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  • 51.
    Pettersson, Theresia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Stockholms stads tänkeböcker: Funktionell texthistoria 1476-16262017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to shed light on language variation and language change in judicial protocols from the municipal court in Stockholm during the period 1476−1626. These documents provide a unique insight into late medieval and early modern use of written vernacular. The main material consists of 700 courtroom notes from seven different periods of time, a hundred documents from each year: 1476, 1499, 1525, 1550, 1575, 1600, and 1626. The study draws theoretically on functional linguistics; more specifically, it utilizes Halliday’s systemic-functional grammar, Ulf Teleman’s (1985) theoretical model of language change, as well as dialogism.

    The results are presented in four analytical chapters. In the first of these, the aim is to systemize the somewhat heterogeneous material, and the corpus is divided in two different ways: one due to judicial content (‘categories of matter’), and one due to textual structure (‘discourse levels’). These systemizations also serve as a methodological foundation for the lexicogrammatical analysis in the following chapters. A main result is that multi-party cases over time develop a functional need for new communication strategies, while unilateral cases already from the beginning seem to bear a more deep-rooted textual stability. In addition, there is a significant increase of discourse level 3, representing communicative events outside the courtroom, in multi-party cases found in texts from 1600 and 1626. In the two following chapters, lexicogrammatical resources of ‘personal reference’ and ‘time and tense’ are analysed. The texts realize different patterns of anaphora, where individuation explains much of the variation: texts with high degree of individuation (criminal cases) materialize a high degree of pronouns, whereas texts regarding property issues materialize low individuation with few pronouns and many full NPs. Regarding the use of tense, the past tense is the most common tense. Still, the study shows an diachronic increase in the use of present tense. The last analytical chapter examines the use of three lexical features: judicial pronouns; word pairs; and nominalizations. The results show that judicial pronouns and word pairs typically occur in registrations matters; nominalizations occur throughout the genre. In the last chapter, the results and implications of the thesis are summated and discussed.

    The results point towards a pragmatic use of the written language. Although the lexicogrammatical resources are the same during the period, the usages vary. Hence, linguistic variation and change are highly motivated by an intercommunion of contextual factors such as a more solid administrative literacy, a changing litigation, and an increase of legal demands for linguistic precision and documentation. It is argued that the language variety in the genre can be understood as instantiations of different registers.  

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    Stockholms stads tänkeböcker
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  • 52.
    Prytz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Optional RHEMES and Omitted UNDERGOERS: An Event Structure Approach to Implicit Objects in Swedish2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to define the essential syntactic-semantic properties of three types of objectless sentences in present-day Swedish. The three types of objectless sentences are labeled descriptively as follows: Implicit Object Read type (IOR) with pseudo-transitive verbs like läsa ‘read’; Implicit Object Open type (IOO), which involves various sets of transitive verbs like öppna ‘open’ and bära ‘carry’; and Implicit Object Kill type (IOK), which typically involves destruction verbs like döda ‘kill’. The study is framed within Ramchand’s (2008) syntactic model with a three-partite decomposed verb phrase, which distinguishes between two types of objects: RHEMES, which are inserted into a complement position in the verb phrase, and UNDERGOERS, which are inserted into a specifier position.

    In this work, IOR is argued to be an objectless version of pseudo-transitive verbs with optional RHEMES, whereas IOO and IOK are argued to involve ‘true’ transitive verbs with omitted UNDERGOER objects. As a consequence, the IOR verbs are analyzed as sharing their structure with some verbs usually regarded as intransitive, such as springa ‘run’ and arbeta ‘work’, which can also marginally take RHEME objects. This opens up for a discussion on the transitive- intransitive distinction and the object status of RHEMES, as well as a discussion of lexical knowledge versus encyclopedic knowledge. The distinction of optional RHEMES and syntactically obligatory UNDERGOER objects is argued to arise from event structural differences among sets of verbs, as well as from different verb-object relations that are made possible within the three-partite verb phrase. The structural verb-object relations are argued to be influenced further by encyclopedic associations of particular verbs and by knowledge about the world.

    In contrast to IOR, IOO and IOK are both argued to involve the omission of an UNDERGOER object of a true transitive verb. In the case of IOO, the object referent is salient and specific, whereas for IOK, the object referent is non-specific. Thus, the restriction on IOO as well as on IOK can be informally phrased in terms of the object only being omissible if it is interpretable, or somewhat more formally, if the free variable can be bound. However, the variable binding is assumed to occur in two distinct ways, further motivating the distinction of IOO and IOK. Whereas the free variable of an IOO object is pragmatically bound, the variable of an IOK object is instead bound by an existential operator above the VP.

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  • 53.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Constructions of Language Competence: Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Assessing Second Language Interactions in Basic Adult Education2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current thesis is concerned with constructions and perceptions of what it means to be ‘a competent language user’ in the context of a language programme in basic Swedish called Swedish for Immigrants (SFI). A particular focus is given to the testing and assessment of oral interaction. The prevailing communicative approach to language teaching and testing makes it relevant to investigations of both language use and reflections on communicative experiences. The thesis is based on three studies. Drawing on insights from linguistic anthropology, multimodal interaction analysis, phenomenology and social theory, the three studies address different sociolinguistic perspectives on language testing and assessment. Whereas Studies I and II investigate paired speaking tests in the final national exam in SFI as a speech event, Study III builds upon focus group discussions with SFI participants with the aim of exploring the participants’ reflections on communicative experiences.

           Drawing on linguistic anthropological performance theory, Study I makes the case that the paired speaking tests can be analysed as staged institutionalized performances that put speaking and ideologies on display. Study I draws on an analysis of sequences in the test data where the participants expressed beliefs on language learning, language use and language competence. One important resource for the test takers to maintain the discussion in front of the examiners was to draw on dominant discourses on language and integration, such as stating the importance of learning Swedish, speaking only Swedish, attempting to find Swedish friends and taking responsibility for one’s learning, making testing practices an important site for the reproduction of such discourse. The orientation to being ‘a competent language user’ was performed by indexing other images of being ‘a good student’ and ‘a good immigrant’.

          Study II takes an interactional practice in the paired speaking tests, word searching sequences, as its starting point. Word searches tap into two aspects of communicative language testing: vocabulary knowledge and the ability to negotiate meaning and solve interactional problems. The test takers drew on different embodied semiotic resources to negotiate participation and meaning or to display an avoidance to participating in the fellow test taker’s word search. Overall, the participants prioritized the progressivity of talk over lexical precision. By avoiding using languages other than Swedish during the test, the test takers sustained and constructed a monolingual orientation to language competence.

         Study III discusses how the SFI participants’ lived experience of language constituted their understanding of what it means to be ‘a competent language user’. Accordingly, the participants’ comments primarily constructed a view of competence as made relevant through and being shaped in social interactions, making language competence a primarily relational construct. Corroborating the relational construction of language competence was the importance given to language assessments, both those made by others and internalized self-assessments. In the focus group discussions, overall, being ‘a competent language user’ was oriented to as a desired, but yet unstable and vulnerable subject position.

          Taken together, the three studies address ideological, embodied, emotional and relational perspectives on language and language competence. By contrast, language testing practices are built upon a view of language competence as an individual and objective ability that can be measured. The main conclusions drawn in the thesis are that testing and assessment practices constitute a social practice where perceptions and constructions of language competence are constructed and regimented metapragmatically as well as interactionally. Furthermore, embodied experiences of language assessment made in institutional and everyday practices make competence a powerful concept influencing L2 users’ self-perception and agency. 

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    Constructions of Language Competence
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  • 54.
    Rönn, Milda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    ”Det är inte förrän man gör det som man förstår”: Om kommunikativa hinder vid en teaterhögskola2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of the dissertation is to shed light on how communication at a drama college may obstruct the students’ involvement. There are three studies on this subject in the dissertation. The first study deals with the students’ involvement in their education in general. The second study deals with the applicants’ involvement in the entrance examination to the college. The third study deals with the students’ involvement in a basic acting course at the college. The main theoretical framework is Etienne Wenger’s theories on social practices and social configurations, Per Linell’s activity type theory, and Herbert Clark’s theories on joint projects. The studies reveal a number of potential communicative obstacles, due to different basic communicative circumstances, communicative procedures and normative formulations.

    The second aim of the dissertation is to offer analytical tools which drama colleges and similar organizations can use to shed light on their own communication. The analytical concepts and the method used in the studies have the potential to be useful for such organizations: the concepts are relatively comprehensible and do not require a specific type of data, and the method offers steps in which to conduct an analysis.

    The third aim is to develop forms for what in the dissertation is called a practice-oriented communication analysis, in order to contribute to the discussion on how to study language use as part of broader communicative and social contexts, and how to collaborate with those whose communication is studied. The dissertation offers an orderly way to handle such questions, by formulating guidelines for the selection of theories, methods, and data, and by arguing for certain theories, methods, and data in regard to the guidelines.

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  • 55.
    Salberger, Evert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Runsvenska namnstudier1978Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 56. Steingrímsson, Jón
    et al.
    Jansson, Sven B. F.
    Stockholm College.
    Wessén, Elias
    Ahlström, Vimar
    Prosten Jón Steingrímssons självbiografi1956Book (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Strand, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Att argumentera och resonera grammatiskt2007In: Språkets roll och räckvidd: Festskrift till Staffan Hellberg den 18 februari 2007 / [ed] Karin Milles, Anna Vogel, Stockholm: Institutionen för nordiska språk, Stockholms universitet , 2007, p. 234-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur får vi våra studenter att argumentera och resonera grammatiskt? Ett sätt att närma sig denna fråga är att ta reda på hur grammatikforskarna själva gör när de tar sig an grammatiska spörsmål. Hur gör t.ex. Staffan Hellberg och hur gör Elisabet Engdahl? I denna artikel ska jag studera den grammatiska argumentationen hos just dessa båda som ju har grammatik som sin specialitet. Syftet är alltså tvåfaldigt: dels vill jag försöka synliggöra de två forskarnas sätt att resonera och argumentera, dels hoppas jag därmed kunna utvinna några mer principiella insikter som bl.a. kan användas i undervisningssammanhang av olika slag. Materialet till denna undersökning har jag hämtat ur en annan festskrift, nämligen Grammatik i fokus (2003), och ur denna har jag valt Staffan Hellbergs uppsats ”Varför inte prepositionsobjekt” och Elisabet Engdahls uppsats ”Med fokus på subjektet”. Hur resonerar då författarna? Jag börjar med Hellberg, fortsätter med Engdahl och avrundar sedan med några mer generella kommentarer.

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  • 58.
    Strand, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Nusvenskt tidningsspråk: kvantitativa studier av reportage i morgon-, kvälls- och veckopress1984Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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  • 59.
    Strid, Jan Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Nären, Njärven och Njurhulten: studier över en grupp svenska sjönamn och därmed samhöriga ord i nordiska språk1981Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Ståhle, Carl Ivar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Syntaktiska och stilistiska studier i fornnordiskt lagspråk1958Book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Sundberg, Gunlög
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Asymmetrier och samförstånd i rekryteringssamtal med andraspråkstalare2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many institutional settings in today’s globalized job market, people have to deal with different role asymmetries in the co-construction of meaning. In this study, institutional, cultural and linguistic asymmetries are focused on in interviews at an employment agency in Sweden. Interviews between a recruiter and fourteen female job candidates with an academic background from other countries were video taped. Three sequences on personality were analysed: What do you consider to be your strengths? What personal characteristics do you want to improve? and What has made an impact on you? The general aim of the study was to gain knowledge of the processes whereby self-presentations are co-constructed and how participants try to reach common understanding when they do not share common linguistic and cultural resources.

    Theoretically, the study has a dialogical framework. Discourse is seen as the place where society, culture, situation, individual and language meet and where meaning is constructed through social action. Within an interactional sociolinguistics framework, an holistic approach to methods combines ethnography of communication with ethnomethodology and conversation analysis.

    The results show that the meaning-making project in this institutional situation is institutionally framed, culturally hidden, socially constrained by face-work and interactionally embedded. The recruiter orients to the institutional frame by embedding reformulations of the candidates’ answers in her uptake, often an adjective, which is filled in on a form and later transferred to a data base. The recruiter also takes on the face-work of the communicative dilemmas that the questions exhibit, for example by using explanations when candidates admit to low self-confidence. It is also shown that for some candidates the hidden agenda of the situation is concealed and that their communicative styles clash with the recruiter’s expectations.

    The asymmetrical situation can for the candidates be seen as both a resource and a constraint. The linguistic asymmetry is not foregrounded. Instead, the negotiation of meaning concerns the institutional and cultural frame rather than linguistic meanings. On the other hand, the recruiter shows a tendency to normalize the candidates according to her own institutional and cultural knowledge. This dynamic interplay between heterogenization and homogenization tendencies is an important feature in the interviews.

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  • 62.
    Svanlund, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Lexikal etablering: En korpusundersökning av hur nya sammansättningar konventionaliseras och får sin betydelse2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This corpus-based study deals with the process whereby new compounds become established as conventionalized lexical items in the Swedish language. Special attention is given to how their meanings develop during the early phases of usage. Strictly compositional accounts of their semantics are rejected. Nine recently conventionalized compounds have been investigated in detail. The main corpus consists of all citations of these compounds from two full-text databases consisting of newspapers and magazines. Together they cover almost all of the major newspapers and several other ones as well. In addition to these corpus data, a questionnaire was used where informants were asked to describe (what they thought was) the meaning of these compounds and also to indicate how sure they were about the conventional usage of these words. Furthermore, the Swedish Language Bank has been used, mainly to get frequency data which show what kinds of word formation patterns the component parts of the compounds usually take part in, and how strong these patterns are. These data are used as reference points when analyzing the actual uses of the compounds and the semantic associations that the informants had.

    The compounds do not show a great deal of semantic variation. All but one has one clearly dominating sense, but most of the compounds are occasionally also used with strikingly deviant meanings. Metacomments and metasignalling seem to have an impact on conventionalization, at least they affect the familiarity of these items. While some of the compounds are extensively metacommented, explained and problematized, others are treated as natural and self-explanatory. The latter are generally found to instantiate strong word formation preferences, which make them seem transparent. 

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  • 63.
    Svanlund, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Metaforen som konvention: graden av bildlighet i svenskans vikt- och tyngdmetaforer2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines the nature of conventional lexicalized metaphors, especially their degree of figurativeness, which is defined as their ability to activate conceptions from the source domain of the metaphor. The corpus in question consists of central words from the source domain WEIGHT. The analysis concentrates on collocations, the basic approach being to compare the metaphorical uses of a word with the non-metaphorical ones.

    The study demonstrates that the WEIGHT domain consists of two subdomains, partly distinct, partly overlapping: 1) the vikt subdomain primarily connected to weighing procedures with metaphorical meanings like 'importance' and 'consider'; 2) the tyngd subdomain primarily connected to gravitational effects on objects and bodies with metaphorical meanings like 'heaviness' and 'weigh upon'. Metaphors from the vikt subdomain were in general found to be less figurative, basically due to its conceptual nature. But there were also differences within the same subdomain. Some words seem metaphorically projected one by one, rather than as parts of a conceptual unity. The degree of figurativeness can therefore be said to depend on both (sub)domain properties and on lexical properties specific to the lexicalized metaphorical item. 

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  • 64.
    Söderberg, Barbro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Från rytters och cowboys till tjuvstrykers: s-pluralen i svenskan : en studie i språklig interferens = [From rytters and cowboys to tjuvstrykers] : [the s plural in Swedish] : [a study in linguistic borrowing]1983Book (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Söderbergh, Ragnhild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Suffixet -mässig i svenskan: en historisk-semantisk ordbildningsstudie1964Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Tarschys, Karin
    Stockholm College.
    Svenska språket och litteraturen: studier över modersmålsundervisningen i högre skolor1955Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Tisell, Carin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Syntaktiska studier i Bonaventuras betraktelser över Kristi liv: ett bidrag till kännedomen om språket i yngre fornsvensk religiös litteratur1975Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Tropp, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Framtidsreferens i svenskt inlärarspråk2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Tykesson-Bergman, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Samtal i butik: Språklig interaktion melllan biträden och kunder2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this study is language use in a special type of social activity: the exchange of goods, services and information in a commercial setting. The main aim is to gain an understanding of the work that shop assistants perform using language. In the analysis, the focus is on verbal routine work. One part of the analysis thus entails mapping the typical utterances and conversational sequences related to such activities. Another part involves investigating how much non-task-oriented interaction the various activities require or “tolerate”, for instance, in the form of “small talk”.

    A central theme in the study is the interactants’ conversational rights and obligations, from the perspective of politeness theory, especially Fraser’s theory of the conversational contract. The service encounters are categorised as activity types, according to Levinson’s activity theory. In the comparative parts of the study, the concept of pragmeme is used as a tool to examine different realisations of prototypical situated communicative acts.

    The empirical material consists of authentic conversations, analysed by methods borrowed from conversation analysis. The conversations were recorded at a supermarket checkout till, a deli counter with manual service and an information desk in a bookshop. It turned out that only a few of the customer conversations were without complications. At the supermarket till, for instance, only one out of four conversations was completely routine and unproblematic.

    Also presented is a diachronic investigation of the norms relating to service encounters that have been taking place in shops since the 1940s. The main sources here are manuals and study materials for shop employees, together with interviews and material gathered from role playing. In this part of the study, a number of features in the historical change process are described, for instance in the manner of addressing people and the use of politeness expressions.

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  • 70.
    Utterström, Gudrun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Fem skrivare: Metta Ivarsdotters brev till Svante Nilsson : studier i senmedeltida svenskt brevspråk1968Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Van Meerbergen, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Nederländska bilderböcker blir svenska: En multimodal översättningsanalys2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis considers the translation of Dutch and Flemish picture books into Swedish from 1995 to 2006. The main aim of the thesis is to study what meaning the notion translation takes on where picture books are concerned and how the translation practice for picture books is influenced by international co-productions. The thesis includes a bibliographical study and a larger case study of the Dutch picture book artist Dick Bruna and his internationally renowned picture books about the rabbit Miffy in Swedish translation.

    Working within the theoretical frame of descriptive translation studies (DTS), I describe and analyse picture book translation as a phenomenon and a practice that occurs at a certain moment in time in a certain sociocultural context. Using the model of Toury (1995), I study translation norms governing the selection and translation of Dutch and Flemish picture books and of Bruna’s picture books about Miffy in particular. Toury’s model is largely designed for the analysis of written texts. As picture book texts combine both verbal and visual modes of expression, I use multimodal analysis combining the social semiotic visual grammar of Kress & van Leeuwen (2006) with systemic functional linguistics (SFL) as a tool to analyse the translation of picture book texts. By combining DTS and SFL, I study translation as a cultural and social semiotic practice.

    The analyses in the thesis indicate that picture book translation can be characterised as an international, target culture-oriented and multimodal translation practice. The multimodal translation analysis shows that, while translated picture books have the same images as their source text due to co-production, images can be combined with different social meanings, as for instance images of children and interaction with the reader, expressed in the written text. Images can also assume different meaning potentials and also referential interplay and plausible reading paths between words and images can change.

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  • 72.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Swedish Dimensional Adjectives2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to give a thorough and detailed account and analysis of the semantics of twelve Swedish dimensional adjectives: hög ’high/tall’, låg ’low’, bred ’broad/wide’, smal ’narrow’ vid ’broad’, trång ’narrow’, tjock ’thick’, tunn ’thin’, djup ’deep’, grund ’narrow’, lång ’long’ and kort ’short’. Focus has been placed on their spatial, non-metaphorical sense. The study was written within the framework of cognitive linguistics, where lexical definitions may be given in terms of prototypical and peripheral uses. Four sources of data have been considered: a corpus, consisting of contemporary fiction, an elicitation test, designed for the purpose, dictionary articles on the pertinent adjectives, and the author's own linguistic intuition as a native speaker. The methodology has involved categorisation of combinations of adjective and noun, based upon three major themes: orientation, function, and shape. In order to determine prototypical uses, precedence has been given to the outcome of the elicitation test over the corpus search. For both sources, frequency has played an important part. The ranking of senses as stated in the dictionary articles has also been considered.

    The results indicate that the dimensional adjectives differ quite markedly from each other, as opposed to a structural view where the adjectives traditionally have been regarded as forming a neat patchwork. Adjectives overlap each other for some uses (högt gräs ’high grass’, långt gräs ’long grass’ and even djupt gräs ’deep grass’), while there are also situations in which no dimensional adjective can describe an object. Furthermore, adjectives forming pairs, such as djup – grund ’deep – shallow’, do not exhibit full antonymy, despite the fact that dimensional adjectives are traditionally cited as examples par excellence concerning antonymy.

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  • 73.
    Wennerberg, Jeanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Tempus och transitivitet i dövas andraspråk2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is twofold. On one hand, I describe the use of tense in the second language of the deaf – written Swedish. There is no previous description of this. On the other hand, I operationalize the transitivity model (Hopper & Thompson 1980) and test its scope. I test in part whether transitivity as it is described by Hopper & Thompson (1980) can be used to explain the use of tense by the deaf in my study. The reason why I connect transitivity with the use of tense is that I would like to see whether a transitivity analysis of a text can replace classification into foreground and background. If so, a transitivity analysis should be a sufficient method for testing the discourse hypothesis, which maintains that second language learners use their emerging verb morphology to signal foreground and background rather than tense.

    The material I use for both these aims consists of a total of 129 essays written by deaf high school students. The results show that the percentage of clauses with an appropriate choice of tense in all three subsets of material is high. One interesting trend that could be discerned with regard to use of tense is that when informants use a tense that is appropriate for the genre, their command of that tense is better than when it is used in a genre for which it is less appropriate.

    Calculations testing the hypothesis of co-variance between the components in the transitivity model show in general that such co-variance exists. Nonetheless, the degree of this varies and is far from total. Taken together, the calculations made in this investigation provide support for the claim that these nine components co-vary with one another.

    The results also show that there is no correlation between the components and the use of tense. Judging from the results, the value of the different components (positive or negative) appears to have no importance in determining whether the choice of tense is appropriate or not. Nor is there any significant difference in the subsets of material for my investigation of whether the number of positive values that a clause has is relevant in classifying the choice of tense as appropriate.

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  • 74.
    Westberg, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Legitimerade föräldraskap 1870–2010: En diskurshistorisk undersökning2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to historize discourses of parenthood by analyzing how they are negotiated and legitimized in Swedish non-literary and wide spread texts published in the 1870s, 1940s and 2010s. The analyzed corpus consists of the following: family and women’s movement magazines from the 1870s; a public counseling brochure and weekly magazines from the 1940s; blog texts; online health counseling; parent magazines; and public welfare information from the 2010s. The study moreover aims to make an inventory of which visual and lexico-grammatical resources realize legitimating strategies in the texts.

    Theoretically, the thesis draws on constructivist and feminist discourse theories and social semiotics. There is an emphasis on subject positions and power relations. The thesis investigates which parental subject positions are legitimized in the corpus, what power relations they reproduce, and furthermore how different positions are transformed as discontinuities of each other and over time.

    The results are presented in four analytical chapters. In the first of these, findings derived from the legitimation analysis of the 1870s are presented. The following two chapters present the results derived from the analysis of the 1940s and 2010s. The fourth research chapter presents an inventory of semiotic resources with the potential to realize legitimating strategies.

    One crucial discourse-historical result regards how the position of the mother as primary caretaker predominates in the research data. However, the position is mainly legitimized during the 1870s and transformed into legitimacy during the 1940s and 2010s. The analysis furthermore captures how the same position is legitimized during the 1870s with reference to a discourse concerning a divine order of things. Although this divine discourse is muted during the 1940s and 2010s, it continues to imprint the representations. Moreover, the analysis captures how discourses of legitimate parenthood constitute discourses of manhood, Swedishness, expert knowledge, responsiveness to children, consumption and risk management throughout the investigated periods, yet in discontinuous ways.

    The overall conclusion drawn is that legitimized discourses from one historical setting can constitute silent foundations for representations in later historical contexts. By unraveling history from past to present, the thesis shows how it is possible to identify presupposed lineages of today’s ideas and discourses, and thereby to deconstruct hegemonic truths and the power relations they reproduce.

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  • 75.
    Westlund, Börje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Skrivarproblemet i Isländska homilieboken1974Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Westman, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Skriftpraktiker i gymnasieskolan: Bygg- och omvårdnadselever skriver2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the dissertation is to demonstrate and explain the place and function writing has in all subjects in two vocational classes in a Swedish upper secondary school. The material has been collected through ethnographic field studies in construction and health care classes over one school year. The material consists of literacy events, where pupils write, and the context of situation and text are noted.

    In theoretical terms the study takes a discourse analysis perspective, where writing is seen from within different frames. Writing is analysed based on an ideological view of literacy inspired by New Literacy Studies using the context of situation and text with the aim of describing different literacy practices in both classes.

    The material was classified into three different situation types, two school-initiated and one non-school-initiated. The first school-initiated situation type is orally-governed, the second writing-governed, while it is less clear how the non-school-initiated type is inspired.

    In the writing situations we investigate the writing activities that are used, while texts are analysed based on text acitivites. Writing and text activities are used together to explain the writing competences that are used in the writing situations.

    The conclusions are that writing gets little space and attention in both classes. The health care class writes in more situations and also writes longer texts than the construction class. Literacy practices differ between the classes. The health care class demonstrates one school-governed writing practice, while the construction class moves between two different school-governed practices. The literacy practices in the construction class are similar to the writing usage that can be found at a building site. Writing is used in both classes mainly to structure and store knowledge.

    The non-school-governed material also shows differences between the classes. Here too more writing takes place in the health care class. The function of the non-school-governed writing is to communicate and inform through writing.

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  • 77.
    Ylikiiskilä, Antti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Tvåspråkiga skolbarns verbanvändning i svenska2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study of 20 simultaneous bilingual (Finnish - Swedish) children's use of verbsin some oral accounts. The youngsters are aged between 10 years and 10 months and 13 yearsand are compared with a group of monolingual Swedish children of the same age and similarsocio-economic background.

    The focus of the investigation is the youngsters' verb use but the number of tokens and distributionbetween nouns, adjectives and verbs are also examined. The material for the studyconsists of recorded interviews in which three stories are re-narrated orally.

    The findings show both similarities and differences in the various groups' use of verbs.The group of simultaneous bilingual children used a significantly lower number of tokens; ithad a significantly smaller proportion of very frequent verbs and a larger proportion of lessfrequent verbs as well as a significantly larger proportion of concrete physical action verbsand a lower proportion of mental and grammatical verbs. No significant distinctions could befound regarding the distribution of word classes (nouns, adjectives and verbs), verb variation,the proportion of verbs with many basic meanings, the proportion of phrasal verbs or thenumber of unique phrasal verbs. Deviations within the groups are, however, large especiallyin the simultaneous bilingual group and, within the simultaneous bilingual group, several individualscan be found whose performance is fully commensurate with or above the averagefor the Swedish control group. What has been examined is, also, only a small part of theyoungsters' communicative competence.

    The findings show that, with regard to certain linguistic variables studied, the simultaneousbilingual group is somewhat behind the monolingual Swedish control group regarding linguisticdevelopment. This discrepancy is not, however, consistent and this small measure ofretardation may be expected to have evened out in adulthood.

  • 78.
    Åbrink, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Om teatersvenska som målspråk vid början av 1800-talet2014In: Studier i svensk språkhistoria 12: Variation och förändring / [ed] Maria Bylin, Cecila Falk, Tomas Riad, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2014, p. 252-261Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    När Gustaf III 1787 anslog medel till grundandet av en nationell svensk teaterscen där nyskrivna svenska pjäser skulle framföras på svenska språket, så angav han också i direktivet att teatern skulle vara ”ett språkligt föredöme för den stora allmänheten”. Till teatern knöts även en skådespelarutbildning, den s.k. elevskolan. De första skådespelarna som anställdes vid den nya teatern hade en varierad bakgrund, både socialt och språkligt. Flera hade svenska som andraspråk, och om den högst betalda aktrisen Marie Louise Marcadet hette det att hennes franska accent gav extra krydda åt föreställningen. Eftersom svenska tidigare bara hade använts sporadiskt som scenspråk, så var det få som hade en bakgrund som professionell. En del hade haft anställning vid den franska truppen eller vid operan.

     

    Kapitlet handlar om hur teatersvenskan i början av 1800-talet tydligare kom att avgränsas mot andra språkvarieteter. Detta skedde inom ramen för en teaterutbildning som omfattade internat, elevskola och lärlingssystem. Perioden utgjorde en brytningstid eftersom teatern utvecklades från att ha varit ett inslag i den gustavianska hovkulturen till att bli en allt självklarare uttrycksform för den borgerliga offentligheten.

     

    Syftet är att diskutera teatersvenskan ur språkinlärningssynpunkt, närmare bestämt hur skådespelarelever under de första decennierna av 1800-talet både lärde sig att tala korrekt svenska och själva bidrog till utvecklingen av den teatersvenska normen. Teatersvenskan utgjorde vid den här tiden långt ifrån en enhetlig norm och för att få tillgång till ett lämpligt elevmaterial för teaterns behov, tog man i början av 1800-talet hand om unga flickor och pojkar i internat (”Upfostrings Anstalt”). Verksamheten vid internatet bidrog förmodligen till att vissa drag i 1700-talsspråket blev naturliga inslag i barnens språkutveckling; man minimerade helt enkelt inverkan av den s.k. kritiska perioden för språkinlärning (något som senare tiders skådespelare har haft stora problem med). Vid skolan övades framför allt konsten att deklamera, men även studier i grammatik och främmande språk tog stor plats. Den fraseringsteknik som lärdes ut kan spåras till ideal som sedan länge hade rått vid Comédie francaise i Paris.

    Kontakten med det teatersvenska idealet i så unga år fick stor betydelse för normens etablering. Några av de mest namnkunniga kvinnliga aktriserna under 1800-talet var placerade i internat, bl.a. Emilie Högqvist och Jenny Lind, liksom Carolina Bock som genom sitt arbete vid elevskolan kom att lägga grunden till en svensk röst- och talpedagogik i Monvels anda. Bland hennes elever märks bl.a. Elise Hwasser, 1800-talets största kvinnliga skådespelerska. Carolina Bocks dotter Bertha Tammelin förde den röstpedagogiska traditionen vidare och hade hösten 1899 den unga Harriet Bosse som elev. 

  • 79.
    Åström, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Senmedeltida svenska lagböcker: 136 lands- och stadslagshandskrifter : dateringar och dateringsproblem2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Želtuchin, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Orthographic codes and code-switching: a study in 16th century Swedish ortography1996Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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