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  • 51.
    Bergman, Brita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University.
    Noun and Verbal Classifiers in Swedish Sign Language.2003In: Perspectives on Classifier Constructions in Sign Language. , Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003, p. 35-51Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Agentivity and Status in Yukatekan languages2011In: New perspectives in Mayan linguistics / [ed] Heriberto Avelinio, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011, p. 242-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Complex Epistemic Perspective in Kogi (Arwako)2016In: International Journal of American Linguistics, ISSN 0020-7071, E-ISSN 1545-7001, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 1-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes a form of epistemic marking in Kogi (Arwako-Chibchan) that positions information between the speech-participants from the perspective of the speaker. This form of epistemic marking is tentatively labeled “complex epistemic perspective” and is found with five prefixes that attach to the auxiliary verb. Relevant meaning contrasts are between speaker-perspective and addressee-perspective forms, which may in turn be separated into symmetric and asymmetric forms that signal shared and exclusive knowledge access. The meaning dimension of knowledge access is also subject to a private/public distinction that parallels the notion of “territory of information” (Kamio 1997; Heritage 2012) where information may belong more to one of the speech participants than the other. The analyzed forms thus share a core function in specifying two simultaneous perspectives as part of the referential ground (e.g. Hanks 1990; 2009). The paper builds on first-hand data collected in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region of northern Colombia and offers the first comprehensive analysis of epistemic marking in the language.

  • 54.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Complex perspectives in Arwako languages: comparing epistemic marking in Kogi and Ika2011In: Proceedings of Conference on Language Documentation & Linguistic Theory 3 / [ed] Peter K. Austin, Oliver Bond, Lutz Marten & David Nathan, London, UK: SOAS Publications , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Epistemic marking and multiple perspective: an introduction2015In: Language Typology and Universals, ISSN 1867-8319, E-ISSN 2196-7148, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 123-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses forms of epistemic marking that instantiate multiple perspective constructions (see Evans 2005). Such forms express the speaker’s and the addressee’s simultaneous epistemic perspectives from the point of view of the speaker, crucially relying on the assumptions of the speaker with regard to the addressee’s knowledge. The analysis of forms considers established semanto-pragmatic concepts, such as semantic scope, mitigation strategies and communicative intention (as marked by sentence-type) in the exploration of forms. In addition, the notion of knowledge asymmetry is discussed alongside the concepts of epistemic status and stance as tools for a semantic analysis of investigated forms

  • 56.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Epistemic marking in Ika (Arwako)2012In: Studies in Language, ISSN 0378-4177, E-ISSN 1569-9978, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 154-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes epistemic marking in Ika (Arwako-Chibchan, Colombia) and proposes an analysis in terms of a typologically unusual pattern called conjunct/disjunct, which has been attested for a small number of Asian and South American languages. Canonically, conjunct occurs with first person subjects in statements and with second person in questions, as opposed to any other combination of subject and sentence-type, which is disjunct. The pattern found in Ika both conforms to expectations and, at the same time, contributes to a more nuanced analysis of the functional motivations of the conjunct/disjunct pattern. In Ika, conjunct marking encodes the speaker's direct access to an event that involves either (or both) of the speech participants. In addition, conjunct/disjunct marking interacts predictably with a second set of epistemic markers that encode asymmetries in the epistemic authority of the speaker and the addressee. The analysis builds on first-hand data but remains tentative, awaiting further investigation.

  • 57.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Evidentiality as stance: Event types and Speaker roles2018In: Evidence for Evidentiality / [ed] Ad Foolen; Helen de Hoop; Gijs Mulder, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 19-43Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper argues for a view of evidentials as a type of shifter and outlines a theory of reference for evidentials that separates the configuration of the ground from the relational axis, as well as the alignment between ground and figure. The paper also evaluates a proposal by Kockelman (2004) that draws on Jakobson’s notion of “event type” and Goffman’s “speaker roles” to suggest an existing analogy between “commitment events” for modals and “source events” for evidentials. The scope properties of ‘factual’ forms in both systems notably constitute a formal difference between (epistemic) modality and evidentiality that cannot be accounted for solely by the referential properties of evidentials.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-01 10:14
  • 58.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Intersubjectification revisited: a cross-categorical perspective2018In: Epistemic Modalities and Evidentiality in Cross-Linguistic Perspective / [ed] Zlatka Guentcheva, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2018, p. 319-345Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article offers three illustrations of how the process of “intersubjectification” (Traugott & Dasher 2002) can be observed in the development of time deictics, person markers and sentence-type markers to encode aspects of the speaker’s assumptions concerning the addressee’s epistemic access to an event. First-hand data from Lakandon Maya (Yukatekan, Mexico), Kogi, and Ika (Arwako-Chibchan, Colombia) is discussed in order to offer a potentially more nuanced view of intersubjectification in language. While suggested in previous accounts of intersubjectification, the article argues that this process of language change only involves categories and expressions definable as “shifters” (Jespersen 1922), i.e. expressions that at the same time refer to aspects of the speech situation and the proposition.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-01 10:59
  • 59.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Language Documentation: Practice and Values, Edited by Lenore Grenoble and N. Louanna Furbee, Amsterdam: John Benjamins 20102012In: Himalayan Linguistics, ISSN 1544-7502, E-ISSN 1544-7502, Vol. 11, no 1Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The role of 'perspective' in epistemic marking2017In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 186, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on inter-personal aspects of the context in the analysis of evidential and related epistemic marking systems. While evidentiality is defined by its capacity to qualify the speaker's indexical point of view in terms of information source, it is argued that other aspects of the context are important to analyze evidentiality both conceptually and grammatically. These distinct, analytical components concern the illocutionary status of a given marker and its scope properties. The importance of the hearer's point of view in pragmatics and semantics is well attested and constitutes a convincing argument for an increased emphasis on the perspective of the hearer/addressee in analyses of epistemic marking, such as evidentiality. The paper discusses available accounts of evidentials that attend to the perspective of the addressee and also introduces lesser-known epistemic marking systems that share a functional space with evidentiality.

  • 61.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The role of sentence type in Ika (Arwako) egophoric marking2018In: Egophoricity / [ed] Simeon Floyd, Elisabeth Norcliffe, Lila San Roque, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 347-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter focuses on the role of sentence type and subject person in accounting for egophoric marking in Ika, an Arwako-Chibchan language spoken in northern Colombia. Egophoric marking in Ika is only found in declarative clauses for which the speaker either assumes the role of epistemic authority, or where the speaker shares this role with the addressee. Interrogatives are treated as non-egophoric with all subject persons, as they do not encode the speaker’s assumptions about possible answers. This restriction, together with ones that pertain to predicate type and temporal frame of reference, point to epistemic/observational access as an important parameter in a system where public acts and personal attributes involving the speaker and/or the addressee are the only ones available for egophoric marking. As a complement to models of dialogical stance-taking (e.g. Du Bois 2007), the notion of “complex epistemic perspective” (see Bergqvist 2016) is introduced to identify which perspective configurations allow for egophoric marking.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-01 10:24
  • 62.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Time and commitment: the grammaticalization of uúch in Lakandon Maya2017In: Journal de la Société des Américanistes, ISSN 1957-7842, p. 265-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper accounts for the grammaticalization of uúch, (‘previously’, ‘long ago’) from a one-place predicate in Yukatek Maya meaning ‘to happen’, to a cognate adverbial in Lakandon Maya denoting ‘knowledge asymmetry’; a change from subjective ‘time’ to intersubjective ‘knowledge’. The paper proposes an analysis of uúch and the contrasting kuúch/ka’ch as operators of second-order stance, using a Jakobsonian model for analyzing verbal categories forwarded by Paul Kockelman (2004) to operationalize the notion of stance, as visible in Q’eqchi’ modals. Intersubjectification as a process of language change aligns with Kockelman’s original suggestion that first-order stances may be embedded to produce second-order stances, i.e. “stance about stance”.

  • 63.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Kittilä, Seppo
    Person and Knowledge: Introduction2017In: Open Linguistics, ISSN 2300-9969, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between person and epistemicity has been a topic of investigation throughout the humanities, including linguistics, but has mostly been focused on how conceptualisations of these two notions overlap, or diverge. This paper reviews some of these conceptualisations, but also adds a finergrained picture of how they intersect in the world's languages. Purported categories such as egophoric marking and lesser known expressions such as non-selected arguments (i.e. ethical datives) are compared to evidentials and modals from a synchronic and diachronic perspective in order to explain how the roles of the speech-act participants as specific arguments relate to their respective function as epistemic authorities. The aim of the paper is to introduce separate contributions relating to such systems as they are found in various parts of the world.

  • 64.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Knuchel, Dominique
    Complexity in Egophoric Marking: From Agents to Attitude Holders2017In: Open Linguistics, ISSN 2300-9969, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 359-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper considers attested variation found in egophoric marking systems in order to discuss the role of such variation for the defining features of egophoric marking viz. a speech-act participant's epistemic authority subject to his/her involvement in an event. Austin Hale's (1980) pioneering description of egophoric marking in Kathmandu Newar (called conjunct/disjunct by Hale) has largely shaped our conception of what such systems look like, but in recent years, research on comparable systems has revealed that egophoric marking systems vary with respect to every purportedly defining feature of such systems. The one remaining variable that appears constant is the epistemic authority of the speech-act participants. When attempting to analyze and compare egophoric marking, one should consider all relevant cross-linguistic variation in order to determine what features are defeasible, and which ones are not. In this paper we explore the range of participant-roles that can be associated with egophoric marking focusing on secondary egophoric markers that map onto undergoers, affected participants, and the attitudes of the speech-act participants. It will become clear that these less prototypical instances of egophoric marking bridge such systems to a seemingly unrelated grammatical constructions, known as ethical datives.

  • 65. Bielinskiene, Agne
    et al.
    Boizou, Loic
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Kovalevskaite, Jolanta
    Markievicz, Irena
    Rimkute, Erika
    Utka, Andrius
    Viliunas, Giedrius
    Švietimo ir mokslo terminų žodynas (Dictionary of Terms of Science and Education)2013Other (Other academic)
  • 66. Bielinskiene, Agne
    et al.
    Boizou, Loic
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Kovalevskaite, Jolanta
    Rimkute, Erika
    Utka, Andrius
    Lietuvių kalbos terminų automatinis atpažinimas ir apibrėžimas2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents the most recent advances in the field of Lithuanian terminology extraction as well as the first attempt on automatic extraction of Lithuanian term defining contexts. The first work in descriptive terminology by Lithuanian researchers appeared in early 2000s, i.e. R. Marcinkevičienė (2000) and I. Zeller (dissertation "Term recognition and their analysis", 2005). Nevertheless, the larger proportion of research on Lithuanian terminology is still dominated by the prescriptive view, when a lot of attention and research is given to principles and norms of terminology, as well as diachronic aspects of terminology. Chapter 1 describes differences of descriptive and prescriptive terminology. The authors want to emphasize that the prescriptive terminology involves standardisation and approval of terms, while decisions are based on existing terminology dictionaries, documents, standards, lexicons and databases of approved terms. Whereas in the corpus-based terminology management, which is one of the branches of the descriptive terminology, the main focus is placed on the usage of terms in natural language in a corpus, rather than on the standardisation. The empirical research approaches benefit from various automatic term analysis and term extraction tools, which come in handy in corpus-based terminology management. New terminology research has shown that it is very important to harmonize the methods of prescriptive and descriptive terminology. The combination of both methods allows faster processing of evergrowing data, which is very relevant to challenges of the modern lexicography that include quick and efficient creation of dynamic lexicographical sources.

  • 67.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Genetic Algorithms in the Brill Tagger: Moving towards language independence2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The viability of using rule-based systems for part-of-speech tagging was revitalised when a simple rule-based tagger was presented by Brill (1992). This tagger is based on an algorithm which automatically derives transformation rules from a corpus, using an error-driven approach. In addition to performing on par with state of the art stochastic systems for part-of-speech tagging, it has the advantage that the automatically derived rules can be presented in a human-readable format.

    In spite of its strengths, the Brill tagger is quite language dependent, and performs much better on languages similar to English than on languages with richer morphology. This issue is addressed in this paper through defining rule templates automatically with a search that is optimised using Genetic Algorithms. This allows the Brill GA-tagger to search a large search space for templates which in turn generate rules which are appropriate for various target languages, which has the added advantage of removing the need for researchers to define rule templates manually.

    The Brill GA-tagger performs significantly better (p<0.001) than the standard Brill tagger on all 9 target languages (Chinese, Japanese, Turkish, Slovene, Portuguese, English, Dutch, Swedish and Icelandic), with an error rate reduction of between 2% -- 15% for each language.

  • 68.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Predicting the N400 Component in Manipulated and Unchanged Texts with a Semantic Probability Model2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of computational linguistics, recent research has made successful advances in integrating word space models with n-gram models. This is of particular interest when a model that encapsulates both semantic and syntactic information is desirable. A potential application for this can be found in the field of psycholinguistics, where the neural response N400 has been found to occur in contexts with semantic incongruities. Previous research has found correlations between cloze probabilities and N400, while more recent research has found correlations between cloze probabilities and language models.

    This essay attempts to uncover whether or not a more direct connection between integrated models and N400 can be found, hypothesizing that low probabilities elicit strong N400 responses and vice versa. In an EEG experiment, participants read a text manipulated using a language model, and a text left unchanged. Analysis of the results shows that the manipulations to some extent yielded results supporting the hypothesis. Further results are found when analysing responses to the unchanged text. However, no significant correlations between N400 and the computational model are found. Future research should improve the experimental paradigm, so that a larger scale EEG recording can be used to construct a large EEG corpus.

  • 69.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics. University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Morphological complexity influences Verb–Object order in Swedish Sign Language2016In: Computational Linguistics for Linguistic Complexity: Proceedings of the Workshop / [ed] Dominique Brunato, Felice Dell'Orletta, Giulia Venturi, Thomas François, Philippe Blache, International Committee on Computational Linguistics (ICCL) , 2016, p. 137-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational linguistic approaches to sign languages could benefit from investigating how complexity influences structure. We investigate whether morphological complexity has an effect on the order of Verb (V) and Object (O) in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), on the basis of elicited data from five Deaf signers. We find a significant difference in the distribution of the orderings OV vs. VO, based on an analysis of morphological weight. While morphologically heavy verbs exhibit a general preference for OV, humanness seems to affect the ordering in the opposite direction, with [+human] Objects pushing towards a preference for VO.

  • 70. Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Plank, Barbara
    Neural Networks and Spelling Features for Native Language Identification2017In: The Twelfth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications: Proceedings of the Workshop, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, p. 235-239Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the RUG-SU team's submission at the Native Language Identification Shared Task 2017. We combine several approaches into an ensemble, based on spelling error features, a simple neural network using word representations, a deep residual network using word and character features, and a system based on a recurrent neural network. Our best system is an ensemble of neural networks, reaching an F1 score of 0.8323. Although our system is not the highest ranking one, we do outperform the baseline by far.

  • 71.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engdahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Anticipatory Looking in Infants and Adults2011In: Proceedings of EyeTrackBehavior 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Infant language acquisition research faces the challenge of dealing with subjects who are unable to provide spoken answers to research questions. To obtain comprehensible data from such subjects eye tracking is a suitable research tool, as the infants’ gaze can be interpreted as behavioural responses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the amount of training necessary for participants to learn an audio-visual contingency and present anticipatory looking behaviour in response to an auditory stimulus. Infants (n=22) and adults (n=16) were presented with training sequences, every fourth of which was followed by a test sequence. Training sequences contained implicit audio-visual contingencies consisting of a syllable (/da/ or /ga/) followed by an image appearing on the left/right side of the screen. Test sequences were identical to training sequences except that no image appeared. The latency in time to first fixation towards the non-target area during test sequences was used as a measurement of whether the participants had grasped the contingency. Infants were found to present anticipatory looking behaviour after 24 training trials. Adults were found to present anticipatory looking behaviour after 28-36 training trials. In future research a more interactive experiment design will be employed in order to individualise the amount of training, which will increase the time span available for testing.

  • 72.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engdahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Tengstrand, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Preceding non-linguistic stimuli affect categorisation of Swedish plosives2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception is highly context-dependent. Sounds preceding speech stimuli affect how listeners categorise the stimuli, regardless of whether the context consists of speech or non-speech. This effect is acoustically contrastive; a preceding context with high-frequency acoustic energy tends to skew categorisation towards speech sounds possessing lower-frequency acoustic energy and vice versa (Mann, 1980; Holt, Lotto, Kluender, 2000; Holt, 2005). Partially replicating Holt's study from 2005, the present study investigates the effect of non-linguistic contexts in different frequency bands on speech categorisation. Adult participants (n=15) were exposed to Swedish syllables from a speech continuum ranging from /da/ to /ga/ varying in the onset frequencies of the second and third formants in equal steps. Contexts preceding the speech stimuli consisted of sequences of sine tones distributed in different frequency bands: high, mid and low. Participants were asked to categorise the syllables as /da/ or /ga/. As hypothesised, high frequency contexts shift the category boundary towards /da/, while lower frequency contexts shift the boundary towards /ga/, compared to the mid frequency context.

  • 73.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Training in Anticipatory Looking Experiments with Adult Participants2011In: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Wai-Sum Lee & Eric Zee, 2011, p. 316-319Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of training necessary to trigger anticipatory looking was investigated in adults (n=16) using a simple testing paradigm, in order to create a baseline for studies on infants’ language acquisition. Participants were presented with training containing implicit associations between two syllables (/da/ and /ga/) and visual events displayed on different areas on the screen. The training series were periodically interrupted by test trials where a syllable was presented but no visual event was displayed. Significantly altered looking behaviour, as measured by participants’ first gaze fixation latency towards the Non-target area (where the visual event should not be expected), was found after 28-36 training trials.

  • 74. Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Cross-lingual Learning of Semantic Textual Similarity with Multilingual Word Representations2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 211-215, article id 024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the semantic similarity between sentences in different languages is challenging. We approach this problem by leveraging multilingual distributional word representations, where similar words in different languages are close to each other. The availability of parallel data allows us to train such representations on a large amount of languages. This allows us to leverage semantic similarity data for languages for which no such data exists. We train and evaluate on five language pairs, including English, Spanish, and Arabic. We are able to train wellperforming systems for several language pairs, without any labelled data for that language pair.

  • 75. Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Han Veiga, Maria
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Augenstein, Isabelle
    What Do Language Representations Really Represent?2019In: Computational linguistics - Association for Computational Linguistics (Print), ISSN 0891-2017, E-ISSN 1530-9312, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 381-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A neural language model trained on a text corpus can be used to induce distributed representations of words, such that similar words end up with similar representations. If the corpus is multilingual, the same model can be used to learn distributed representations of languages, such that similar languages end up with similar representations. We show that this holds even when the multilingual corpus has been translated into English, by picking up the faint signal left by the source languages. However, just as it is a thorny problem to separate semantic from syntactic similarity in word representations, it is not obvious what type of similarity is captured by language representations. We investigate correlations and causal relationships between language representations learned from translations on one hand, and genetic, geographical, and several levels of structural similarity between languages on the other. Of these, structural similarity is found to correlate most strongly with language representation similarity, whereas genetic relationships—a convenient benchmark used for evaluation in previous work—appears to be a confounding factor. Apart from implications about translation effects, we see this more generally as a case where NLP and linguistic typology can interact and benefit one another.

  • 76.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    A Study of Simultaneous-masking and Pulsation-threshold Patterns of a Steady-state Synthetic Vowel: A Preliminary Report2006In: Working Papers 52 (2006): Proceedings from FONETIK 2006, Lund, June 7-9, 2006 / [ed] Ambrazaitis, G. & Schötz, S., Lund: Lund University, Centre for Languages and Literature , 2006, p. 13-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study will be a remake in part of Tyler & Lindblom "Preliminary study of simultaneous masking and pulsation-threshold patterns of vowels" (1982), with the use of today's technology. A steady-state vowel as masker and pure tones as signals will be presented using simultaneous-masking (SM) and pulsation-threshold (PT) procedures in an adjustment method to collect the vowel masking pattern. Vowel intensity is changed in three steps of 15 dB. For SM, each 15 dB change is expected to result in about a 10-13-dB change in signal thresholds. For PT, the change in signal thresholds with vowel intensity is expected to be about 3-4 dB. These results would correspond with the results from the Tyler & Lindblom study. Depending on technology outcome, further experiments can be made, involving representations of dynamic stimuli like CV-transitions and diphthongs.

  • 77.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effekten av fonologisk träning enligt Bornholmsmodellen på elevers språkliga medvetenhet i årskurs 12001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en del av en longitudinell studie av psykolingvistisk ålder och språklig medvetenhet hos elever i årskurs 1 på två olika skolor i Vallentuna kommun. I studien har material från de tre senaste projektåren bearbetats. Syftet med undersökningen var att undersöka huruvida fonologisk träning enligt den s.k. Bornholmsmodellen under elevernas tid i 6-årsklass återspeglar sig i ökad språklig medvetenhet och högre psykolingvistisk ålder i årskurs 1. Vidare undersöktes om den fonologiska träningen kan ha påverkat barnens arbetsminne. Två typer av test användes: UMESOL för kartläggning av fonologisk medvetenhet och ITPA, ett standardiserat test av psykolingvistiska färdigheter. Resultaten visar att det finns ett klart samband mellan fonologisk träning enligt Bornholmsmodellen i förskolan och elevernas språkliga medvetenhet i grundskolan. Vidare visar resultaten att även om minnesträningen i Bornholmsmodellen inte direkt påverkat resultaten vid ITPA, så finns det ett starkt samband mellan minnestestet i ITPA och elevernas prestation vid UMESOL.

  • 78.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effekten av fonologisk träning enligt Bornholmsmodellen på elevers tidiga läs- och skrivinlärning i årskurser 1 och 22002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I en longitudinell studie har elever i årskurs 1 och 2 på två olika skolor i Vallentuna kommun undersökts under tre på varandra följande projektår. Huvudsyftet med denna studie var att undersöka huruvida träning i fonologisk medvetenhet enligt den s.k. Bornholmsmodellen under elevernas tid i sexårsklass påverkar deras läs- och skrivinlärning. Tre typer av test användes, under årskurs 1 administrerades UMESOL för kartläggning av fonologisk medvetenhet och ITPA, för kartläggning av psykolingvistiska färdigheter. Under årskurs 2 kartlades elevernas läs- och skrivutveckling med UMESOL, ”läsning och skrivning”. I kontrast med tidigare forskningsresultat som pekade på en fördelaktig användning av Bornholmsmodellen under elevernas förskoleklassår, visade resultaten i denna studie inte på entydiga långsiktiga effekter för de elever som tränats fonologiskt enligt Bornholmsmodellen. Istället verkade den avgörande faktorn för elevernas läs- och skrivutveckling vara skoltillhörighet och pedagogisk ledning under dessa första skolår.

  • 79.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lingvistiska och interaktiva aspekter på barn-vuxen kommunikation ur ett patologiskt perspektiv2005In: Konferensrapport från Tionde Nordiska Barnspråkssymposiet, Gävle 2005, Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle , 2005, p. 32-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en del av pågående forskning vid fonetiklaboratoriet, SU, utförs månatligen inspelningar med syfte att studera interaktionen i en mor-barndyad, där barnet har ett medfött produktions- och perceptionshandikapp. En pojke, född med Hemifacial Mikrosomia, vilket innebär partiellt försämrad hörsel, undersöks under åldrarna 8-30 månader. Syndromet inbegriper bl a avsaknad av vänster ytteröra, kind- och okben. Barnet har sondmatats via näsan upp till ca 8 månaders ålder. Studien är inriktad på pojkens språkliga och kommunikativa utveckling och på föräldrarnas samspel med honom. För att undersöka hur representationer av barnets tidiga ord kan utvecklas hos ett handikappat barn görs dels analyser av barnets vokalisationer, joller och tal och dels analyser av moderns lingvistiska struktur, timing och turtagning, repetitioner och strategi att anpassa sig till barnets uppmärksamhetsfokus. Audio- och videoinspelningar används för att samla in data på förälder-barn interaktionen och barnets vokalisationer. Eyetracking mäter barnets ögonrörelser vid presentation av audiovisuella stimuli. SECDI formulär används regelbundet för att undersöka utvecklingen av barnets lexikala produktion. Preliminära analyser tyder på generella ökade interaktiva åtgärder från föräldrarna. För att underlätta kommunikation och språklig utveckling har föräldrarna bl a introducerat tecken som stöd (TSS).

  • 80.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Koponen, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Assessing the significance of Tallal's transform2002In: TMH-QPSR 44: Proceedings Fonetik 2002, 141-144, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002, p. 141-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceptual significance of enhancing amplitude contrasts at the onset of formant transitions in CV-syllables and of reducing the “speaking” tempo was studied with a group of normally developing school children. Natural and synthetic speech stimuli were used in the perception experiments. A total of 83 children, second and third graders, were tested on their ability to discriminate between CV syllables presented in pairs. The results indicate that the children’s discrimination performance resisted acoustic manipulations of both the natural and synthetic stimuli. Neither spectral nor timing manipulations rendered significant differencesin discrimination results.

  • 81.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Influence of pre-school phonological training on early reading and writing abilities2003In: 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS) 2003, 2003, p. 2846-2848Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a study of the possible impact of pre-school phonological training on first and second graders' reading and writing abilities. Two public schools in the Stockholm metropolitan area were selected. The children were divided in two groups, depending on whether or not they had participated in a phonological training program in their last pre-school year. The children's linguistic and literacy development was followed during their first two school years. Psycholinguistic profiles (ITPA) were obtained for all the first grade children, along with an assessment of their phonological awareness. In the second grade, the children were reassessed to map their reading and writing abilities. Although the results suggested an initial advantage in general linguistic awareness for the children enrolled in the phonological training program, that advantage seems to be quickly overshadowed by social and personal factors such as continuity in the pedagogical leadership and attended school.

  • 82.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    On Linguistic and Interactive Aspects of Infant-Adult Communication in a Pathological Perspective2005In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2005 / [ed] Eriksson, A & Lindh, J., Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik , 2005, p. 55-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a preliminary report of a study of some linguistic and interactive aspects available in an adult-child dyad where the child is partially hearing impaired, during the ages 8 - 20 months. The investigation involves a male child, born with Hemifacial Microsomia. Audio and video recordings are used to collect data on child vocalization and parent-child interaction. Eye-tracking is used to measure eye movements when presented with audio-visual stimuli. SECDI forms are applied to observe the development of the child's lexical production. Preliminary analyses indicate increased overall parental interactive behaviour. As babbling is somewhat delayed due to physical limitations, signed supported Swedish is used to facilitate communication and language development. Further collection and analysis of data is in progress in search of valuable information of the linguistic development from a pathological perspective of language acquisition.

  • 83.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Potential relevance of general purpose mechanisms to the onset of language: Audio-visual integration of ambient language in pathological perspective2005In: ESF Research Conference on Brain Development and Cognition in Human Infants: From Action to Cognition, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Björklund, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Att hantera referenser: En jämförande fallstudie med särskilt fokus på teckenspråksanvändare med sen inlärning av sitt förstaspråk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med denna jämförande studie vill jag se och jämföra hur tre individer med olika språklig bakgrund och olika förutsättningar att lära svenskt teckenspråk hanterar referenser i en narrativ berättelse. Med särskilt fokus på en döv informant som lärt sig teckenspråk först i vuxen ålder och i jämförelse med en döv med tidig inlärning av teckenspråk som förstaspråk samt en hörande som lärt sig teckenspråk som andraspråk som vuxen har jag tittat på teckenspråkets olika sätt att referera. De tre informanterna har återberättat samma korta filmklipp vilket underlättat en någorlunda rättvis jämförelse. Syftet är att se vilka likheter och skillnader de har i referenshanteringen. Filmerna har transkriberats i ELAN för att sedan plocka ut de olika sätten att referera och jämföra dem inbördes. Resultatet visar på både skillnader och likheter mellan de tre informanterna. Resultatet bekräftar till viss del tidigare forskning och visar att det finns relevant referensmarkering särskilt i de imiterande delarna, i modifierade verb och i blickvridning och kroppsvridning.

  • 85.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Redundans i teckentranskriptionssystemet1998Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Ryttervik, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Tecken inom idrott2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 87.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Bäckström, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Jonsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gunnarsson, Magnus
    Svenskt teckenspråkslexikon2010Other (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Bondarenko, Alice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Lillebröder och småsaker: En studie av förleden lill- och små- i svenska sammansättningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In suppletion different inflectional forms of a word have different stems. The Swedish adjective liten has the suppletive plural form små and is the only Swedish adjective with number suppletion. In compounds the forms lill- and små- are used. Since non-head elements in compounds are not expected to show suppletion according to modern theories of word formation they may be assumed to express some other meaning. This study examines the productivity, use and meaning of lill- and små- in nominal Swedish compounds, using data from corpora. The results show that lill- and små- do not express grammatical number in compounds, but mutually exclusive, lexicalized senses. Lill- has a high degree of individuality and is used in the senses of ‘smaller’, ‘imitation’ as well as of an ameliorative diminutive referring to children. Små- is more productive than lill-, has a lower degree of individuality and is used with the senses ‘small size’, ‘unimportant’ and ‘young’. For a limited group of compounds with a kinship term as a head, number seems to be the most important factor when determining which first element to chose.

  • 89. Bono, Mayumi
    et al.
    Efthimiou, EleniFotinea, Stavroula-EvitaHanke, ThomasHochgesang, JulieKristoffersen, JetteMesch, JohannaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.Osugi, Yutaka
    8th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Involving the Language Community: Proceedings2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 90. Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Edquist, Gertrud
    Reinholdson, Anna-Clara
    Risberg, Arne
    McAllister, Bob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Speech and language development in a population of Swedish hearing-impaired pre-school-children, a cross-sectional study2007In: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 71, no 7, p. 1061-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There is little information on speech and language development in preschool children with mild, moderate or severe hearing impairment. The primary aim of the study is to establish a reference material for clinical use covering various aspects of speech and language functions and to relate test values to pure tone audiograms and parents' judgement of their children's hearing and language abilities. Methods: Nine speech and language tests were applied or modified, both classical tests and newly developed tests. Ninety-seven children with normal hearing and 156 with hearing impairment were tested. Hearing was 80 dB HL PTA or better in the best ear. Swedish was their strongest language. None had any additional diagnosed major handicaps. The children were 4-6 years of age. The material was divided into 10 categories of hearing impairment, 5 conductive and 5 sensorineural: unilateral; bilateral 0-20; 21-40; 41-60; 61-80 dB HL PTA. The tests, selected on the basis of a three component language model, are phoneme discrimination; rhyme matching; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III, word perception); Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG, grammar perception); prosodic phrase focus; rhyme construction; Word Finding Vocabulary Test (word production); Action Picture Test (grammar production); oral motor test. Results: Only categories with sensorineural toss showed significant differences from normal. Word production showed the most marked delay for 21-40 dB HL: 5 and 6 years p < 0.01; for 41-60 dB: 4 years p < 0.01 and 6 years p < 0.01 and 61-80 dB: 5 years p < 0.05. Phoneme discrimination 21-40 dB HL: 6 years p < 0.05; 41-60 dB: 4 years p < 0.01; 61-80 dB: 4 years p < 0.001, 5 years p < 0.001. Rhyme matching: no significant difference as compared to normal data. Word perception: sensorineural 41-60 dB HL: 6 years p < 0.05; 61-80 dB: 4 years p < 0.05; 5 years p < 0.01. Grammar perception: sensorineural 41-60 dB HL: 6 years p < 0.05; 61-80 dB: 5 years p < 0.05. Prosodic phrase focus: 41-60 dB HL: 5 years p < 0.01. Rhyme construction: 41-60 dB HL: 4 years p < 0.05. Grammar production: 61-80 dB HL: 5 years p < 0.01. Oral motor function: no differences. The Word production test showed a 1.5-2 years delay for sensorineural impairment 41-80 dB HL through 4-6 years of age. There were no differences between hearing-impaired boys and girls. Extended data for the screening test [E. Borg, A. Risberg, B. McAllister, B.M. Undemar, G. Edquist, A.C. Reinholdsson, et at., Language development in hearing-impaired children. Establishment of a reference material for a ""Language test for hearing-impaired children"", Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngot. 65 (2002) 15-26] are presented. Conclusions: Reference values for expected speech and language development are presented that cover nearly 60% of the studied population. The effect of the peripheral hearing impairment is compensated for in many children with hearing impairment up to 60 dB HL. Above that degree of impairment, language delay is more pronounced, probably due to a toss of acuity. The importance of central cognitive functions, speech reading and signing for compensation of peripheral limitations is pointed out.

  • 91. Borin, Lars
    et al.
    Brandt, Martha D.
    Edlund, Jens
    Lindh, Jonas
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svenska språket i den digitala tidsåldern2012Book (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Bowin, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effekten av talarformanten och F0's styrka på otränade röstbedömare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech and voice is governed by complicated processes, where a variety of different functions are used in its production and perception. Speech and voice differs in many ways from the objective measurable acoustic speech signal. The intensity of the fundamental frequency, F0, and what is called the speaker formant are two parameters that affect how voice is perceived. The purpose of the study was to investigate if the varied intensity of F0 and with or without speaker formant affect what stimuli untrained voice assessors like the most. To do so, a synthetic /a/ was created, formed by formant frequencies for Swedish vowels (Fant, 1959), varied with with or without speaker formant, and seven different intensities of the fundamental frequency, creating a total of 14 stimuli. Twelve women and eight men were asked to listen to and grade the stimuli, from the /a/ that was liked the most to the one that was liked the least. The expectations of the study were confirmed, the variation of the intensity of F0 and with or without speaker formant, did affect which stimuli the listeners preferred, and also confirmed that men and women preferred different stimuli. The two /a/’s with the weakest and the /a/ with the strongest intensity of F0, were least liked. The four /a/s with varying intensity of F0 in between, were liked approximately the same. If men and women ratings were studied separately from one another, the result differed. Women preferred stimuli with speaker formant more than the ones without, whereas men more appreciated stimuli with strong intensity of F0. If the study was the be retested and the results would be confirmed, further tests would be of interest to do, to investigate if the differences of preferences affect how speech is perceived and interpreted. 

  • 93.
    Branderud, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Traunmüller, HartmutStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Proceedings FONETIK 2004: The XVIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference, held at Stockholm University, May 26-28, 20042004Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 94.
    Branderud, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Traunmüller, HartmutStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Proceedings FONETIK 2009: The XXIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference, held at Stockholm University, June 10-12, 20092009Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Branderud, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Traunmüller, HartmutStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Proceedings of FONETIK 981998Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Brennan, Mary
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Word formation in BSL1990Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the interlocking strands of productive morphology in British Sign Language (BSL), the language used by the Deaf Community in Britain. It examines how users of the language, 'signers', are able to create 'new* lexical items on a regular everyday basis. While these novel forms are part of the everyday 'currency' of BSL interchange, some will be 'one-off usages, while others will become established within the lexicon' of BSL.

    In order to account for this rich morphological productivity, this study will examine some key elements within BSL morphology. Special attention will be given to the 'motivated' relationships which operate between certain sublexical components and their meanings. Special attention will be given to the role of 'metaphor' which is seen as providing a triggering' role in the creation of new lexical items. This account will also focus on the importance of 'classifiers' in productive morphology and will suggest that, for the most part,

    these also express metaphorical relationships. In the final chapters, the study will examine the operation of traditional derivational processes such as affixation and compounding. It will be suggested that two processes, sequential compounding and simultaneous compounding

    play a key part in developing new forms. Other processes such as word-class derivation (eg, NOUN —> VERB) and 'aspectual' derivation will also be illustrated.

    This study aims to demonstrate that BSL has a rich morphology capable of producing 'new" forms in a regular and rule-governed way.

  • 97.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Aspect and epistemic notions in the present tense system of Khalkha Mongolian2015In: Acta Linguistica Petropolitana: Transactions of the Institute for Linguistic Studies / [ed] N. N. Kazansky, St. Petersburg: Rossijskaja akademija nauk / Russian Academy of Sciences, 2015, Vol. XI, no 3, p. 46-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will dicuss positive present tense forms in spoken Khalkha Mongolian. Khalkha is analyzed to have five non-finite aspect markers, the Progressive, Continuative, Habitual, Perfect, and Prospective. They mainly combine with the three suffixes ‑n, ‑aa and ‑dag. On its own, ‑n expresses an instantiated potential or neutral future and ‑aa combines epistemic possibility and resultativity. In combination with aspect markers, though, they express the evidential value of direct vs. indirect perception. As the resultant state of a perfect can be perceived directly, the division runs between direct sensual perception of the event and an event inferred from direct sensual perception vs. events that are concluded from assumptions, hearsay, and previous perception. The suffix ‑dag expresses habitual and generic semantics. It is most commonly used on its own, but can also take other aspect markers into its scope, e.g. expressing a habitually ongoing event. Next to its main use, it is even used to refer to mono-occasional events that diverge from what the speaker perceives as the normal course of events. In addition, absolute-final and other uses of the participle ‑h and final uses of the converb ‑aad are discussed.

  • 98.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Aspect, evidentiality and tense in Mongolian: From Middle Mongol to Khalkha and Khorchin2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis consists of an introduction and the following papers:

    • The aspect-evidentiality system of Middle Mongol. Ural-Altaic Studies, 13. (forthcoming)
    • The tense-aspect system of Khorchin Mongolian. In: Pirkko Suihkonen & Lindsay Whaley (eds.), Typology of Languages of Europe and Northern and Central Asia. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (forthcoming)
    • Aspect and epistemic notions in the present tense system of Khalkha Mongolian. Acta Linguistica Petropolitana. (forthcoming)
    • Factual vs. evidential? - The past tense forms of spoken Khalkha Mongolian. In: Ad Foolen, Helen de Hoop, & Gijs Mulder (eds.), Empirical Approaches to Evidentiality. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (under review)

    Its purpose is to give an account of tense, aspect and evidentiality in three Mongolian varieties: Middle Mongol (MM) as spoken in the Mongol Empire, Khalkha Mongolian as spoken in the Mongolian state, and Khorchin Mongolian as spoken in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. MM started out with a tripartite tense distinction and a medium-sized aspectual system. Its past evidential system was tripartite with suffixes for firsthand, non-firsthand and evidentially neutral information. In Khorchin, which developed under the influence of Mandarin and Manchu, evidentiality was lost, and tense was simplified into a past / non-past distinction, alongside with a discontinuous proximal future / past marker. The aspect system underwent some changes, but retained its complexity. Khalkha, which developed under the influence of Turkic and Tibetan, underwent some shared innovations with Khorchin, but retained participles as a multifunctional unit within finite predicates, so that its aspectual system grew more complex. The past evidentiality distinctions of MM were basically retained, but the introduction of present tense evidentiality brought a number of changes: the evidentially neutral value shifted to signaling assimilated knowledge, and discontinuous future uses were introduced for all past markers.

  • 99.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    bilee sul ügiin utga, hereglee [The meaning and function of the particle bilee in Khalkha Mongolian]2012In: Hèl zohiol sudlal, ISSN 2308-510X, Vol. 5, no 37, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the meaning and use of the evidential particle bilee and its shortened derived form lee in Khalkha Mongolian are investigated. In indicatives, bilee is used to indicate one's own recollection. Simple past is formed together with the past inferential -j. Similarly, with a hortative mood bilee indicates the recollection of one's mental state. Both confirmation and surprise can be found as connotations, but the notion of surprise even appears to have grammaticalized into the more specific construction -na lee which either expresses surprise or is used to beg for attention. In questions, bilee can both express that one has witnessed, but cannot recall a given event, or an event that the addressee is presumed to remember. With the imperfective -dag, bilee can sometimes induce mono-occasional readings, but these are even possible with -dag alone or most commonly with -dag baijee.

  • 100.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Binnick, Robert. The Past Tenses of the Mongolian Verb: Meaning and Use (Empirical Approaches to Linguistic Theory I). Leiden and Boston: Brill, 20122013In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 235-241Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Khalkha Mongolian has four past tense suffixes, -v, -san, -laa and -jee, and their semantic difference has been the subject of considerable disagreement in the literature. Robert Binnick discussed these suffixes in two earlier papers (1979, 1990). With The past tenses of the Mongolian verb (henceforth PTMV) he has now dedicated a full monograph to solving this problem.

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