Change search
Refine search result
1234567 51 - 100 of 662
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Sundevall, FiaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.Tjeder, David
    Könspolitiska nyckeltexter: från Det går an till #metoo2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Könspolitiska nyckeltexter är en mångfacetterad introduktion till svensk genushistoria. Genom ett pärlband av originaltexter, från C.J.L. Almqvists roman Det går an 1839 till #metoouppropen 2017, ges en fördjupad förståelse av hur kön har diskuterats, politiserats och iscensatts under nästan 200 år. Varje nyckeltext är kommenterad och analyserad av en forskare.

    Arbete, sexuella rättigheter, familjeliv, diskriminering, våld, försörjning, värnplikt, rösträtt, preventivmedel, skönhet och barnomsorg är några exempel på de många frågor som behandlas i boken, nu i omarbetad och utvidgad upplaga.

  • 52.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Svanlund, Jonatan
    Mad women: gendered divisions in the Swedish advertising industry, 1930–20122017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 268-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article constitutes a first attempt to systematically map the presence of women in the greatly changing Swedish advertising industry since 1930. The overarching aim of the study is to analyse how the gendered divisions of labour and business changed in relation to both business structure and the overall labour market in Sweden. While we conclude that women constituted around 40–50% of the workforce over time, we see an increase in the shares of women in higher positions and in women who were self-employed and managers. This upturn, however, stabilised during the 1990s. We argue that the changes in gendered divisions of labour and business coincided with a fast-changing business structure. First, the old cartel broke down in the mid-1960s. Then, the number of firms increased quickly during the 1970s and 1980s, and the market share for the largest firms declined. This, in turn, meant new business opportunities for women at the same time as their overall labour market participation increased. The article stresses the importance of both acknowledging women’s presence in the industry development as well as the structures constituting gender divisions.

  • 53.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Tolvhed, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Nya plattformar för könspolitik: Kommentar till vittnesmål på sociala medier2019In: Könspolitiska nyckeltexter: från Det går an till #metoo / [ed] Klara Arnberg, Fia Sundevall, David Tjeder, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2019, 2, p. 499-506Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Bahgat, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Handels- och biståndsförhållandets utveckling mellan Uganda och Sverige och EBA-avtalets målsättning2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Handels- och biståndsförhållandet mellan Uganda och Sverige har undersökts i syfte att tareda på hur utvecklingen har sett ut under frihandelsavtalet Everything But Arms. Avtalet harvarit aktivt sedan 2001 och resulterat i tullfrihet av alla varor förutom vapen och ammunitionför Ugandas handel med EU. Innan avtalets sattes igång var Ugandas handel med Sverigeojämn, det är den även idag efter ca åtta år av en global frihandel. Handelsstatistiken dessaländer emellan tyder på en stor export vinst för Sveriges del. Genom Everything But Armsavtaletstullfrihet anser EU och FN att ett MUL-land som Uganda kommer att kunnakonkurrera på världsmarknaden. EBA-avtalets målsättning är tydlig och menar att frihandelnkommer leda till att Uganda ökar sin export och därmed ta större plats på världsmarknaden. Igranskandet av förhållandet Uganda-Sverige utgjorde slutsatsen att EBA-avtalet inte har nåttupp till sin målsättning.EBA-avtalet har varit aktivt i snart åtta år och det svenska biståndet som ges till Uganda ärungefär 30 gånger större än Ugandas svenska exportintäkter. Ugandas sociala ochdemokratiska förhållanden i landet är den största faktorn som bromsar upp utvecklingen ochdärför är landet fortfarande beroende av utländskt bistånd. Det svenska biståndet går därförfrämst till demokratiska, humanitära och fattigdomsbekämpande insatser. Utan att kunnaförsäkra den sociala stabiliteten hos den ugandiska befolkningen kan inte handelsutvecklingenprioriteras. Uganda kan idag inte öka konkurrensen på världsmarknaden genom ett avtal omtullfrihet. De måste först uppnå acceptabla sociala, politiska och demokratiska nivåer i landetför att handeln ska kunna utvecklas och därmed i sin tur kunna konkurrera påvärldsmarknaden.

  • 55.
    Baraibar, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Green Deserts or New Opportunities?: Competing and complementary views on the soybean expansion in Uruguay, 2002-20132014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In just over a decade, soybean production in Uruguay emerged from almost non-existence to second most important export product. The extraordinary rapid soybean expansion is often referred to as representing changes that go far beyond the mere substitution of one agrarian activity for another, but evolved into a broad societal concern. Accordingly, the soybean expansion has not only been debated in national media, but among NGO’s, firms, scholars, farmers, political parties as well as within broad sectors of the state apparatus. Although the views expressed are allegedly about the soybean expansion, they are found to reflect much deeper values and assumptions about what is good, appropriate and desirable. All this ultimately represents discordant alternative visions and paths of development. This dissertation outlines and analyzes the dynamics of different, complementary and competing views on the soybean expansion in Uruguay between 2002 and 2013. These have in turn been related to wider debates about “development” of longer historical roots within the social sciences.

    Rather than exclusively relying on the mediatized accounts expressed in the public debate, often posed in a rather superficial and antagonistic way in accordance to some media logic, this study has made intensive use of in-depth interviews. This has allowed for deeper, more complex and nuanced accounts, as well as made possible to include voices that were only indirectly “represented” in the public debate. The main agreements and disagreements expressed in relation to the soybean expansion have been outlined, described, situated and explored. While constant contingency and unfixity are acknowledged, three main broader competing world-views, or discourses, have also been identified. These are discerned through the analysis of patterns of regularities in the articulations about the soybean expansion. The first is labelled “agro-ecology discourse”, reflecting anti-capitalist notions and centered in values of local autonomy and justice. The other is labelled “pro-market discourse”, reflecting market faith and centered in values of growth, dynamism and meritocracy. The third is labelled “pro-public regulation discourse”, reflecting beliefs in development intervention and centered in values of progress and upgrading.

  • 56.
    Baraibar Norberg, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The Political Economy of Agrarian Change in Latin America: Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay2020Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book makes an original contribution to the discussion about agro-food exporting countries’ governmental policy. It presents a historicized and internationally contextualized exploration of the political economy of agrarian change in three Latin American countries: Argentina, Praguay, and Uruguay. By comparatively examining how these states have acted in a context of global driven market forces and historically formed institutions, the monograph illuminates the differing capacities of state autonomy under the present era of globalized agriculture.

  • 57.
    Berg, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Ericsson, Martin
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rösträtt för alla? Begränsningar i rösträtten efter 19212018In: Rösträttens århundrade: Kampen, utvecklingen och framtiden för demokratin i Sverige / [ed] Ulrika Holgersson, Lena Wängnerud, Makadam Förlag, 2018, p. 219-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Berg, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Vägen till isbrytarna: Den kommunalpolitiska isbrytarfrågan i Göteborg och Stockholm1867-18952012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Isen har i alla tider varit ett problem för sjöfarten. Innan ångbåtarna fanns fick man helt enkeltundvika isen. Segelfartygen togs upp eller sökte sig till isfria (sydligare) platser över vintern.När isen lade sig stängdes hamnarna. Detta påverkade det ekonomiska livet för de samhällensom drabbades genom minskad aktivitet och tillgång på handelsvaror. Ångbåtarna, isynnerhet sådana som genom konstruktion och styrka kunde bryta is, förändrade detta.

  • 59.
    Berg, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Giftets värde: Apotekares förståelse av opium i Sverige, 1870-19252016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Before the regulation of opium as a “narcotic” in Sweden in 1923, opium was not regulated for its intoxicating properties and was freely available. But not in any kind of shop. Opium was legally available only through the pharmacies. This thesis explores how this free availability of a narcotic was understood by its traders, the pharmacists.

    The title of this thesis – The Value of Poison – indicates how opium could be conceptualized both as a safe, everyday remedy essential to keep freely available and as a drug of intoxication. As a poison it could be articulated as a matter of primarily pharmacological, not moral or medical, concern. This also gave the pharmacists, with their special knowledge of pharmaka (drugs, poisons), an autonomous space of knowledge free from the ever more intruding “medical gaze”. But, in order to articulate this kind of understanding of opium, another kind of knowledge was needed to be acknowledged: that of the user. In this articulation a “sensus communis” was tied in with a broader cultural knowledge of drugs. Problems with opium were focused on the danger of acute poisoning, not recreational intoxication. Concepts that could have problematized this kind of use were rearticulated as problems either of illegitimate trade, unregulated markets and advertising or of draconian regulation by greedy or sloppy doctors. These rather opposite elements were made equivalent through the articulation of ignorance in both cases, thus further emphasizing the special knowledge of the pharmacist.

    The thesis locates a process of contradiction that contributes to the eventual diminishing of the discourse of poison towards the end of the period. The pharmaceutical knowledge that guaranteed the discourse was based on a “pharmaceutical gaze” on pharmaka. It pierced through the drug to identify its constituent parts. In this process it was promised that the different effects of opium would be separated. “Narcotic” could be a by-product, to be discarded or controlled, without dispensing of other therapeutic effects. With this ever deeper knowledge of opium, knowledge in the pharmacies was made insufficient for the full understanding or opium, and so too was that of the traditional user. The era of opium as a poison was over.

  • 60.
    Berg, Heléne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Vernby, Kåre
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Post-WWI military disarmament and interwar fascism in Sweden2019In: Historical Methods, ISSN 0161-5440, E-ISSN 1940-1906, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 37-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of anti-democratic movements is a central puzzle to social science. We study a novel and rich historical dataset covering Swedish municipalities during the interwar years and find a strong link between the presence of a military garrison and the emergence of fascist parties. We interpret these results as suggesting that fascist mobilization in Sweden was driven by discontent with the process of disarmament brought about by democratization. In contrast, poor economic conditions, as captured both by levels of and changes in the local poverty rate and tax base, do not explain the strong link between the fascists and military garrisons. We relate these results to influential theories of democratization.

  • 61.
    Bergdahl, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mål- och resultatstyrningens inträde i svensk utvecklingspolitik: En analys av New Public Management och mål- och resultatstyrningens påverkan på svensk utvecklingspolitik, 2003 - 20132012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats avser att analysera på det sätt New Public Management (NPM) ochfrämst hur mål- och resultatstyrningen inträder och tar sig i uttryck i högre grad äntidigare inom den svenska utvecklingspolitiken. Sedan slutet av 1990-talet har målochresultatstyrningen kommit att genomsyra så gott som hela den offentliga sektorn iSverige, dock tycks den ha nått svensk utvecklingspolitik i ett senare skede. Mål- ochresultatstyrningen är sprungen ur den reformvåg som kommit att kallas New PublicManagement (NPM). Reformvågen bottnade i en tanke om att offentlig sektor skareformers och sträva efter att närma sig privat sektor. Utifrån de årligaregleringsbreven avseende Sida analyseras tioårsperioden 2003-2013, där en stegvisaccelerering av NPM och resultatstyrningen kan urskiljas. Däremot råder detskiftande meningar om huruvida resultatstyrningen egentligen bidrar till eller ärtillämpbar på utvecklingsarbetet. Resultatstyrningen tycks dock ha fått ökad kraft ochetablerats inom utvecklingspolitiken just för att den har kopplas till idén omlegitimitet genom resultat, transparens och ansvarsutkrävande.

  • 62.
    Bergfeldt, Börje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Den teokratiska statens död: sekularisering och civilisering i 1700-talets Stockholm1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The point of departure for this dissertation is the discussion of the history of civilisation that has been held in the wake of the German sociologist and historian, Norbert Elias. One of the most radical changes in our society during the last 250 years, and at the same time one of the most fundamental aspects of the civilising process, is secularization. From having been the only true School, Christianity became one of several philosophies of life. This change has been explained in different ways by researchers in cultural history and the history of mentalities. Roughly, you can talk about two different types of explanations, or perspectives; one vertical and one horizontal. I agree with the horizontal perspective, i.e. the conclusion that both the civilising process in general and the secularization, at least in some parts, must be seen as a result of man`s own activities, rather than disciplining actions from above.

    A study of the administration of justice and the efficiency of the church's punishment regarding fornification (lägersmål), sexual intercourse between unmarried individuals, tells us that one of the most important reasons that extra-marital intercourse received milder punishments, was that the religious grounds for legitimising punishment had declined during the second half of the century.

    Another study investigates how the church handled the most central cult-ceremony; the sacrament of communion. Several of the inhabitants of Stockholm were no longer behaving according to religiously accepted patterns of living during the 18th century. Concurrently with this, women came to play a more active role in the public life of the church.

    The "power", i.e. the upholders of the religious life, does not always have to react in a aggressive way. Through research on religious literature, you can establish that the "power" rather met competing patterns of thought in a passive way.

    At least in some parts the spiritual or mental secularization was parallell to an institutional secularization of the church as an organisation. A study of the accounts for three parishes i Stockholm during the period 1754 to 1800, shows a long-term declining trend in real income.

  • 63.
    Berglund, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Dutta, MondiraHilding, PerStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Development and Regional Cooperation in Central Asia and South Asia: Euro-Asian Perspectives2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a output of a two-day international conference held in Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi from March 13-14, 2014. The conference was organised under the aegis of the Centre for Inner Asian Studies, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University in its collaboration with Forum for Asian Studies, Stockholm University, Sweden.

  • 64.
    Bergman, Anna Inez
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    “The Safe Solution of Women's Greatest Hygienic Handicap”: Varufiering och medikalisering i reklam för mensskydd i 1920-talets USA2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 65.
    Bjarne Larsson, Gabriela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Lön och gåva: värdering av krigsfolkets tjänster under senmedeltiden2015In: Långa linjer och många fält: Festskrift till Johan Söderberg / [ed] Martin Gustavsson, Dag Retsö, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2015, p. 51-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Bjessmo, Lars-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Industrin i Södertälje 1920-1970: en ekonomisk-historisk studie av industriell förändring1987Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Bohman, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Meat Feeds the World: The Key Role of Economic Growth in What We Put on Our Plates2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to explain and contribute to the understanding of the correla-tive relationship between economic growth and meat consumption in thirteen countries during the years of 1989, 1999 and 2009. A quantitative statistical method has been applied to opera-tionalize this aim of examining general trends in statistics provided by the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. With the purpose of establish-ing an understanding for what might explain this potential correlation, the empirical data of each country is in turn analysed through the application of previous research and two different theories of economics: environmental economics and ecological economics. The result of this investigation indicates that for a majority of the thirteen countries, increased levels in GDP/c influence the trends in meat consumption, although the extent of this influence varies from country to country. However, there are exceptions as in the case of Argentina, Kenya and In-dia which suggests that further research is necessary for greater understanding in explaining other causes to increased meat consumption. Furthermore, this thesis concludes that we are pursuing unsustainable consumption patterns in a world of finite resources, and increased food consumption of meat is contributing to environmental degradation.

  • 68.
    Box, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    New Venture, Survival, Growth: Continuance, Termination and Growth of Business Firms and Business Populations in Sweden During the 20th Century2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation focuses on the formation, growth and discontinuance of business populations and firms in Sweden during the 20th century. It addresses some key issues in the domain of economic and social sciences, and in particular entrepreneurship and small business research: if and when firms grow, stagnate and decline, as well as how long firms survive and when they are likely to disband. Previous research has primarily analyzed these questions from a short time frame. Further, an individual or firm-oriented focus is commonly assumed. In that, alternative or complementary explanations to the growth and survival of firms may be disregarded.

    In contrast to much previous research, this dissertation assumes a micro-to-macro, longitudinal and demographic population approach. The period of investigation is over one hundred years. In addressing the growth and survival of firms, it takes into account the impact of firm-specific structural factors (such as firm age and size), generation (cohort) effects, as well as the influence of macroeconomic, exogenous factors. Further, the relationship between managerial/ownership succession and firm performance is also addressed. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal databases are employed in the dissertation. Its main empirical material consists of unique longitudinal data on new business firms, traced at the firm level from their birth to their termination. More specifically, seven birth cohorts – generations – of approximately 2,200 firms founded in 1899, 1909, 1912, 1921, 1930, 1942 and 1950 are included.

    The main findings show that ownership/management succession in firms had a quite weak correlation with firm performance and survival. At least at an aggregate level, and with some exceptions, it is debatable if the loss and replacement of owner-managers in small and in larger firms have any observable effects on firm performance. Furthermore, macroeconomic phenomena influence the conditions of individual firms as well as populations/aggregates of businesses. Both the growth and termination of firms and firm populations are found to be related to real economic (environmental) conditions; e.g. favorable macroeconomic conditions implied that firms grew in size. At the same time, under certain circumstances, the influence of structural variables (firm age and size) – as suggested in much previous research – is found to be of importance. As concerns firm growth, as well as firm termination, the economic environment and structural factors interact.

    These findings challenges individual or firm-level research that mainly focus on personal traits and behaviors in explaining firm success and failure. Other previous assumptions are also challenged when taking a longer time perspective into consideration. For decades, organization and business research have acknowledged a liability of newness and of size for business firms. While this might be true under some conditions, this liability of newness is falsified in the study: the termination behavior of some firm generations did not correspond with these assumptions. Thus, the perspectives and methodology applied in the dissertation complement earlier approaches in entrepreneurship and small business research.

  • 69.
    Bredefeldt, Rita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Tidigmoderna företagarstrategier: järnbrukens ägar- och finansieringsförhållanden under 1600-talet1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 70. Briceño-Ruiz, José
    et al.
    Rivarola Puntigliano, Andrés
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Brazil and Latin America: Between the Separation and Integration Paths2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil and Latin America: Between the Separation and Integration Paths challenges the “separatist” bias in the vision of Brazilian relations with its Latin American neighbors. By exploring the parallel existence of a path of integration, the focus of this study is on those forces which have intended to forge different forms of alignment, integration, and, sometimes, rightward union between Brazil and different Latin American countries. The authors analyze the ideas and projects inherent in the mindset of elites even before independence. They show that the path of integration has been more influential than is generally known. Ultimately, this book demonstrates the complexity around policy-making, debates on foreign policy, and the history of shaping the Brazilian self.

  • 71.
    Brolund, Emmelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Women’s Chances of Agency in the Global Political Economy: The case of Eastern European women trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The restructuring of the global economy have amongst many other things, contributed to andfacilitated an increase of certain informal and illegal activities. The hugely profitable, illegalactivity of trafficking humans into the sex industry is expanding with free market policies andincreasingly open borders. A large majority of the trafficked persons are made up by womenand girls and it is with this background in mind that the purpose of this study have beenformulated, namely to explore and shed light on these women's opportunities and chances toexercise agency in the global informal economy. This is done through the case of EasternEuropean women trafficked for sexual exploitation found in a survey study of 13 090trafficking victims from all over the world, out of which more than 9000 comes from EasternEurope and former Soviet. By conducting a critical analysis of these women’s situation aswell as their trafficking experience, both structural and individual aspects were found tocontribute to their exploitation in a complex, interrelated way. The general conclusion drawnfrom this study is that poor economic, social and political opportunities work to constrainwomen’s choices and limit their chances of agency. That is, their power to make meaningfulchoices.

  • 72.
    Carlén, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Staten som marknadens salt: en studie i institutionsbildning, kollektivt handlande och tidig välfärdspolitik på en strategisk varumarknad i övergången mellan merkantilism och liberalism 1720-18621997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation studies public institutional arrangements on the Swedish salt market 1720-1862. Crucial issues are how an why these arrangements emerged and were changed as well as they were used. The arrangements were erected in order to realize economic and social goals. In this respect, the policy persued by the Swedish government differed from those of most other governments, where policies concerning salt primarily meant tax policies. Government policies in Sweden were firstly external and had a long-term orientation. The aim was to import as much salt as possible to Sweden. The government also pursued a short-term policy in order to cope with short-term shorages. Overall, these policies were successful. Contrary to what has been stated in earlier Swedish research, the protectionist shipping policies did not lead to shortages of salt and high saltprices. Instead, the Swedish shipping and freight manufacture was stimulated, and Sweden became independent of foreign merchant fleets. The mercantilist aim of building a large merchant fleet, independent of potential enemy nations, was achieved without any negative effects on prices or supply on the Swedish salt market.

    Shortages of salt were not caused by a generally low yearly supply of salt. On the contrary, Sweden consistently had a surplus of salt and re-exported every year salt to other countries. The shortages of salt was rather regional and temporary, due to unexpected shocks on the supply side (wars, buccaneering, shipwrecks, persistent head winds, crises of production) and on the demand side (abundant fishing, cattle diseases and forced slaughter etc.). Costly and slow transports and communication meant that unexpected shortages could not be solved through trade. To solve these problems different institutional arrangements were created. These arrangements emerged in an evolutionary process of institutional change characterized by significant random elements. Severe shortages caused large changes in relative prices which acted as triggering factors in the process of institutional formation.

    Three more elaborated institutional arrangements having welfare purpuses were established, but disappeared in a rather short time. In 1774 a system of State Salt Stores were established in all staple towns. This arrangement proved to be very efficient as an insurance system, and the Salt Stores were frequently used to avert temporary shortages until new cargos of salt had arrived. The active state policy was a prerequisite for the markets to function satisfactory under mercantilism. But public stockpiling came to an end because the need for this insurance services diminished. But new technologies in saltproduction and shipping, increases in security and improved communications, a more efficiently-functioning market structure caused a significant long run decline i saltprices in relation to other prices and wages. Consequently, the need for public arrangements on the saltmarket decreased.

  • 73.
    Caro Cordova, Valeria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Barnarbete: En undersökning om den förändrade diskussionen kring barnarbete och strukturanpassningsprogrammens effekter i ILO2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar idén om att strukturanpassningsprogrammen har påverkatinternationella organisationer såsom ILO. Mer specifikt undersöks om ILO:sdiskussion kring barnabete blivit påverkat utav SAP. Detta görs genom attundersöka ett antal teman för att besvara om diskussionen har förändrats över tid.Bland annat undersöks den roll som barnen själva spelar i att finna en lösning tillproblemet med barnarbete och om fackföreningar förlorat makt då deras resurserhar minskat på grund utav SAP.

  • 74.
    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    The Significance of Remote Resource Regions for Norse Greenland2005In: Scripta Islandica, ISSN 0582-3234, Vol. 56, p. 13-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Colo, Nedim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The International Monetary Fund`s conditionality and the current financial crises: A comparative study of International Monetary Fund’s conditionality during the 2008-2012 financial crises in Iceland and Ireland 2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay compares and discusses IMF ´s conditional loan programs during the financial crisis in Iceland and Ireland during 2008-2012. The principal aim of this essay is to investigate and analyze what decides variation in IMF`s conditional loan programs. The chosen method is a most similar system design comparison between Iceland and Ireland. The essay depart from a theoretical approach which focus on IMF`s staff as working autonomously when designing conditional loan programs to borrowing countries.

    The differences in IMF`s conditionality and the decisions to select such conditions has been studied through analyses of secondary material and primary sources such as IMF`s statements and by data measurement of IMF`s major shareholders banking exposure to Iceland and Ireland. Comparison between Iceland and Ireland indicates that the IMF developed a more flexible approach in Iceland where IMF showed tolerance for “heterodox” policies such as capital controls and fiscal discipline with less preference for austerity, and supported the Icelandic government in letting their banks default, whereas in Ireland the IMF adopted the traditional “orthodox” response and demanded austerity measures in a combination with the often criticized structural conditions. The study concludes that the Irish case shows evidence that supports the arguments that the IMF`s major shareholders can influence IMF`s conditionality when their interests are at stake, and the Iceland`s case shows that IMF`s staff is given greater autonomy when major shareholders lack interests in the program country.

  • 76.
    Covaciu, Ana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    American and European nation building in Afghanistan: - a study of identity and its influence on foreign policy -2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay investigates, from a social constructivist perspective, the influence on identity over a state’s behavior and foreign policy. The actors chosen in this case are the EU and the United States, and the analysis discusses their nation building efforts in Afghanistan. The paper is based on two hypotheses, the first being that identity shapes foreign policy by shaping national interests and threat perception while the second is that both the EU and the US strike a balance between their normative side (idealist) and the power oriented side (realist). As will be shown, the two actors balance these dynamics differently, the US allowing its power oriented side to take over while the EU maintains an idealist outlook on international affairs.   It will be argued that these dynamics particularly manifest themselves in the case of nation building in Afghanistan as nation building is situated between development and security and stability in Afghanistan is considered very important to international security. The nation building discourse in both the EU and the US prior to Afghanistan will be studied, along with important historical events which shaped the identity of the two powers. The construction of the “other”, usually crucial in identity analyses, is present even in this study

  • 77.
    Davila Norelius, Sofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Brasiliens kvinnliga polisstationer: – med en inblick i mäns våld mot kvinnor2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 1985 skapades den första kvinnliga polisstationen i världen i São Paulo i Brasilien. Dessa polisstationer skapades för att utreda brott gällande kvinnomisshandel. Polisstationerna har setts som ett mycket viktigt historiskt och politiskt fenomen, som haft stor inverkan på synen på mäns våld mot kvinnor i Brasilien. Syftet med denna studie är att analysera det brasilianska fenomenet kvinnliga polisstationer ur ett genus- och organisationsteoretiskt perspektiv.      Uppsatsen baseras på en kvalitativ studie bestående av nio intervjuer som gjordes på plats i Brasilien under våren 2012. Intervjuerna ägde rum på de kvinnliga polisstationerna DEAM i Rio de Janeiro och DDM i Campinas samt på kvinnohjälpsorganisationerna CIAM och SOS- Mulher. Resultatet från de ovannämnda intervjuerna kommer att analyseras utifrån ett genus- och organisationsteoretiskt perspektiv.     Anmälan görs direkt på plats och kvinnan behöver inte besöka någon allmän polisstation utan kan helt vända sig till dessa kvinnliga polisstationer. Den första kontakten som kvinnor möter på dessa polisstationer är alltid en kvinna. Dessutom är chefen på stationen alltid en kvinna, och man strävar efter att endast anställa kvinnlig personal. Dessa polisstationer skiljer sig dessutom från de “vanliga” polisstationer genom att den innehar mer kunskap gällande våldtsutsatta kvinnor samt att de sprider information om mäns våld mot kvinnor och utövar påtryckningar på policynivå. De intervjuade väljer att lyfta fram att genom skapandet av denna organisation har man märkt att det ständigt kommer in fler anmälningar gällande mansvåld, då kvinnor nu vågar besöka dessa kvinnliga polisstationer i och med att polisen fått ett nytt feminint ansikte. Studien visar att ledarskap inom dessa organisationer har kodats som kvinnligt, det är ett krav att den högsta chefen på en kvinnlig polisstation skall vara kvinna. Detta leder till att kvinnliga poliser förflyttas till just dessa stationer för att hjälpa våldsutsatta kvinnor, vilket ökar könssegregeringen inom poliskåren. Männen inom dessa organisationer anställs som extra personal bara när det saknas kvinnliga poliser. Samtidigt ser de sig som en särskilt viktig resurs på ett genusstereotypt sätt, i det att de är den starka handen som ska skydda de våldsutsatta kvinnorna.

  • 78.
    de los Reyes, Paulina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    En (o)jämlik jämställdhet: Intersektionella perspektiv på ojämlikhetsskapande inom universitetsvärlden2010In: Vad händer med Jämställdheten: Nedslag i jämställdhetens synfält / [ed] Paulina de los Reyes, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 79.
    de los Reyes, Paulina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Globala maktrelationer, exploatering och migration2012In: Postkolonial feminism, 2 / [ed] Paulina de los Reyes, Stockholm: Tankekraft , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 80.
    de los Reyes, Paulina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Postkolonial feminism II2012In: Postkolonial feminism, 2 / [ed] Paulina de los Reyes, Stockholm: Tankekraft , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 81.
    de los Reyes, Paulina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Solidaritet med Chile­–igen2010In: Arbetarhistoria, ISSN 0281-7446, no 3, p. 24-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 82.
    de los Reyes, Paulina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Strategier och motståndsstrategier2012In: Postkolonial feminism, 2, Stockholm: Tankekraft , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 83.
    de los Reyes, Paulina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Vad händer med jämställdheten : Nedslag i jämställdhetens synfält2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 84.
    de los Reyes, Paulina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Vad händer med jämställdheten: Kritiska dialoger och nödvändiga samtal2011In: Vad händer med jämställdheten: Nedslag i jämställdhetens synfält / [ed] Paulina de los Reyes, Uppsala: Enheten för lika villkor, Personalavdelningen, Uppsala universitet , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 85.
    de los Reyes, Paulina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Working life inequalities: do we need intersectionality?2017In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 8, article id UNSP 1332858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence shows persistent inequalities between women and men regarding working conditions, wage levels, work time, work environment, and career opportunities. At the same time, research results show that inequality in the workplace is not only about gender differences. The specific conditions of oppression built on the simultaneous operation of class, race, and gender relations of power goes beyond the simple dichotomies involved in traditional class analysis or gender studies. Age, nationality, race, sexual preferences, bodily impairment, and class background are crucial factors in the opportunities and obstacles that people face at work. In this article, I discuss how an intersectional perspective can deepen our understanding of the informal hierarchies that create and preserve work life inequalities. Drawing on postcolonial theories and feminist perspectives on labour, I argue that the significance of an intersectional analysis is not primarily about the discrimination mechanisms based on intersecting forms of oppression. Rather, I see the potential of intersectionality in a critical interrogation of the shaping of different perceptions of labour emerging in current models of capitalist accumulation.

  • 86.
    de los Reyes, Paulina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eduards, MaudStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.Sundevall, FiaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Internationella relationer: könskritiska perspektiv2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Internationella relationer är en introduktion till genusanalytiska frågeställningar och tolkningar av den internationella ordningen. Boken belyser vikten av könskritiska perspektiv på internationella relationer och ger exempel på skilda sätt att förstå och förklara den internationella ordningens betydelser för människors liv i olika delar av världen. Här ställs frågor om hur globalisering och konflikter samspelar med föreställningar om manligt och kvinnligt. Författarna analyserar och diskuterar könskodade maktstrukturer och ojämlik resursfördelning - både lokalt och globalt. Med utgångspunkt i IR-fältets klassiska temaindelningar lyfter artiklarna fram nya perspektiv och problem, vilket vidgar och fördjupar förståelsen av fältet, såväl vetenskapligt som politiskt. Internationella relationer - könskritiska perspektiv vänder sig till studenter i internationella relationer och angränsande ämnen, men också till andra som är intresserade av könskritiska tolkningar av hur den internationella ordningen fungerar.

  • 87.
    de los Reyes, Paulina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mulinari, Diana
    Intersektionalitet: Kritiska reflektioner över (o)jämlikhetens landskap2010 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Här utforskar författarna begreppet intersektionalitet och dess relevans för att förstå komplexa och heterogena globala maktrelationer. Boken inbjuder till ett teoretiskt samtal om den analytiska och politiska innebörden av kategorin kön

  • 88. de Vito, Christian G.
    et al.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Fritt och ofritt arbete - en introduktion till temat2017In: Arbetarhistoria : Meddelande från Arbetarrörelsens Arkiv och Bibliotek, ISSN 0281-7446, no 163-164, p. 6-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Schlipphak, Bernd
    Legitimacy beliefs towards global governance institutions: a research agenda2019In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Legitimacy is central to the functioning of global governance institutions (GGIs) such as the European Union (EU) and the United Nations. There is a vibrant debate about legitimacy in International Relations, and a burgeoning literature in comparative politics on public attitudes towards the EU. Yet, these literatures rarely speak to each other, which has resulted in missed opportunities for theoretical advancements on the sources and consequences of citizens’ legitimacy beliefs vis-à-vis GGIs. To assist researchers in advancing on this state of the art, this research note develops a conceptualization of popular legitimacy as a multidimensional belief system including both moral convictions and self-interest. A statistical analysis of public attitudes towards the EU from 1973 to 2012 suggests that commonly used survey measures capture self-interest rather than moral beliefs. This note concludes by suggesting a research agenda intended to push theory and survey research on legitimacy beliefs towards GGIs forward.

  • 90.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    A Tendency for the Rate of Profit to Fall?: From Primitive to Flexible Accumulation in Sweden 1800-20052010In: The Review of Radical Political Economics, ISSN 0486-6134, E-ISSN 1552-8502, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 465-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish historical national accounts, this paper shows that, up to the 1970s, there has been a secular rise in the national capital/output ratio and a secular fall in the rate of exploitation, which tended to depress the profit rate. In Sweden, the nominal capital/output ratio increased fastest during the transition from primitive to accelerated accumulation in the 19th century. Since the 1970s, these secular trends have been reversed, which is connected to flexible accumulation that slims down the inventory stock to a minimum and destroys old consensus between capital and labor.

  • 91.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Den mänskliga naturens politiska ekonomi: Kropotkins tillämpning av evolutionsläran på samhället2012In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 553-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The political economy of human nature – Kropotkin’s application of the theory of evolution on society

    This paper presents a rational reconstruction of Kropotkin’s view on human nature, institutional change and economic development. Kropotkin shows that mutual aid among animals as well as in human society is far more important than recognized by contemporary individualist interpretation of Darwinism on society. His major contribution to political economy is that he offers an endogenous model of why institutions exist. However, his biological determinism and ethical naturalism imply that he disregard historical context, which leads him to de facto apply the perspective of historical idealism. The rise of the modern state, for example, he explains by the spread of the “idea of the state” and not by the economic development.

  • 92.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Den svenska konjunkturcykeln1700–20002005In: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 16-29Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Den svenska strukturcykelmodellen2010In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 665-687Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Early modern copper money: multiple currencies and trimetallism in Sweden 1624-17762012In: European Review of Economic History, ISSN 1361-4916, E-ISSN 1474-0044, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 408-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 16241776, Sweden implemented a complicated trimetallic monetary system. Five different copper, silver, and gold currencies circulated. The heaviest copper coins weighed 20 kg. Greshams law worked differently for various coins. Swedish trimetallism was asymmetric. Copper money could not replace silver and gold coins. When the latter became undervalued they circulated at a premium. Due to high transaction costs in using copper coins at a premium, they were sometimes driven out when becoming dear money. However, complaints about money shortage and Swedens monopoly position at the European copper markets implied that the copper standard was not abandoned until 1777.

  • 95.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ekonomisk tillväxt, genusarbetsdelning och obetalt hemarbete i historisk belysning2009In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 129, no 1, p. 5-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Foreign exchange rates in Sweden 1658-18032010In: Exchange rates, prices, and wages, 1277-2008 / [ed] Rodney Edvinsson, Tor Jacobson, Daniel Waldenström, Stockholm: Ekerlids förlag, 2010, p. 291-339Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Growth, Accumulation, Crisis: With New Macroeconomic Data for Sweden 1800-20002005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation has two main objectives. The first one is to construct historical macroeconomic series for Sweden using a consistent method throughout the relevant periods, and which rely on modern methods of national accounting. The second objective is to investigate patterns of economic growth, accumulation and crisis in Sweden 1800-2000, based on the constructed data series.

    New annual data series of Gross Domestic Product and its division into activities (type of production) and expenditures (consumption, investment and foreign trade), Net Domestic Product, stocks of produced assets and consumption of fixed assets are constructed for the period 1800-2000; series of employment, wages, imputed labour income of self employed and surplus for the period 1850-2000; and series of worked hours for the period 1950-2000. Summary tables of the main aggregate variables are presented at the end of the dissertation. The intent is to make the data material available online (also at a more disaggregated level) at: http://www.historia.se.

    Although the present study criticises the somewhat deterministic vision of many long cycle theories, it also demonstrates that the concept of long cycle can be applied when studying long-term fluctuations in GDP per capita, provided that the notion of a fixed periodicity of long cycles is abandoned. Long-term economic fluctuations are irregular, but so is also the short-term business cycle.

    Different historical tendencies and trends are investigated. The decline of the relative size of industrial activities in the last half of 20th century was not as dramatic, if unpaid household labour is considered and that many services are industry-related. The Marxist theory of a Tendency for the Rate of Profit to Fall is partly confirmed as a secular process up to the 1970s, but profitability has rebounded in the last two decades of the 20th century. During the 1990s, the investment ratio declined to historically low levels and the volume value of the net stock of buildings and structures fell for the first time since the 1830s.

    A comparison is also made of depressions in Sweden since 1850. During the 19th century, depressions were largely induced by the agricultural sector, and during the 20th century by industrial activities. However, the transition to the modern business cycle was not sudden but rather protracted. Another finding is that the 1990s depression was somewhat deeper than the 1930s depression in terms of GDP contraction.

  • 98.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Harvests and grain prices in Sweden 1665-18702012In: Agricultural History Review, ISSN 0002-1490, Vol. 60, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of harvests and international markets on Swedish grain prices, 1665-1870. The paper finds that harvests at a national level had a greater impact on domestic grain prices than international grain prices. However, at a regional level, grain prices tended to be affected more by harvests outside the region. Furthermore, in the long term, foreign prices became a more important determinant of national grain prices. The conclusion is that, under certain circumstances, grain prices can be used as an indicator of harvest fluctuations and to construct historical national accounts, at least at a sufficiently aggregated level. Such an endeavour needs to be combined with a careful analysis of the impact of prices in the surrounding area.

  • 99.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Inflation before paper money: debasement cycles in Sweden-Finland 1350-15942011In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 166-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although high inflation is associated with the spread of paper monies, rapid price increases are well known under the metallic standard from several countries, caused by the debasement of coins. The exact mechanism is still a puzzle. If agents were rational, why did they accept inferior coins at par with better ones? This paper compares five debasement cycles that occurred in Sweden-Finland 1350-1594. During the initial phase of such cycles coins tended to circulate by-tale, while by-weight circulation was most common towards the end of the cycles. A premium on the heavier coins implied that they were not driven out of circulation. The seignorage rate was significant during the initial phases of the cycles, while it decreased when prices and exchange rates adjusted in response to the debasement, prompting a recoinage, when the monetary unit was strengthened. It is this shift from by-tale to by-weight circulation that explains the high inflation rates that could occur before the rise of paper money.

  • 100.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Introduction to Historical Monetary and Financial Statistics for Sweden: Exchange rates, prices, and wages, 1277–20082010In: Exchange Rates, Prices, and Wages, 1277-2008 / [ed] Rodney Edvinsson, Tor Jacobson, Daniel Waldenström, Stockholm: Ekerlids förlag, 2010, p. 11-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
1234567 51 - 100 of 662
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf