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  • 51.
    Boalt Boethius, Siv
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Innehållsrikt om ledarskap.2008In: Psykologtidningen, Vol. 14Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 52.
    Boalt Boethius, Siv
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sundin, Eva
    Department of Psychology.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    Department of Psychology.
    Group Supervision from a Small Group Perspective.2006In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, Vol. 58, p. 22-42Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to examine a set of independent group variables (group size, gender composition, and supervisory style) in group supervision, and their interrelation with supervisees’ and supervisors’ view on group interactions, group climate, and attained skill. The study also examined changes over time in supervisees’ and supervisors’ ratings. Results from hierarchical regression analysis indicate that the group variables measured in this study are interrelated to perceived psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills attainment, group interaction, and group climate. The participants experienced a positive change over time with regard to attainment of knowledge and skills, group interaction, and group climate. Supervisors were more likely to experience a positive change whereas supervisees, and especially supervisees on the basic level, tended to present more stable ratings over time. These data underline the utility and importance of studying group supervision in psychotherapy from a small group perspective.

  • 53.
    Boalt Boëthius, Siv
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Grupphandledning: ramar, kärninnehåll och samspel2011In: Veiledning i psykoterapeutisk arbeid / [ed] Michael Helge Rønnestad och Sissel Reichelt, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2011Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Beskrivning: Førsteutgaven av boka kom i 1999 med tittelen "Psykoterapiveiledning." Forfatterne ønsker å formidle teoretisk og empirisk kunnskap og praktiske erfaringer om klinisk veiledning, det vil si veiledning innen psykologisk behandling og psykososialt arbeid. Boka henvender seg til fagpersoner som gir eller mottar veiledning, eller som er i en videre- og etterutdanning der kunnskap om veiledning inngår. Boka er redigert av professor Michael Helge Rønnestad og professor Sissel Reichelt. Øvrige bidragsytere er: Tom Andersen, Siv BoaltBoëthius, Siri E. Gullestad, Asle Hoffart, Geir Høstmark Nielsen, Anne-Lise Løvlie Schibbye, Jan Skjerve, Thomas M. Skovholt, Odd Arne Tjersland, Gjermund Tveito, Oddbjørg Skjerve Ulvik og Marie-Louise Ögren.

  • 54.
    Boalt Boëthius, Siv
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Om grupphandledning och vägen från klinisk erfarenhet till systematisk forskning.2008In: Mellanrummet: Nordisk tidskrift för barn- och ungdomspsykoterapi, ISSN 1404-5559, E-ISSN 2000-8511, Vol. 19, p. 45-60Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel beskrivs vad som väckte vårt intresse för att på ett mer systematiskt sätt utforska grupphandledning som en specifik form för lärande. Som kliniker får man sällan en bild av vad som ligger bakom de forskningsfrågor som ställs. I allmänhet redovisas teoretisk bakgrund, frågeställningar, metoder och resultat som mer eller mindre givna. I verkligheten är det dock sällan så, särskilt inte när det gäller kliniknära forskning, som drivs av en önskan om en fördjupad förståelse, ofta personligt förankrad, av problemområden som gett upphov till specifika frågor.

  • 55.
    Boork, Pär
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att gå rakt igenom: Utvärdering av Känslogrupp - en affektfokuserad psykopedagogisk gruppbehandling i första linjens psykiatri.2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Känslogrupp är en affektfokuserad psykopedagogisk gruppbehandlingpå sju tillfällen för ungdomar i gymnasieålder i första linjens psykiatri. Studien undersökte hur deltagarnas nivå av depressiva och ångestrelaterade symtom utvecklades under gruppbehandlingens gång samt vid två månaders uppföljning. Depressiva symtom mättes med Patient Health Questoinnaire 9-item Scale (PHQ-9) och ångestrelaterade symtom mättes med Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale (GAD-7). Ett sekundärt mått var Brunnsviken Brief Quality of Life Inventory (BBQ) som mätte livskvalitet. För huvudutfallsmåtten gjordes mätningar vid varje gruppsession samt vid uppföljning. För det sekundära måttet gjordes för-, efter- och uppföljande mätning. Deltagare var 13 gymnasieungdomar som hade kontakt med ungdomspsykiatrisk mottagning. Från förmätning till två månaders uppföljning uppmättes medelstora effekter för depressiva symtom och livskvalitet, samt för ångestrelaterade symtom en liten effekt. Resultaten visar att Känslogrupp kan vara en lämplig gruppintervention vid sidan av etablerade individuella behandlingar inom första linjens psykiatri och att den har potential att utvecklas. 

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  • 56.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A demonstration of level-anchored ratio scaling for prediction of grip strength2013In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 835-840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Level-anchored ratio scaling, such as the Borg CR10 scale (R) and the Borg CR100 scale (R), uses verbal anchors in congruence with numbers to give ratio data together with natural levels of intensity. This presupposes that the anchors possess natural positions in the subjective dynamic range and also numerical inter-relations. In an experiment, subjects had to produce a force of handgrip corresponding to their conception of Strong, followed by a Maximal performance. By using the previously found relationship between Strong and Maximal of 1:2 together with knowledge of the exponent in the power S-R-function (R = c x S-n) for grip strength, n = 1.8, predictions of individual maximal performances were obtained. The predicted values correlated 0.76 with, and deviated only 3% (ns) from, actual maximal performances of grip strength. This result as previously also found for aerobic capacity gives a strong support for the use of verbal anchors, so common in category scaling, also in ratio scaling and that the Borg CR-scales fulfill the requirements for ratio scales. For estimation of muscular strength, such as grip strength, this present study points to the value of using submaximal determinations as a compliment to maximal performances (e.g., to obtain measures of functional capacity). The results also support the increasingly common use of the CR-methodology in other ergonomic settings concerning suitable design of tools and equipment.

  • 57.
    Bourdiol, Catherine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Diskrepanser och konflikter i självupplevelsen hos personer med långvarig ländryggssmärta – en tematisk analys2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många lider av långvarig ländryggssmärta, men få erbjuds en orsaksförklaring eller adekvat behandling. Den biopsykosociala modellen möjliggör dock en viss förståelse av lidandet. Den långvariga smärtan begränsar individen vilket bland annat antas påverka självupplevelsen. Syftet med studien var att utifrån en explorativ ansats erhålla en fördjupad förståelse av självupplevelsen hos personer med långvarig ländryggssmärta. Halvstrukturerade intervjuer användes och materialet analyserades genom induktiv tematisk analys. Resultatet visade att självupplevelsen hos personer med långvarig ländryggssmärta kan beskrivas utifrån ett övergripande tema, konflikt. Detta kan betraktas som en konsekvens av diskrepanserna mellan de fyra huvudtemana den jag var, den jag är, den jag vill vara och den jag är rädd för att bli. Fynden bestod bland annat av att konflikten belystes som en central del av självupplevelsen, att självupplevelsen beskrevs i både positiva och negativa termer och dessutom att den jag var identifieras som ett aktuellt själv.

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  • 58.
    Bremberg Gårdinger, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Selander, Helena
    Validation of a computerized driving simulator test of cognitive abilities for fitness-to-drive assessments2024In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1294965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Driving requires a series of cognitive abilities, many of which are affected by age and medical conditions. The psychosocial importance of continued driving ushers the need for valid measurements in fitness-to-drive assessments. A driving simulator test could prove useful in these assessments, having greater face validity than other off-road tests and being more cost-effective and safer than ordinary on-road testing. The aim of this study was to validate a driving simulator test for assessment of cognitive ability in fitness-to-drive assessments.

    Methods: The study included 67 healthy participants. Internal consistency of the simulator subtests was estimated. A correlation analysis between results on the simulator and the cognitive tests Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B and the Useful field of View test (UFOV) and multiple regression analysis were conducted. Finally, a comparison of results between age groups (>65 years) and (<65 years) was done.

    Results: Results showed good internal consistency. Significant and moderate correlations were found for all reaction time in the simulator’s subtests and UFOV 3, and all but two with TMT A. Lane positioning in the simulator showed significant and low to moderate correlations with UFOV 3 in all subtests. Reaction time and Double reaction time on subtest 3 were significantly correlated with UFOV 2 and UFOV 3 and TMT A, respectively. Test on Centerline (position) in subtest 3 as dependent variable was significantly correlated with UFOV 3. Significant means differences and large effect sizes between the age groups were found for all reaction time and lane positioning tests.

    Conclusion: The findings of concurrent validity, especially with TMT A and UFOV 3 and its sensitivity for age-related differences, indicate potential for the simulator to be used as a complement in fitness-to-drive assessments. However, a clinical study is necessary to further examine its usefulness for patients with cognitive deficits.

  • 59.
    Briesch, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Segerstein, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kan man minnas ett brott som man inte bevittnat?: En rättspsykologisk undersökning av tendensen till felaktiga minnen av ett brott2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Minnet är av största relevans inom vittnespsykologiska sammanhang och kan vara avgörande för utfallet i rättsliga utredningar. Tidigare forskning visar att individer som har sett en effekt av en händelse kan tendera att minnas att de sett orsaken till händelsen. Detta kan förklaras genom bakåtriktade slutsatsfel, att man drar en slutsats om vad som borde ha orsakat effekten, och omedvetet skapar ett minne av orsaken. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka individers benägenhet att skapa ett falskt minne av att de sett en brottshändelse om de sett effekten av brottet. Studien undersöker även om denna tendens förändras beroende på gärningsmannens etniska ursprung. Deltagare (N=92) minnestestades efter att de sett en film som antingen visade både orsak (en väskstöld) och effekt (väskan försvunnen), eller bara effekten. I varje betingelse hade gärningsmannen antingen ursprung från Skandinavien eller Mellanöstern. En envägs oberoende ANOVA och χ² test visade inte någon tendens till bakåtriktade slutsatsfel oavsett gärningsmannens etniska ursprung. Detta kan förklaras genom begränsningar med studien eller att bakåtriktade slutsatsfel inte är ett förekommande fenomen. Vidare forskning skulle gynnas av ett längre uppehåll mellan filmvisning och minnestest eftersom bakåtriktade slutsatsfel kan uppstå över tid.

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  • 60.
    Brinkborg, Hillevi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Michanek, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ACT vid stress: En randomiserad kontrollerad studie av en gruppintervention för socialsekreterare.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Långvarig stress ökar risk för ohälsa och sjukfrånvaro, med negativa konsekvenser för individ, organisation och samhälle. En preventiv metod för stresshantering är Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT). Syftet var att med en randomiserad, kontrollerad studie undersöka huruvida en kortvarig ACT-intervention påverkar stress och generell psykisk hälsa hos socialsekreterare inom Stockholms stad (n=106). Bortfall hanterades med intent-to-treat-analys. Vid förmätning rapporterade två tredjedelar av deltagarna hög stressnivå (PSS≥25). Resultaten visade att de som genomgått interventionen (n=70) hade signifikant lägre skattningar av stress, generell psykisk ohälsa och utbrändhet jämfört med kontrollgrupp (n=36). Separata analyser visade att dessa skillnader fanns även för deltagare med hög stress vid förmätning, men inte för de med låg. Effektstorlekarna var små till måttliga. Ingen signifikant skillnad fanns för prestationsbaserad självkänsla, psykologisk flexibilitet eller krav och kontroll i arbetet. Genom randomisering kontrollerades även för gruppledarinflytande. Slutsatsen var att interventionen kan användas för att minska symtom på stress, utbrändhet och psykisk ohälsa hos socialsekreterare. Vidare forskning bör undersöka effekten över tid.

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  • 61.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Psychosocial Working Conditions Among High-Skilled Workers: A Latent Transition Analysis2018In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 223-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of psychosocial working conditions assume an interaction of different work environment characteristics. Most studies detail various aspects of such interactions, while fewer investigate the comprehensive patterns of interrelated variables. This exploratory study distinguishes patterns of psychosocial working conditions, describes their characteristics, and investigates their change over 6 years. The working conditions of 1,744 high-skilled workers in Sweden, of a representative sample of the working population, were empirically classified into 4 distinct patterns: (a) the Supporting pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy; (b) the Constraining pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, low learning opportunities, medium creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; (c) the Demanding pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; and (d) the Challenging pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, very high learning opportunities, very high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy. Importantly, these patterns were associated with significant differences in worker well-being. From an individual perspective, working conditions most often changed from patterns with a high workload and time pressure to patterns with lower levels of these demands. Over time, the prevalence of the Constraining pattern increased while that of the Challenging pattern decreased. To conclude, a person-centered approach broadens the understanding of the complex interplay between psychosocial working conditions and their longitudinal change, which can improve the tailoring of occupational health interventions.

  • 62.
    Butor, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    KBT i grupp för personer med social rädsla: Utvärdering av behandlingar på en öppenvårdspsykiatrisk mottagning2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruppbehandling för personer med social ångest har under 5 år bedrivits på en öppenvårdspsykiatrisk mottagning. Sammanlagt har 10 grupper med totalt 50 deltagare behandlats. Gruppbehandlingen bygger på Clarks & Wells KBT modell. Social ångest och socialt undvikande minskade signifikant från för- till eftermätning, vid uppföljningen sjönk värdena ytterligare. Graden av depression minskade på motsvarande sätt. Resultaten visar att KBT metoden fungerar i den kliniska vardagen på en ordinär psykiatrisk öppenvårdsmottagning i ett socialt relativt utsatt område. Många patienter hade komplex psykiatrisk problematik med komorbiditet och diagnoser både på Axel I och II. Skillnader i uppnådda resultat mellan undergrupper diskuteras. Behandlingsresultaten i form av effektstorlekar jämförs med 5 kliniska studier som använt samma eller liknande behandlingsmodell. För- och nackdelar med gruppbehandling i jämförelse med individuell behandling diskuteras och förslag på utveckling av gruppbehandlingen ges.

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  • 63.
    Carlberg, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Ericastiftelsen.
    Terapeuters känslor i barnpsykoterapi2014In: Mellanrummet: Nordisk tidskrift för barn- och ungdomspsykoterapi, ISSN 1404-5559, E-ISSN 2000-8511, no 30, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Dahlbäck, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Using Special Interests to Improve Academic On-Task Behavior in High School Students with Autism2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large majority of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have one or more special interests, i.e. interests that they find to be extremely motivating and engaging. Also, students with ASD often struggle to focus in classroom settings, as academic assignments are typically not as motivating as their special interests. Previous research has shown that special interests can be used to increase academic on-task behavior for young children with ASD but is lacking in terms of academic on-task behavior in adolescents. In this study, a multiple-baseline across participants was used to determine whether altering academic assignments to match individuals’ special interests would increase on-task behaviors in three high school students with ASD. The intervention proved to be effective, as on-task behavior increased in all three participants. Although altering assignments did require some time from teachers this is likely justifiable, given the positive effects for the students.

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    Using Special Interests to Improve Academic On-Task Behavior in High School Students with Autism
  • 65.
    Davis III, Thompson E.
    et al.
    Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA..
    Ollendick, Thomas H.Child Study Center, Virginia Tech.Öst, Lars-GöranStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether it’s dogs, spiders, blood, heights or some other fear, specific phobias are one of the most prevalent mental health problems, affecting as many as one in eight people. In recent years, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has emerged as particularly effective in treating young people and adults with specific phobias. And of these methods, one-session treatment stands out as a long-lasting, cost-effective intervention of choice.

    Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias not only provides a summary of the evidence base, it also serves as a practical reference and training guide. This concise volume examines the phenomenology, epidemiology, and etiology of phobias, laying the groundwork for subsequent discussion of assessment strategies, empirically sound one-session treatment methods, and special topics. In addition, expert contributors address challenges common to exposure therapy, offer age-appropriate guidelines for treating young clients, and describe innovative computer-assisted techniques.

    Organized to be read individually or in sequence, chapters delve into key areas, including:

    • Evidence-based assessment and treatment of specific phobias in children, adolescents, and adults.

    • One-session treatment theory and practice with children, adolescents, and adults.

    • Handling difficult cases of specific phobias in youth.

    • Interventions for specific phobias in special populations.

    • Training and assessing therapists in one-session treatment.

    • Ethical issues in considering exposure.

    Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias is an essential resource for researchers, clinicians, and graduate students in child, school, clinical, and counseling psychology; social work; and general and special education.

  • 66.
    De Alwis, Sulakshana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Abertay University, School of Business, Law and Social Sciences, Division of Accounting.
    Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work in Sri Lanka: The Role of Information Communication Technologies in Work-life Boundaries and Work-life Conflict2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased affordability and accessibility, information and communication technologies (ICTs) are omnipresent in the daily lives of many individuals and consequently influence how people think, feel, and react in day-to-day life experiences. Workplaces are increasingly becoming less bounded by place and time, and employees can connect with work anywhere, anytime. The limitless connectivity enabled by ICTs has created paradoxical experiences for employees. On the one hand, connectivity increases flexibility, empowering employees to work whenever they prefer and wherever they want to be. On the other hand, connectivity creates after-hours expectations where employees are expected to be available anytime to work (i.e. Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work - TASW). However, ICTs alone cannot create these paradoxical experiences, and it is the constitutive entanglements between ICTs, social, organisational and individual factors that create paradoxical experiences. Employing the sociomaterial perspective, in this thesis, we looked at how ICTs have become entangled with different social, organisational, and individual factors in the work-life boundary experiences of individuals and how these entanglements contribute to Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work (TASW) and the work-life conflict of employees. 

    The findings showed that TASW and work-life boundary experiences are outcomes of complex web relations between different sociomaterial assemblages. The flexibility availability paradox is an outcome of these constitutive entanglements between ICTs and human factors. Hence, the same technological constellations could create different boundary experiences for individuals due to the specific nature of the entanglements. Cultural values such as collectivism and power distance could elevate after-hours expectations if top management support such work norms. The findings also showed that female employees can be further disadvantaged due to TASW, especially if they are from a society that upholds traditional gender norms. In such circumstances, introducing technology as a facilitator of work-life balance through flexibility is questionable. All in all, the entanglement of ICTs with social, cultural and individual factors can decide the work-life conflict of employees. These findings suggest that the role of technology needs to be conceptualised carefully in work-life research. Assuming technology to be an exogenous factor or completely absent from work-life experiences will not give a complete picture of the work-life experiences of individuals. Thus, looking at work-life experiences from the sociomaterial perspective would assist researchers in finding more richer insights about this phenomenon and such new insights would be beneficial for organisations to implement formal guidelines to manage TASW requirements to reduce the negative consequences of TASW. 

     

     

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  • 67.
    De Alwis, Sulakshana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Abertay University, School of Business, Law and Social Sciences, Division of Accounting.
    Hernwall, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Adikaram, Arosha
    University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Expectations and management of technology assisted supplemental work: A managerial perspective2023In: South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management, ISSN 2322-0937, E-ISSN 2349-5790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limitless connectivity enabled by Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) has aided organisations to keep their employees linked to work even after hours. Drawing from work boundary theory and sociomaterial theory, this study explores what leads to technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) expectations and how these expectations are managed in organisations. In the analysis of qualitative data collected from 20 senior-level managers from two organisations in Sri Lanka, we found that organisational norms developed through top management influence led to TASW expectations among lower-level managers. These expectations are then imposed by managers, and nonresponses are controlled by means of confrontations and punishments. These punitive regimes could especially create discriminative effects on married female employees if they cannot meet the after-hour expectations due to gender roles associated with the home domain. However, having formal policy guidelines on TASW could reduce the negative consequences on employees. This study contributes to the literature by including the managerial perspective on TASW expectations.

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  • 68.
    Deak, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kristoffersson, Glenn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rädslan för det som finns och inte finns: En randomiserad kontrollerad jämförelse av utfall mellan sedvanlig ensessionsbehandling och behandling med virtuella stimuli mot spindelfobi2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Specifik fobi är en vanlig psykiatrisk åkomma som kan leda till stora individuella begränsningar. Symtomen kan framgångsrikt behandlas med kognitiv beteendeterapi där 85–90 % blir kliniskt signifikant förbättrade. Forskning påvisar lovande behandlingsutfall för virtuell exponeringsbehandling (VRET) mot spindelfobi. Tekniken är intressant då den kringgår de problem med anskaffning och förvaring av fobiska stimuli som sedvanlig behandling medför och dessutom kan innebära ökad tillgänglighet och flexibilitet vid behandling. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att jämföra behandlingseffekten av ensessionsbehandling (OST) med en nyutvecklad spelifierad virtuell exponeringsbehandling (VIMSE), som sker under en fristående behandlingssession. Totalt randomiserades 73 deltagare mellan de två behandlingsmetoderna. Båda behandlingarna medförde statistiskt signifikanta förbättringar med stora effektstorlekar för såväl det beteendetest (BAT), som utgjorde det primära utfallsmåttet (OST d = 1,94; VIMSE d = 1,41), som för de sekundära utfallsmåtten Spider Phobia Questionnaire och Fear of Spiders Questionnaire. OST resulterade i signifikant fler kliniskt signifikant förbättrade än VIMSE.

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    Deak-&-Kristoffersson-(2016)-Rädslan-för-det-som-finns-och-inte-finns
  • 69.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Parker, Andrew M.
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Unraveling the Aging Skein: Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making2017In: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related differences in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory have been identified as three significant predictors of the age-related performance decline observed in complex cognitive tasks. Yet, the assessment of their relative predictive capacity and interrelations is still an open issue in decision making and cognitive aging research. Indeed, no previous investigation has examined the relationships of all these three predictors with decision making. In an individual-differences study, we therefore disentangled the relative contribution of sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory to the prediction of the age-related decline in cognitively demanding judgment and decision-making tasks. Structural equation modeling showed that the age-related decline in working memory plays an important predictive role, even when controlling for sensory functioning, processing speed, and education. Implications for research on decision making and cognitive aging are discussed.

  • 70.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    Stockholm University.
    Personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R) in male juvenile delinquents2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Trainee psychotherapists’ emotion recognition accuracy improves after training: emotion recognition training as a tool for psychotherapy education2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1188634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Psychotherapists’ emotional and empathic competencies have a positive influence on psychotherapy outcome and alliance. However, it is doubtful whether psychotherapy education in itself leads to improvements in trainee psychotherapists’ emotion recognition accuracy (ERA), which is an essential part of these competencies.

    Methods: In a randomized, controlled, double-blind study (N = 68), we trained trainee psychotherapists (57% psychodynamic therapy and 43% cognitive behavioral therapy) to detect non-verbal emotional expressions in others using standardized computerized trainings – one for multimodal emotion recognition accuracy and one for micro expression recognition accuracy – and compared their results to an active control group one week after the training (n = 60) and at the one-year follow up (n = 55). The participants trained once weekly during a three-week period. As outcome measures, we used a multimodal emotion recognition accuracy task, a micro expression recognition accuracy task and an emotion recognition accuracy task for verbal and non-verbal (combined) emotional expressions in medical settings.

    Results: The results of mixed multilevel analyses suggest that the multimodal emotion recognition accuracy training led to significantly steeper increases than the other two conditions from pretest to the posttest one week after the last training session. When comparing the pretest to follow-up differences in slopes, the superiority of the multimodal training group was still detectable in the unimodal audio modality and the unimodal video modality (in comparison to the control training group), but not when considering the multimodal audio-video modality or the total score of the multimodal emotion recognition accuracy measure. The micro expression training group showed a significantly steeper change trajectory from pretest to posttest compared to the control training group, but not compared to the multimodal training group. However, the effect vanished again until the one-year follow-up. There were no differences in change trajectories for the outcome measure about emotion recognition accuracy in medical settings.

    Discussion: We conclude that trainee psychotherapists’ emotion recognition accuracy can be effectively trained, especially multimodal emotion recognition accuracy, and suggest that the changes in unimodal emotion recognition accuracy (audio-only and video-only) are long-lasting. Implications of these findings for the psychotherapy education are discussed.

  • 72.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Letellier, Isabelle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Trainee psychotherapists’ emotion recognition accuracy during 1.5 years of psychotherapy education compared to a control group: No improvement after psychotherapy training2023In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 11, article id e16235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to recognize and work with patients’ emotions is considered an important part of most psychotherapy approaches. Surprisingly, there is little systematic research on psychotherapists' ability to recognize other people’s emotional expressions. In this study, we compared trainee psychotherapists’ non-verbal emotion recognition accuracy to a control group of undergraduate students at two time points: at the beginning and at the end of one and a half years of theoretical and practical psychotherapy training. Emotion recognition accuracy (ERA) was assessed using two standardized computer tasks, one for recognition of dynamic multimodal (facial, bodily, vocal) expressions and one for recognition of facial micro expressions. Initially, 154 participants enrolled in the study, 72 also took part in the follow-up. The trainee psychotherapists were moderately better at recognizing multimodal expressions, and slightly better at recognizing facial micro expressions, than the control group at the first test occasion. However, mixed multilevel modeling indicated that the ERA change trajectories for the two groups differed significantly. While the control group improved in their ability to recognize multimodal emotional expressions from pretest to follow-up, the trainee psychotherapists did not. Both groups improved their micro expression recognition accuracy, but the slope for the control group was significantly steeper than the trainee psychotherapists’. These results suggest that psychotherapy education and clinical training do not always contribute to improved emotion recognition accuracy beyond what could be expected due to time or other factors. Possible reasons for that finding as well as implications for the psychotherapy education are discussed.  

  • 73.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Processes of Organizational Justice: Insights into the perception and enactment of justice2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Well-being at work is of major public interest, and justice at the workplace can be a key factor contributing to employees and managers feeling well. Research has found direct relationships between organizational justice perceptions and work and health outcomes. With research on the justice–health link still emerging, this thesis examines the moderating and mediating processes for the effects of justice perceptions on work outcomes and especially health outcomes. As little is known about those who enact justice, the antecedents and consequences of justice enactment are also studied. In Study I, the relationships between organizational justice and work and health outcomes were in focus, as the moderating role of job characteristics was investigated utilizing the demand–control(–support) model. Organizational justice and job characteristics were associated with work and health outcomes within and across time. The multiplicative effects showed that the organizational justice effects were stronger when perceived job demands were high, job control was low or social support was low. Study II examined the processes through which justice perceptions translate into health outcomes. Building on the allostatic load model, mental preoccupation with work was found to be a relevant mediator of the justice–health relationship, with locus of control moderating the mediated relationships. Study III focused on the actor perspective. Investigating predictions based on the deontic model of justice and ego-depletion theory, moral regard and justice self-efficacy predicted justice enactment positively, and justice enactment had positive effects on feeling professionally recognized but also negative health consequences for the actors themselves. This thesis contributes to advancing the emergent justice–health research stream by providing insights into the processes underlying these aspects, and by incorporating this stream into the actor perspective. 

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  • 74. Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Organizational justice and health: Studying mental preoccupation with work and social support as mediators for lagged and reversed relationships2018In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 553-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational justice perceptions are considered a predictor of health and well-being. To date, empirical evidence about whether organizational justice perceptions predict health or health predicts organizational justice perceptions is mixed. Furthermore, the processes underlying these relationships are largely unknown. In this article, we study whether bidirectional relationships can be explained by 2 different mediation mechanisms. First, based on the allostatic load model, we suggest that the relationships between organizational justice perceptions and different health indicators are mediated through mental preoccupation with work. Second, based on the affective perception and affective reaction assumption, we investigate if the relationships between different health indicators and organizational justice perceptions are mediated by social support at work. Using a large-scale Swedish panel study (N = 3,236), we test the bidirectional mediating relationships between procedural justice perceptions and self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence with a cross-lagged design with 3 waves of data. Significant lagged effects from procedural justice to health were found for models predicting depressive symptoms and sickness absence. Mental preoccupation with work was not found to mediate the longitudinal relationship between procedural justice perceptions and indicators of health. Significant lagged effects from health indicators to procedural justice were found for models involving self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence. Social support mediated the longitudinal relationships between all 3 health indicators and procedural justice. Results are discussed in light of previous studies and implications for theory and practice are outlined.

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  • 75.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmberg, K
    Olsson, P O
    Gillberg, C
    Cognitive strengths and deficits in schoolchildren with ADHD.2007In: Acta Paediatrica, Vol. 96, no 5, p. 756-761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Few studies provide detailed analyses of the various aspects of the entire cognitive profile of children with ADHD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cognitive test data were analysed for 10- to 11-year-old children with (1) ADHD, (2) subthreshold ADHD and (3) milder attention and/or learning problems, and compared with normative data. RESULTS: Thirty-two had ADHD and 10 met the criteria for subthreshold ADHD, prevalence rates of 5.4% and 1.6%, respectively. On a group level, children with ADHD/subthreshold ADHD, and those with milder attention and/or learning problems had almost identical cognitive profiles for the 13 subtests comprising the WISC III, with particularly low results on the arithmetic, coding, information and digit span subtests (ACID profile). When analyzed individually, a complete or incomplete ACID profile (three of four subtests) was equally common in children with ADHD/subthreshold ADHD and in children with milder problems, found in about 1/5. The relative strengths of both groups were in areas demanding logical thinking, reasoning and common sense. CONCLUSION: The specific ACID profile is as common in children with ADHD as in those with minor attention and/or learning problems. The cognitive weaknesses reflected in the ACID profile might play a role as an underlying factor in various developmental disorders.

  • 76. Eklöf, Eva
    et al.
    Carlberg, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Ericastiftelsen.
    Motöverföring i barnpsykoterapi2014In: Mellanrummet: Nordisk tidskrift för barn- och ungdomspsykoterapi, ISSN 1404-5559, E-ISSN 2000-8511, no 30, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77. El Boghdady, Michael
    et al.
    Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. University of Turku, Finland.
    Surgeon's narcissism, hostility, stress, bullying, meaning in life and work environment: a two-centered analysis2023In: Langenbeck's archives of surgery (Print), ISSN 1435-2443, E-ISSN 1435-2451, Vol. 408, no 1, article id 349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Disruptive physician behaviour can affect patients' safety. If surgical trainees throughout higher education experience disruptive behaviour, impaired work-life may follow. Therefore, we aimed to study surgeons' level of narcissism (N), hostility, and stress in relation to their work environment and potential experience of bullying. We also scrutinized search for or presence of meaning in life. Methods: General surgeons in UK National Health Service from 2 hospitals participated with 3 levels of training: junior trainees (JT), senior trainees (ST), and consultants (CONS). Participants completed 52 VAS-formed questions plus demographics. Modified questionnaires were used for assessments of 'hostility', 'narcissism', meaning in life, quality of work-life, and bullying. Results: Altogether 33% of surgeons displayed narcissism and 22% could exhibit disruptive behaviour. MANOVA significant differences between low, medium, and high narcissism groups were revealed in hostility (p<.01), perceived stress (p=.001), and presence of meaning in life (p<.05). Regression analyses explained hostility both by N-scale (p=.000) and 'being bullied during training'(p=.009) but negatively by 'presence of meaning in life'(p=.004). Surgeons' perceived stress was explained both by N-scale (p=.000) followed by 'seeing others bullied during training (p=.000) and negatively by 'working extra days beyond schedule' (p=.007). The presence of meaning in life was explained mostly by good beneficial stress (p= .000) but negatively both by 'doing extra work beyond schedule' (p= .016) and hostility (p= .003). Conclusion: Surgeons may exhibit disruptive behaviour in a challenging situation. The narcissim-scale was the best predictor of hostility and perceived stress. Being bullied during surgical training predicted hostility. Seeing others being bullied during surgical training predicted stress. Beneficial stress is explained best by surgeons' experience of the presence of meaning in life.

  • 78.
    Ellen, Edberg
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Di Schiena, Marianne
    En pilotstudie av kognitiv beteendeterapi i grupp för behandling av emetofobi2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Emetofobi innebär en intensiv rädsla för att kräkas. Fobin medför stort lidande för patienten, men forskningen om behandling av emetofobi är mycket begränsad. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om gruppbehandling med kognitiv beteendeterapi kunde minska graden av emetofobiska symptom. Tre grupper med totalt 23 patienter behandlades, två på våren (n = 14) och en på hösten (n = 9). Behandlingen bestod av 10 sessioner à 2,5 timmar. Patienterna hade signifikant lägre grad av emetofobiska symptom vid behandlingsavslut än vid behandlingsstart. Vid behandlingsavslut var 44 % kliniskt signifikant förbättrade vad gäller emetofobiska symptom, och vid tremånadersuppföljning hade 61 % av patienterna uppnått kliniskt signifikant förbättring. Resultaten bör tolkas med stor försiktighet då undersökningen saknade kontrollgrupp och bestod av ett litet antal patienter. En längre uppföljning som kunde visa om behandlingseffekten bestod över tid hade varit önskvärd, men rymdes inte inom ramen för denna studie.

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    Di Schiena & Edberg
  • 79.
    Eresund, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att behandla störande beteende: metodutveckling i barnpsykoterapi2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Eriksson, Charli
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Kimber, Birgitta
    Skoog, Therése
    Design and implementation of RESCUR in Sweden for promoting resilience in children: a study protocol2018In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, article id 1250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This research program aims to investigate the implementation and effects of a theoretically promising prevention method. It is being developed in a European research collaboration within a Comenius project (2012-2015) between 6 European universities (in Malta, Italy, Greece, Croatia, Portugal and Sweden) with the purpose of enhancing European children's resilience. Methods/design: RESCUR in Sweden consists in a RCT study of the Resilience Curriculum (RESCUR) that is taking place in Sweden 2017-2019. The study is being performed by Junis, IOGT-NTO's Junior Association, part of IOGT International, in conjunction with researchers at Goteborg, Umea and Stockholm universities, and is being funded by the Public Health Agency of Sweden.Around 1000 children of the ages 7-12 will, through their schools and associations, or via groups in social services, be acquainted with the material. Children will learn and practice mindfulness, storytelling, group discussions and much more, all designed to strengthen protective factors and increase their resilience. The program also involves parents, who are taking part in the work to reinforce children's protective factors.Based on the work with groups of children, an effectiveness study including children aged 7-12 in school classes, with randomized and controlled pre- and post-measurements, self-rating questionnaires and group observations is being performed. The program will also be implemented in a non-governmental organization and in groups in social services. The study also investigates forms of implementation. Discussion:The design of the study will enable the researchers to answer five research questions by using a mixed-methods approach. Implementation will be studied, which is a necessary prerequisite for an effect study. Moreover, the research procedure has been tailored to the target group, with age-appropriate measures as well as multiple informants, which will produce high-quality data for analysis. A special ethical challenge is the study of young children, and efforts to give children a voice have been included in the program. This project is regarded as having good potential to benefit children in general, and particularly children in vulnerable positions.

  • 81.
    Eriksson, Fanny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Work-life balance och arbetsmotivation hostjänstemän i Sverige: rollen av distansarbete2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 82.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driving faster or slower? Biased judgments of fuel consumption at changing speeds2012In: Advances in human aspects of road and rail transportation / [ed] Neville Stanton, London: CRC Press, 2012, p. 293-297Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Eriksson, Joel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fladvad, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    TRÄNINGSMÄNGDENS BETYDELSE VID DATORSTÖDD ARBETSMINNESTRÄNING FÖR NIO- TILL TRETTONÅRIGA BARN2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Låg arbetsminneskapacitet hos barn medför ofta svårigheter med attlära sig läsa, skriva, räkna och problemlösa. Barnen kan ävenuppfattas som disträa och glömska. Datorstödd arbetsminnesträninghar visats förbättra prestationer dels på programspecifika ochgeneraliserade arbetsminnestester samt tros påverka beteende. Dennastudie utreder huruvida träningsmängd, mätt i antal repetitioner ochtid, påverkar träningsutfallet. 23 barn med undergenomsnittligarbetsminneskapacitet inkluderades. Av dessa randomiserades 22 barntill att antingen utföra 42 eller 84 repetitioner fördelade på sexövningar med självjusterande svårighetsgrad iarbetsminneträningsprogrammet ”Minneslek Flex”. Barnen tränadeantingen i skola (n=6) eller hemma (n=16) vid minst 22 tillfällenunder en fem- till sexveckors period. Fem avhopp skedde i det längreprogrammet. 17 barn kom att delta i eftermätningarna.Arbetsminneskapaciteten förbättrades signifikant av träningen.Träningsmängden hade inte någon påverkan på denna förbättring.Några beteendeförändringar kunde inte heller skönjas. Fyndenindikerar att en mindre träningsmängd räcker med möjlig implikationatt fler barn potentiellt kan uppskatta att ta del av dylik träning.

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    Eriksson., J., & Fladvad., A. 2011. Träningsmängdensbetydelse
  • 84.
    Eskin, Mehmet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Suicidal behavior in Swedish and Turkish adolescents: a cross-cultural investigation of prevalence and psychosocial factors1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Fahlström Notlind, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Avlastning eller merbelastning: En intervjustudie av hur föräldrar till ungdomar med bipolär- eller psykosdiagnos upplevt kontakten med barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att få ny och fördjupad kunskap om faktorer som upplevts vara till hjälp respektive hinder för föräldrar i kontakten med barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin. Kvalitativa djupintervjuer gjordes med åtta föräldrar till ungdomar som fått bipolär- eller psykosdiagnos. Analysen av materialet skedde genom meningskategorisering enligt principerna för hermeneutisk tolkning. Fyra teman identifierades: upplevelse av vårdpersonalens intentioner, upplevelse av vårdpersonalens kompetens, upplevelse av vårdens organisation samt upplevelse av behandlingsinterventioner. Resultatet visar att det upplevs som en avlastning (hjälp) för föräldrarna om de känner tillit till vårdpersonalens intentioner och tilltro till den professionella kompetensen, samt om de upplever att vårdens organisation och de vårdinsatser som erbjuds har en sådan flexibilitet att de kan möta familjens individuella behov. Upplevelser av motsatsen kan i stället utgöra en merbelastning (hinder) för föräldrarna vilket riskerar att försvåra samarbetet med vårdpersonalen. De kliniska implikationerna av resultaten diskuteras avslutningsvis.

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  • 86.
    Falk, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Developing traffic safety interventions from conceptions of risks and accidents2007In: Transportation Research Part F:: Traffic Psychology and behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of investigating the mental background to young male drivers’ risky traffic behaviour, this explorative qualitative

    study outlines a framework for the construction of interventions that could mitigate risk-taking among young male

    drivers. Seven males, 20–23 years of age, demonstrating excessive speeding behaviour when driving, were interviewed indepth. Five themes, ‘‘Self-image as a good driver brings self-esteem’’, ‘‘Commanding high speed – a pleasurable sensation’’,

    ‘‘High awareness of risks, but notions of serious outcomes are not salient’’, ‘‘Imagined accident scenarios evoke outcome

    conceptions’’ and ‘‘Perceived cause of accident influences anticipated affective reactions’’, had central positions in their

    conceptions about risk-taking and accidents. The results were analysed in relation to previous literature on the concepts

    of Anticipated Regret and Imagining as antecedents to attitude and behaviour change, and it was concluded that interventions

    based on imagining the emotional aftermath of being the perpetrator of a serious accident should be developed and

    tested.

  • 87.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Reflections: Teaching Abroad2016In: International Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 32-32Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 88.
    Forsell, Minna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sista matchen, längsta loppet: Att avsluta en elitidrottskarriär2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 89.
    Forsström, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Rafi, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Dropouts’ usage of a responsible gambling tool and subsequent gambling patterns2020In: Cogent Psychology, E-ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 1715535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible gambling measures are mainly implemented by the gambling industry to reduce excessive gambling and gambling-related harm. These measures include responsible gambling tools that target online gamblers, typically through behavior tracking, feedback, and, in some cases, advice on how to reduce gambling. Playscan is a responsible gambling tool implemented at gambling sites in several countries with many users in Norway and Sweden. Previous studies have indicated that these tools have limited repeated use. Also, the tools have shown to have a low effect on decreasing gambling behavior. Our aim has been to investigate usage and effect of Playscan among Norwegian gamblers (N = 835) that began to use Playscan and then opted out. These gamblers had a high initial use, but extensive lack of repeated use of the functions included in the tool (secondary data was used). The majority of the gamblers used Playscan for a short period of time. The results indicate that the participants did not gamble less after using Playscan (gambling data analyzed using ANOVA). A hypothesis that can be suggested is that short-term use of Playscan do not decrease the level of gambling for this sample. Also, low-risk gamblers seems to have increased their gambling after using Playscan. The results implies that level of use and length of use needs to be taken into account when evaluating the effect of responsible gambling tools. The low level of use in this sample and in other studies implies that strategies to increase is needed.

  • 90.
    Forssén, Benny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Örvall, Saga
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Distansarbete och dess påverkan på anställda. Fördjupande förståelse för work-life balance och rollkonflikter.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Kandidatuppsats_Örvall&Forssén
  • 91.
    Franco Nieto, Paloma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring the role of urban environments for human wellbeing: an analysis of people's experiences in Madrid2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If urban planning is to ensure wellbeing while reducing negative environmental impacts, a better understanding on how different urban environments support or hinder wellbeing is needed. This thesis uses softGIS methodology to understand how different urban environments impact people’s experiences in Madrid. An online PPGIS survey collected people’s positive and negative experiences in Madrid (n=400) as well as the perceived environmental qualities for each experience. The thesis applies affordance theory to analyse experiences. For the spatial analysis, the study uses 6 environmental features and analyses the perceived environmental qualities (PEQ) in all of them. The results suggest that social interaction is the main PEQ for having positive experiences and that it is higher in built environments. On the other hand, the presence of nature is reported to be the most important PEQ in positive experiences in nature environments. However, social interaction is the main cause for having negative experience regardless of the type of environment. The thesis concludes that this method allows to map restorative environments and describe their PEQ providing a useful tool for urban planners to design cities for citizens’ wellbeing. This thesis suggests that in order to achieve sustainability goals in urban areas while ensuring wellbeing, a focus should be put on transforming places with high number of negative experiences by including some nature elements that can reduce the feeling of crowding without eroding the dynamics of these environments. Also, a better distribution of nature environments could improve wellbeing in urban areas. In addition, creating spaces for social interaction should be other priority in urban planning in Madrid, due to the importance it has for people’s wellbeing.

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  • 92.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pingel, Birgit
    Løvset, Lise Tevik
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    From Awareness to Action Using the Survey Feedback Method2014In: Journal of Health Science, ISSN 2328-7136, Vol. 2, no 7, p. 325-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports from European university hospitals show an increase in work-related mental strain. Four European university hospitals started a comprehensive research program called Health and Organisation among University hospitals Physicians in Europe—the HOUPE Study in the year 2003. Based on the results from the HOUPE study, the authors conducted an intervention project together with HR-consultants at one of the participating hospitals. A collected cross-sectional survey in 2005 among permanently employed academic physicians (N = 1800, response rate 60%) at Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden. Results from the study were used in survey feedback seminars (N = 250). This method is a way of systematic collection of data to process and give feedback to the organisation’s members in order to initiate organisational change. By providing results based on the total sample, on each division, and unpublished data from each clinic the authors aimed to improve physicians’ health and work satisfaction and thereby enhance the health of the physicians. Feedback seminars can arouse many emotions and might make people defensive. The role of resistance in the process of change is a paradox in that resistance slows down change. However, without resistance there will be no change at all. The authors conducted 20 feedback seminars of three hours duration where results were discussed relating mainly to the psychosocial work environment, psychological distress, and career paths, i.e., job demands, control at work, social interactions, leadership, commitment to the organisation, harassment at work, burnout, depression and suicide ideation. Altogether, 250 physicians participated in these meetings. To achieve acceptance for organisational change, data about relevant conditions in the organisation have to be processed in a systematic way in collaboration with all those who will benefit from changes, in concrete work units as divisions and clinics.

  • 93.
    Frostne, Isabel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Abstrakta och konkreta ting i geometrilandskapet: Varför elever i årskurs 7-9 har lätt och svårt i geometriområdet samt vad läraren gör för att underlätta elevernas förståelse2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Geometry is an area in mathematics that is considered not abstract, on the contrary from other areas in mathematics. As geometry is considered an unabstracted area in mathematics, why has students around the world difficulties with geometry? TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) has shown that Swedish students in 8th grade has difficulties in algebra and geometry. The study focuses on why secondary school students’ have easy to understand some parts in geometry and why they have difficulties in other parts. Furthermore the study focuses on strategies teachers use to facilitate understanding in geometry. The study is carried out by interviewing six teachers in secondary school. The interviews are recorded and transcribed for enabling thematic analysis. The result shows that teachers experiences that students have easy to understand the first dimension (length and perimeter) and easy to understand geometrical objects as for example rectangular shapes. The reason behind the easiness is that these elements in geometry is known for the students, easy for the teachers to explain and not abstract. The students have difficulties comprehending two and especially three dimensional objects, difficult geometrical objects as circular objects, objects where the height is “situated” outside the object and irregular figures, unit conversions and concepts in geometry. The reasons behind these difficulties are mainly: the elements and methods are unfamiliar and abstract to the students. The abstraction in geometry are shown as comprehending how big or small sizes are in two and three dimensions and difficulties to comprehend the big discrepancy between the numbers in unit conversion, Teachers also observe that students have difficulties in visualizing and manipulating objects. These results show that what is known and not abstract are the opposite for what students have difficulties with, i.e. unknown and abstract. The strategies the teachers use are mostly to concretize the difficulties in geometry and in that way show students why it is valid. Other strategies are concerning with building a strong foundation in geometry, to combine geometry with other subjects in school and using students prior knowledge to build new knowledge. The red articles agrees with the result from the study.

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  • 94.
    Frykheden, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effektiv mätning av livskvalitet - Brunnsviken Brief Quality of Life Inventory (BBQ): en psykometrisk utvärdering2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med Brunnsviken Brief Quality of Life Inventory (BBQ) är att skapa en kortfattad och lättadministrerad skattningsskala för självupplevd livskvalitet med goda psykometriska egenskaper vilken är gratis för alla att använda. I framtagningen av BBQ har data insamlad med Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) i tidigare studier använts för att identifiera de livsområden med störst betydelse för självupplevd livskvalitet. I aktuell studie har normvärden tagits fram för den i studien ingående undersökningsgruppen bestående av 167 psykologistudenter. Studien har visat att BBQ har utmärkt reliabilitet (test-retest), 0,89. Vidare hade BBQ lika god validitet för undersökningsgruppen som QOLI. Resultatet vid faktoranalys av både QOLI och BBQ stämmer väl överens med vad som framkommit vid tidigare forskning av QOLI, det vill säga att instrumentet mäter en bakomliggande faktor; livskvalitet. För att uppskatta diskriminativ förmåga och ta fram meningsfullt gränsvärde har studien även undersökt BBQ gentemot en klinisk patientgrupp bestående av 501 individer med förmodad social fobi. Att studien har visat att BBQ har lika god reliabilitet och validitet som QOLI, samt bättre diskriminativ förmåga att skilja mellan en icke-klinisk och en klinisk population, kan på sikt leda till att BBQ övertar QOLIs position som guldstandard i att mäta självupplevd livskvalitet.

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  • 95.
    Fältén, Rebecca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    How are organisational conditions related to illegitimate tasks among managers and their subordinates in the public sector? A Swedish study2024In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Illegitimate tasks violate the norms of what is considered part of the employee's work role and have been found to harm individuals, groups and organisations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between key organisational conditions - span of control, recruitment needs, administrative support and organisational changes - and the prevalence of unnecessary and unreasonable illegitimate tasks experienced by managers and their subordinates. Data were collected from a sample comprising 80 managers and 863 subordinates in a Swedish municipality using questionnaires to assess their perceptions of illegitimate tasks. Organisational conditions were collected from the human resources register in the municipality. Multilevel analysis results reveal a positive association between the size of workgroups and illegitimate tasks; the more subordinates per workgroup, the more unnecessary and unreasonable tasks managers reported and the more unreasonable tasks the subordinates reported. These findings hold practical implications for organisations because they indicate that illegitimate tasks can be reduced by decreasing the number of employees in larger workgroups.

  • 96.
    Garoff, Sanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utvärdering av InternetKomet för föräldrar med barn med normbrytande beteende.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 97.
    Ginner Hau, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Recidivism in convicted young offenders participating in community-based rehabilitative programmes: 18-month follow-up of 189 Swedish male offendersIn: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recidivism over 18 months was investigated in a representative group of Swedish male offenders, 15-17 years old, who had been referred to community based rehabilitative programmes (n=189). Also, registry data on earlier contacts with social services and previous convictions was collected.  Eighteen months after programme start, 60% of the young offenders were registered as suspected of new crimes, 48% for crime of violence.  Previous contacts with social services had been documented for 44%, and 30% were registered as previously convicted. However, the group was highly heterogeneous, and all registry data corresponded well with self-reported history of antisocial behaviour collected at programme start, by which three subgroups (n=60, 64 and 64, respectively)  with significantly different problem profiles had been identified. Results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of antisocial development, and the need to adher o the risk principle when designing interventions for young offenders. 

  • 98.
    Ginner Hau, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Self-reported strengths and difficulties in Swedish young offenders in community-based rehabilitative programmesIn: Child & Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health was investigated in a representative group of Swedish male offenders, 15-17 years of age,  referred to community based rehabilitative programmes (n=188). Self -report scores of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were compared to those of a norm group, for the entire sample and for three subgroups with different levels of antisocial behaviour. The young offenders reported elevated levels of total difficulties, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention, significantly more scores in the clinical range and more negative impact on everyday life. The heterogeneity was substantial, and the subgroup with the most extensive history of antisocial behaviour was largely responsible for the overall results. Screening for mental health should be part of routine assessment, particularly in youths with extensive histories of antisocial behaviour.

  • 99.
    Ginnner Hau, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Different problems – same treatment: Swedish juvenile offenders in community-based rehabilitative programmes2011In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young delinquents may be regarded as children in need of rehabilitation or as offenders deserving of consequences proportional to the committed crime. The focus has increasingly been on the latter, while research shows that individual risk assessment is essential for effective rehabilitation. This study explored self-reported history of antisocial behaviour among Swedish male offenders 15-17 years of age (n=189) who were sentenced to participate in rehabilitative programmes conducted by local social services. Antisocial behaviour was extensive and, according to a principal component analysis, consisted of three dimensions: (i) adolescent delinquency; (ii) violence and theft, (iii) drug-related crimes. Using cluster analysis, the participants were divided into four subgroups representing different levels and characteristics of delinquency, which explained 73 per cent of the variance in antisocial behaviour. The conclusion is that assignment to rehabilitative programmes appeared unrelated to subgroups, i.e. to risk level. Organisational obstacles to an evidence based practice are discussed.

  • 100.
    Gonzalez, Nichel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Interest to Reinvest: Individuals’ use of numerical information for investment decisions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of how numerical information, such as asset values and interest rates, influences inexperienced investors in their investment decisions. In relation to this, I have investigated the participants’ own understanding of what information they rely on for their own decisions. I have also investigated how their willingness to wait for greater rewards is related to their investment decisions. Importantly, I have distinguished between average behavior (group behavior) and individual behavior in an attempt to better describe how different information is important for different individual investors.

    On the group level the only reliable predictor of investment size was whether there was a gain or a loss during the period before the investment. However, how large the gain or loss was had no, or very limited, influence on investment size. When looking at each investor’s individual decisions, it was revealed that a substantial number of participants actually did rely on information other than only the gain/loss information, for example, the interest rates of forecasted developments of the different investment prospects. Furthermore, a substantial number of participants relied heavily on one of the cues; at least 50% of their investments were explained by the cue relied upon.

    Interestingly, very few participants’ investments were influenced by their own judgments of future asset outcomes. Furthermore, the participants’ willingness to invest in funds with guaranteed gains was used as a proxy for time preference (willingness to wait for greater rewards instead of accepting lesser rewards in the present). Time preference was relevant for investments but it did not relate to judged asset outcomes. This indicates that people may be more influenced by their future-oriented preferences rather than by their future-oriented beliefs (judgments).

    To conclude, these findings suggest that people use a preference-driven simplified strategy for investments and that these strategies differ substantially between individuals. This corroborates the idea about heuristic thinking, meaning that people simplify their decisions in a way that can deviate from normative value-maximizing behavior. For practical application, it is important to note the variety of strategies among individuals. This variety suggests that there is no “one size fits all” solution regarding instructions that can be given to inexperienced investors. The participants’ very limited insight into what information they relied upon is reason for researchers and advisors to understand the individuality in strategies in greater depth.

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