for appropriate coral reef management.

  • 544. Zardi, G.I.
    et al.
    Nicastro, K.R.
    McQuaid, C.D.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Sand and wave induced mortality in invasive (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and indigenous (Perna perna) mussels.2008In: MARINE BIOLOGY, ISSN 0025-3162, Vol. 153, no 5, p. 853-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of an invasive species to spread in a new locality depends on its interaction with the indigenous community and on variation in time and space in the environment. The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis invaded the South African coast 30 years ago and it now competes and coexists with the indigenous mussel Perna perna. The two species show different tolerances to wave and sand stress, two of the main environmental factors affecting this intertidal community. P. perna is more resistant to hydrodynamic stress than M. galloprovincialis, while the invasive species is less vulnerable to sand action. Our results show that mortality rates of the two species over a period of 6 months had different timing. The indigenous species had higher mortality than M. galloprovincialis during periods of high sand accumulation in mussel beds, while the pattern reversed during winter, when wave action was high. A negative correlation between sand accumulation and attachment strength of the two mussels showed that sand not only affects mussel mortality through scouring and burial, but also weakens their attachment strength, subjecting them to a higher risk of dislodgement. Here we underline the importance of variations in time and space of environmental stress in regulating the interaction between invasive and indigenous species, and how these variations can create new competitive balances.

  • 545. Zdun, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Rozwadowska, Anna
    Kratzer, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Seasonal variability in the optical properties of Baltic aerosols2011In: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 7-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A five-year dataset of spectral aerosol optical thickness was used to analyse the seasonal variability of aerosol optical properties (the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at wavelength lambda = 500 urn, AOT(500) and the Angstrom exponent for the 440-870 urn spectral range, a(440, 870)) over the Baltic Sea and dependence of these optical properties on meteorological factors (wind direction, wind speed and relative humidity). The data from the Gotland station of the global radiometric network AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov)were taken to be representative of the Baltic Sea conditions. Meteorological observations from Farosund were also analysed. Analysis of the data from 1999 to 2003 revealed a strong seasonal cycle in AOT. (500) and alpha(440, 870). Two maxima, of monthly mean values of AOT(500) over the Baltic were observed. In April, an increase in the monthly mean aerosol optical thickness over Gotland most probably resulted from agricultural waste straw burning, mainly in northern Europe and Russia as well as in the Baltic states, Ukraine and Belarus. During July and August, the aerosol optical thickness was affected by uncontrolled fires (biomass burning). There was a local minimum of AOT(500) in June. Wind direction, a local meteorological parameter strongly related to air mass advection, is the main meteorological factor influencing the variability of aerosol optical properties in each season. The highest mean values of AOT(500) and alpha(440, 870) occurred with easterly winds in both spring and summer, but with southerly winds in autumn.

  • 546. Zhang, J.
    et al.
    Gilbert, D.
    Gooday, A. J.
    Levin, L.
    Naqvi, S. W. A.
    Middelburg, J. J.
    Scranton, M.
    Ekau, W.
    Pena, A.
    Dewitte, B.
    Oguz, T.
    Monteiro, P. M. S.
    Urban, E.
    Rabalais, N. N.
    Ittekkot, V.
    Kemp, W. M.
    Ulloa, O.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Escobar-Briones, E.
    Van der Plas, A. K.
    Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development2010In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1443-1467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  • 547. Zibordi, G.
    et al.
    Ruddick, K.
    Ansko, I.
    Moore, G.
    Kratzer, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Icely, J.
    Reinart, A.
    In situ determination of the remote sensing reflectance: an inter comparison2012In: Ocean Science, ISSN 1812-0784, E-ISSN 1812-0792, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 567-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-comparison of data products from simultaneous measurements performed with independent systems and methods is a viable approach to assess the consistency of data and additionally to investigate uncertainties. Within such a context the inter-comparison called Assessment of In Situ Radiometric Capabilities for Coastal Water Remote Sensing Applications (ARC) was carried out at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower in the northern Adriatic Sea to explore the accuracy of in situ data products from various in- and above-water optical systems and methods. Measurements were performed under almost ideal conditions, including a stable deployment platform, clear sky, relatively low sun zenith angles and moderately low sea state. Additionally, all optical sensors involved in the experiment were inter-calibrated through absolute radiometric calibration performed with the same standards and methods. Inter-compared data products include spectral waterleaving radiance L-w(lambda), above-water downward irradiance E-d(0(+),lambda) and remote sensing reflectance R-rs(lambda). Data products from the various measurement systems/methods were directly compared to those from a single reference system/method. Results for R-rs(lambda) indicate spectrally averaged values of relative differences comprised between - 1 and +6 %, while spectrally averaged values of absolute differences vary from approximately 6% for the above-water systems/methods to 9 % for buoy-based systems/methods. The agreement between R-rs(lambda) spectral relative differences and estimates of combined uncertainties of the inter-compared systems/methods is noteworthy.

  • 548. Zielinski, Tymon
    et al.
    Petelski, Tomasz
    Makuch, Przemyslaw
    Strzalkowska, Agata
    Ponczkowska, Agnieszka
    Markowicz, Krzysztof M.
    Chourdakis, Georgius
    Georgoussis, George
    Kratzer, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Studies of Aerosols Advected to Coastal Areas with the Use of Remote Techniques2012In: Acta geophysica, ISSN 1895-6572, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 1359-1385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of the studies of aerosol optical properties measured using lidars and sun photometers. We describe two case studies of the combined measurements made in two coastal zones in Crete in 2006 and in Rozewie on the Baltic Sea in 2009. The combination of lidar and sun photometer measurements provides comprehensive information on both the total aerosol optical thickness in the entire atmosphere as well as the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties. Combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides complete picture of the aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. We show that such combined studies are especially important in the coastal areas where depending on air mass advection directions and altitudes the influence of fine or coarse mode (in this case possibly sea-salt) particles on the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties is an important issue to consider.

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