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  • 51.
    Fängström, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Human exposure to organohalogen compounds in the Faroe Islands2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic are part of the sub-Arctic region, a remote region far from industrial activity. In spite of this remoteness, the Islands are not a sanctuary: exposures and effects of environmental pollutants mar its natural beauty and wildlife. In the Arctic regions, fish, sea mammals and seabirds have shown to contain elevated levels of the classical persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as well as more recent POPs such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Human populations living in the Arctic regions are usually highly dependent on seafood and seabirds as food sources, and diet becomes their major source of exposures to POPs. As reported in the 1980’s, residents of the Faroe Islands were shown to have high concentrations of organohalogen substances (OHS) in their breast milk. Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) blubber and meat have been shown to be a major source of OHS exposure for some of the Faroe Islanders.

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the sources and concentrations of some POPs and their metabolites for the Faroese population. First, human milk and serum from pregnant women (mothers) and children were analyzed for PBDEs, PCBs, and polychlorinated biphenylols (OH-PCB), the major PCB metabolites. Second, POPs were measured in seabirds, i.e. PCBs in fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and guillemots (Uria algae), and PBDEs in fulmars to search for other potential sources of POPs exposure.

    The results reinforce previous findings that part of the Faroe Island population is highly exposed to OHS. Median concentrations (430 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) of CB-153) in maternal serum (1994-95) are among the highest in the world. Serum concentrations of CB-153 in children (age 7, samples collected in the early 2000’s) were approximately 90% of those in the mothers, sampled 1994-95. Similarly high CB-153 concentrations (380 ng/g l.w.) were measured in samples of mother’s milk, collected in 1999. The OH-PCB concentrations were also high in segments of the population, with 2.9 ng/g fresh weight as the sum of five OH-PCBs. Except for 4-OH-CB107, concentrations of OH-PCBs were generally lower in children than in mothers.

    The ΣPBDE median concentrations in maternal serum and human milk (1999) are at the higher end of those reported in Europe, with levels of 9.5 and 8.2 ng/g l.w. respectively. ΣPBDE levels increase in human milk samples collected at three different time points (1987-1999), mainly due to increasing BDE-153 concentrations. The range of serum ΣPBDE concentrations in mothers and children are similar, although the congener patterns show differences. BDE-47 is the dominant congener in maternal serum, while BDE-153 is the major congener in children. The differences seen in PBDE congener patterns may arise differences in dates of sampling (7 years) for the two populations, maternal serum sampled in 1994-95 and children serum sampled in 2000-01, rather than from differences in uptake/metabolism or in contemporary exposures.

    PCB concentrations in fulmars and pilot whales show similar ranges. In contrast, PBDE concentrations are 100 times higher in pilot whales than in fulmars. Consequently, Faroese may be especially exposed to PCBs via consumption of fulmars and fulmar eggs, while the exposure to PBDEs is less pronounced.

    Results from this thesis highlight the pronounced exposures to PCBs, OH-PCBs, and PBDEs among residents of the Faroe Islands, a remote region in the Northern Atlantic far away from industrial and urban sources of pollution.

  • 52.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Weihe, P
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and traditional organochlorine pollutants in fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Faroe Islands2005In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 836-843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The observed high-level burdens of organohalogens among the residents of the Faroe Islands, needs to be explained. Long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) blubber and meat are known sources of environmental exposure. The present study focus on the organohalogen contamination of the fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). The compounds quantified in fulmar muscle, fat, and egg are PCBs, DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The dominating pollutants are the 4,4′-DDT metabolite 4,4′-DDE and the two PCB congeners, CB-153 and CB-180, which are present in geometric mean concentrations of 7100, 4700 and 2500 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.), respectively, in adult fulmar muscle. 4,4′-DDT and HCB concentrations are approximately 250 ng/g l.w., each. Concentrations in the eggs are about 50% of the fulmar muscle levels, due to differences in lipid amounts, 4% in muscle and 10% in the eggs, the exposure contribution on a fresh weight basis is almost the same. As a result, both the egg and the adult fulmar muscle may lead to a significant exposure risk, if consumed by humans.

    BDE-153, the most abundant PBDE congener in fulmar muscle, with a geometric mean concentration of 6.5 ng/g l.w., is much lower than the individual PCB congeners and 4,4′-DDE concentrations. In the adult fulmar muscle, the relative PBDE congener pattern is different from that previously observed in biota, with BDE-153 and BDE-154 as the dominating congeners, rather than BDE-47. In contrast, BDE-47 is the most abundant congener in juvenile muscle and subcutaneous fat. The ∑PBDE concentrations are almost the same in egg, muscle (adult and juvenile) and subcutaneous fat (juvenile). For the polybrominated biphenyl (BB-153) the concentrations are considerably higher in the adult bird and egg than in the juvenile bird; this is also seen for the PCB and 4,4′-DDE concentrations.

    PCB concentrations found in fulmar egg and muscle are in the same range as seen in the pilot whale, i.e. 590–5700 ng/g l.w. for CB-153. Hence humans are also exposed to PCBs at a reasonable degree via intake of fulmar and/or fulmar egg and not only via pilot whale blubber.

  • 53.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Weihe, Pál
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hydroxylated PCB Metabolites in Non-hatched Fulmar Eggs from the Faroe Islands2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 3, no 34, p. 184-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty-six polychlorinated biphenylols (OH-PCBs) conge-ners were characterized in Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) eggs collected from the Faroe Islands. The seven most abundant congeners were quantified in 19 samples, and the XOH-PCB concentrations ranged between 0.92 and 4.0 ng g 1 fresh weight (f.w.). These eggs constitute a part of the traditional diet for at least a part of the population on the Faroe Islands and may contribute to the high levels of these contaminants found in the blood of pregnant Faroese women. Because the metabolites are present in the nonhatched fulmar egg, it is concluded that the OH-PCBs are transferred to the egg before laying. High levels, 3300- 18 000 ng g-1 l.w., of 2polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were determined in the fulmar eggs, which are a consider-able source for human exposure. The high PCB levels are a source for metabolic formation of hydroxylated PCBs.

  • 54.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Weihe, Pál
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands2005In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 4, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in wildlife and humans remain a cause of global concern, both in regard to traditional POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and emerging POPs, such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To determine the time related concentrations, we analyzed human milk for these substances at three time points between 1987 and 1999. Polychlorobiphenylols (OH-PCBs), the dominating class of PCB metabolites, some of which are known to be strongly retained in human blood, were also included in the assessment.

    Methods

    We obtained milk from the Faroe Islands, where the population is exposed to POPs from their traditional diet (which may include pilot whale blubber). In addition to three pools, nine individual samples from the last time point were also analyzed. After cleanup, partitioning of neutral and acidic compounds, and separation of chemical classes, the analyses were carried out by gas chromatography and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Results

    Compared to other European populations, the human milk had high PCB concentrations, with pool concentrations of 2300 ng/g fat 1987, 1600 ng/g fat in 1994, and 1800 ng/g fat in 1999 (based on the sum of eleven major PCB congeners). The nine individual samples showed great variation in PCB concentrations. The OH-PCBs were present in trace amounts only, at levels of approximately 1% of the PCB concentrations. The PBDE concentrations showed a clear increase over time, and their concentrations in human milk from 1999 are among the highest reported so far from Europe, with results of individual samples ranging from 4.7 to 13 ng/g fat.

    Conclusion

    Although remote from pollution sources, the Faroe Islands show high concentrations of POPs in human milk, particularly PCBs, but also PBDEs. The PBDEs show increasing concentrations over time. The OH-PCB metabolites are poorly transferred to human milk, which likely is related to their acidic character.

  • 55.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Separation and NMR characterisation of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD)2007In: Svensk-norsk miljökjemisk vintermöte: Dr. Holms Hotell, Geilo, 2007, p. 34-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 56. Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergek, Sture
    Bignert, Anders
    Kautsky, Lena
    Nakano, Takeshi
    Wiberg, Karin
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Are the sources of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins found in Baltic Proper fish and shellfish anthropogenic or natural?2007In: 4th International Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants: BFR 2007 Amsterdam, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 57. Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergek, Sture
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Kautsky, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Nakano, Takeshi
    Wiberg, Karin
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins - A new class of marine toxins?2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 3069-3074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) were measured in marine fish, mussels, and shellfish. PBDDs were nondetectable in samples from freshwater environments, and their levels were successively higher in samples from the marine environments of the Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, the West Coast of Sweden, and the Baltic Proper. In Baltic Proper littoral fish the levels of PBDDs generally exceeded those of their chlorinated analogues (PCDDs). This is alarming as some Baltic fish species already are contaminated by chlorinated dioxins to such an extent that they cannot be sold on the European market. By comparing spatial trends in PBDD and PCDD distributions, and PBDD patterns in fish, mussels, and algae, we show that the PBDDs are probably produced naturally, and we propose a route for their biosynthesis. We further show that the levels of PBDDs are high (ng/g wet weight) in mussels, and that the levels increase over time. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the PBDDs have adverse biological effects, and that the levels are increasing as a result of global warming and eutrophication.

  • 58. Hamers, Timo
    et al.
    Kamstra, Jorke H
    Sonneveld, Edwin
    Murk, Albertinka J
    Visser, Theo J
    Van Velzen, Martin J M
    Brouwer, Abraham
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Biotransformation of brominated flame retardants into potentially endocrine-disrupting metabolites, with special attention to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47).2008In: Mol Nutr Food Res, ISSN 1613-4125, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 284-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the endocrine-disrupting (ED) potency of metabolites from brominated flame retardants (BFRs) was determined. Metabolites were obtained by incubating single-parent compound BFRs with phenobarbital-induced rat liver microsomes. Incubation extracts were tested in seven in vitro bioassays for their potency to compete with thyroxine for binding to transthyretin (TTR), to inhibit estradiol-sulfotransferase (E2SULT), to interact with thyroid hormone-mediated cell proliferation, and to (in-)activate the androgen, progesterone, estrogen, or aryl hydrocarbon receptor. For most BFRs, TTR-binding potencies, and to a lesser extent E2SULT-inhibiting potencies, significantly increased after biotransformation. Microsomal incubation had less pronounced effects on other ED modes of action, due to low biotransformation efficiency and background activities determined in control incubations without BFRs. Moreover, cell-based bioassays suffered from cytotoxicity from metabolites of lower-brominated polybrominated diphenyl ethers. For the environmentally relevant 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), six hydroxylated metabolites were identified. Individual metabolites had TTR-binding and E2SULT-inhibiting potencies 160-1600 and 2.2-220 times higher than BDE-47 itself, whereas their combined potencies in a realistic mixture were well predicted via concentration addition. In combination with other environmentally relevant hydroxylated organohalogens acting on TTR-binding and E2SULT inhibition, internal exposure to BFR metabolites may significantly contribute to the overall risk of endocrine disruption.

  • 59.
    Hedenbrant, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Haglund, Johanna
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Development of a method for determination of serum albumin adducts of benzo(a)pyrene by LC/ESI-MS2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 60. Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie
    et al.
    Moreira Bastos, Patricia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Harju, Mikael
    Quantitative structure-Photodegradation relationships of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phenoxyphenols and selected organochlorines2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 77, no 7, p. 914-921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among other developments, the technological revolution has lead to introduction of new chemicals to better serve in instruments and materials. The consequences of the extensive increase in use of new chemicals can be detected in the environment world wide, i.e. in wildlife and humans. To ensure this problem to be minimised in the future, new chemicals need to be subjected to predictive assessments before commercialised. To facilitate screening, qualitative structure-activity relationships, quantitative structure-activity relationships may be applied to describe reactivity of chemicals. Physico-chemical properties of chemicals such as partition coefficients and half-lives for the various environmental compartments are essential input data in multimedia environmental fate models. In this study we examine how structural characteristics can quantitatively describe laboratory determined photolytic half-lives of halogenated compounds of different classes, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated brominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), and other organohalogens. A total of 30 chemicals with experimentally measured half-lives are used. Results reveal that the most important descriptors for describing the half-lives of the brominated compounds are the energy gap (GAP-1) between HOMO-1 and LUMO, the lowest partial charge on a halogen atom (Qhal-), topological polar surface area (TPSA), the atom with highest radical superdelocalizability (Rad-super+) and LUMO density (LUMO+).

  • 61. Hermansson, Veronica
    et al.
    Asp, Vendela
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Comparative CYP-dependent binding of the adrenocortical toxicants 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE and o,p'-DDD in Y-1 adrenal cells.2007In: Arch Toxicol, ISSN 0340-5761, Vol. 81, no 11, p. 793-801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental pollutant 3-MeSO(2)-DDE [2-(3-methylsulfonyl-4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene] is an adrenocortical toxicant in mice, specifically in the glucocorticoid-producing zona fasciculata, due to a cytochrome P450 11B1 (CYP11B1)-catalysed bioactivation and formation of covalently bound protein adducts. o,p'-DDD [2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] is toxic and inhibits steroidogenesis in the human adrenal cortex after bioactivation by unidentified CYPs, but does not exert any toxic effects on the mouse adrenal. As a step towards determining in vitro/in vivo relationships for the CYP-catalysed binding and toxicity of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE and o,p'-DDD, we have investigated the irreversible protein binding of these two toxicants in the murine adrenocortical cell line Y-1. The irreversible binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE previously demonstrated in vivo was successfully reproduced and could be inhibited by the CYP-inhibitors etomidate, ketoconazole and metyrapone. Surprisingly, o,p'-DDD reached similar levels of binding as 3-MeSO(2)-DDE. The binding of o,p'-DDD was sensitive to etomidate and ketoconazole, but not to metyrapone. Moreover, GSH depletion increased the binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE, but not of o,p'-DDD, indicating an important role of GSH conjugation in the detoxification of the 3-MeSO(2)-DDE-derived reactive metabolite. In addition, the specificity of CYP11B1 in activating 3-MeSO(2)-DDE was investigated using structurally analogous compounds. None of the analogues produced histopathological lesions in the mouse adrenal in vivo following a single i.p. injection of 100 mg/kg body weight, but two of the compounds were able to decrease the irreversible binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE to Y-1 cells. These results indicate that the bioactivation of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE by CYP11B1 is highly structure-dependent. In conclusion, both 3-MeSO(2)-DDE and o,p'-DDD bind irreversibly to Y-1 cells despite differences in binding and adrenotoxicity in mice in vivo. This reveals a notable in vitro/in vivo discrepancy, the contributing factors of which remain unexplained. We consider the Y-1 cell line as appropriate for studies of the cellular mechanisms behind the adrenocortical toxicity of these substances.

  • 62. Hermansson, Veronica
    et al.
    Cantillana, Tatiana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Ljungvall, Karl
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Törneke, Karolina
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Pharmacokinetics of the adrenocorticolytic compounds 3-methylsulphonyl-DDE and o,p'-DDD (mitotane) in Minipigs.2008In: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, ISSN 0344-5704, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 267-274Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pharmacokinetics of the adrenocorticolytic drug candidate 3-Methylsulphonyl-DDE (3-MeSO(2)-DDE) and the anticancer drug o,p'-DDD (mitotane) were studied in Göttingen minipigs. The animals were given 3-MeSO(2)-DDE or o,p'-DDD as single oral doses (30 mg/kg). Concentrations in plasma and subcutaneous fat were measured by gas chromatography at different time points during 180 days. Maximal plasma concentrations appeared within 24 h for both compounds, but were about 2 times higher for 3-MeSO(2)-DDE. o,p'-DDD plasma concentrations declined rapidly to low levels during 4 days. 3-MeSO(2)-DDE also decreased rapidly, but remained at high concentrations throughout the study. In fat, 3-MeSO(2)-DDE reached about 25-fold higher levels than o,p'-DDD at 30 days, and both substances were eliminated slowly from this tissue. 3-MeSO(2)-DDE liver concentrations were about 18-fold higher than those in plasma at 180 days. In contrast, o,p'-DDD liver and plasma levels were about equal at 180 days. o,p'-DDD had roughly 45 times larger CL/F than 3-MeSO(2)-DDE, confirming that the elimination of this compound was more rapid. Both compounds were characterised by their localisation and retention in fat tissue, and the individual size of the fat stores clearly determined the plasma concentrations. It is concluded that although 3-MeSO(2)-DDE is an interesting candidate for therapeutic use due to its potential characteristics to specifically target adrenocortical tumour cells the slow elimination of the compound might make it challenging to design appropriate dosage regimes.

  • 63.
    Hofvander, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites in human blood: Method development, identification and quantification2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PCBs are well known environmental pollutants. They are also precursors to metabolites, as the hydroxy-PCBs and the methylsulfonyl-PCBs. This thesis presents a validated methodology for analysis of PCB metabolites and a structural identification of 38 hydroxy-PCBs in human blood. Further methodological development resulted in an identification of a similar number of methylsulfonyl-PCBs.

    The analytical method has been applied in two extensive studies of humans, consisting of maternal and cord blood from Dutch women and of blood from humans living in Slovakia. The Dutch shows that the relative transfer of hydroxy-PCBs from the mother to the foetus is higher compared to the PCBs. Even though the chemical plant in Michalovce in Slovakia had been shut down for over 20 years, the concentrations of PCB and its metabolites were among the highest detected in European human blood.

  • 64. Houde, Magali
    et al.
    Pacepavicius, Grazina
    Darling, Colin
    Fair, Patricia A
    Alaee, Mehran
    Bossart, Gregory D
    Solomon, Keith R
    Letcher, Robert J
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Muir, Derek C G
    POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND THEIR HYDROXYLATED ANALOGS IN PLASMA OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) FROM THE UNITED STATES EAST COAST.2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 2061-2068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated-PBDEs (OH-PBDE) were determined in plasma of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, US. Significantly lower sum (Sigma) of PBDE concentrations (sum of 12 congeners) were found in animals from the IRL [arithmetic mean: 5.454.63 ng/g wet weight (ww)] compared to CHS (3040 ng/g ww). BDE-47 was the predominant PBDE in dolphins from the IRL (50% of the SigmaPBDEs) and CHS (58%). SigmaPBDE concentrations in plasma of dolphins were negatively correlated with age at both locations. Fifteen and sixteen individual OH-PBDE congeners could be quantified in plasma of dolphins from IRL and CHS, respectively. Similar to SigmaPBDE, mean SigmaOH-PBDE concentrations were significantly higher in plasma of dolphins at CHS (1150708 pg/g ww) compared to IRL (624393 pg/g ww). The predominant congener at both locations was 6-OH-PBDE 47 (IRL: 384319 pg/g ww; CHS: 541344 pg/g ww) representing 61.5% of total SigmaOH-PBDE at IRL and 47.0% at CHS. Concentrations of SigmaOH-PBDEs were weakly negatively correlated with age in dolphins from both locations (P<0.05; IRL, R2=0.048; CHS, R2=0.021). In addition to the OH-PBDE congeners identified with technical standards, eight and four unidentified OH-PBDEs were detected and quantified respectively in animals from CHS (sum of unidentified OH-PBDEs=1.350.90 pg/g ww) and IRL (0.730.40 pg/g ww). Our results suggest that, unlike OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs in bottlenose dolphins are minor products in plasma relative to SigmaPBDEs and a significant proportion may be a consequence of the dietary uptake of naturally produced methoxylated- and OH-PBDEs.

  • 65.
    Hovander, Lotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Jensen, Sören
    Klasson Wehler, Eva
    Extraction and cleanup methods for analysis of phenolic and neutral organohalogens in plasma2000In: Journal of Analytical Toxicology, ISSN 0146-4760, Vol. 24, p. 996-703Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Hovander, Lotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Linderholm, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Fängström, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Kocan, Anton
    Petrik, Jan
    Trnovec, Tomas
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Levels of PCBs and their metabolites in the serum of residents of a highly contaminated area in eastern Slovakia2006In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 3696-3703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The over-riding aim of the present investigation was to obtain information concerning exposure that can be used as a basis for studies on the health of individuals residing in the Michalovce area of eastern Slovakia which is heavily contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Accordingly, this work focused on determination of serum concentrations of hydroxylated (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfonyl-substituted (MeSO2-PCBs) metabolites of PCBs. One hundred and twenty-two men and women, 20-59 years of age, living in the contaminated area and 175 from the control Stropkov/Svidnik district were selected randomly from 2047 sampled individuals. Following a specially designed cleanup, the levels of various congeners of OH-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs in their serum were quantitated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, with comparison to authentic reference standards. The median concentrations of PCB congeners and their OH-PCB and MeSO2-PCB metabolites were 2-3-fold higher in residents of Michalovce than in the control region. The levels of certain OH-PCB metabolites were in the same high range as those of individual PCB congeners, whereas the MeSO2-PCB levels were significantly lower. The PCB and their metabolites were present at slightly higher concentrations in men than in women, and the serum levels of PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs increased with increasing age. Thus, the environmental contamination resulting from previous industrial production of PCBs has led to elevated concentrations of PCBs and their metabolites in the serum of individuals living in the Michalovce area.

  • 67. Hovander, Lotta
    et al.
    Malmberg, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Rahm, Sara
    Bergman, Åke
    Klasson Wehler, Eva
    Identification of hydroxylated PCB metabolites and other phenolic halogenated pollutants in human blood plasma0202In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 105-117Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Hovander, Lotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmberg, Tina
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Rahm, Sara
    Bergman, Åke
    Klasson Wehler, Eva
    Identification of hydroxylated PCB metabolites and other phenolic halogenated pollutants in human blood plasma2002In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, Vol. 42, p. 105-117Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69. Jakobsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Rylander, Lars
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Hagmar, Lars
    Bergman, Åke
    Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and tetrabromobisphenol A among computer tehnicians2002In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 709-716Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 70. Jensen, Sören
    et al.
    Häggberg, Lisbeth
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Odham, Göran
    A quantitative lipid extraction method for residue analysis of fish involving nonhalogenated solvents2003In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, Vol. 51, no 19, p. 5607-5611Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Temporal and spatial trends of organohalogens in guillemot (Uria aalge) from North Western Europe2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic and sub-Arctic region of the North Atlantic is a remote area, also in relations to environmental contaminants, such as POPs, BFRs and last but not least, PFCs. Both the BFRs and PFCs are considered emerging pollutants of significant environmental concern.

    The main objective of this thesis is to increase the knowledge and understanding of organohalogen compound distribution in the Nordic environment, their occurrence in biota and change over time. The temporal change of environmental contaminants in the Baltic Sea was monitored over the years 1971 to 2001, with emphasis on BCPS. Further, the pollution profile of the Nordic region was investigated by using common guillemot eggs. Further, to investigate a single remote site, Iceland, in more depth, eggs from seven marine bird species were collected and analysed. Both the organohalogen compounds mentioned above and their metabolites were investigated. The study focused also on an inter-species difference in the bird’s capability of metabolising xenobiotics.

    All environmental pollutants investigated in the Baltic Sea show decreasing levels over the time period investigated. BCPS showed a remarkably small change over time compared to other compounds. These results reinforce the previous findings, indicating the North Atlantic as remote where the concentrations of the organohalogens are lower compared to Europe in general. There are some exceptions however; the concentration of HCB is ubiquitously distributed across the study area. Further, the spatial trends of the PFCs are complicated and differ within the PFC group. When comparing bird species from Iceland, the concentration of organohalogens mainly depends on trophic level, while migration seems to contribute to a lesser extent. There are some similarities in the metabolism between the bird species investigated. However, the guillemot seems to distinguish itself from other marine birds, with a different composition of metabolites, indicating a different metabolic capacity.

    In conclusion, even human populations living in remote areas need to minimise the release of pollutants to the environment. Long term, well organised, and extensive governmental monitoring programs are highly recommended to follow the quality the environment and to detect any immediate and/or new threats of chemical pollutants.

  • 72.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Weihe, Pál
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Assessment of emerging and traditional halogenated contaminants in guillemot (Uria aalge) egg from Nort-Western Europe and the Baltic Sea2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 13, p. 4174-4183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are readily detected in biological samples at remote sites in the Arctic and sub-Arctic due to long-range transport from source areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of POPs, polybrominated contaminants and their metabolites in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggs from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden to assess spatial trends of these compounds in the Arctic and sub-Arctic areas of Europe. Egg samples were extracted, and cleaned for chemical analysis. Concentrations of PCBs, 4,4′-DDE and β-HCH were an order of magnitude higher in eggs from the Baltic Proper compared to eggs from the North Atlantic. Concentrations of HCB were of the same magnitude at all sites, ranging from 160 to 520 ng/g fat. Concentration of BCPS was 100 times higher in eggs from the Baltic compared to eggs from the North Atlantic and seems therefore to be special regional problem. Concentrations of PBDEs were lower in eggs from the North Atlantic compared to eggs from the Baltic Proper but the difference was not as large as for PCBs and 4,4′-DDE. HBCDD showed the same spatial trend as PCBs, where the concentrations in eggs from the Baltic Proper were an order of magnitude higher than in eggs from the North Atlantic. OH-PCB and MeSO2-PCB metabolites of PCBs, showed the same trend as the parent compounds while spatial trends of MeSO2-DDE and OH-PBDEs, metabolites of 4,4′-DDE and PBDEs, respectively, differed from the trend of the parent compounds. This may be due to two factors; firstly, the limited ability of birds to metabolise DDT, and secondly, to natural production of OH-PBDE, respectively. Guillemot is suggested as a monitoring species for circumpolar monitoring.

  • 73.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Svavarsson, Jorundur
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Ake
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Organochlorine Compounds and Their Metabolites in Seven Icelandic Seabird Species - a Comparative Study2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 3252-3259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is designed to assess the occurrence of a few organochlorine contaminants and their metabolites in eggs of different marine bird species in Iceland, a country located in the sub-Arctic of the North-Western Atlantic. Previous investigations from e.g. Sweden and The Netherlands have shown some obvious differences in contaminant concentrations, including e.g. hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites (OH-PCBs) in guillemot (Uria aalge) and other bird species. Eggs from seven marine bird species, Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), common eider (Somateria mollissima), guillemot, fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), and great skua (Stercorarius skua), that all breed in Iceland, were collected and analyzed for several persistent organic compounds and their metabolites. The contaminant levels varied between the species investigated. The highest concentrations were found in eggs from the great skua (18 and 23 mu g/g I.w. of CB-153 and 4,4'-DDE, respectively). The concentration difference was generally 2 orders of magnitude higher in great skua for all organochlorine compounds analyzed with the exception of HCB. HCB did not vary as much between the seven species (ranging from 34 to 710 ng/g I.w). OH-PCB and MeSO2-PCB metabolites congener concentrations and patterns showed differences in metabolic capacity between bird species. Guillemot and great skua seem to distinguish themselves most from other species i.e. with the absence of 4-OH-CB187 and low relative levels of 4-OH-CB146 in guillemot and the low abundance of OH-PCBs in great skua.

  • 74.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Organochlorine compounds occurence and metabolism in birds: A comparitive study of seven Icelandic speciesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Tomy, Gregg
    Weihe, Pál
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Concentrations of organohalogen compounds in the West-Nordic compared to the Baltic Region2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 76.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Tomy, Gregg
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Weihe, Pál
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Spatial trends of brominaed and fluorinated environmental contaminants in Guillemot eggs (Uria aalge) from the arctic and sub-arctic in North-West Europe2007In: 4th International Workshop on brominated flame retardants: BFR 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 77.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Tomy, Gregg
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Weihe, Pál
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Spatial trends of chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated environmental contaminants in Guillemot eggs (Uria aalge) from West-North Europe2007In: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: SETAC Europe 17th annual Meeting, 2007, p. 176-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Norström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Olsson, Mats
    Pham-Tuan, Hai
    Hühnerfuss, Heinrich
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Temporal trend of bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone, methylsulfonyl-DDE andd -PCB in Baltic guillemot (Uria aalge) egg 1971-2001 - A comparison to 4,4'-DDE and PCB trends2006In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 141, no 2, p. 226-237Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 79. Kautiainen, Antti
    et al.
    Fred, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Rydberg, Per
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method for in vivo dose monitoring of diepoxybutane, a metabolite of butadiene2000In: Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., ISSN 0951-4198, Vol. 14, p. 1848-1853Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Kupryianchyk, Darya
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Jones, Bernt
    Lindqvist, Nils Gunnar
    Eriksson, Sune
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hyperthyroidism, a new disease in cats - Is it caused by exposure to environmental organic pollutants?2009In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 71, Peking, 2009, p. 2720-2725Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 81. Kvashnina, K.
    et al.
    Butorin, S
    Cui, Daging
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Vegelius, J.
    Puranen, A
    Gens, R
    Glatzel, P.
    Electron transfer during selenium reduction by iron surfaces in aqueous solution: high resolution X-ray absorption study2009In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 190, no 012191, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several designs proposed by different countries, high-level radioactive waste will be disposed in a canister with a copper outer container and a cast iron or carbon steel insert. If the iron insert comes into contact with anoxic geological water, anaerobic corrosion could take place and release fission products such as 79Se to the biosphere. This paper present studies of  the long-term kinetics of selenate (SeO42-) in the presence of iron surface under anaerobic conditions  by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XANES). Substantial changes in the selenium oxidation state is found and discussed in details. We assume that such behaviour corresponds  to the electron transfer from iron to selenium, which couldn't take place on oxidized iron surface. When selenate was in contact with polish steel foil in groundwater solution, reduction of Se and formation of Se(II-)was found.  These findings suggest that depending of corroded or oxidised iron surface, the selenium mobility in nuclear waste disposal systems will be different.

  • 82. Langer, Pavel
    et al.
    Kocan, Anton
    Tajtáková, Mária
    Rádiková, Zofia
    Petrík, Ján
    Koska, Juraj
    Ksinantová, Lucia
    Imrich, Richard
    Hucková, Miloslava
    Chovancová, Jana
    Drobná, Beáta
    Jursa, Stanislav
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Gasperá­ková, Daniela
    Trnovec, Tomás
    Seböková, Elena
    Klimes, Iwar
    Possible effects of persistent organochlorinated pollutants cocktail on thyroid hormone levels and pituitary-thyroid interrelations.2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 110-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In polluted district of Michalovce in East Slovakia (POLL) and two districts with background pollution (BCGR) 2046 adults (834 males and 1212 females aged 20-75 years) were examined. Serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOab) were estimated by electrochemiluminiscent assay and also these of 15 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane were measured by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition, also dioxins, furans, coplanar- and mono-ortho-PCBs as well as selected hydroxylated and methylsulphonated PCBs and DDE metabolites were measured by appropriate methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry principle. In POLL significantly higher levels of all organochlorines were found than these in BCGR. When pooled values from both areas were stratified in terms of PCBs level and treated as continuous variables, positive association of PCBs with FT4 and TT3 was found, the latter two being also mutually associated. However, within the category of PCBs level <530ng/glipid (n=232) the association between PCBs and both the FT4 (p<0.09) and TT3 (p<0.03) was negative and any association of these was not found within the category of PCBs level of 531-1000ng/g (n=691). In contrast, in the category of 531-2000ng/g (n=1307) positive association appeared between PCBs and FT4 (p<0.001) as well as TT3 (p<0.05). Highly significant association of PCBs with FT4 (p<0.001) was further found in the categories with PCBs level of 1001-101414ng/g (n=1307) and 2001-101414 (n=1123), while significant association with TT3 was observed only in the category of 531-2000ng/g. Such findings suggest possible threshold level in positive effect of PCBs on FT4 and TT3 level which seems to be individual and located somewhere around the PCBs level of 1000ng/g. However, highly significant negative association of both FT4 and TT3 with TSH was found in each of above indicated PCBs categories. Considerable difference in FT4 and TT3 level between large groups of subjects with the same range of PCBs level was also found suggesting different individual susceptibility to the effects of organochlorines. Among a total of 26 cases from POLL with very low TSH level (<0.5mUl(-1)) 13 cases showed very high level of PCBs, FT4 and TT3, thus supporting a hypothesis on a novel sporadic form of high PCBs related peripheral subclinical hyperthyroidism possibly resulting from the long-term disruption of equilibrium between bound and free thyroxine in plasma by high PCBs level followed by a striking inhibition of TSH release from the pituitary.

  • 83. Langer, Pavel
    et al.
    Tajtáková, Mária
    Kocan, Anton
    Petrík, Ján
    Koska, Juraj
    Ksinantová, Lucia
    Rádiková, Zofia
    Ukropec, Jozef
    Imrich, Richard
    Hucková, Miloslava
    Chovancová, Jana
    Drobná, Beáta
    Jursa, Stanislav
    Vlcek, Miroslav
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Shishiba, Yoshimasa
    Trnovec, Tomás
    Seböková, Elena
    Klimes, Iwar
    Thyroid ultrasound volume, structure and function after long-term high exposure of large population to polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and dioxin.2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 118-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined 2,046 adults (834 males and 1,212 females aged 20-75 years) from polluted district in East Slovakia (POLL) and two neighboring upstream and upwind located districts of background pollution (BCGR). By ultrasound we estimated the thyroid volume (ThV), hypoechogenicity (HYE), nodules and cysts. Serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOab) and thyroglobulin were estimated by electrochemiluminiscent assay and these of 15 PCB congeners, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane by high-resolution gas chromatography. In 320 subjects also selected hydroxylated and methylsulfonated PCB metabolites, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs), five dioxin-like coplanar and eight mono-ortho PCB congeners were estimated. Urinary iodine was measured by automatic microplate method. Reciprocal positive association was found between three major POPs (PCBs, DDE and HCB), the levels of these and also PCDDs plus PCDFs in polluted area being considerably higher than in background pollution area. ThV in groups of males and females from POLL with high PCBs level was significantly higher (p<0.001 by t-test) then in age and sex matched groups from BCGR with low PCBs level. In 1,048 males and females aged <60 years with serum PCBs level >1,000 ng g(-1) lipid (median=1,756 ng g(-1)) a significant effect of age on ThV was found (p<0.01 by ANOVA), while in 921 respective subjects with PCBs level <1,000 ng g(-1) (median=661 ng g(-1)) it was not. These findings supported the view on the additional effect of PCBs on ThV other than that of age. Since the urinary iodine in both districts showed optimal range, any interfering effect of unsatisfactory iodine intake on ThV may be excluded. The frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis signs such as HYE, increased serum level of TPOab and TSH resulting in subclinical or overt thyroid hypofunction was positively associated with sex, age and organochlorine levels. The increase of such frequency in males with POPs levels was much more abrupt than that in females. No considerable differences in the frequency of thyroid nodules as related to PCBs level were found.

  • 84. Larsson, Christina
    et al.
    Norström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Bignert, Anders
    König, Wilfried
    Bergman, Åke
    Enantiomeric specificity of methylsulfonyl-PCBs and distribution of bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone, PCB, and DDE methyl sulfones in grey seal tissues2004In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 38, no 19, p. 4950-4955Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Linderholm, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Norrgren, H
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Assessment of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in serum from Guinea-Bissau, Western Africa - a time trend study2009In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol 71, Peking, 2009, p. 2041-2043Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Linderholm, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Masuda, Y
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    PCB and PCB metabolites in serum from Yusho patients 37 years after the accident2007In: Organohalogen Compounds: Yusho and Yucheng-clinical and epidimiological aspect, 2007, p. 2141-2144Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Linderholm, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Masuda, Yamamoto
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    PCB and PCB metabolites in serum from Yusho patients 37 years after the accident2008In: Svensk-norsk miljökjemisk vintermöte: SNMM 2008, 22-24 September, 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 88.
    Linderholm, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Park, June-Soo
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
    Analys av PCB metaboliter i gravida kvinnor och i navelsträngsblod från Slovakien2007In: Svensk-norsk miljökjemisk vintermöte: Dr. Holms Hotell, Geilo, Norge, 2007, p. 28-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Linderholm, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Park, June-Soo
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Kocan, Anton
    Trnovec, T
    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Human exposure to PCB metabolites in a hot-spot area in eastern slovakia2007In: Organohalogen Compounds: Human exposure II (Environmental exposure), 2007, p. 750-753Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Linderholm, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Park, June-Soo
    Kocan, Anton
    Trnovec, Tomas
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
    Maternal and cord serum exposure to PCB and DDE methyl sulfone metabolites in eastern Slovakia2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 403-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were commercially produced between 1959 and 1984 in eastern Slovakia. Improper handling led to a highly contaminated local environment and high levels of PCBs in humans and wildlife in the Michalovce area. The aim of this study was to analyse serum for methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCB (MeSO2-PCBs) and DDE (3-MeSO2-DDE) in serum samples from pregnant women and in a selected number of paired cord blood samples to assess maternal sulfone levels and patterns, and transplacental transfer of these metabolites. The donating women were from two districts in eastern Slovakia. A liquid–liquid extraction method together with separation of substance groups and further clean-up on silica gel columns were applied prior to analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 3-MeSO2-DDE was the major methyl sulfone in most of the samples followed by a yet not identified MeSO2-hexaCB, 4′-MeSO2-CB101, 4′-MeSO2-CB87 and 4-MeSO2-CB149. The women from the contaminated area had three times higher concentrations of the MeSO2-PCBs than women from the reference area. This is the first report on methyl sulfone metabolites of PCB and DDE in human cord serum. It is shown that these metabolites are transported through the placenta. The levels of MeSO2-PCBs in the maternal serum were about 1.5 times higher than in the corresponding cord serum on a lipid weight basis. For 3-MeSO2-DDE, the levels were about the same in maternal and cord serum. The difference in the maternal:cord ratio, comparing MeSO2-PCBs with 3-MeSO2-DDE might be due to differences in transport through the placenta caused by their different affinities for lipoproteins and plasma proteins.

  • 91. Lunder, Sonya
    et al.
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in serum from Californian mother – child pairs2009In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 71, Peking, 2009, p. 2726-2730Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92. Lyche, Jan L.
    et al.
    Gutleb,, Arno C
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Eriksen,, Gunnar S
    Murk, AlberTinka J
    Ropstad, Erik Saunders
    Margaret, Skaare, Janneche U
    Reproductive and developmental toxicity of phthalates2009In: Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews, ISSN 1093-7404, E-ISSN 1521-6950, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 225-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubiquitous and constant exposure of humans to these chemicals. Phthalates were postulated to produce endocrine-disrupting effects in rodents, where fetal exposure to these compounds was found to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. The adverse effects observed in rodent models raised concerns as to whether exposure to phthalates represents a potential health risk to humans. At present, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) have been demonstrated to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity; thus, this review focuses on these chemicals. For the general population, DEHP exposure is predominantly via food. The average concentrations of phthalates are highest in children and decrease with age. At present, DEHP exposures in the general population appear to be close to the tolerable daily intake (TDI), suggesting that at least some individuals exceed the TDI. In addition, specific high-risk groups exist with internal levels that are several orders of magnitude above average. Urinary metabolites used as biomarkers for the internal levels provide additional means to determine more specifically phthalate exposure levels in both general and high-risk populations. However, exposure data are not consistent and there are indications that secondary metabolites may be more accurate indicators of the internal exposure compared to primary metabolites. The present human toxicity data are not sufficient for evaluating the occurrence of reproductive effects following phthalate exposure in humans, based on existing relevant animal data. This is especially the case for data on female reproductive toxicity, which are scarce. Therefore, future research needs to focus on developmental and reproductive endpoints in humans. It should be noted that phthalates occur in mixtures but most toxicological information is based on single compounds. Thus, it is concluded that it is important to improve the knowledge of toxic interactions among the different chemicals and to develop measures for combined exposure to various groups of phthalates.

  • 93.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    High concentrations of 6-hydroxylated - 2,2´,4,4´-tetrabromodiphenyl ether in herring (Clupea harengus) plasma from the Baltic Sea2008In: Svensk Norsk miljömöte 2008: SNMM 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 94.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Tomy, Gregg
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Weihe, Pál
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Spatial trends of polyfluorinated compounds in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggs from North-Western Europe2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 72, no 10, p. 1475-1480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs) are a group of chemicals of growing concern that have been detected in biological and abiotic samples worldwide. This study reports the concentrations of a suite of PFCs: perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctyl sulfonamide (PFOSA) and perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggs, collected in North-Western Europe, from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Sweden and two locations in Norway. The highest concentrations of PFOS were found in samples from Sweden (mean 400 ng g(-1) wet weight (w.w.)), which were almost five times higher than concentrations found in Norwegian samples (mean 85 ng g(-1) w.w. from both sample sites). The concentrations found in Icelandic and Faroe samples were lowest (mean 16 and 15 ng g(-1) w.w., respectively). Only Swedish samples differed signiflcantly from the other locations. In general, PFCAs show a different spatial trend than PFOS. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was not detected in any sample and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was only detected in samples from Sweden. The most abundant PFCA was perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) with highest concentrations in samples from Sweden (mean 82 ng g(-1) w.w.), samples from the Faroe Islands had the second highest concentration (mean 57 ng g(-1) w.w.) and samples from Iceland and Norway had concentrations ranging between 18 and 30 ng g(-1) w.w. The original hypothesis was based on the idea that PFC concentrations are the highest close to more densely populated and industrialized areas and lower levels in remote areas. However, the geographic pattern is more complicated than predicted and varies among different PFCs.

  • 95.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Bignert, Anders
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    PBDD, MeO-PBDE, OH-PBDE and brominated phenols in blue mussels from the Swedish coast line2007In: Organohalogen Compounds: Dioxin 2007, 2007, p. 287-290Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96. Malkiewicz, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Nordberg, Anna
    Bergman,, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Ruden, Christina
    Human experts' judgment of chemicals reactivity for identification of hazardous chemicals2009In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 189, p. S243-S243Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of non-testing approaches for the identification

    of chemicals with the potential to cause environmental hazards,

    have gained increased attention. In this study the hypothesis that

    experts’ judgement of chemical reactivity could be used for this

    purpose has been tested. The judgments of chemical reactivity for

    200 organic chemicals, based on their molecular structure were

    performed by four senior organic and environmental chemists.

    Potentials for reactivity (namely: oxidative/reductive reactivity,

    hydrolysis, direct photolysis, reactivity towards radicals) were

    scored on the 1– scale. Both the experts’ individual judgment,

    and a compromised judgment after joint discussion for clarification

    of cases with divergent opinions, was analysed. Furthermore we

    searched for relations between the expert judgement data and: (a)

    the chemical characteristics representedby 40 chemical descriptors

    using partial least squares regression (PLS), and (b) experimental

    and in silico data for different toxicological and physico-chemical

    end-points. The results of on-going analyses indicate that for the

    majority of the chemicals, the individual judgments differed significantly

    between experts but after discussion among the experts

    for clarification, the judgments becamemuch more concurrent. The

    relation between averaged experts’ predicted photolytic degradation

    potential and chemical characteristic based on a PLS model

    (with three significant components explaining 76% of the variation)

    was found. We have also found that in the group of the

    chemicals with the higher score of the experts judged oxidative

    reactivity there was higher percentage of biodegradable chemicals

    when compar

  • 97.
    Malmberg, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Identification and Characterisation of Hydroxylated PCB and PBDE Metabolites in Blood: Congener specific synthesis and analysis2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are known metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in many mammalian, bird and fish species. Among those, certain OH-PCB congeners are strongly localised in the blood compartment of humans and wild animals. This retention is believed to mainly be a consequence of their high affinity to transthyretin (TTR), a thyroid hormone transport protein, as shown by in vitro binding studies. Polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants, are another group of compounds that forms hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs), which have been shown in rodents and fish. OH-PBDEs, in difference with OH-PCBs, also exist as natural products, produced by e.g. marine sponges. Several OH-PBDE congeners that have been identified in marine environmental samples seem to originate, to major part, from the natural production of these compounds.

    An aim of this work was to develop methods and prepare individual OH-PCB congeners for making them available as analytical standards for qualitative identification of OH-PCBs in human blood. Also the issue of OH-PBDE retention in blood after PBDE exposure was addressed in an experimental study. Further, the aim was to characterise selected, individual OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs by measuring their dissociation constants, octanol water partitioning and affinity for TTR. A study on the kinetics of two environmental abundant OH-PCBs, 4-OH-CB107 and 4-OH-CB187 was performed in the rat.

    About 50 OH-PCB congeners, analysed as their corresponding methyl derivatives, were detected in a pooled blood sample from Swedish males. Thirty-eight OH-PCBs were structurally identified by comparison with 60 authentic individual MeO-PCB standards. Twenty of the MeO-PCB standards were prepared for the identification work. A method has been developed for preparation of a critical intermediate for synthesis of meta-OH substituted OH-PCBs. The calculated plasma half-lives of 4-OH-CB107 and 4-OH-CB187 in rat were shown to be 3.8 days and 15 days, respectively. Dissociation constants for selected OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs were determined in a methanol/water mixture and psKa values ranged from 5.1 to 7.3, with lower psKa values for the OH-PCBs than the OH-PBDEs. All tested compounds in the TTR in vitro assay showed higher affinity towards TTR than the natural ligand, thyroxine, except for 4-OH-CB199 and 6-OH-BDE47. Sixteen OH-PBDE and two diOH-PBDE metabolites were detected in the plasma of rats after exposure of seven PBDE congeners which of four OH-tetraBDEs were structurally identified. The OH-PBDE metabolites were entirely dominated by meta- and para-substitution of the hydroxy group. The results indicate that OH-PBDE congeners have the ability to be retained in rat blood.

  • 98.
    Malmberg, Tina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Retention of hydroxylated PBDE metabolites in blood plasma from PBDE exposed rats2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 14, p. 5342-5348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants due to their use as flame retardants. Similarly to PCBs, the PBDEs are metabolized to hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) in mammals. In the present study equimolar doses of seven environmentally relevant PBDE congeners were given intraperitoneally as a mixture to rats, and their blood plasma was analyzed for parent compounds and hydroxylated metabolites 1 and 5 days after dosing. Sixteen OH-PBDEs and two diOH-PBDEs were detected as PBDE metabolites in the rat plasma, a novel finding. Four OH-tetraBDEs were structurally identified by comparison (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) with authentic reference standards. The position of the hydroxyl groups was suggested according to the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of the corresponding PBDE methyl ether derivatives. The OH-PBDE metabolites were dominated by hydroxyl groups in the meta- and parapositions. The results show that OH-PBDE congeners have an ability to be retained in rat blood, most likely by a mechanism similar to that of OH-PCBs. The results will be useful for determination of the origin of OH-PBDEs present in wildlife and in humans, since OH-PBDEs are also common natural products in marine environments.

  • 99.
    Malmberg, Tina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Cenijn, Peter
    Gutleb, Arno
    Bergman, Åke
    Methanol-water dissociation constants and relative transthyretin affinities for hydroxylated metabolites of PCB and PBDE congenersManuscript (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Malmberg, Tina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hoogstraate, Janet
    Bergman, Åke
    Klasson Wehler, Eva
    Pharmacokinetics of two major hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites with specific retention in rat blood2004In: Xenobiotica, ISSN 0049-8254, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 581-589Article in journal (Refereed)
1234 51 - 100 of 178
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