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  • 51. Ainsbury, E A
    et al.
    Bakhanova, E
    Barquinero, J F
    Brai, M
    Chumak, V
    Correcher, V
    Darroudi, F
    Fattibene, P
    Gruel, G
    Guclu, I
    Horn, S
    Jaworska, A
    Kulka, U
    Lindholm, C
    Lloyd, D
    Longo, A
    Marrale, M
    Monteiro Gil, O
    Oestreicher, U
    Pajic, J
    Rakic, B
    Romm, H
    Trompier, F
    Veronese, I
    Voisin, P
    Vral, A
    Whitehouse, C A
    Wieser, A
    Woda, C
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Rothkamm, K
    REVIEW OF RETROSPECTIVE DOSIMETRY TECHNIQUES FOR EXTERNAL IONISING RADIATION EXPOSURES.2011In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 147, no 4, p. 573-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements.

  • 52. Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.
    et al.
    Higueras, Manuel
    Puig, Pedro
    Einbeck, Jochen
    Samaga, Daniel
    Francesc Barquinero, Joan
    Barrios, Lleonard
    Brzozowska, Beata
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Fattibene, Paola
    Gregoire, Eric
    Jaworska, Alicja
    Lloyd, David
    Oestreicher, Ursula
    Romm, Horst
    Rothkamm, Kai
    Roy, Laurence
    Sommer, Sylwester
    Terzoudi, Georgia
    Thierens, Hubert
    Trompier, Francois
    Vral, Anne
    Woda, Clemens
    Uncertainty of fast biological radiation dose assessment for emergency response scenarios2017In: International Journal of Radiation Biology, ISSN 0955-3002, E-ISSN 1362-3095, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Reliable dose estimation is an important factor in appropriate dosimetric triage categorization of exposed individuals to support radiation emergency response. Materials and methods: Following work done under the EU FP7 MULTIBIODOSE and RENEB projects, formal methods for defining uncertainties on biological dose estimates are compared using simulated and real data from recent exercises. Results: The results demonstrate that a Bayesian method of uncertainty assessment is the most appropriate, even in the absence of detailed prior information. The relative accuracy and relevance of techniques for calculating uncertainty and combining assay results to produce single dose and uncertainty estimates is further discussed. Conclusions: Finally, it is demonstrated that whatever uncertainty estimation method is employed, ignoring the uncertainty on fast dose assessments can have an important impact on rapid biodosimetric categorization.

  • 53. Ainsbury, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Badie, Christophe
    Barnard, Stephen
    Manning, Grainne
    Moquet, Jayne
    Abend, Michael
    Antunes, Ana Catarina
    Barrios, Lleonard
    Bassinet, Celine
    Beinke, Christina
    Bortolin, Emanuela
    Bossin, Lily
    Bricknell, Clare
    Brzoska, Kamil
    Buraczewska, Iwona
    Huertas Castano, Carlos
    Cemusova, Zina
    Christiansson, Maria
    Mateos Cordero, Santiago
    Coster, Guillaume
    Della Monac, Sara
    Desangles, Francois
    Discher, Michael
    Dominguez, Inmaculada
    Doucha-Senf, Sven
    Eakins, Jon
    Fattibene, Paola
    Filippi, Silvia
    Frenzel, Monika
    Georgieva, Dimka
    Gregoire, Eric
    Guogyte, Kamile
    Hadjidekova, Valeria
    Hadjiiska, Ljubomira
    Hristova, Rositsa
    Karakosta, Maria
    Kis, Eniko
    Kriehuber, Ralf
    Lee, Jungil
    Lloyd, David
    Lumniczky, Katalin
    Lyng, Fiona
    Macaeva, Ellina
    Majewski, Matthaeus
    Vanda Martins, S.
    McKeever, Stephen W. S.
    Meade, Aidan
    Medipally, Dinesh
    Meschini, Roberta
    M'kacher, Radhia
    Gil, Octavia Monteiro
    Montero, Alegria
    Moreno, Mercedes
    Noditi, Mihaela
    Oestreicher, Ursula
    Oskamp, Dominik
    Palitti, Fabrizio
    Palma, Valentina
    Pantelias, Gabriel
    Pateux, Jerome
    Patrono, Clarice
    Pepe, Gaetano
    Port, Matthias
    Jesus Prieto, Maria
    Quattrini, Maria Cristina
    Quintens, Roel
    Ricoul, Michelle
    Roy, Laurence
    Sabatier, Laure
    Sebastia, Natividad
    Sholom, Sergey
    Sommer, Sylwester
    Staynova, Albena
    Strunz, Sonja
    Terzoudi, Georgia
    Testa, Antonella
    Trompier, Francois
    Valente, Marco
    Van Hoey, Olivier
    Veronese, Ivan
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Woda, Clemens
    Integration of new biological and physical retrospective dosimetry methods into EU emergency response plans - joint RENEB and EURADOS inter-laboratory comparisons2017In: International Journal of Radiation Biology, ISSN 0955-3002, E-ISSN 1362-3095, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 99-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: RENEB, 'Realising the European Network of Biodosimetry and Physical Retrospective Dosimetry,' is a network for research and emergency response mutual assistance in biodosimetry within the EU. Within this extremely active network, a number of new dosimetry methods have recently been proposed or developed. There is a requirement to test and/or validate these candidate techniques and inter-comparison exercises are a well-established method for such validation. Materials and methods: The authors present details of inter-comparisons of four such new methods: dicentric chromosome analysis including telomere and centromere staining; the gene expression assay carried out in whole blood; Raman spectroscopy on blood lymphocytes, and detection of radiation induced thermoluminescent signals in glass screens taken from mobile phones. Results: In general the results show good agreement between the laboratories and methods within the expected levels of uncertainty, and thus demonstrate that there is a lot of potential for each of the candidate techniques. Conclusions: Further work is required before the new methods can be included within the suite of reliable dosimetry methods for use by RENEB partners and others in routine and emergency response scenarios.

  • 54.
    Akerstedt, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Selen, Jan
    Predicting long-term sickness absence from sleep and fatigue.2007In: J Sleep Res, ISSN 0962-1105, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 341-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting long-term sickness absence from sleep and fatigue.

    Akerstedt T, Kecklund G, Alfredsson L, Selen J.

    Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. torbjorn.akerstedt@ipm.ki.se

    Disturbed or shortened sleep is prospectively related to disease. One might also expect that sickness absence would be another consequence but very little data seem to exist. The present study used 8300 individuals in a national sample to obtain information on reports of disturbed sleep and fatigue 1 year and merged this with data on long-term sickness absence 2 years later. A logistic regression analysis was applied to the data with adjustments for demographic and work environment variables. The results showed that individuals without registered sickness absence at the start had a higher probability of entering a period of long-term (>/=90 days, odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51) sickness absence 2 years later if they reported disturbed sleep at the start. The figure for fatigue was OR = 1.35 (CI = 1.14-1.60). When fatigue or disturbed sleep was separately excluded the OR increased to OR = 1.44 and OR = 1.47, respectively. Intermediate sickness absence (14-89 days) showed similar but slightly weaker results. The results indicate that disturbed sleep and fatigue are predictors of long-term absence and it is suggested that impaired sleep may be part of a chain of causation, considering its effects on fatigue.

    PMID: 18036078 [PubMed - in process]

  • 55.
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Connor, Jennie
    Gray, Andrew
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Predicting road crashes from a mathematical model of alertness regulation--The Sleep/Wake Predictor.2008In: Accid Anal Prev, ISSN 0001-4575, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 1480-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting road crashes from a mathematical model of alertness regulation--The Sleep/Wake Predictor.

    Akerstedt T, Connor J, Gray A, Kecklund G.

    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University and Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. torbjorn.akerstedt@ki.se

    Sleepiness is related to factors such as the time of day, the time since awakening and the duration of prior sleep. The present study investigated whether actual road crashes could be predicted from a mathematical model based on these three factors (the Sleep/Wake Predictor-SWP). Data were derived from a population-based case-control study of serious injury crashes. Data on accident time (or control sampling time) and start and end of prior sleep were entered into the model (blind). The predicted sleepiness values were used in logistic regressions. The results showed a highly significant odds ratio (OR)=1.72 (confidence interval=1.41-2.09) for each incremental step of sleepiness on the output sleepiness scale (nine steps). There was also a significant interaction with blood alcohol level, showing high OR values for high sleepiness levels and alcohol levels above 50 mg% (0.05 g/dl). It was concluded that the model is a good predictor of road crashes beyond that of alcohol level, and that interaction between the two carries a very high risk.

  • 56.
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hallvig, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Having to stop driving at night because of dangerous sleepiness - awareness, physiology and behaviour2013In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 380-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of accidents are due to the driver falling asleep at the wheel, but details of this link have not been studied on a real road. The purpose of the present study was to describe the development of sleepiness indicators, leading to the drive being terminated prematurely by the onboard expert driving instructor because of imminent danger. Eighteen individuals participated during a day drive and a night drive on a motorway (both 90 min). Eight drivers terminated (N) prematurely (after 43 min) because of sleep-related imminent danger [according to the driving instructor or their own judgement (two cases)]. The results showed very high sleepiness ratings (8.5 units on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) immediately before termination (<7 at a similar time interval for those 10 who completed the drive). Group N also showed significantly higher levels of sleep intrusions on the electroencephalography/electro-oculography (EEG/EOG) than those who completed the drive (group C). The sleep intrusions were increased in group N during the first 40 min of the night drive. During the day drive, sleep intrusions were increased significantly in group N. The night drive showed significant increases of all sleepiness indicators compared to the day drive, but also reduced speed and driving to the left in the lane. It was concluded that 44% of drivers during late-night driving became dangerously sleepy, and that this group showed higher perceived sleepiness and more sleep intrusions in the EEG/EOG.

  • 57.
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Disturbed sleep in shift workers, day workers, and insomniacs.2008In: Chronobiol Int, ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 333-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disturbed sleep in shift workers, day workers, and insomniacs.

    Akerstedt T, Ingre M, Broman JE, Kecklund G.

    Stress Research Institute, University of Stockholm, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. torbjorn.akerstedt@ki.se

    Very little is known about differences in sleep between day and shift workers in representative samples of the population. This study compared a national representative sample (N=3400) of shift (with night shifts) and day workers regarding the different types of sleep disturbances and also the level of sleep symptoms with that of insomnia patients. The results showed very few differences between shift and day workers; only "too little sleep" and "nodding off at work" were marginally higher among shift workers. The results also showed that the complaints of insomnia patients for most sleep disturbances corresponded to the 2nd-16th percentile of the shift workers' levels of complaints. The results suggest, at least with the present questionnaire methodology, that shift work does not appear to be a major source of sleep disturbances and that their complaint levels bear no resemblance to those seen in insomniac patients.

  • 58.
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Folkard, Simon
    Axelsson, John
    Accounting for partial sleep deprivation and cumulative sleepiness in the Three-Process Model of alertness regulation.2008In: Chronobiol Int, ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 309-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting for partial sleep deprivation and cumulative sleepiness in the Three-Process Model of alertness regulation.

    Akerstedt T, Ingre M, Kecklund G, Folkard S, Axelsson J.

    Stress Research Institute, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden. torbjorn.akerstedt@ki.se

    Mathematical models designed to predict alertness or performance have been developed primarily as tools for evaluating work and/or sleep-wake schedules that deviate from the traditional daytime orientation. In general, these models cope well with the acute changes resulting from an abnormal sleep but have difficulties handling sleep restriction across longer periods. The reason is that the function representing recovery is too steep--usually exponentially so--and with increasing sleep loss, the steepness increases, resulting in too rapid recovery. The present study focused on refining the Three-Process Model of alertness regulation. We used an experiment with 4 h of sleep/night (nine participants) that included subjective self-ratings of sleepiness every hour. To evaluate the model at the individual subject level, a set of mixed-effect regression analyses were performed using subjective sleepiness as the dependent variable. These mixed models estimate a fixed effect (group mean) and a random effect that accounts for heterogeneity between participants in the overall level of sleepiness (i.e., a random intercept). Using this technique, a point was sought on the exponential recovery function that would explain maximum variance in subjective sleepiness by switching to a linear function. The resulting point explaining the highest amount of variance was 12.2 on the 1-21 unit scale. It was concluded that the accumulation of sleep loss effects on subjective sleepiness may be accounted for by making the recovery function linear below a certain point on the otherwise exponential function.

  • 59.
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Axelsson, John
    Effects of context on sleepiness self-ratings during repeated partial sleep deprivation.2008In: Chronobiol Int, ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 271-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of context on sleepiness self-ratings during repeated partial sleep deprivation.

    Akerstedt T, Kecklund G, Axelsson J.

    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. torbjorn.akerstedt@ki.se

    Ratings of subjective sleepiness are often used in laboratory and field studies of sleep loss and shifted sleep hours. Some studies suggest that such ratings might fail to reflect sleepiness as shown in physiology or performance. One reason for this may be the influence of the context of the rating. Social interaction or physical activity may mask latent sleepiness. The present study attempted to approach this question. Nine subjects participated in a partial sleep-deprivation experiment (five days of 4 h of time in bed [TIB]), preceded by two baseline days (8 h TIB) and followed by three recovery days (8 h TIB). Sleepiness was self-rated on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS; scores of 1-9) after a period of relaxation, after a reaction-time test, and after 30 min of free activities. The results showed a strong increase in subjective sleepiness during sleep restriction and a significant difference between conditions. Free activity reduced the self-rated subjective sleepiness by 1.1 KSS units compared to the level of sleepiness self-rated at the end of the reaction-time test. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the context of a sleepiness rating affects the outcome of the rating.

  • 60.
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Gillberg, Mats
    Sleep and sleepiness in relation to stress and displaced work hours.2007In: Physiol Behav, ISSN 0031-9384, Vol. 92, no 1-2, p. 250-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep and sleepiness in relation to stress and displaced work hours.

    Akerstedt T, Kecklund G, Gillberg M.

    Karolinska Institutet, Institute for Psychosocial Medicine Box 230, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. torbjorn.akerstedt@ipm.ki.se

    Sleep is an important factor in relation to accidents, long-term health and mortality. Our group has had a long-term commitment to research on sleep regulation and its consequences. Over the years we have demonstrated pronounced effects of night work on sleep and alertness, including electroencephalographically determined sleep during work. We have also demonstrated that experimental displacement of sleep will result in short sleep at daytime and increased physiological sleepiness at night and developed mathematical models for prediction of sleep duration, as well as of sleepiness and risk of sleep-related accidents. We have also looked at the concept of sleep quality and found it dependent on sleep duration, sleep continuity and content of sleep stages 3 and 4. Sleep is also clearly disturbed in patients on long-term sick leave for burnout or in non-patients with high burnout scores, in particular sleep fragmentation is increased and sleep efficiency and sleep stages 3 and 4 (SWS--deep sleep) decreased. The fragmentation in turn seems related to endocrine changes. Present work is focused on bringing this work together, connecting the links from stress to sleep to metabolic changes to disease and long-term sickness absence.

    PMID: 17585960 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • 61.
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Axelsson, John
    Sleep homeostasis during repeated sleep restriction and recovery: support from EEG dynamics.2009In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 217-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep reduction normally causes a homeostatic response during subsequent recovery sleep, but this does not seem to be true for repeated partial sleep loss. The aim of the present study was to test the response to repeated partial sleep loss through detailed focus on spectral data and parts of sleep. DESIGN: The experiment involved 4 h of sleep across 5 days in the laboratory (partial sleep deprivation [PSD]), followed by 3 days of recovery sleep. PSD was achieved through a delayed bedtime. Nine individuals participated. To avoid "laboratory monotony," subjects were permitted to leave the lab for a few hours each day. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: All sleep stages and the latencies to sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS) showed a significant reduction during PSD. However, SWS and TST (total sleep time) during the first half of sleep increased gradually across days with PSD. During the first recovery sleep, SWS was significantly increased, while stage 1 and latency to stage 3 were reduced. All were back to baseline on the second night of recovery sleep. Summed spectral power during the first 3.8 h of sleep showed a gradual and robust increase (50% above baseline) in the range 1.25-7.25 Hz across days with PSD up to first recovery sleep and then returned to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: SWS and summed power density in a broad low-frequency band respond to repeated partial sleep deprivation in a dose-response fashion during the first 4 h sleep, apparently reflecting a robust and stable homeostatic response to sleep loss.

  • 62. Alakurtti, Kati
    et al.
    Johansson, Jarkko J.
    Joutsa, Juho
    Laine, Matti
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Rinne, Juha O.
    Long-term test-retest reliability of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D-2/3 receptor binding: study with [C-11]raclopride and high-resolution PET2015In: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, ISSN 0271-678X, E-ISSN 1559-7016, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 1199-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We measured the long-term test-retest reliability of [C-11]raclopride binding in striatal subregions, the thalamus and the cortex using the bolus-plus-infusion method and a high-resolution positron emission scanner. Seven healthy male volunteers underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) [C-11]raclopride assessments, with a 5-week retest interval. D-2/3 receptor availability was quantified as binding potential using the simplified reference tissue model. Absolute variability (VAR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values indicated very good reproducibility for the striatum and were 4.5%/0.82, 3.9%/0.83, and 3.9%/0.82, for the caudate nucleus, putamen, and ventral striatum, respectively. Thalamic reliability was also very good, with VAR of 3.7% and ICC of 0.92. Test-retest data for cortical areas showed good to moderate reproducibility (6.1% to 13.1%). Our results are in line with previous test-retest studies of [C-11]raclopride binding in the striatum. A novel finding is the relatively low variability of [C-11]raclopride binding, providing suggestive evidence that extrastriatal D-2/3 binding can be studied in vivo with [C-11]raclopride PET to be verified in future studies.

  • 63. Al-Anati, Lauy
    et al.
    Viluksela, Matti
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Stenius, Ulla
    Högberg, Johan
    Hydroxyl metabolite of PCB 180 induces DNA damage signaling and enhances the DNA damaging effect of benzo[a]pyrene2015In: Chemico-Biological Interactions, ISSN 0009-2797, E-ISSN 1872-7786, Vol. 239, p. 164-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxyl metabolites (OH-PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in human tissues and blood. The toxicological impact of these metabolites is poorly understood. In this study rats were exposed to ultrapure PCB180 (10-1000 mg/kg bw) for 28 days and induction of genotoxic stress in liver was investigated. DNA damage signaling proteins (pChk1Ser317 and gamma H2AXSer319) were increased dose dependently in female rats. This increase was paralleled by increasing levels of the metabolite 3'-OH-PCB180. pChk1 was the most sensitive marker. In in vitro studies HepG2 cells were exposed to 1 mu M of PCB180 and 3'-OH-PCB180 or the positive control benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, 5 mu M). 3'-OH-PCB180, but not PCB180, induced CYP1A1 mRNA and gamma H2AX. CYP1A1 mRNA induction was seen at 1 h, and gamma H2AX at 3 h. The anti-oxidant N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) completely prevented, and 17 beta-estradiol amplified the gamma H2AX induction by 3'-OH-PCB180. As 3'-OH-PCB180 induced CYP1A1, a major BaP-metabolizing and activating enzyme, interactions between 3'-OH-PCB180 and BaP was also studied. The metabolite amplified the DNA damage signaling response to BaP. In conclusion, metabolism of PCB180 to its hydroxyl metabolite and the subsequent induction of CYP1A1 seem important for DNA damage induced by PCB180 in vivo. Amplification of the response with estradiol may explain why DNA damage was only seen in female rats.

  • 64. Albert, Jan
    et al.
    Berglund, Torsten
    Gisslen, Magnus
    Groon, Peter
    Sonnerborg, Anders
    Tegnell, Anders
    Alexandersson, Anders
    Berggren, Ingela
    Blaxhult, Anders
    Brytting, Maria
    Carlander, Christina
    Carlson, Johan
    Flamholc, Leo
    Follin, Per
    Haggar, Axana
    Hansdotter, Frida
    Josephson, Filip
    Karlström, Olle
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Naver, Lars
    Pettersson, Karin
    Johansson, Veronica Svedhem
    Svennerholm, Bo
    Tunback, Petra
    Widgren, Katarina
    Risk of HIV transmission from patients on antiretroviral therapy: A position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 673-677Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern medical treatment of HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality in patients infected with this virus. ART has also been shown to reduce the transmission risk from individual patients as well as the spread of the infection at the population level. This position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy is based on a workshop organized in the fall of 2012. It summarizes the latest research and knowledge on the risk of HIV transmission from patients on ART, with a focus on the risk of sexual transmission. The risk of transmission via shared injection equipment among intravenous drug users is also examined, as is the risk of mother-to-child transmission. Based on current knowledge, the risk of transmission through vaginal or anal intercourse involving the use of a condom has been judged to be minimal, provided that the person infected with HIV fulfils the criteria for effective ART. This probably also applies to unprotected intercourse, provided that no other sexually transmitted infections are present, although it is not currently possible to fully support this conclusion with direct scientific evidence. ART is judged to markedly reduce the risk of blood-borne transmission between people who share injection equipment. Finally, the risk of transmission from mother to child is very low, provided that ART is started well in advance of delivery.

  • 65.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The longitudinal relationship between control over working hours and depressive symptoms: Results from SLOSH, a population-based cohort study2017In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 215, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial work factors can affect depressive moods, but research is inconclusive if flexibility to self-determine working hours (work-time control, WTC) is associated with depressive symptoms over time. We investigated if either sub-dimension of WTC, control over daily hours and control over time off, was related to depressive symptoms over time and examined causal, reversed-causal, and reciprocal pathways.

    METHODS: The study was based on four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health which is a follow-up of representative samples of the Swedish working population. WTC was measured using a 5-item index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a brief subscale of the Symptom Checklist. Latent growth curve models and cross-lagged panel models were tested.

    RESULTS: Best fit was found for a model with correlated intercepts (control over daily hours) and both correlated intercepts and slopes (control over time off) between WTC and depressive symptoms, with stronger associations for control over time off. Causal models estimating impacts from WTC to subsequent depressive symptoms were best fitting, with a standardised coefficient between -0.023 and -0.048.

    LIMITATIONS: Results were mainly based on self-report data and mean age in the study sample was relatively high.

    CONCLUSION: Higher WTC was related to fewer depressive symptoms over time albeit small effects. Giving workers control over working hours - especially over taking breaks and vacation - may improve working conditions and buffer against developing depression, potentially by enabling workers to recover more easily and promoting work-life balance.

  • 66.
    Albrecht, Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Swansea University, UK.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Investigating the factorial structure and availability of work time control in a representative sample of the Swedish working population2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish working population. Methods: The study was based on the 2014 data collection of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. We assessed the structure of the WTC measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Differences in WTC by work and demographic characteristics were examined with independent sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs and gender-stratified logistic regressions. Results: Best model fit was found for a two-factor structure that distinguished between control over daily hours and control over time off (root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99). Women, shift and public-sector workers reported lower control in relation to both factors. Age showed small associations with WTC, while a stronger link was suggested for civil status and family situation. Night, roster and rotating shift work seemed to be the most influential factors on reporting low control over daily hours and time off. Conclusions: Our data confirm the two-dimensional structure underlying WTC, namely the components 'control over daily hours' and 'control over time off'. Women, public-sector and shift workers reported lower levels of control. Future research should examine the public health implications of WTC, in particular whether increased control over daily hours and time off can reduce health problems associated with difficult working-time arrangements.

  • 67. Alderling, Magnus
    et al.
    de la Torre, Bartolomé
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    Sondergaard, Hans Peter
    Theorell, Tores
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Psychiatric diagnoses and circadian saliva cortisol variations in a Swedish population-based sample (the PART study).2008In: Psychother Psychosom, ISSN 1423-0348, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 129-31Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 68. Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Early Health and School Outcomes for Children with Lesbian Parents: Evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was early to legalize same-sex partnership (1995), to allow same-sex couples to adopt children (2003), and to offer same-sex couples fertility treatment through the national health system (2005). Using population data, we identify children of lesbian parents as those whose biological mother was a registered same-sex partner no later than six months after the child's birth. The number of such children increased markedly from 1995 to 2010 with a total of 750 children for the whole period. We find that boys and girls with lesbian parents had 2.4 percent lower birth weight than other children, a difference that is statistically significant from zero at the 5 percent level. Girls, but not boys, also have a higher probability of having a low birth weight. We follow these children until age ten and observe diseases of the respiratory system. Boys with lesbian parents have a significantly lower probability of such diseases (-3.4 percentage points), and girls with lesbian parents an insignificantly higher probability (+2.4 percentage points). Our analysis of school outcomes at age ten uses a small sample so precision is low. The point estimates show that boys with lesbian parents outperform other children by around 10 percentiles higher test scores in Math and Swedish. These differences are barely significant, while estimates for girls are lower and not significant. For all outcomes, we find that children with lesbian parents benefit from their mother's socio-economic status, whereas they suffer in terms of birth weight from having been exposed to fertility treatment.

  • 69.
    Alevronta, Eleftheria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Ahlberg, Alexander
    Mavroidis, Panayiotis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    al-Abany, Massoud
    Friesland, Signe
    Tilikidis, Aris
    Laurell, Goran
    Lind, Bengt K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Dose-response relations for stricture in the proximal oesophagus from head and neck radiotherapy2010In: Radiotherapy and Oncology, ISSN 0167-8140, E-ISSN 1879-0887, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 54-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Determination of the dose-response relations for oesophageal stricture after radiotherapy of the head and neck. Material and methods: In this study 33 patients who developed oesophageal stricture and 39 patients as controls are included. The patients received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. For each patient the 3D dose distribution delivered to the upper 5 cm of the oesophagus was analysed. The analysis was conducted for two periods, 1992-2000 and 2001-2005, due to the different irradiation techniques used. The fitting has been done using the relative seriality model. Results: For the treatment period 1992-2005, the mean doses were 49.8 and 33.4 Gy, respectively, for the cases and the controls. For the period 1992-2000, the mean doses for the cases and the controls were 49.9 and 45.9 Gy and for the period 2001-2005 were 49.8 and 21.4 Gy. For the period 2001-2005 the best estimates of the dose-response parameters are D-50 = 61.5 Gy (52.9-84.9 Gy), gamma = 1.4 (0.8-2.6) and s = 0.1 (0.01-0.3). Conclusions: Radiation-induced strictures were found to have a dose response relation and volume dependence (low relative seriality) for the treatment period 2001-2005. However, no dose response relation was found for the complete material.

  • 70. Alexanderson, K.
    et al.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vahtera, J.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Melchior, M.
    Zins, M.
    Goldberg, M.
    Head, J.
    Diagnosis-specific sick leave as a long-term predictor of disability pension: a 13-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 155-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Factors that increase the risk of labour market exclusion are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the extent to which all-cause and diagnosis-specific sick leave predict subsequent disability pension (DP).

    Methods Prospective cohort study of 20 434 persons employed by the French national gas and electric company (the GAZEL study). New sick-leave spells >7 days in 1990–1992 were obtained from company records. Follow-up for DP was from 1994 to 2007.

    Results The HR, adjusted for age and occupational position, for DP was 3.5 (95% CI 2.7 to 4.5) in men and 2.6 (95% CI 1.9 to 3.5) in women with one or more sick-leave spells >7 days compared with those with no sick leave. The strongest predictor of DP was sick leave with a psychiatric diagnosis, HR 7.6 (95% CI 5.2 to 10.9) for men and 4.1 (95% CI 2.9 to 5.9) for women. Corresponding HRs for sick leave due to circulatory diagnoses in men and women were 5.6 (95% CI 3.7 to 8.6) and 3.1 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.3), for respiratory diagnoses 3.9 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.8) and 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 4.0), and musculoskeletal diagnoses 4.6 (95% CI 3.4 to 6.4) and 3.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 4.8), respectively.

    Conclusions Sick leave with a psychiatric diagnosis is a major risk factor for subsequent DP, especially among men. Sick leave due to musculoskeletal or circulatory disorders was also a strong predictor of DP. Diagnosis-specific sick leave should be recognised as an early risk marker for future exclusion from the labour market.

  • 71. Alfredsson Ågren, Kristin
    et al.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Internet-use among adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Ali, Magdi Mahmoud
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Montgomery, Scott M.
    Farouk, Salah E.
    Noori, Suzan I. A.
    Shamad, Mahdi M.
    Tayeb, Omer
    ElGhazali, Gehad
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    FcγRIIa (CD32) polymorphism and onchocercal skin disease: implications for the development of severe reactive onchodermatitis (ROD)2007In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, ISSN 0002-9637, E-ISSN 1476-1645, Vol. 77, no 6, p. 1074-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pathologic manifestations of Onchocerca volvulus infection depend on the interplay between the host and the parasite. A genetic single nucleotide polymorphism in the FcγRIIa gene, resulting in arginine (R) or histidine (H) at position 131, affects the binding to the different IgG subclasses and may influence the clinical variations seen in onchocerciasis. This study investigated the relationship between this polymorphism and disease outcome. FcγRIIa genotyping was performed on clinically characterized onchocerciasis patients (N = 100) and healthy controls (N = 74). FcγRIIa genotype R/R131 frequencies were significantly higher among patients with severe dermatopathology (P < 0.001). Increased risk of developing this form was mostly associated with one tribe (Masalit) (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1-9.9, P = 0.042). The H131 allele was found to be significantly associated with a reduced risk of having the severe form of the disease (adjusted OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.13-0.46, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that the polymorphism influences the clinical outcome of onchocerciasis.

  • 73. Ali, Raja Hashim
    et al.
    Muhammad, Sayyed Auwn
    Khan, Mehmood Alam
    Arvestad, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science (NADA). Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Swedish e-Science Research Center, Sweden .
    Quantitative synteny scoring improves homology inference and partitioning of gene families2013In: BMC Bioinformatics, ISSN 1471-2105, E-ISSN 1471-2105, Vol. 14, no Suppl,15, p. S12-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Clustering sequences into families has long been an important step in characterization of genes and proteins. There are many algorithms developed for this purpose, most of which are based on either direct similarity between gene pairs or some sort of network structure, where weights on edges of constructed graphs are based on similarity. However, conserved synteny is an important signal that can help distinguish homology and it has not been utilized to its fullest potential.

    Results

    Here, we present GenFamClust, a pipeline that combines the network properties of sequence similarity and synteny to assess homology relationship and merge known homologs into groups of gene families. GenFamClust identifies homologs in a more informed and accurate manner as compared to similarity based approaches. We tested our method against the Neighborhood Correlation method on two diverse datasets consisting of fully sequenced genomes of eukaryotes and synthetic data.

    Conclusions

    The results obtained from both datasets confirm that synteny helps determine homology and GenFamClust improves on Neighborhood Correlation method. The accuracy as well as the definition of synteny scores is the most valuable contribution of GenFamClust.

  • 74. Alier, Kwai
    et al.
    Chen, Yishen
    Eriksson Sollenberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Smith, Peter
    Selective stimulation of GalR1 and GalR2 in rat substantia gelatinosa reveals a cellular basis for the anti- and pro-nociceptive actions of galanin2008In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 138-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Galanin modulates spinal nociceptive processing by interacting with two receptors, GalR1 and GalR2. The underlying neurophysiological mechanisms were examined by whole-cell recording from identified neurons in the substantia gelatinosa of young adult rats. GalR1 was activated with a 'cocktail' containing the GalR1/2 agonist, AR-M 961 (0.5 mu M), in the presence of the GalR2 antagonist, M871 (1.0-2.5 mu M). GalR2 was activated with the selective agonist, AR-M 1896 (0.5-1.0 mu M). Application of the 'GalR1 agonist cocktail' often activated an inwardly-rectifying conductance in delay firing (excitatory) and tonically firing (inhibitory) neurons. This conductance was not activated by AR-M 1896 which instead decreased or increased an outwardly-rectifying conductance at voltages positive to -70 rnV. Despite this variability in its actions on current-voltage relationships, AR-M 1896 very consistently decreased membrane excitability, as measured by cumulative action potential latency in response to a depolarizing current ramp. This strong GalR2-mediated effect was seen in neurons where membrane conductance was decreased, and where membrane excitability might be predicted to increase. GalR2 was also located presynaptically, as AR-M 1896 increased the interevent interval of spontaneous EPSCs in both delay and tonic cells. By contrast, the 'GalR1 agonist cocktail' had little effect on spontaneous EPSCs, suggesting that presynaptic terminals do not express GalR1. These diverse actions of GalR1 and GalR2 activation on both inhibitory and excitatory neurons are discussed in relation to the known spinal antinociceptive and pro-nociceptive actions of galanin, to the possible association of GalR1 with the inhibitory G-protein, G(i/o) and to report that GalR2 activation suppresses Ca(2+) channel currents.

  • 75.
    Alikhani, Nyosha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    The Mitochondrial Peptidasome, PreP, relation to Alzheimer Disease2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is the toxic peptide implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer Disease (AD). Accumulation of Aβ has been shown in brain mitochondria from AD patients and AD mice models. The occurrence of Aβ in the mitochondrial matrix leads to free radical generation and apoptosis in neurons.

    In our studies, Aβ was found in brain mitochondria of living patients with plaque pathology. Extracellular Aβ was taken up by neuroblastoma cells and was found in the mitochondria. Moreover, we showed that Aβ40 and Aβ42 are transported into mitochondria via the Translocase of the Outer Membrane, the TOM machinery.

    We have identified the mitochondrial Aβ-degrading protease hPreP, in human brain mitochondrial matrix. PreP is a metalloprotease, originally identified as presequence protease, but was also shown to degrade other unstructured peptides including Aβ. Immunoinactivation of PreP in human brain mitochondria revealed PreP to be the protease responsible for Aβ degradation in mitochondria.

    Also, we have investigated if genetic variation in the gene encoding hPreP is associated with AD by genotyping 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Swedish population. The study did not show a genetic association between any of the genotyped SNPs and the risk to AD. However, the biochemical analysis of four SNPs selected on the basis of their location within a structural homology model of hPreP revealed a decreased activity compared to wildtype.

    Interestingly, the activity of PreP in human brain mitochondrial matrix in AD individuals was significantly lower compared to non-dement aged-matched controls. These findings were also confirmed in brain mitochondrial matrix of AD mouse models. These results suggest that a decreased PreP activity may contribute to Aβ aggregation and accumulation inside mitochondria leading to neuronal death in AD. In summary, our findings show that the degradation of Aβ by hPreP may be of importance in the pathology of AD.

  • 76.
    Alikhani, Nyosha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Guo, Lan
    Yan, Shiqiang
    Du, Heng
    Pinho, Catarina Moreira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Chen, John Xi
    Glaser, Elzbieta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Yan, Shirley ShiDu
    Decreased proteolytic activity of the mitochondrial amyloid-β degrading enzyme, PreP peptidasome, in Alzheimer's disease brain mitochondria2011In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 75-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), the neurotoxic peptide implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been shown in brain mitochondria of AD patients and of AD transgenic mouse models. The presence of Aβ in mitochondria leads to free radical generation and neuronal stress. Recently, we identified the presequence protease, PreP, localized in the mitochondrial matrix in mammalian mitochondria as the novel mitochondrial Aβ-degrading enzyme. In the present study, we examined PreP activity in the mitochondrial matrix of the human brain's temporal lobe, an area of the brain highly susceptible to Aβ accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We found significantly lower hPreP activity in AD brains compared with non-AD age-matched controls. By contrast, in the cerebellum, a brain region typically spared from Aβ accumulation, there was no significant difference in hPreP activity when comparing AD samples to non-AD controls. We also found significantly reduced PreP activity in the mitochondrial matrix of AD transgenic mouse brains (Tg mAβPP and Tg mAβPP/ABAD) when compared to non-transgenic aged-matched mice. Furthermore, mitochondrial fractions isolated from AD brains and Tg mAβPP mice had higher levels of 4-hydroxynonenal, an oxidative product, as compared with those from non-AD and nonTg mice. Accordingly, activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly reduced in the AD mitochondria. These findings suggest that decreased PreP proteolytic activity, possibly due to enhanced ROS production, contributes to Aβ accumulation in mitochondria leading to the mitochondrial toxicity and neuronal death that is exacerbated in AD. Clearance of mitochondrial Aβ by PreP may thus be of importance in the pathology of AD.

  • 77.
    Alkemar, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Ribosome and ribosomal RNA Structure: An experimental and computational analysis of expansion segments in eukaryotic ribosomal RNA2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribosomes are large ribonucleoprotein complexes which incorporate amino acids into peptide chains during translational process in all types of living cells. The eukaryotic ribosome is larger compared to its prokaryotic counterpart. The size differences are due to a larger protein part and that the rRNA contains eukaryote specific expansion segments (ES). Cryo-EM reconstruction has visualized many ES on the ribosomal surface which have given clues about function and structural features. However, the secondary structures of most ES are unknown or ill defined. In this thesis, the secondary and also to a certain extent the tertiary structures of several ES are determined by using computational methods and biochemical experimental techniques. The juxtaposition of ES6 close to ES3 in the Cryo-EM image of the yeast ribosome suggested that ES3 and ES6 might interact. A computational analysis of more than 2900 sequences shows that a complementary helical region of seven to nine contiguous base pairs can form between ES3 and ES6 in almost all analyzed sequences. Biochemical in situ experiments support the proposed interaction. Secondary structure models are presented for ES3 and ES6 in 18S rRNA and ES39 in 28S rRNA, where homologous structural elements could be modeled in the experimentally analyzed ribosomes from fungi, plants and mammals. The structure models were further supported by computational methods where the ES6 structure and the ES39 structure could be formed in more than 6000 and 900 sequences respectively. A tertiary structure model of ES3 and ES6 including the helical interaction is presented. An in vitro transcribed and folded ES6 sequence differed from that observed in situ, suggesting that chaperones, ribosomal proteins, and/or the tertiary rRNA interaction could be involved in the in vivo folding of ES6. An analysis of the similarities between ES39 structures suggests that it might be under selective constraint to preserve its secondary structure.

  • 78.
    Allander, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Why is Prevention So Difficult and Slow?1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 145-148Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The abundance of perceived 'possibilities' for prevention contrasts sharply with the difficulties that face preventive programmes. We argue that this situation has emerged from an incomplete understanding of the process of prevention, involving a mixture of biological factors, human decision making and time perspectives. Based on examples, an analysis of the factors in the prevention process is presented.

  • 79.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    The experiences of mental health and well-being of Swedish children and youth with a focus on educational situations: Some results and reflections from a review of qualitative studies2010In: Trender i barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa: Program & abstracts 12-14 april 2010, Stockholm: Kungliga vetenskapsakademien , 2010, p. 17-18Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of including in reviews people’s experiences and perceptions, which are collected with non-experimental and qualitative studies, has been developed recently in the field of mental health studies. These approaches and methodologies have inspired the review of research on Swedish children and adolescents experiences of mental health and well being, with a focus on their educational situation, that was conducted as a part of a systematic review of research on School Learning and Mental health, performed by appointment of the Royal Academy of Sciences. The aim of the review was to gather testimonies that can give indications of the experiences of mental health and well being in this specific context. The results from the studies that were relevant for the aims of the review are structured in four themes: general views, protective factors, risk factors, individual factors. They are presented in a narrative synthesis, giving a particular weight to the direct and indirect report of children’s and adolescents’ own views. The adolescents defined mental health as emotional experiences, seen both as internal feelings and as relational feelings. Family, friends and educational environments as social and physical environments were perceived as determinants of mental health. A great number of feelings were related to school, both related to satisfaction and pain, in particular when the school attendance is presented as an obligation. Harassment and rejection at school, performance stress, worries about grades and future prospects could be threats against self-worth and self-esteem, while teachers that do not care could generate negative experiences. Various kind of stress could be described and various strategies to resist stressful situations: for instance emotional support, safety and involvement. The educational environments can be an arena for social, cognitive and emotional experiences, relationships and accomplishments that are enriching the individuals and increase their well being. General structural characteristics of the educational environments may also affect well being in different directions: performance, evaluation and feedback, freedom of choice and responsibility for the future may be perceived as a burden. The following reflections can be made: the experiences of children and adolescents change when they grow older, go through developmental processes and encounter different educational situations; the studies reporting views of younger children on the matters of this review were less well represented; the negative experiences may be expressed in rather cautious and non dramatic terms by younger children; there are unique contribution of the review of qualitative studies, but also several interesting correspondences with the results of the review of quantitative studies.

  • 80.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    What happened to the Swedish problem drug users of the 1960's and 1970's?2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 109-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS & DESIGN - In this study we follow a Stockholm birth cohort born in 1953 (n = 14 294) from youth to middle age. The cohort members were in their teenage years when drug abuse was established as a considerable threat to Swedish society and some of the cohort members themselves became drug abusers (n=431). RESULTS - As expected, life became dramatically worse for those with documented drug abuse when young, than for the rest of the cohort members. While 72 percent of those without documented drug abuse were socially included at the age of 56, the corresponding share among those with documented drug abuse was 18 per cent. And while 5 percent in the former group were diseased at 56, this was true for 38 percent in the latter group. Supplementary analyses showed that social inclusion was also less stable among those with documented drug abuse than among the rest of the cohort, and that the flow from exclusion to inclusion was virtually nonexistent, which was not the case for those without experience of drug abuse. CONCLUSIONS - Gender specific analyses showed that the situation, at least in absolute terms, tended to be even worse for male drug abusers than for women. Gender differences in alcohol abuse, criminality, and with respect to parenthood are suggested as possible explanations to be further studied in future research.

  • 81.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Future orientation climate in the school class: Relations to adolescent delinquency, heavy alcohol use, and internalizing problem2016In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 70, p. 324-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known, based on previous research, that adolescents' thoughts and feelings about their future are related to the risk of delinquency, alcohol use as well as health. However, other well-known facts are that adolescents' actions are substantially shaped in interaction with peers and that, during adolescence, individuals spend a considerable amount of the day at school, in interaction with classmates. Despite this, there is an almost complete lack of studies exploring to what extent the school climate, as measured by thoughts and feelings about the future, can influence individual adolescents. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether the future orientation (FO) climate, measured at the school class level, is related to delinquency, alcohol use and internalizing problems at the individual level, among a sample of Swedish students 14–15 years of age. The data used come from the Swedish part of the Youth in Europe (YES!) study, which is part of the larger project Children of Immigrants - Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). In the present paper, we use data from the first wave, collected among 8th grade students in 2010/11 (n = 4119–4364). The method used was multilevel modeling (linear probability models (LPM) and linear regression analysis). The results showed that, in school classes where a high proportion of students had a positive future orientation, the risk of heavy alcohol use at the individual level was lower, also after adjusting for individual FO and for individual- and class-level socioeconomic conditions. A similar, but not statistically significant, tendency was found for delinquency. In addition, having a high proportion of students with a positive FO in a school class was associated with fewer internalizing problems, also after controlling for individual FO and socioeconomic conditions at the individual and school class level. We conclude that the surrounding school class, in terms of its general future orientation climate, may play a role for individual outcomes in the form of problem behaviors and mental health.

  • 82.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The gendered mirror on the wall: Satisfaction with physical appearance and its relationship to global self-esteem and psychosomatic complaints among adolescent boys and girls2017In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated gender differences in satisfaction with physical appearance as a domain-specific aspect of self-esteem, and its association with global self-esteem and psychosomatic complaints. The data used was from the Stockholm School Survey, conducted among ninth grade students (15–16 years), with pooled information from six cross-sectional surveys in 2004–2014 (n = 32,117). Girls reported lower satisfaction with their appearance than boys. Satisfaction with appearance was more strongly associated with global self-esteem among girls, while the association with psychosomatic complaints was similar for both genders. There was a tendency towards a decline in satisfaction with appearance at the end of the study period for both genders, albeit more strong for girls. We conclude that satisfaction with appearance may contribute to our understanding of poor mental well-being among adolescent girls.

  • 83. Almborg, Ann-Helene
    et al.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Use of the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) in social services for elderly in Sweden2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 34, no 11, p. 959-964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT To examine the content of health information in acts of social services of elderly people in relation to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and to describe the health information in the different parts of the acts according to the ICF. Health information of 25 acts from four municipalities was analysed and the concepts were linked to ICF codes, using the established coding rules. The health information consisted of 372 concepts, which were linked to 122 specific ICF codes. The concepts in the acts were mostly linked to the ICF component Activities and Participation, except for the current functioning concepts where the ICF component Body functions was the most frequent. The 3rd level was most frequent in Activities and Participation and in Environmental factors, and the 2nd level was most frequent in Body functions. The ICF covers the concepts and terms contained in the acts to a large extent. Furthermore, the results show that the ICF codes differ in the different parts of the acts. The ICF provides a coherent and structured documentation, which contributes to a legally secure assessment of assistance. The selection of ICF codes can be used in development of "code sets" for social services for elderly.

  • 84. Al-Minawi, Ali Z
    et al.
    Saleh-Gohari, Nasrollah
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    The ERCC1/XPF endonuclease is required for efficient single-strand annealing and gene conversion in mammalian cells.2007In: Nucleic Acids Res, ISSN 1362-4962Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Bosnes, Ingunn
    Stordal, Eystein
    Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory: a population-based HUNT study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e013586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. Objective: To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. Methods: In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). Results: A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Conclusions: Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases.

  • 86.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena
    Thordardottir, Steinunn
    Amberla, Kaarina
    Axelman, Karin
    Basun, Hans
    Kinhult-Ståhlbom, Anne
    Lilius, Lena
    Remes, Anne
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Viitanen, Matti
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Graff, Caroline
    Predicting Cognitive Decline across Four Decades in Mutation Carriers and Non-carriers in Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer's Disease2017In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive performance including preclinical and clinical disease course in carriers and non-carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (adAD) in relation to multiple predictors, that is, linear and non-linear estimates of years to expected clinical onset of disease, years of education and age. Methods: Participants from five families with early-onset autosomal-dominant mutations (Swedish and Arctic APP, PSEN1 M146V, H163Y, and I143T) included 35 carriers (28 without dementia and 7 with) and 44 non-carriers. All participants underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including neuropsychological assessment at the Memory Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. The time span of disease course covered four decades of the preclinical and clinical stages of dementia. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess premorbid and current global cognition, verbal and visuospatial functions, short-term and episodic memory, attention, and executive function. Results: In carriers, the time-related curvilinear trajectory of cognitive function across disease stages was best fitted to a formulae with three predictors: years to expected clinical onset (linear and curvilinear components), and years of education. In non-carriers, the change was minimal and best predicted by two predictors: education and age. The trajectories for carriers and non-carriers began to diverge approximately 10 years before the expected clinical onset in episodic memory, executive function, and visuospatial function. Conclusions: The curvilinear trajectory of cognitive functions across disease stages was mimicked by three predictors in carriers. In episodic memory, executive and visuospatial functions, the point of diverging trajectories occurred approximately 10 years ahead of the clinical onset compared to non-carriers.

  • 87. Almond, Douglas
    et al.
    Currie, Janet
    Simeonova, Emilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Public vs. private provision of charity care?: Evidence from the expiration of Hill-Burton requirements in Florida2011In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the consequences of the expiration of charity care requirements imposed on private hospitals by the Hill-Burton Act. We examine delivery care and the health of newborns using the universe of Florida births from 1989 to 2003 combined with hospital data from the American Hospital Association. We find that charity care requirements were binding on hospitals, but that private hospitals under obligation cream skimmed the least risky maternity patients. Conditional on patient characteristics, they provided less intensive maternity services but without compromising patient health. When obligations expired, private hospitals quickly reduced their charity caseloads, shifting maternity patients to public hospitals. The results in this paper suggest, perhaps surprisingly, that requiring private providers to serve the underinsured can be effective.

  • 88. Almond, Douglas
    et al.
    Edlund, Lena
    Joffe, Michael
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    An adaptive significance of morning sickness? Trivers-Willard and Hyperemesis Gravidarum2016In: Economics and Human Biology, ISSN 1570-677X, E-ISSN 1873-6130, Vol. 21, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nausea during pregnancy, with or without vomiting, is a common early indication of pregnancy in humans. The severe form, Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG), can be fatal. The aetiology of HG is unknown. We propose that HG may be a proximate mechanism for the Trivers-Willard (T-W) evolutionary hypothesis that mothers in poor condition should favor daughters. Using Swedish linked registry data, 1987-2005, we analyze all pregnancies that resulted in an HG admission and/or a live birth, 1.65 million pregnancies in all. Consistent with the T-W hypothesis, we find that: (i) HG is associated with poor maternal condition as proxied by low education; (ii) HG in the first two months of pregnancy is associated with a 7% point increase in live girl births; and (iii) HG affected pregnancies have a 34-percent average rate of inferred pregnancy loss, higher among less educated women.

  • 89.
    Almquist B., Ylva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Högnäs, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Only the lonely? All-cause mortality among children without siblings and children without friends2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In childhood, relations with siblings and friends lie at the core of social interaction. Lacking either type of relationship may reflect lower levels of social support. While social support is known to be negatively associated with premature death, there are still no long-term follow-ups of mortality risks among children without siblings (‘only-children’) and children without friends (‘lonely-children’). The aim of the present study was therefore to examine and compare all-cause mortality in these two groups.

    Methods: Cox regression analysis was based on a Stockholm cohort born in 1953 (n = 15,117). Individuals were identified as only-children if there were no records of siblings before age 18. Derived from sociometric data collected at age 13, lonely-children were defined as not being nominated by classmates as one of three best friends. The follow-up of all-cause mortality covered ages 20-56.

    Results: Both only-children and lonely-children had increased risks of premature mortality. When adjusted for a wide range of family-related and individual factors, the risk ratio for only-children increased in strength whereas the risk ratio for lonely-children was reduced. The former finding may be explained by suppressor effects: for example, both only-children and those whose parents had alcohol problems had higher mortality risks but only-children were less likely to have parents with alcohol problems. The latter finding was primarily due to adjustment for scholastic ability.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that while only-children and lonely-children have similar risks of all-cause mortality, the processes leading up to premature death appear to be rather different. Yet, interventions targeted at improving social learning experiences may be beneficial for both groups.

    Key messages:

    • Only-children have higher risks of premature mortality but the mechanisms remain unclear.

    • Lonely-children are at risk of premature mortality primarily due to poorer scholastic ability.

  • 90.
    Almquist B., Ylva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Hammarström, Anne
    Associations between social support and depressive symptoms: social causation or social selection – or both?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between social support and health, almost regardless of how social support and health have been conceptualised or measured. Even so, the issue of causality has not yet been sufficiently addressed. This issue is particularly challenging for mental health problems such as depressive symptoms. The aim of the present study is to longitudinally assess structural and functional aspects of social support in relation to depressive symptoms in men and women, through a series of competing causal models that, in contrast to many other statistical methods, allow for bi-directional effects. Methods: Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 1001) were utilised for the years 1995 (age 30) and 2007 (age 42). Associations were analysed by means of gender-specific structural equation modelling, with structural and functional support modelled separately. Results: Both structural and functional support were associated with depressive symptoms at ages 30 and 42, for men and women alike. A higher level of support, particularly functional support, was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms over time among men. Among women, there were bi-directional effects of social support and depressive symptoms over time. Conclusion: Concerning social support and health, the social causation hypothesis seems relevant for men whereas, for women, the associations appear to be more complex. We conclude that preventive and health promoting work may need to consider that the presence of depressive symptoms in itself impedes on women’s capability to increase their levels of social support.

  • 91.
    Almquist, Ylva B
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hälsosamt samspel i skolan - långsiktiga effekter2014In: På väg in : ungdomars liv och försörjning: Rapport från forskarseminariet i Umeå 15–16 januari 2014, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2014, , p. 73-82p. 73-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School performance as a precursor of adult health: Exploring associations to disease-specific hospital care and their possible explanations2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: While past research has shown that school performance is associated with some specific health outcomes in adulthood, few studies have taken a general approach to the link between school performance and adult disease. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate sixth grade school performance in relation to disease-specific hospital care in adulthood and, moreover, to examine whether other conditions in childhood could account for any such associations. Methods: The data used was the Stockholm Birth Cohort, consisting of 14,294 individuals born in 1953. Associations between school performance and disease-specific hospital care were analysed by means of Cox regression. Results: Poor school performance was shown to be linked to a variety of diseases in adulthood, e.g. drug dependence, stomach ulcer, cerebrovascular diseases, and accidents. Some differences according to gender were found. Most associations, but not all, were explained by the simultaneous inclusion of various family-related and individual factors (e.g. social class, cognitive ability, and behavioural problems). Conclusions: In sum, the results of this study suggest that poor school performance may be an essential part of risk clustering in childhood with important implications for the individual's health career.

  • 93.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hälsosamt samspel i skolan2012In: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, no 3, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Skolan som social arena och elevers psykiska ohälsa2012In: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Mikael Rostila, Susanna Toivanen, Stockholm: Liber, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Childhood friendships and the clustering of adverse circumstances in adulthood - a longitudinal study of a Stockholm cohort2013In: Longitudinal and life course studies, ISSN 1124-9064, E-ISSN 1757-9597, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 180-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friendships constitute a central feature of childhood, yet little is known about the developmental significance extending beyond childhood and adolescence. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the association between childhood friendships and adult outcomes. Since many outcomes in adulthood go hand in hand, the outcome pattern as a whole was targeted. Based on a longitudinal data material consisting of more than 14,000 individuals born in Stockholm in 1953, a cluster analysis of adult circumstances (1992-2007) was first conducted. Second, the association between three indicators of childhood friendships (1966) and the outcome profiles was analysed by means of multinomial regression analysis. The results indicated that children who lacked leisure time friends and a best friend in the school class had increased risks of ending up in the more adverse clusters as adults, whereas the opposite association was found for those who reported being solitary. The effect of childhood friendships was rather consistent across both single and multiple problems, suggesting that the disadvantages of being without friends in childhood do not accumulate over the life course to any large extent. Generally, the results were the same for males and females. It is concluded that childhood friendships are important for adverse circumstances in adulthood, for both genders. As far as the long-lasting effects of children's friendships involve varying access to social support, school-based interventions should compensate for the scarcity of support following the lack of childhood friends.

  • 96.
    Almquist, Ylva B
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Landstedt, E.
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hammarström, A.
    Growing through asphalt: What counteracts the long-term negative health impact of youth adversity?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Adversity in the family of origin tends to translate into poor health development. Yet, the fact that this is not the always the case has been seen an indicator of resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status.

    Methods

    The study was based on the Northern Swedish Cohort born in 1965 (n = 1,001). Measures of social and material adversity, health, and protective factors related to school, peers, and spare time, were derived from questionnaires distributed to the cohort members and their teachers at age 16. Self-rated health was measured at age 43. The main associations were examined by means of ordinal regression analysis, with the role of the protective factors being assessed through interaction analysis.

    Results

    Social and material adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among males and females alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time – particularly in terms of being seen as having good educational and work prospects, as well as a high-quality spare time – appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health.

    Conclusions

    There are several factors outside the context of the family that seemingly have the potential to buffer against the negative health consequences stemming from having experienced a disadvantaged upbringing. Initiatives targeted at increasing academic motivation and commitment as well as social capital and relationships in youth, may here be of particular relevance.

    Key messages:

    • While the experience of disadvantageous living conditions in adolescence tends to translate into poor health development across the life course, this is not always the case.

    • Advantages related to school, peers, and spare time have the potential of counteracting the negative health impact of an adverse family context.

  • 97.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Augustine, Lilly
    Peer acceptance in the school class and subjective health complaints: a multilevel approach2013In: Journal of School Health, ISSN 0022-4391, E-ISSN 1746-1561, Vol. 83, no 10, p. 690-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Feeling accepted by peers is important for young people's health but few studies have examined the overall degree of acceptance in school and its health consequences. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether health complaints among Swedish students can be attributed to the acceptance climate in their school class even when the health effects of their own (individual) acceptance score have been taken into account. METHODS: The data used were from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study for the years 2001 to 2002, 2005 to 2006, and 2009 to 2010, consisting of 13,902 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade Swedish students nested into 742 school classes. The statistical analyses were performed by means of linear regression multilevel analysis. RESULTS: The results indicated that the variation in subjective health complaints could be ascribed partly to the school-class level (boys: 5.0%; girls: 13.5%). Peer acceptance at the individual level demonstrated a clear association with health: the lower the acceptance, the higher the complaint scores. For girls, but not for boys, the overall degree of peer acceptance in the school class demonstrated a contextual effect on health, net of acceptance at the student level. Interaction analyses also revealed an increasingly favorable health among poorly accepted girls as the acceptance climate in the school class declined. CONCLUSIONS: A lower overall degree of peer acceptance in the school class is associated with poorer health among girls. However, girls who

  • 98.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Social relationships and subsequent health-related behaviours: linkages between adolescent peer status and levels of adult smoking in a Stockholm cohort2012In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 629-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Peer status reflects the extent to which an individual is accepted by the group. Some studies have reported that low peer status in adolescence is associated with a higher risk of smoking, while others found the reverse. No studies have investigated peer status influences on adult smoking. The aim of the study was therefore to examine the relationship between adolescents' peer status and the intensity of smoking in adulthood.

    Design: Prospective cohort study.

    Setting: Stockholm, Sweden.

    Participants: A subsample (n = 2329) of the cohort with information about adult smoking.

    Measurements: Peer status was assessed sociometrically at age 13 and information on smoking was gathered through a questionnaire at age 32. Relative risks (RR) for self-reported level of smoking were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Several family-related and individual variables were included as control variables.

    Findings: Lower peer status in adolescence was associated with smoking of any intensity in adulthood. For example, the risk of heavy smoking was more than threefold (RR = 3.67) among individuals in the lowest status positions. The association with occasional smoking was abolished by controlling for factors related to adolescents' attitude to school and cognitive ability. For regular and heavy smoking the relationship was attenuated by controlling for these factors.

    Conclusions: Low peer status in adolescence appears to be a risk factor for smoking in adulthood. Part of this association may be explained by adolescents' feelings towards school and cognitive ability. However, being unpopular in adolescence remains a strong risk factor for regular and heavy smoking in adulthood.

  • 99.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Friendship network characteristics and psychological well-being in late adolescence: Exploring differences by gender and gender composition2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between friendship networks and psychological well-being among 19-year-olds. Methods: The data used was a random sample of Swedish individuals born in 1990 who answered a questionnaire in 2009-2010. Friendship networks were considered in terms of three measures of emotional support. Six statements about the individual's emotional state were used to create a summary measure of psychological well-being. Gender and gender composition were included as potentially moderating factors. The association between friendship networks and psychological well-being was analysed by means of linear regression analysis (n = 1289). Results: The results indicate that males' and females' friendship networks were similar with regard to quality and trust, whereas males' networks were characterized by less self-disclosure and a stronger preference for same-gender friendships. Gender composition did not matter for the support levels. Emotional support was associated with psychological well-being but there were gender differences: females seemed to benefit more health-wise from having high-quality (and trusting) networks. Moreover, whereas self-disclosure among males was positively linked to well-being, this was not the case among females. None of these associations were moderated by gender composition. Conclusions: In sum, friendship networks are beneficial for the psychological well-being among late adolescents, but there are some important differences according to gender.

  • 100.
    Amelina, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Holm, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Cristobal, Susana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Delivering catalase to yeast peroxisomes using cell-penetrating peptidesIn: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658Article in journal (Refereed)
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