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  • 51. De Smedt, Pallieter
    et al.
    Baeten, Lander
    Berg, Matty P.
    Gallet-Moron, Emilie
    Brunet, Jorg
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Diekmann, Martin
    Giffard, Brice
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Hermy, Martin
    Bonte, Dries
    Verheyen, Kris
    Desiccation resistance determines distribution of woodlice along forest edge-to-interior gradients2018In: European journal of soil biology, ISSN 1164-5563, E-ISSN 1778-3615, Vol. 85, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest edges show strong abiotic and biotic gradients potentially altering community composition and ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. While abiotic gradients are well studied, short-scale biotic gradients, like detritivore species composition and their associated trait distribution remains a poorly explored research-field. We sampled woodlice in 160 forest patches across Europe at varying distances from the forest edge and discovered that species desiccation resistance determines distribution along forest edge-to-interior gradients. Forest edges are warmer and dryer compared to interiors and favour drought-tolerant species, while abundance and activity of drought-sensitive species is reduced at the edge. Key ecological factors for litter-dwelling detritivores (i.e. humidity) act as environmental filter, because of species-specific differences in desiccation resistance. Future research should focus on quantifying the consequences of a changing detritivore community and their associated functional traits for nutrient cycling.

  • 52. De Smedt, Pallieter
    et al.
    Baeten, Lander
    Gallet-Moron, Emilie
    Brunet, Jorg
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Deconchat, Marc
    Diekman, Martin
    Giffard, Brice
    Kalda, Oliver
    Liira, Jaan
    Paal, Taavi
    Wulf, Monika
    Hermy, Martin
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest edges reduce slug (but not snail) activity-density across Western Europe2019In: Pedobiologia, ISSN 0031-4056, E-ISSN 1873-1511, Vol. 75, p. 34-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation strongly shapes the distribution of organisms within forest patches through contrasting environmental conditions between the edge and interior habitat. Edge-to-interior distribution patterns are, however, poorly studied for litter- and soil-dwelling fauna, such as terrestrial gastropods, despite their high densities and significant impact on ecosystem processes, as both herbivores and detritivores. Therefore, we investigated edge-to-interior abundance patterns of terrestrial gastropods in 224 fragmented forest patches across Western Europe. Catching over 15,000 gastropods, we found that slug abundance is reduced in forest edges, while snail abundance shows no response on the edge effect. We hypothesize that these patterns could be explained by higher drought tolerance of snails, since forest edges have reduced air and soil humidity and elevated temperatures compared to forest interiors. Reduced slug abundance in forest edges potentially has ecological consequences for herbivory in and outside forest patches and nutrient cycling.

  • 53. Defeo, Omar
    et al.
    Castrejon, Mauricio
    Perez-Castaneda, Roberto
    Castilla, Juan C.
    Gutierrez, Nicolas L.
    Essington, Timothy E.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Co-management in Latin American small-scale shellfisheries: assessment from long-term case studies2016In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 176-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-management (Co-M), defined as the sharing of management tasks and responsibilities between governments and local users, is emerging as a powerful institutional arrangement to redress fisheries paradigm failures, yet long-term assessments of its performance are lacking. A comparative analysis of five small-scale Latin American shellfisheries was conducted to identify factors suggesting success and failure. In Chile, Uruguay and Mexico Co-M produced positive effects, including stabilization of landings at low levels, increase in abundance, CPUE, unit prices and revenues per unit of effort, and reduced interannual variability in several fishery indicators, particularly in landings. Co-M was successful because it was mainly bottom-up implemented and accompanied by-catch shares (spatial property rights and community quotas). By contrast, Co-M implementation was unable to prevent the collapse of the Galapagos sea cucumber fishery, as reflected by a decrease in abundance and CPUE. Negative effects were also observed in the Galapagos spiny lobster fishery during Co-M implementation. However, recovery was observed in recent years, reflected in a stabilization of fishing effort and the highest CPUE and economic revenues observed since the beginning of the Co-M implementation phase. The combined effects of market forces, climate variability and a moratorium on fishing effort were critical in fishery recovery. We conclude that Co-M is not a blueprint that can be applied to all shellfisheries to enhance their governability. These social-ecological systems need to be managed by jointly addressing problems related to the resources, their marine environment and the people targeting them, accounting for their socioeconomic and cultural contexts.

  • 54.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    An experimental approach to exploring market responses in small scale fishing communitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fishing communities are increasingly connected to international seafood trade and one way is through exports to a growing global market. Understanding how this connectedness impacts local fishery systems, both socially and ecologically, has become a necessary challenge for fisheries governance. Market prices are a potential mechanism by which global market demands are transferred to small-scale fishery actors, and in most small-scale fisheries this happens through various traders (intermediaries, middlemen/women or patrons). By financing fishing operations, buying and selling products and transferring market information, traders can actively pass international market signals, such as price, to fishers. How these signals influence fishers' decisions and consequent fishing effort is still poorly understood yet significant for future social-ecological sustainability. The paper uses an economic framed field experiment in combination with interviews to shed light on this, in the context of the Philippine patron-client arrangement known as the 'suki system'. Over 250 fishers in Concepcion, Iloilo were in an economic experiment asked to make decisions about fuel loans based on fluctuating market prices. Interviews with participants and their patrons were held to gather information on relevant contextual variables that also could influence financing behaviour such as fisher characteristics and socio-economic conditions. Contrary to our hypotheses, fishers showed no response in their borrowing behaviour to experimental price changes. Instead gender and previous choices in the experiment were predictive of their choice of loans in the experiment and we explore possible reasons for this.

  • 55.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    From typhoons to traders: the role of patronage under changing market and climate conditionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of the world's fishers, fishworkers and their dependents live in areas, like the coastal tropics, that are highly exposed to human-induced climate change. Such change can mean natural disasters impact coastal populations more acutely and frequently, also leading to increasing aid inventions. How these external disturbances affect local fisheries, and smallscale producers more broadly, is in part determined by the internal dynamics of the social-ecological system. Economic vulnerability often characterizes communities in these settings and influences the means with which they navigate changes. Providing much needed finance for low-income households in place of formal options is the patron-client system. This relationship represents an informal institution central to the organization of market interactions and pervasive in rural economies worldwide, particularly tropical small-scale fisheries. There is mounting evidence to suggest that the ability of the patron-client system to buffer income fluctuations has significant trade-offs with longer term fishery pathways when coupled with the major disturbances SSF face today, in particular global markets and climate change. In this paper we use a case study approach and trace the historical development of the fishery system in Iloilo Province (Philippines) in relation to a major natural disaster – the super-typhoon Haiyan that hit in 2013 (known locally as Yolanda), and the subsequent aid intervention that followed. We assess how these disturbances were filtered by the patron-client system and highlight resulting tensions with longer term system dynamics. We reflect on this case using the concept of governability and discuss what patronage means for challenges and opportunities in fishery governance.

  • 56.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Small-Scale Fisheries Governance: Broadening Perspectives on Markets, Relationships and Benefits in Seafood Trade2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate adresses the relative ambiguity surounding benefit flows from small-scale fisheries seafood trade with a specific focus on how they may be impacted by market and social stuctures. Small-scale fishery governenace has previously taken a narrowly approach to sustainability. Focused on managing fishing activities, economic-led market interventions and overlooking the embededness of the fishers within a broader social structure. Also failing to address fisheries as interlinked social-ecological systems where feedbacks between the two can impact future sustainability. The larger PhD project takes a step towards combining these two out-of-focus areas by taking a systems perspective, through a Value Chain approach, to fisheries governance, associated market influences and the consequent benefit flows from marine ecosystem services. This licentiate begins by unpacking dynamics within the social realm that may impact benefit flows and ultimately resource extraction decisions, potentially contributing to feedbacks from the marine ecosystem. Research uses mixed-methods and is case-orientated with sites across two tropical marine small-scale fisheries in Zanzibar and the Philippines. Results present two market environments with distinct structures, conduct, reciprocity systems and notably, gender roles. However both systems experience economic transactions underlain by broader social relations and binds. These various features manifest themselves in different, yet often unexpected, ways through income equalities, distributions and reciprocal networks of fishers and trading actors. Once a broadened and diversified view of the SSF trading environment is appropriated, it is clear that benefit flows are impacted by various contextual features (e.g. gender, transaction forms and buyer types). Governance-related research or interventions should incorporate undervalued local attributes such as cultural characteristics, social relationships and market participation as they play a role in who benefits from seafood trade. Thus If governance is to be improved for sustainably increasing food and livelihood security it is necessary to unpack these benefit flow mechanisms and, in particular, the local social dynamics that mediate fishers’ everyday interplay with the marine ecosystem. Future steps include the aim to identify potential social-ecological feedbacks between the disentangled market environments and the local marine ecosystems as a result of interactions in SSF trade. 

  • 57.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Assistance networks in seafood trade - A means to assess benefit distribution in small-scale fisheries2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 78, p. 196-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the connections between value chain actors in the tropical-marine small-scale fisheries of Zanzibar, Tanzania, to contribute to a better understanding of the fisher-trader link and how connections in general might feed into livelihood security. A sample of 168 fishers and 130 traders was taken across 8 sites through questionnaires and observations. The small-scale fishery system is mapped using a value chain framework both traditionally and from a less economic point of view where the assistance-exchange networks between fishery actors add another layer of complexity. Auxiliary actors previously disregarded emerge from the latter method thus shedding light on the poorly understood distribution of benefits from seafood trade. Female actors participate quite differently, relative to males in the market system, detached from high-value links such as the tourist industry, and access to predetermined or secured sales deals. Data shows that the fisher-trader link is not as one-sided as previously presented. In fact it has a more symbiotic exchange deeply nested in a broader trading and social system. Expanding the analysis from this link by taking a further step downstream highlights traders' own sales arrangements and the social pressures they are under in realizing them. A complex picture, inclusive of diversified perspectives, on interactions in the market place is presented, as well as a. reflection on the remaining critical question: how to integrate this type of data into decisions about future fisheries governance.

  • 58.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Ferrer, Alice Joan G.
    Pomeroy, Robert
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Who benefits from seafood trade? A comparison of social and market structures in small-scale fisheries2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the benefits flowing from a coastal seascape through seafood trade to various social groups in two distinct small-scale fishery case studies. A knowledge gap currently exists in relation to how benefits from a fishery, and the associated trade, are ultimately distributed, specifically, how market structures and relations, and the combined dynamics of the local fishing society, can mediate these flows. Previous research into improved fisheries governance for food and livelihood security has failed to integrate the structure of the market place as well as the multidimensional nature of actor relations that influence extractive behavior. Using a value chain framework, we take a relational approach to study these gaps. Surveys were conducted in two fisheries (Zanzibar and the Philippines) as part of a comparative analysis including market-types, assistance networks, and income inequality. Chain structures, gender roles, and levels of contractualization within the two cases differed vastly, appearing to give rise to different types of income inequalities and barriers to participation. In the Philippines economic exchanges revolve more around provision of financial capital, although in both systems social standing and obligations play a role in determining market structures. In Zanzibar trading agents engaging customers in predetermined sale arrangements earn relatively more than their counterpart freelancers, however at the production level no income differences are seen between those with or without arrangements. Both cases stand to be further integrated into the international seafood market, which raises questions over how certain actors will benefit, based on their current participation and access. Results emphasize the need for more evidence in regards to benefits flows and how aspects such as gender and transaction forms impact them. This is necessary for governance decisions around fisheries, poverty alleviation, and increased global market integration.

  • 59. Dukpa, Dorji
    et al.
    Cook, Edward R.
    Krusic, Paul J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Rai, P. B.
    Darabant, Andras
    Tshering, Ugyen
    Applied dendroecology informs the sustainable management of Blue Pine forests in Bhutan2018In: Dendrochronologia, ISSN 1125-7865, E-ISSN 1612-0051, Vol. 49, p. 89-93Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tree ring science is a new discipline in Bhutan but has contributed substantially to our understanding of climate history and informed sustainable forest management practices in the country. This paper describes dendroecological contributions to the second aspect for Blue Pine using three case studies. i) The effects of livestock grazing impact on Blue Pine radial growth were quantified. Radial growth increment was tendentially higher after three years of livestock exclosure, as compared to continued grazing. However, differences remained statistically not significant, likely due to the brevity of the treatment period. ii) Radial growth rates of Blue Pine were characterized across a 400m elevation gradient. Cumulative radial growth over 40 years differed by a factor of more than three between the low and the high end of the gradient. However, below 2300 m, radial growth showed a continuous decline from 1990, likely as a results of drought due to climate change. iii) Effects of three levels of prescribed thinning of pole stage (DBH 30-50 cm) Blue Pine in central Bhutan showed distinct response to thinning. Heavy thinning lead to a thinning shock in the year after harvest and did not lead to significantly higher radial growth as compared to moderate thinning, which is thus recommended for the species. A positive thinning effect remained for seven years post operation. The case studies were incorporated into national guidelines on sustainable forest management in Bhutan and prove the demand for tree ring based research to inform policy and practice.

  • 60. Duro, Nuno
    et al.
    Batista-Santos, Paula
    da Costa, Mario
    Maia, Rodrigo
    Castro, Isabel V.
    Ramos, Margarida
    Ramalho, Jose C.
    Pawlowski, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Maguas, Cristina
    Ribeiro-Barros, Ana
    The impact of salinity on the symbiosis between Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spreng. and N-2-fixing Frankia bacteria based on the analysis of Nitrogen and Carbon metabolism2016In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 398, no 1-2, p. 327-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Casuarina glauca is an actinorhizal plant that establishes root-nodule symbiosis with N-2-fixing bacteria of the genus Frankia. This plant is highly recalcitrant to extreme environmental conditions such as salinity and drought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of salt stress on the symbiotic relationship between C. glauca and Frankia Thr, focusing on N and C metabolism. Symbiotic and non-symbiotic plants were exposed to 0, 200, 400 and 600 mM NaCl. The following analyses were performed: stable carbon (delta C-13) and nitrogen (delta N-15) isotope signature; nitrogenase activity in nodules (acetylene reduction assay); and gene expression of a set of genes involved in nodule infection and N/C metabolism (qRT-PCR). Data were analysed using two-way ANOVA. Salt stress induced an enrichment in delta C-13 and delta N-15, reflecting a negative impact of salt in the relative water content and N-2 fixation, respectively. Furthermore, nitrogenase activity in nodules was insignificant already at 200 mM NaCl, consistent with the expression patterns of nifH as well as of plant genes involved in nodule induction and metabolism. The ability of C. glauca to thrive under highly saline environments is not dependent on the symbiosis with Frankia.

  • 61.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Harvests and grain prices in Sweden 1665-18702012In: Agricultural History Review, ISSN 0002-1490, Vol. 60, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of harvests and international markets on Swedish grain prices, 1665-1870. The paper finds that harvests at a national level had a greater impact on domestic grain prices than international grain prices. However, at a regional level, grain prices tended to be affected more by harvests outside the region. Furthermore, in the long term, foreign prices became a more important determinant of national grain prices. The conclusion is that, under certain circumstances, grain prices can be used as an indicator of harvest fluctuations and to construct historical national accounts, at least at a sufficiently aggregated level. Such an endeavour needs to be combined with a careful analysis of the impact of prices in the surrounding area.

  • 62. Eero, Margit
    et al.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Behrens, Jane
    Buchmann, Kurt
    Cardinale, Massimiliano
    Casini, Michele
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    Holmgren, Noel
    Horbowy, Jan
    Hussy, Karin
    Kirkegaard, Eskild
    Kornilovs, Georgs
    Krumme, Uwe
    Koster, Friedrich W.
    Oeberst, Rainer
    Plikshs, Maris
    Radtke, Krzysztof
    Raid, Tiit
    Schmidt, Joern
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Vinther, Morten
    Zimmermann, Christopher
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    Food for Thought Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment2015In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 2180-2186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measures, and the EB cod was considered one of the most successful stock recoveries in recent times. In contrast to this optimistic view, the analytical stock assessment failed in 2014, leaving the present stock status unclear. Deteriorated quality of some basic input data for stock assessment in combination with changes in environmental and ecological conditions has led to an unusual situation for cod in the Baltic Sea, which poses new challenges for stock assessment and management advice. A number of adverse developments such as low nutritional condition and disappearance of larger individuals indicate that the stock is in distress. In this study, we (i) summarize the knowledge of recent changes in cod biology and ecosystem conditions, (ii) describe the subsequent challenges for stock assessment, and (iii) highlight the key questions where answers are urgently needed to understand the present stock status and provide scientifically solid support for cod management in the Baltic Sea.

  • 63. Eklöf, Karin
    et al.
    Meili, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerblom, Staffan
    von Bromssen, Claudia
    Bishop, Kevin
    Impact of stump harvest on run-off concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury2013In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 290, p. 83-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest harvesting operations have been reported to increase the levels of both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in runoff water and downstream biota. Mobilization of such harmful substances by logging may pose ecological risks that may be influenced further by site preparation and stump harvest. Stump harvest is currently being explored as a method to increase the supply of biofuels. In this catchment study we investigated the effects of stump harvest, in comparison with ordinary site-preparation, on the runoff concentrations of THg and MeHg as well as several other chemistry parameters. Both treatments were also compared with unharvested reference catchments. Water samples from watercourses draining these catchments were analyzed for various variables including THg, MeHg, total organic carbon, absorbance and total suspended solids. One year of pre-treatment data, starting when the treated areas were just logged, and 2 years of post-treatment data, after stump harvest or site-preparation, were collected with a sample frequency of twice a month. The concentrations of THg and MeHg in the treated areas were decreasing after both stump harvest and site preparation relative to the reference catchment. Further, our results indicate that stump harvest has not caused increased concentrations of any of the studied parameters in relation to traditional site preparation. Two factors are proposed to be responsible for the lack of response to stump harvest and site preparation; (1) the areas are still undergoing recovery from the former logging which may have led to greater Hg export and/or (2) there is variability among sites in how they respond to forestry operations, depending on the biogeochemical and hydrological status of the area. Although no forestry response caused by stump harvest or site preparation was found, we noted that the concentrations of both THg and especially MeHg were high (median THg: 4.5-10.4 ng L-1, median MeHg: 0.7-2.1 ng L-1) in all catchments both before and after treatment, compared to other studies. Variables indicating the organic carbon content were the ones most strongly correlated to the variation of both THg and MeHg in the PLS models based on the dataset from the whole sampling period and all catchments. The relatively high concentrations of THg and MeHg during the study period appeared to be more influenced by organic carbon, but also hydrology and temperature as well as possibly the initial logging rather than by the soil disturbance caused by either stump harvest or site preparation.

  • 64. Elands, B. H. M.
    et al.
    Vierikko, K.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fischer, L. K.
    Concalves, P.
    Haase, D.
    Kowarik, I
    Luz, A. C.
    Niemela, J.
    Santos-Reis, M.
    Wiersum, K. F.
    Biocultural diversity: A novel concept to assess human-nature interrelations, nature conservation and stewardship in cities2019In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 40, p. 29-34Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocultural diversity is an evolving perspective for studying the interrelatedness between people and their natural environment, not only in ecoregional hotspots and cultural landscapes, but also in urban green spaces. Developed in the 1990s in order to denote the diversity of life in all its manifestations. biological, cultural and linguistic. co-evolving within complex socio-ecological systems such as cities, biocultural diversity was identified in the GREEN SURGE project as a response to recent challenges cities face. Most important challenges are the loss of nature and degradation of ecosystems in and around cities as well as an alienation of urban residents from and loss of interaction with nature. The notion of biocultural diversity is dynamic in nature and takes local values and practices of relating to biodiversity of different cultural groups as a starting point for sustainable living with biodiversity. The issue is not only how to preserve or restore biocultural practices and values, but also how to modify, adapt and create biocultural diversity in ways that resonate with urban transformations. As future societies will largely diverge from today's societies, the cultural perspective on living with (urban) nature needs careful reconsideration. Biocultural diversity is not conceived as a definite concept providing prescriptions of what to see and study, but as a reflexive and sensitising concept that can be used to assess the different values and knowledge of people that reflect how they live with biodiversity. This short communication paper introduces a conceptual framework for studying the multi-dimensional features of biocultural diversity in cities along the three key dimensions of materialized, lived and stewardship, being departure points from which biocultural diversity can be studied.

  • 65.
    Enfors, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Makurira, Hodson
    University of Zimbabwe.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Tumbo, Siza
    Sokoine University of Agriuclture.
    Yield and soil system changes from conservation tillage in dryland farming: A case study from North Eastern Tanzania2011In: Agricultural Water Management, ISSN 0378-3774, E-ISSN 1873-2283, Vol. 98, no 11, p. 1687-1695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yield levels in smallholder farming systems in semi-arid sub-Saharan Africa are generally low. Water shortage in the root zone during critical crop development stages is a fundamental constraining factor. While there is ample evidence to show that conservation tillage can promote soil health, it has recently been suggested that the main benefit in semi-arid farming systems may in fact be an in situ water harvesting effect. In this paper we present the result from an on-farm conservation tillage experiment (combining ripping with mulch and manure application) that was carried out in northeastern Tanzania from 2005 to 2008, testing this hypothesis. Special attention was given to the effects on the water retention properties of the soil. The tested conservation treatment only had a clear yield increasing effect during one of the six experimental seasons (maize grain yields increased by 41%, and biomass by 65%), and this was a season that received exceptional amounts of rainfall (549 mm). While the other seasons provided mixed results, there seemed to be an increasing yield gap between the conservation tillage treatment and the control towards the end of the experiment. Regarding soil system changes, small but significant effects on chemical and microbiological properties, but not on physical properties, were observed. This raises questions about the suggested water harvesting effect and its potential to contribute to stabilized yield levels under semi-arid conditions. We conclude that, at least in a shorter time perspective, the tested type of conservation tillage seems to boost productivity during already good seasons, rather than stabilize harvests during poor rainfall seasons. Highlighting the challenges involved in upgrading these farming systems, we discuss the potential contribution of conservation tillage towards improved water availability in the crop root zone in a longer-term perspective.

  • 66. Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    Howells, Mark
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Multi-functionality of nature-based and other urban sustainability solutions: New York City study2018In: Land Degradation and Development, ISSN 1085-3278, E-ISSN 1099-145X, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 3653-3662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an increasingly urban world, developing sustainable cities is crucial for global sustainability. Urban nature-based solutions (NBS), such as green infrastructure, are often promoted for their potential to provide several urban services. These include stormwater mitigation, improving energy efficiency of buildings, and carbon emissions mitigation, but few studies have compared the multifunctionality of NBS to conventional urban solutions providing similar services. Fewer yet have acknowledged the indirect resource (specifically climate, land, energy, water [CLEW] nexus) impacts that these solutions may have. This paper analyzes these aspects, employing a simple CLEW nexus accounting framework, and attempts a consistent comparison across different resource systems. The comparison includes direct and indirect impacts of a set of stylizedand diversesolutions, each with different primary objectives: green roofs, representing a multifunctional urban NBS; permeable pavements targeting mitigation of stormwater flows; window retrofits targeting energy efficiency; and rooftop PV installations targeting CO2 emissions mitigation. The results highlight both the direct and total (CLEW nexus) impacts of green roofs on stormwater retention, energy use, and CO2 emissions. However, also for the studied conventional solutions with primarily a single direct function, CLEW nexus impacts spread across all measured dimensions (energy, water, and CO2) to varying degrees. Although the numerical results are indicative and uncertainty needs to be further assessed, we suggest that the development of this type of multifunctional, multisystem assessment can assist urban sustainability planning, with comprehensive and consistent comparison of diverse (NBS and conventional) solutions.

  • 67.
    Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of Sydney, Australia.
    Byrne, Maria
    The sea cucumber fishery in Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park follows global patterns of serial exploitation2015In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 329-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropical sea cucumber fisheries follow a predictable pattern of serial depletion. Overfishing is exacerbated in developing countries where management systems lack capacity to control large numbers of fishers influenced by poverty. In contrast, the tropical sea cucumber fishery in Australia's World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) is operating in a developed high-income country with relatively few licensed fishers to manage. The development of this fishery is reviewed here in a meta-analysis of catches from 1991 to 2011. The fishery expanded to replace high-value teatfish species (Holothuria whitmaei and H.fuscogilva), fished heavily in initial stages of the fishery, with newly commercialized medium-value species such as burying blackfish (Actinopyga spinea) and curryfish (Stichopus herrmanni). These two species now constitute 80% of total catch. The annual average catch of burying blackfish was 208tonnes years 2004-11 and curryfish catches increased rapidly at an average annual pace of 200% from 2007-11. This serial harvest pattern occurred in the absence of baseline studies and without independent resource assessments, information required to inform relevant harvest predictions and to determine fishery impacts. This situation does not support ecologically relevant and adaptive decision-making in management and the unfolding catch patterns in the GBRMP follow those in low-income developing countries. The missing knowledge and lack of data serve as arguments to support precautionary reductions in harvests and extending fallow periods in fishing zones.

  • 68.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Skogslandskapets sammansättning - en ekologisk tillämpning av en 1800-talskarta2007In: Kartlagt land: Kartan som källa till de arella näringarnas geografi och historia / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Kungliga Skogs- och Lantbruksakademin , 2007, p. 193-204Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Hammer, Monica
    Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Södertörns högskola.
    The challenge of combining timber production and biodiversity conservation for long-term ecosystem functioning - A case study of Swedish boreal forestry2006In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 237, no 1-3, p. 208-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study of Swedish boreal forestry, we analyze the implementation in practical management of a sustainable forest management that includes the continued capacity of ecosystems to also provide non-timber services. In the Swedish national forest policy, the equal goals of timber production and biodiversity conservation have increased the responsibility of landowners and managers to modify practical management. We compiled written information from three larger FSC-certified forestry companies combined with semi-structured interviews with forest management personnel at regional offices to map what data and information the companies collect and use. We examined to what extent obtainable information from the forest companies captures composition, structure, and function of boreal ecosystems at patch, stand and landscape scale. This was done using 47 indicators compiled from literature and grouped into five categories based on nationally identified deficiencies in the managed boreal forest compared to unmanaged forest. We found that the recording of data describing different aspects of the forest ecosystem were separated in two largely uncoordinated systems, Ecological Landscape Plans and stand registers. While there is a need for conservation-oriented data across scales, collected statistics was largely production-oriented and related to the stand scale. We also identified information gaps regarding different ecosystem structures and their spatial distribution such as dead wood and habitat networks. The knowledge base available to future management decisions also seems to lack information on connectivity in the landscape, habitat at smaller spatial scales and the effectiveness of reserved areas. To reach the ecological goals of sustainable forest management, there is a need to further coordinate existing data and information but also to fill gaps in particular regarding cross-scale information.

  • 70.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Lönn, Mikael
    Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Södertörns högskola.
    Historical perspepctives on landscape representation and forest composition in Woodland Key Habitats compared to formally protected forest in boreal SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitats of Swedish conservation interests are in general small and fragmented following the extensive and intensive forest management history. This study covering 71 000 ha of boreal Sweden investigates how history influences present-day distribution and composition of forests identified as high conservation value habitats and how they are protected. We also investigated if the habitat criteria used to describe reservations differed between reservation types and if habitat criteria were associated with the size of Woodland Key Habitats. The results show strong effects from historical ownership and historical forest type on the probability of an area being set aside as formally protected or as voluntary protected Woodland Key Habitats. We also found that both formal reservations and Woodland Key Habitats primarily cover coniferous forest in the age interval 70-110 years but not the presumably most valuable oldest coniferous category >110 or deciduous forests, which are as common in reservations as in other areas. Old deciduous forests (>110 years) are significantly more rare in formal reservations compared to the forest matrix. When viewed in a context of fragmentation and edge effects the results underline the importance of evaluating reserved areas and Woodland Key Habitats in a wider temporal and larger spatial perspective to optimize conservation management efforts. Maximal representation and biodiversity can be better achieved if new reservations are chosen to represent different ownership and forest history, and if they are selected in a landscape context related to present reservations and the present surrounding production forest.

  • 71.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Lönn, Mikael
    Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Södertörns högskola.
    Interactions between historical forest composition and ownership affect present composition of older forest in boreal SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we reconstruct forest composition during the 1860s for a 71000 ha area in southern boreal Sweden. The aim is to show how historical ownership and associated anthropogenic disturbances act as a source of heterogeneity in the present-day distribution and composition of coniferous and deciduous forest within the commercial production forest. We use older (>110 years) and mature (70-110 years) forest as response variables in generalized linear models with a binominal error distribution. The explanatory variables include size of zone, historical type of ownership zone (village, company, and farm), amount of forest, and forest type. We focus in particular on investigating effects from interacting explanatory variables. The significant statistical associations in the study indicate that patterns of deciduous and coniferous older patches differ, and that deciduous patches differ in relation to age interval. The oldest deciduous patches, for example, are today more likely on areas that had deciduous cover also in the past and stood on forestland managed by farmers, but less likely on the same habitat managed by companies. We show that there are strong effects on present forest composition from historical ownership and forest composition. We argue that by including local data on past ownership combined with knowledge on use patterns management could be better adapted to local landscape dynamics compared to the application of overly generalized patterns or models of boreal dynamics that excludes interactions with management.

  • 72.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Addressing semantics and historical data heterogeneities in cross-temporal landscape change analyses2010In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 139, no 139, p. 516-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of recreating historical land cover dynamics, needed to understand trends and transient states in ecosystems, includes difficulties such as the sensitivity of applied spatial analyses to heterogeneities in historical material. This paper compares the handling of quantitatively dominating categories in two matrix analyses of land cover change within a Swedish boreal landscape (1725–1859). The focus is on how inconsistencies between historical maps can be handled without violating the inherent semantic potential. The study shows that analyses of land cover support different indications of change depending on the treatment of dominating categories. The type of landscape and research questions in focus should therefore be part of choosing matrix method and classification scheme. The observed patterns need to be evaluated against drivers of change and semantic plasticity in classification schemes to separate ecological change from semantic confusion. This paper recommends aggregated classification schemes with maintained original relationships between categories in comprehensive analyses. However, no pathway is persistent over time and categories should be allowed to disappear and new to appear. Analysis of historical dynamics with extended transition matrixes is recommended to account for the dynamics of small categories in relation to dominating categories within a landscape.

  • 73. Erixon, Hanna
    et al.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Challenging dichotomies - exploring resilience as an integrative and operative conceptual framework for large-scale urban green structures2013In: Planning Theory & Practice, ISSN 1464-9357, E-ISSN 1470-000X, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 349-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Balancing interests of urban growth and development against the need to safeguard socially equitable and ecologically functional green space is a core urban planning issue. These urban needs are still commonly seen through a modernist lens where green areas are viewed as an antithesis to the city, creating a polarized landscape seemingly free from cross-scale social and ecological interactions.

    This study aims to challenge this polarisation by using the concept of resilience both as a theoretical umbrella and applied to a case study. More operative and integrative planning approaches to large-scale urban green structures are here explored and discussed. The study reports on a trans-disciplinary work process designed by the authors as a sequence of workshops attended by ecologists, urban planners, architects, landscape architects and environmental historians and outreach meetings set in comprehensive planning and policy contexts. The explorations took the form of design experiments based in a suburban stretch of Stockholm (Sweden) which served as a basis for the discussions. This approach aimed to bring questions from a theoretical and general level and to discuss these in relation to a specific, local context in order to explore key points of conflict and possible alternatives.

    Three recurring themes upholding dichotomist views on the urban landscape were identified: 1) large size and scale mismatches, 2) problems of artificial borders; and 3) static views of urban nature leading to a lack of interest in future potential. The resilience concept was useful for highlighting options and opening up for innovation and change, but at the same time it was identified as in need of complementary approaches to identify goals and to bring people on board. Through our design experiments, we show how synergies and social-ecological resilience can encourage creative solutions rather than polarizing positions. Drawing on recent practice-based discourse on large parks, we suggest the adoption of legibility, i.e. to work with people's perceptions and understanding of their surroundings through design, within the resilience framework. There is a clear need to further explore how such approaches can complement the resilience concept in social-ecological systems governance.

  • 74.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 28-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden—allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas—and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  • 75. Fenton, Nicole J.
    et al.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Pharo, Emma J.
    Bryophytes in Forest Ecosystems2015In: Routledge Handbook of Forest Ecology / [ed] Kelvin S.-H. Peh, Richard T. Corlett, Yves Bergeron, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 239-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Folkesson, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Towards a Sustainable Fisheries Management: How to address uncertainty in order to achieve a sustainable development of regional fisheries management2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management is not only about managing the resource fish, but also includes managing the social system. Aquatic ecosystems and the social system are both complex and change continuously. It is important to address what types of uncertainty the combination of both systems, complex socio-ecological systems leads to, their consequences and how these should be dealt with. Successful or unsuccessful management outcomes are difficult to address whether or not they are due to management efforts or natural changes. In addition, uncertainties often lead to a short-term management, since lack of knowledge makes it difficult to act in a long-term perspective. This thesis conceptualizes how to address different types of uncertainty prevalent in fisheries management, with focus on natural process uncertainty, measurement and estimation uncertainty, decision and implementation uncertainty, and institutional and regime uncertainty.  This was done by analyzing how three theoretical approaches, namely co-management, adaptive management and adaptive co-management address these uncertainties. In order to highlight how different types of uncertainty have been dealt with in practice, a case study on the fishery management in Lake Vättern has been made.

    A comparison between the literature study and this thesis’ case study shows that hypothesis-testing, cooperation, communication and transparency are corresponding factors on how to deal with uncertainties in fisheries management and that institutional and regime uncertainty is inadequately addressed in Sweden.

  • 77. Franz, Daniela
    et al.
    Acosta, Manuel
    Altimir, Núria
    Arriga, Nicola
    Arrouays, Dominique
    Aubinet, Marc
    Aurela, Mika
    Ayres, Edward
    López-Ballesteros, Ana
    Barbaste, Mireille
    Berveiller, Daniel
    Biraud, Sébastien
    Boukir, Hakima
    Brown, Timothy
    Brümmer, Christian
    Buchmann, Nina
    Burba, George
    Carrara, Arnaud
    Cescatti, Allessandro
    Ceschia, Eric
    Clement, Robert
    Cremonese, Edoardo
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Darenova, Eva
    Dengel, Sigrid
    D'Odorico, Petra
    Filippa, Gianluca
    Fleck, Stefan
    Fratini, Gerardo
    Fuss, Roland
    Gielen, Bert
    Gogo, Sébastien
    Grace, John
    Graf, Alexander
    Grelle, Achim
    Gross, Patrick
    Grünwald, Thomas
    Haapanala, Sami
    Hehn, Markus
    Heinesch, Bernard
    Heiskanen, Jouni
    Herbst, Mathias
    Herschlein, Christine
    Hörtnagl, Lukas
    Hufkens, Koen
    Ibrom, Andreas
    Jolivet, Claudy
    Joly, Lilian
    Jones, Michael
    Kiese, Ralf
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Kljun, Natascha
    Klumpp, Katja
    Kolari, Pasi
    Kolle, Olaf
    Kowalski, Andrew
    Kutsch, Werner
    Laurila, Tuomas
    de Ligne, Anne
    Linder, Sune
    Lindroth, Anders
    Lohila, Annalea
    Longdoz, Bernhard
    Mammarella, Ivan
    Manise, Tanguy
    Maraňón Jiménez, Sara
    Matteucci, Giorgio
    Mauder, Matthias
    Meier, Philip
    Merbold, Lutz
    Mereu, Simone
    Metzger, Stefan
    Migliavacca, Mirco
    Mölder, Meelis
    Montagnani, Leonardo
    Moureaux, Christine
    Nelson, David
    Nemitz, Eiko
    Nicolini, Giacomo
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Op de Beeck, Maarten
    Osborne, Bruce
    Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell
    Pavelka, Marian
    Peichl, Matthias
    Peltola, Olli
    Pihlatie, Mari
    Pitacco, Andrea
    Pokorny, Radek
    Pumpanen, Jukka
    Ratié, Céline
    Rebmann, Corinna
    Roland, Marilyn
    Sabbatini, Simone
    Saby, Nicolas P. A.
    Saunders, Matthew
    Schmid, Hans Peter
    Schrumpf, Marion
    Sedlák, Pavel
    Serrano Ortiz, Penelope
    Siebicke, Lukas
    Šigut, Ladislav
    Silvennoinen, Hanna
    Simioni, Guillaume
    Skiba, Ute
    Sonnentag, Oliver
    Soudani, Kamel
    Soule, Patricé
    Steinbrecher, Rainer
    Tallec, Tiphaine
    Thimonier, Anne
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka
    Vestin, Patrik
    Vincent, Gaëlle
    Vincke, Caroline
    Vitale, Domenico
    Waldner, Peter
    Weslien, Per
    Wingate, Lisa
    Wohlfahrt, Georg
    Zahniser, Mark
    Vesala, Timo
    Towards long-term standardised carbon and greenhouse gas observations for monitoring Europe's terrestrial ecosystems: a review2018In: International Agrophysics, ISSN 0236-8722, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 439-+Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research infrastructures play a key role in launching a new generation of integrated long-term, geographically distributed observation programmes designed to monitor climate change, better understand its impacts on global ecosystems, and evaluate possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. The pan-European Integrated Carbon Observation System combines carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O) observations within the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems and oceans. High-precision measurements are obtained using standardised methodologies, are centrally processed and openly available in a traceable and verifiable fashion in combination with detailed metadata. The Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem station network aims to sample climate and land-cover variability across Europe. In addition to GHG flux measurements, a large set of complementary data (including management practices, vegetation and soil characteristics) is collected to support the interpretation, spatial upscaling and modelling of observed ecosystem carbon and GHG dynamics. The applied sampling design was developed and formulated in protocols by the scientific community, representing a trade-off between an ideal dataset and practical feasibility. The use of open-access, high-quality and multi-level data products by different user communities is crucial for the Integrated Carbon Observation System in order to achieve its scientific potential and societal value.

  • 78. Fuchslueger, Lucia
    et al.
    Wild, Birgit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Vienna, Austria.
    Mooshammer, Maria
    Takriti, Mounir
    Kienzl, Sandra
    Knoltsch, Anna
    Hofhansl, Florian
    Bahn, Michael
    Richter, Andreas
    Microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling responses to drought and temperature in differently managed mountain grasslands2019In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 135, p. 144-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grassland management can modify soil microbial carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, affecting the resistance to extreme weather events, which are predicted to increase in frequency and magnitude in the near future. However, effects of grassland management on microbial C and N cycling and their responses to extreme weather events, such as droughts and heatwaves, have rarely been tested in a combined approach. We therefore investigated whether grassland management affects microbial C and N cycling responses to drought and temperature manipulation. We collected soils from in situ drought experiments conducted in an extensively managed and an abandoned mountain grassland and incubated them at two temperature levels. We measured microbial respiration and substrate incorporation, as well as gross rates of organic and inorganic N cycling to estimate microbial C and N use efficiencies (CUE and NUE). The managed grassland was characterized by lower microbial biomass, lower fungi to bacteria ratio, and higher microbial CUE, but only slightly different microbial NUE. At both sites drought induced a shift in microbial community composition driven by an increase in Gram-positive bacterial abundance. Drought significantly reduced C substrate respiration and incorporation by microbes at both sites, while microbial CUE remained constant. In contrast, drought increased gross rates of N mineralization at both sites, whereas gross amino acid uptake rates only marginally changed. We observed a significant direct, as well as interactive effect between land management and drought on microbial NUE. Increased temperatures significantly stimulated microbial respiration and reduced microbial CUE independent of drought or land management. Although microbial N processing rates showed no clear response, microbial NUE significantly decreased at higher temperatures. In summary in our study, microbial CUE, in particular respiration, is more responsive to temperature changes. Although N processing rates were stronger responding to drought than to temperature microbial NUE was affected by both drought and temperature increase. We conclude that direct effects of drought and heatwaves can induce different responses in soil microbial C and N cycling similarly in the studied land management systems.

  • 79. Gephart, Jessica A.
    et al.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia.
    Beveridge, Malcolm C. M.
    Verdegem, Marc
    Metian, Marc
    Mateos, Lara D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The 'seafood gap' in the food-water nexus literature-issues surrounding freshwater use in seafood production chains2017In: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 110, p. 505-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater use for food production is projected to increase substantially in the coming decades with population growth, changing demographics, and shifting diets. Ensuring joint food-water security has prompted efforts to quantify freshwater use for different food products and production methods. However, few analyses quantify freshwater use for seafood production, and those that do use inconsistent water accounting. This inhibits water use comparisons among seafood products or between seafood and agricultural/livestock products. This 'seafood gap' in the food-water nexus literature will become increasingly problematic as seafood consumption is growing globally and aquaculture is one of the fastest growing animal food sectors in the world. Therefore, the present study 1) reviews freshwater use concepts as they relate to seafood production; 2) provides three cases to highlight the particular water use concerns for aquaculture, and; 3) outlines future directions to integrate seafood into the broader food-water nexus discussion. By revisiting water use concepts through a focus on seafood production systems, we highlight the key water use processes that should be considered for seafood production and offer a fresh perspective on the analysis of freshwater use in food systems more broadly. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

  • 80. Gharasoo, Mehdi
    et al.
    Centler, Florian
    Fetzer, Ingo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. UFZ Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Thullner, Martin
    How the chemotactic characteristics of bacteria can determine their population patterns2014In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 69, p. 346-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial distribution of soil microorganisms is relevant for the functioning and performance of many ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling or biodegradation of organic matters and contaminants. Beside the multitude of abiotic environmental factors controlling the distribution of microorganisms in soil systems, many microbial species exhibit chemotactic behavior by directing their movement along concentration gradients of nutrients or of chemoattractants produced by cells of their own kind. This chemotactic ability has been shown to promote the formation of complex distribution patterns even in the absence of environmental heterogeneities. Microbial population patterns in heterogeneous soil systems might be, hence, the result of the interplay between the heterogeneous environmental conditions and the microorganisms' intrinsic pattern formation capabilities. In this modeling study, we combined an individual-based modeling approach with a reactive pore-network model to investigate the formation of bacterial patterns in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media. We investigated the influence of different bacterial chemotactic sensitivities (toward both substrate and bacteria) on bacterial distribution patterns. The emerging population patterns were classified with the support of a geostatistical approach, and the required conditions for the formation of any specific pattern were analyzed. Results showed that the chemotactic behavior of the bacteria leads to non-trivial population patterns even in the absence of environmental heterogeneities. The presence of structural pore scale heterogeneities had also an impact on bacterial distributions. For a range of chemotactic sensitivities, microorganisms tend to migrate preferably from larger pores toward smaller pores and the resulting distribution patterns thus resembled the heterogeneity of the pore space. The results clearly indicated that in a porous medium like soil the distribution of bacteria may not only be related to the external constraints but also to the chemotactic behavior of the bacterial cells.

  • 81.
    Gordon, Line J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bignet, Victoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia.
    Van Holt, Tracy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Center for Sustainable Business, United States of America.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship2017In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 100201Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere.

  • 82. Gradecka-Meesters, Dobroslawa
    et al.
    Palus, Jadwiga
    Prochazka, Gabriela
    Segerback, Dan
    Dziubaltowska, Elzbieta
    Kotova, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Jenssen, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Arkusz, Joanna
    Lundin, Cecilia
    Vikstrom, Elisabet
    Rydzynski, Konrad
    Nilsson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Stepnik, Maciej
    Assessment of the protective effects of selected dietary anticarcinogens against DNA damage and cytogenetic effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene in C57BL/6J mice2011In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 1674-1683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protective action in C57BL/6J mice from orally administered ellagic acid (EA), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), an extract of epigallocatechins (Tegreen (R)) as well as chlorophyllin (CHL) against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced DNA damage and cytogenetic effects was investigated. In pilot experiment the comet assay indicated protective effects for all compounds, while such activity was confined to EA and CH with respect to B[a]P-DNA adducts and micronuclei. EA and CH were chosen for the main study where the levels of DNA adducts in liver after injection of 30 mg B[a]P/kg b.w. did not differ from those found for animals exposed to B[a]P and treated with the protective substances. In leukocytes no significant protective effect of CHL was detected while a 2-fold increase of adduct concentrations was observed after co-administration of EA. In the comet assay CHL or EA caused a 3-fold decrease of SSB, and a 2-fold decrease of FPG sites in comparison to animals treated with B[a]P. CHL or EA showed a significant protective effect against B[a]P-induced MN in polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow. In contrast, flow cytometry measurements in peripheral blood indicated the MN frequency after treatment with CHL or EA almost twice as high as that recorded for B[a]P alone.

  • 83. Granda, Elena
    et al.
    Julio Camarero, J.
    Galvan, J. Diego
    Sanguesa-Barreda, Gabriel
    Alla, Arben Q.
    Gutierrez, Emilia
    Dorado-Linan, Isabel
    Andreu-Hayles, Laia
    Labuhng, Inga
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Grudd, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Voltas, Jordi
    Aged but withstanding: Maintenance of growth rates in old pines is not related to enhanced water-use efficiency2017In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 243, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth of old trees in cold-limited forests may benefit from recent climate warming and rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations (c(a)) if age-related constraints do not impair wood formation. To test this hypothesis, we studied old Mountain pine trees at three Pyrenean high-elevation forests subjected to cold-wet (ORD, AIG) or warmer drier (PED) conditions. We analyzed long-term trends (1450-2008) in growth (BAI, basal area increment), maximum (MXD) and minimum (MID) wood density, and tree-ring carbon (delta C-13) and oxygen (delta O-18) isotope composition, which were used as proxies for intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) and stomatal conductance (g(s)), respectively. Old pines showed positive (AIG and ORD) or stable (PED) growth trends during the industrial period (since 1850) despite being older than 400 years. Growth and wood density covaried from 1850 onwards. In the cold-wet sites (AIG and ORD) enhanced photosynthesis through rising c(a) was likely responsible for the post-1850 iWUE improvement. However, uncoupling between BAI and iWUE indicated that increases in iWUE were not responsible for the higher growth but climate warming. A reduction in g(s) was inferred from increased delta O-18 for PED trees from 1960 onwards, the wannest site where the highest iWUE increase occurred (34%). This suggests that an emergent drought stress at warm-dry sites could trigger stomatal closure to avoid excessive transpiration. Overall, carbon acquisition as lasting woody pools is expected to be maintained in aged trees from cold and high-elevation sites where old forests constitute unique long-term carbon reservoirs.

  • 84.
    Granquist, Sandra M.
    et al.
    Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Iceland; The Icelandic Seal Center, Iceland.
    Hauksson, Erlingur
    Vör Marine Research Center at Breidafjördur, Iceland.
    Diet of harbour seals in a salmon estuary in North-West Iceland2016In: Icelandic Agricultural Sciences, ISSN 1670-567X, Vol. 29, p. 7-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of harbour seal predation on salmonids has been frequently debated, although interactions between these species have never been thoroughly investigated in Icelandic waters prior to this study. We investigated the diet of harbour seals in a salmon estuary in NW Iceland between 2009 and 2011, using hard part analysis from collected faeces. No evidence of seal predation on salmonids was found in the study. The reconstructed weight and estimated energy content of prey species showed that flatfish was the most important species group, followed by Ammodytidae. The species group found in the highest proportion of samples during the three years combined was also Ammodytidae (45% of the samples). Ammodytidae, flatfishes and capelin dominated by numerical occurrences. However, inter- and intra-annual variation was found regarding the diet.

  • 85.
    Green, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    A Lasting Story: Conservation and Agricultural Extension Services in Colonial Malawi2009In: Journal of African History, ISSN 0021-8537, E-ISSN 1469-5138, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historians have written extensively about agricultural extension services and the linkages between colonial administrations and rural communities in British Africa. Most studies argue that it is possible to identify a qualitative shift between inter- and post-war strategies. The former is characterised by modest attempts of promoting soil conservation, while the latter is described as a period when colonial governments in British Africa - guided by scientific knowledge - tried to transform peasant agriculture to increase production. The article questions this division by using colonial Malawi as a case. It reveals that the strategies and intensity of agricultural extension services changed over time but that the aim of intervention, i.e. to combat soil erosion remained the focal point throughout the colonial period. This shows that it is important to differ between strategies and scale of intervention on the one hand and their aims and contents on the other. Changes of the former took place within the conservation paradigm. Additionally, the article reveals that agricultural extension services were directed by colonial officials' perception about African farmers rather than detailed empirical knowledge about existing farming methods.

  • 86.
    Green, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Diversification or De-Agrarianization?: Income Diversification, Labor, and Processes of Agrarian Change in Southern and Northern Malawi, Mid-1930s to Mid-1950s2008In: Agricultural History, Vol. 82, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the links between market-oriented activities and subsistence production among peasant farmers in the Thyolo and Mzimba districts in Malawi, from the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s. The two districts were chosen because of their differences in terms of land-labor ratios, quality of soils, and structure of market engagement. Exploring the different paths of agrarian change in these two districts demonstrates that they were dependent on the structure of market engagement and its effects on the supply and flexibility of labor. African agricultural history is best understood when agricultural systems are viewed in connection to the overall economic activities of rural households. More simply put, the dynamics of agrarian change in rural Africa cannot be understood without linking such changes to the wider economy and their impact on local labor processes.

  • 87.
    Green, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Forces of Agrarian Change: Agricultural Commercialisation in Mzimba District in Northern Malawi, mid-1950s to late 1970s2008In: Malawi Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 1028-298X, Vol. 20, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between the mid-1950s and late-1970s an increasing number of farmers in Mzimba district in Malawi engaged in commercial agriculture. This article investigates why they reallocated labour from migrant work to commercial agricultural production. By use of archival sources, it traces the changes to political factors that limited the households’ ability to participate in the regional labour market, which forced them to find alternative sources of income. Increased commercial production was thus driven by push-factors. Rather than been a force of change, the processes of commercialisation was limited by existing farming systems, characterized by shortage of labour and its low levels of productivity.

  • 88. Green, Tom L.
    et al.
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Insurance Value of Green Infrastructure in and Around Cities2016In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1051-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of climate change and urbanization projected to occur until 2050 poses new challenges for land-use planning, not least in terms of reducing urban vulnerability to hazards from projected increases in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Interest in investments in green infrastructure (interconnected systems of parks, wetlands, gardens and other green spaces), as well as in restoration of urban ecosystems as part of such adaptation strategies, is growing worldwide. Previous research has highlighted the insurance value of ecosystems in securing the supply of ecosystem services in the face of disturbance and change, yet this literature neglects urban areas even though urban populations are often highly vulnerable. We revisit the insurance value literature to examine the applicability of the concept in urban contexts, illustrating it with two case studies: watersheds providing drinking water for residents of Vancouver, Canada; and private gardens ensuring connectedness between other parts of urban green infrastructure in London, UK. Our research supports the notion that investments in green infrastructure can enhance insurance value, reducing vulnerability and the costs of adaptation to climate change and other environmental change. Although we recommend that urban authorities consider the insurance value of ecosystems in their decision-making matrix, we advise caution in relying upon monetary evaluations of insurance value. We conclude by identifying actions and management strategies oriented to maintain or enhance the insurance value of urban ecosystems. Ecosystems that are themselves resilient to external disturbances are better able to provide insurance for broader social-ecological systems.

  • 89. Gren, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Savchuck, Oleg P.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Jansson, Torbjörn
    Cost-Effective Spatial and Dynamic Management of a Eutrophied Baltic Sea2013In: Marine Resource Economics, ISSN 0738-1360, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 263-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to calculate cost-effective spatial and dynamic allocations of nutrient abatement for reaching targets in a large sea with different and interlinked marine basins. A discrete dynamic model was constructed to account for measures affecting both nitrogen and phosphorus and heterogeneous and coupled marine basins within the sea. Theoretical results revealed that positive decay rates of nutrient pools in the marine basins reduce abatement costs by delaying abatement over time. The results also showed that simultaneous management of both nutrients reduces overall abatement costs as compared with separate management. An empirical application to the intergovernmental agreement on nutrient pool targets in the Baltic Sea was made by combining results from an oceanographic model with an economic model of abatement costs. The results indicate that modest changes in decay rates make a significant impact on abatement costs and that simultaneous implementation of targets for both nutrients can reduce total cost by approximately 15% compared with separate treatment. A robust result is the finding that one country, Poland, faces much higher abatement costs than the other eight riparian countries because of its relatively large discharges into a marine basin with a stringent phosphorus target and slow response to load changes.

  • 90.
    Groß, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Mård, Johanna
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Links between Nordic and Arctic hydroclimate and vegetation changes: Contribution to possible landscape-scale nature-based solutions2018In: Land Degradation and Development, ISSN 1085-3278, E-ISSN 1099-145X, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 3663-3673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Nordic and Arctic regions, the rapidly warming climate sustains hydroclimatic and vegetation changes in the landscape. There is evidence for an increase in vegetation density in some regions, a trend that is expected as a response to increasing temperature and precipitation. If the hydroclimatic changes are linked to vegetation response, it could be viewed as a landscape-scale nature-based solution (NBS) that could moderate the runoff response, as denser vegetation should lead to increased evapotranspiration and lower runoff. In this paper, we investigate and compare hydroclimatic changes over a set of basins in the Nordic region and northwest America and compare with changes in vegetation density, analyzed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for three time periods: 1973-1978, 1993-1998, and 2013-2016. Over the period of the 1970s to 1990s, the hydroclimate became warmer and wetter and vegetation density increased, but over a later period from the 1990s to 2010s, vegetation density decreased, despite a continuing warming and wetting of the climate. Although there was a tendency for runoff to decrease in basins where vegetation density increased, the relation between precipitation and runoff was much stronger. Overall, we found weak evidence for vegetation density changes, driven by hydroclimate, to act as NBS on the landscape scale over the studied regions. However, as hydroclimatic changes interact with vegetation changes and their ensuing hydrological responses in complex ways, more detailed investigations are needed to determine the potential NBS effect on the landscape scale across Nordic and Arctic regions.

  • 91.
    Gräslund Berg, Elisabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Historisk landskapsanalys E18 Lekhyttan-Örebro2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 92. Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    Belyazid, Salim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    McGivney, Eric
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Aluminium and base cation chemistry in dynamic acidification models - need for a reappraisal?2018In: soil, ISSN 2199-3971, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 237-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term simulations of the water composition in acid forest soils require that accurate descriptions of aluminium and base cation chemistry are used. Both weathering rates and soil nutrient availability depend on the concentrations of Al3+, of H+, and of base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+). Assessments of the acidification status and base cation availability will depend on the model being used. Here we review in what ways different dynamic soil chemistry models describe the processes governing aluminium and base cation concentrations in the soil water. Furthermore, scenario simulations with the HD-MINTEQ model are used to illustrate the difference between model approaches. The results show that all investigated models provide the same type of response to changes in input water chemistry. Still, for base cations we show that the differences in the magnitude of the response may be considerable depending on whether a cation-exchange equation (Gaines-Thomas, Gapon) or an organic complexation model is used. The former approach, which is used in many currently used models (e.g. MAGIC, ForSAFE), causes stronger pH buffering over a relatively narrow pH range, as compared to state-of-the-art models relying on more advanced descriptions in which organic complexation is important (CHUM, HD-MIN PLQ). As for aluminium, a fixed gibbsite constant, as used in MAGIC, SMART/VSD, and ForSAFE, leads to slightly more pH buffering than in the more advanced models that consider both organic complexation and Al(OH)(3) (s) precipitation, but in this case the effect is small. We conclude that the descriptions of acid-base chemistry and base cation binding in models such as MAGIC, SMART/VSD, and ForSAFE are only likely to work satisfactorily in a narrow pH range. If the pH varies greatly over time, the use of modern organic complexation models is preferred over cation-exchange equations.

  • 93.
    Hammer, Monica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science.
    Natural and human-made capital interdependencies in fisheries: examples from the Baltic Sea1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Hansen, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtekologi.
    Robertson-Andersson, Deborah
    Troell, Max
    Department of Systems Ecology.
    Control of the herbivorous gastropod Fissurella mutabilis (Sow.) in a land-based integrated abalone-seaweed culture2006In: Aquaculture, Vol. 255, no 1-4, p. 384-388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Hansson, Sture
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Reply to response from Outi Heikinheimo and Timo J. Marjomaki on my comment on Heikinheimo et al., 2014: Spawning stock-recruitment relationship in pikeperch Sander lucioperca (L.) in the Baltic Sea, with temperature as an environmental effect2016In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 183, p. 482-482Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Hansson, Sture
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bergström, Ulf
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Härkönen, Tero
    Jepsen, Niels
    Kautsky, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lundström, Karl
    Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar
    Ovegård, Maria
    Salmi, Juhani
    Sendek, Dmitry
    Vetemaa, Markus
    Competition for the fish - fish extraction from the Baltic Sea by humans, aquatic mammals, and birds2018In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 999-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seals and fish-eating birds have increased in the Baltic Sea and there is concern that they compete with fisheries. Using data from around year 2010, we compare consumption of different fish species by seals and birds to the catch in the commercial and recreational fishery. When applicable this is done at the geographical resolution of ICES subdivisions. Predation by birds and mammals likely has limited impact on the populations of the commercially most important species (herring, sprat, and cod). In the central and southern Baltic, seals and birds consume about as much flatfish as is caught by the fishery and competition is possible. Birds and seals consume 2-3 times as much coastal fish as is caught in the fishery. Many of these species are important to the fishery (e. g. perch and whitefish) and competition between wildlife and the fishery is likely, at least locally. Estimated wildlife consumption of pike, sea trout and pikeperch varies among ICES subdivisions and the degree of competition for these species may differ among areas. Competition between wildlife and fisheries need to be addressed in basic ecosystem research, management and conservation. This requires improved quantitative data on wildlife diets, abundances and fish production.

  • 97. Happe, Anne-Kathrin
    et al.
    Alins, Georgina
    Blüthgen, Nico
    Boreux, Virginie
    Bosch, Jordi
    García, Daniel
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Klein, Alexandra-Maria
    Martínez-Sastre, Rodrigo
    Miñarro, Marcos
    Müller, Ann-Kathrin
    Porcel, Mario
    Rodrigo, Anselm
    Roquer-Beni, Laura
    Samnegård, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tasin, Marco
    Mody, Karsten
    Predatory arthropods in apple orchards across Europe: Responses to agricultural management, adjacent habitat, landscape composition and country2019In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 273, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local agri-environmental schemes, including hedgerows, flowering strips, organic management, and a landscape rich in semi-natural habitat patches, are assumed to enhance the presence of beneficial arthropods and their contribution to biological control in fruit crops. We studied the influence of local factors (orchard management and adjacent habitats) and of landscape composition on the abundance and community composition of predatory arthropods in apple orchards in three European countries. To elucidate how local and landscape factors influence natural enemy effectiveness in apple production systems, we calculated community energy use as a proxy for the communities' predation potential based on biomass and metabolic rates of predatory arthropods. Predator communities were assessed by standardised beating samples taken from apple trees in 86 orchards in Germany, Spain and Sweden. Orchard management included integrated production (IP; i.e. the reduced and targeted application of synthetic agrochemicals), and organic management practices in all three countries. Predator communities differed between management types and countries. Several groups, including beetles (Coleoptera), predatory bugs (Heteroptera), flies (Diptera) and spiders (Araneae) benefited from organic management depending on country. Woody habitat and IP supported harvestmen (Opiliones). In both IP and organic orchards we detected aversive influences of a high-quality surrounding landscape on some predator groups: for example, high covers of woody habitat reduced earwig abundances in German orchards but enhanced their abundance in Sweden, and high natural plant species richness tended to reduce predatory bug abundance in Sweden and IP orchards in Spain. We conclude that predatory arthropod communities and influences of local and landscape factors are strongly shaped by orchard management, and that the influence of management differs between countries. Our results indicate that organic management improves the living conditions for effective predator communities.

  • 98. He, Minhui
    et al.
    Yang, Bao
    Shishov, Vladimir
    Rossi, Sergio
    Bräuning, Achim
    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Griessinger, Jussi
    Relationships between Wood Formation and Cambium Phenology on the Tibetan Plateau during 1960-20142018In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variability of tree stem phenology plays a critical role in determining the productivity of forest ecosystems. Therefore, we aim to identify the relationships between the timings of cambium phenology, and forest growth in terms of tree-ring width over a long-term scale. A meta-analysis was performed that combined the timings of xylem formation, which were calculated by a tree-ring formation model of the VS (Vaganov-Shashkin)-oscilloscope during the period 1960-2014, and a tree-ring width series at 20 composite sites on the Tibetan Plateau. Both the start and length of the growing season significantly affected the formation of wood at 70% of the 20 composite sites within the study region. A wider tree ring probably resulted from an earlier start and a longer duration of the growing season. The influence of ending dates on tree-ring width was less evident, and more site-dependent. Weak relationships were identified between the start and end of the growing season at 85% of the composite sites. Compared to the monitoring results, which could only detect the relationships between cambium phenology and xylem cell production from a limited number of trees and years, our long-term relationships deepened such connections, and therefore should be used to improve mechanism models for the accurate evaluating and predicting of wood production and carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems under current and future climate change.

  • 99.
    Hedberg, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Sea cages, seaweeds and seascapes: Causes and consequences of spatial links between aquaculture and ecosystems2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is of growing importance in the global seafood production. The environmental impact of aquaculture will largely depend on the type of environment in which the aquaculture system is placed. Sometimes, due to the abiotic or biotic conditions of the seascape, certain aquaculture systems tend to be placed within or near specific ecosystems, a phenomenon that in this thesis is referred to as aquaculture system - ecosystem links. The exposed ecosystems can be more or less sensitive to the system specific impacts. Some links are known to be widespread and especially hazardous for the subjected ecosystem such as the one between the shrimp aquaculture and the mangrove forest ecosystem. The aim of this thesis was to identify and investigate causes and consequences of other spatial links between aquaculture and ecosystems in the tropical seascape.

    Two different aquaculture system - ecosystem links were identified by using high resolution satellite maps and coastal habitat maps; the link between sea cage aquaculture and coral reefs, and the one between seaweed farms and seagrass beds. This was followed by interviews with the sea cage- and seaweed farmers to find the drivers behind the farm site selection. Many seaweed farmers actively choose to establish their farms on sea grass beds but sea cage farmers did not consider coral reefs when choosing location for their farms. The investigated environmental consequences of the spatial link between sea cage aquaculture and coral reefs were considerable both on the local coral reef structure, and coral associated bacterial community. Furthermore, coral reef associated fish are used as seedlings and feed on the farms, which likely alter the coral food web and lower the ecosystem resilience. Unregulated use of last resort antibiotics in both fish- and lobster farms were also found to be a wide spread practice within the sea cage aquaculture system, suggesting a high risk for development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The effects of seaweed farms on seagrass beds were not studied in this thesis but have earlier been shown to be rather substantial within the borders of the farm but less so outside the farm.

    Further, a nomenclature is presented to facilitate the discussion about production system - ecosystem links, which may also be used to be able to incorporate the landscape level within eco-certifying schemes or environmental risk assessments. Finally - increased awareness of the mechanisms that link specific aquaculture to specific habitats, would improve management practices and increase sustainability of an important and still growing food producing sector - the marine aquaculture.

  • 100.
    Hedberg, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hellström, Micaela
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Spatial correlation and potential conflicts between sea cage farms and coral reefs in South East Asia2015In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 448, p. 418-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the South China and Java Seas, cage farming is a recent regional activity, which since the year 2000 has experienced an annual growth of 29%. The region holds the highest diversity of marine life, which is partly or completely dependent on coral reefs. The increasingly growing coastal human population in the area relies on ecosystem goods and services provided by the reefs that are threatened by anthropogenic activities. Sea cage farming is one of the stressors negatively impacting coral reefs by being point sources of nutrients and other effluents. To date no systematic information is available on the physical location of marine farms in relation to the coral reefs. Little is known about the distance where impact from the farms can be detected on nearby coral reefs. The present survey aimed to fill this gap by assessing to what extent marine cage farms in South East Asia are placed in the vicinity of the reefs and at which distance stress indicators from the farms are observed. We used Google Earth satellite images to investigate the extension and spatial distribution of sea cage aquaculture in relation to the presence of coral reefs. The stress indicators were locally assessed in Central Vietnam by recording turf algal overgrowth, coral mortality, live coral and branching coral cover at increasing distances from the farms. We found that 90% of sea cage farms throughout the region clustered closer than 5 km from coral reefs and 50% of them closer than 1 km from reefs. In Taiwan, 71% of the cages were located within 100m from a reef. This pattern is nonrandom and could not be explained by the natural distribution of coral reefs; only 5% of the Vietnamese coast harbors coral reefs, and sea cage farms are present in these areas only. This indicates that the farms require similar conditions as the reefs including clear and shallow waters and protection against storms and wave action. We found that turf algal overgrowth decreased at 287 m +/- 54 m, dead coral at 1446m +/- 154 m, live coral cover increased at 566 +/- 221 m and branching corals increased at 867 m +/- 140 m from the cage farms. We conclude that proximity to coral reefs should be considered when planning future developments of sea cage aquaculture, and recommend that distances of at least 1.5 km should be kept. Statement of relevance: Consider coral reefs when planning sea cage aquaculture site.

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