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  • 51.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Antikens kultur och samhällsliv.
    B. Currie, Pindar and the cult of heroes, Oxford 2005.2007In: Kernos: Revue international et pluridisciplinaire de religion grecque antique, Vol. 20, p. 420-425Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Blood on the altars?: On the treatment of blood at Greek sacrifices and the iconographical evidence2005In: Antike Kunst, Vol. 48, p. 9-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    This study discusses the handling and use of blood at Greek sacrifices as depicted in Greek vase-painting. Modern scholars have usually assumed that the blood from the animal victims was completely discarded by pouring it on or at the altar, since the blood belonged to the divine part of the sacrifice. However, a more comprehensive analysis of the literary and epigraphical evidence shows that it is more likely that the blood at regular thysia sacrifices was kept and eaten by the human worshippers.

    The analysis of the iconographical evidence can be taken to further support the suggestion that the blood at Greek animal sacrifices was usually collected, in order to be prepared as food, after a small quantity had been sprinkled on the altar. The main support for this proposal is how and when blood is shown or referred to on the vases, and when it is not. Blood pouring out of the victim is never part of the iconography of thysia but instead confined to representations of sacrifices, at which the blood had to be discarded, or set in a mythical context and with little or no correspondence to actual, practised rituals. The sphageion, the vessel used for collecting the blood, most frequently occurs in scenes showing the mageiros cutting up the meat, indicating the use of this vessel when preparing the blood for consumption. The bloodstains on the altar, finally, are not found on all altars and, when depicted, there are only a few stains on the vertical side of the altar, and the altars are never shown as covered with blood.

     

  • 53.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Burnt, cooked or raw?: Divine and human culinary desires at Greek animal sacrifice2008In: Transformations in sacrificial practices.: From antiquity to modern times, Lit Verlag, Münster , 2008, p. 87-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    C.M. Antonaccio, An archaeology of ancestors: tomb cult and hero cult in early Greece1997In: Opuscula Atheniensia, Vol. 22-23, p. 160-162Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    E. Kearns, Ancient Greek religion. A sourcebook, Oxford 2009.:  2010In: Classical Review, ISSN 0009-840X, E-ISSN 1464-3561, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 310-311Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    "En grillad, tack!": Varför homeriska hjältar inte kokade sin mat2010In: Tankemönster: En festskrift till Eva Rystedt / [ed] F. Faegersten, J. Wallensten & I. Östenberg, Lund: Lunds universitet , 2010, p. 53-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Fett, ben, kött och skinn: gudomligt och mänskligt i det grekiska djuroffret1998In: Medusa, Vol. 19, no 2-3, p. 65-72Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 58.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Grekiska inälvor2009In: Medusa. Svensk tidskrift för antiken, ISSN 0349-456X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 19-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 59.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Heliga vägen, Miletos-Didyma1994In: Medusa, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 49-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 60.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Heroes and hero-cults2007In: A companion to Greek religion, Blackwell, Oxford , 2007, p. 100-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Iconographical evidence for the treatment of animal blood at Greek sacrifices2006In: Proceedings of the XVIth International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Boston, August 23-26, 2003. Common ground: archaeology, art, science, and humanities, 2006, p. 40-43Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Inventing Iphigeneia? On Euripides and the cultic construction of Brauron2003In: Kernos, Vol. 16, p. 59-118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    J. Gebauer, Pompe und Thysia. Attische Tieropferdarstellungen auf schwarz- und rotfigurigen Vasen2006In: Kernos, Vol. 19, p. 474-478Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 64.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    L’arkteia di Brauron e i culti femminili, ed. Dario M. Cosi, Bologna 2001.2002In: Kernos, Vol. 15, p. 508-509Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones, The veiled woman in ancient Greece, Swansea 20032008In: Medusa, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 37-42Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 66.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    M. Deoudi, Heroenkulte in homerischer Zeit (BAR IS, 806). Oxford 19992003In: Opuscula Atheniensia, Vol. 28, p. 204-207Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 67.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Antikens kultur och samhällsliv.
    Man, meat and god.: On the division of the animal victim at Greek sacrifices2008In: Mikros hieromnemon.: Meletes eis mnemen Michael H. Jameson, Ellenike epigraphike hetaireia, Athen , 2008, p. 259-290Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Maria-Zoe Petropoulou, Animal sacrifice in ancient Greek religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (Oxford Classical monographs), Oxford 20082009In: Opuscula, ISSN 2000-0898, Vol. 2, p. 221-224Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Mary Beard, Parthenon. Tempel, katedral, moské, ruin, ikon - en besynnerlig historia, Stockholm 20042005In: Medusa, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 40-42Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 70.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Mat, identitet och status: Om fördelningen av kött mellan människor och gudar i antik grekisk offerritual2008In: Arkeologi och identitet: VIII Nordic TAG i Lund 2005, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens historia, Lunds universitet , 2008, p. 189-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Meat in ancient Greece: sacrificial, sacred or secular?2007In: Food and history: Institut européen d'histoire et des cultures de l'alimentation, ISSN 1780-3187, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 249-272Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Medusa i Paris2008In: Medusa, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 42-43Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 73.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Medusa som knapp1989In: Medusa, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 57-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 74.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Meniskos - en antik fågelskrämma1990In: Medusa, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 17-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 75.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Offerings of blood in Greek hero-cults2000In: Héros et héroïnes dans les mythes et les cultes grecs, Liège , 2000, p. 263-280Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Om en skärvas många öden...2003In: Medusa, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 77.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Pausanias and the sacrificial rituals of Greek hero-cults1999In: Ancient Greek hero cult: Proceedings of the Fifth international seminar on ancient Greek cult, organized by the Department of classical archaeology and ancient history, Göteborg university, 21-23 April 1995, 1999, p. 145-158Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Sandrine Hubert, Eretria XIV. Fouilles et recherches. L'Aire sacrificielle au nord du sanctuaire d'Apollon Daphnéphoros. Un rituel des époques géométrique et archaïque, Gollion 2003.2010In: Gnomon. Kritische Zeitschrift für die gesamte klassische Altertumswissenschaft, ISSN 0017-1417, Vol. 82, no 7, p. 633-639Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Sarah Hitch King of sacrifice. Ritual and royal authority in the Iliad: Washington, DC:  Center for Hellenic Studies, Trustees for Harvard University Press, 2009.  Pp. ix, 235.  ISBN 97806740259292011In: Bryn Mawr Classical Review, ISSN 1055-7660, E-ISSN 1063-2948, Vol. 04, no 48Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Small pots, poor people?: The use and function of miniature pottery as votive offerings in Archaic sanctuaries in the Argolid and the Corinthia2003In: Griechische Keramik im kulturellen Kontext: Akten des Internationalen Vasen-Symposions in Kiel vom 24. bis 28.9.2001 veranstaltet durch das Archäologishe Institut der Christian-Albrechts-Universitet zu Kiel, 2003, p. 35-37Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Sture Linnér, Sicilien. Strövtåg i rummet och tiden, Stockholm 19992000In: Medusa, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 42-44Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 82.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Classical Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Swedish archaeology 1986-1990: Greece and the Aegean1994In: Current Swedish Archaeology, Vol. 2, p. 181-196Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 83.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    The cult of heroes2009In: Heroes: Mortals and myths in ancient Greece / [ed] Sabine Albersmeier, Baltimore: The Walters Art Museum , 2009, p. 120-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Antikens kultur och samhällsliv.
    The importance of sacrifice: new approaches to old methods2007In: Kernos: Revue international et pluridisciplinaire de religion grecque antique, Vol. 20, p. 387-399Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    The Late Geometric and Archaic periods1996In: The Berbati-Limnes archaeological survey 1988-1990, 1996Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    The Medusa reader, utg. Majorie Garber & Nancy J. Vickers, New York & London 20002006In: Medusa, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 34-36Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 87.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    The sacrificial ritual of Greek hero-cults in the Archaic to the early Hellenistic periods2002Book (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Classical Archaeology and Ancient History.
    The sacrificial rituals of Greek hero-cults in the Archaic to the early Hellenistic periods1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study questions the traditional view of sacrifices in hero-cults during the Archaic to the early Hellenistic periods (c. 700-300 BC) as consisting mainly in holocausts, rituals focusing on the blood of the animal victim and the presentation of meals, and rarely in thysia sacrifices followed by collective dining.

    The work is divided into three parts. The first part focuses on the terms eschara, escharon, bothros, enagizein, enagisma, enagismos and enagisterion, which have been considered as being characteristic for hero-cults and marking them as distinct from the cult of the gods and linked to the cult of the dead. The study of the use and meaning of these terms shows that a connection with heroes can rarely be established before the Roman period and mainly so in the Byzantine lexicographers and in the scholia, the information of which has generally been considered as valid also for earlier periods.

    The second part is an analysis of the epigraphical and literary evidence for sacrifices to heroes based exclusively on sources from the Archaic to the early Hellenistic periods. Contrary to the traditional notion, the main ritual in hero-cults during this period was a sacrifice in which the worshippers consumed the meat from the animal victim. The thysia could be modified by the offering of prepared meals (theoxenia), a ritual that also existed separately from thysia. A particular handling of the animal’s blood at a thysia or a holocaust, at which the whole victim was destroyed, can rarely be documented and these two kinds of rituals must be considered as marginal features in hero-cults.

    In the third part, the ritual pattern of hero-cults is compared with the use of similar rituals both in the cult of the gods and in the cult of the dead in order to define the place and function of hero-cults within a wider context. Since the main kind of sacrifice in hero-cults was a thysia, a ritual that was intimately connected with the social structure of society, the heroes must have fulfilled the same role as the gods within the Greek religious system. The rituals considered as linking the heroes with the dead (holocausts, blood rituals and offerings of meals) can be found also in the cult of the gods or belong to the category heilige Handlungen (rituals performed as a response to a particular situation and not having any divine recipient). When used in hero-cults, holocausts and blood rituals can often be connected with a particular purpose of the sacrifice on that occasion or a desire to recognize in ritual a certain side of the character of the hero receiving the sacrifice. The fact that the heroes were dead seems to have been of little significance for the sacrificial rituals and it is questionable whether the rituals of hero-cults are to be considered as originating in the cult of the dead.

  • 89.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Thighs or tails?: The osteological evidence as a source for Greek ritual norms2009In: La norme en matière religieuse en Grèce ancienne: Actes du XIe colloque du CIERGA (Rennes, septembre 2007), Liège: Centre international d'édtude de la religion grecque , 2009, p. 125-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our knowledge of the normative practice of Greek animal sacrifice is usually based on the written and iconographical sources. Recent publications of animal bones from Greek sanctuaries offer new possibilities to define the practical execution of sacrificial rituals. This paper discusses the god's part of the animal victim burnt on the altar, which could consist of the thigh bones or the osphys (sacrum and caudal vertebrae) or both. The altar debris and consumption refuse from ritual contexts allow us to distinguish variations within this norm. Sheep and goat femora were the preferred parts to burn, though at some sites cattle thigh bones were favoured. Tails and sacrum bones are rarely found. Pig bones hardly ever seem to have formed part of the god's share burnt on the altar, though pigs clearly were eaten in sanctuaries. It is suggested that the thigh bones may have been the original offering at a thysia, perhaps a tradition deriving from the Mycenaean period. The burning of the tails could have been inspired from Near eastern sacrificial practices and was perhaps added to the Greek animal sacrifices at a later stage to increase the element of divination.

  • 90.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Tvättmedel och tvål under antiken1991In: Medusa, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 50-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 91.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Ve den som kissar i porten!: Om avloppsproblem och naturbehov under antiken2002In: Medusa, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 2-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 92.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Classical Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Why (not) paint an altar?: A study of where, when and why altars appear on Attic red-figure vases2009In: The world of Greek vases / [ed] V. Nörskov, L. Hannestad, C. Isler-Kerényi & S. Lewis, Rome: Edizioni Quasar , 2009, p. 89-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Ät, drick och var glad: det grekiska offrets innebörd1997In: Hellenika, Vol. 80, p. 4-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 94.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    ‘Éditer, traduire, commenter Pausanias en l’an 2000. Actes du colloque de Neuchâtel et de Fribourg2003In: Revue archéologique, p. 418-419Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 95.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Schallin, Ann-Louise
    Svenska Institutet i Athen.
    Excavations at Midea 2000 and 2001. Excavations at the EastGate2002In: Opuscula Atheniensia, Vol. 27, p. 55-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Schallin, Ann-Louise
    Svenska Institutet i Athen.
    Excavations at Midea 2000 and 2001. Middle terraces and East2002In: Opuscula Atheniensia, Vol. 27, p. 39-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Ekroth, Gunnel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Wells, Berit
    Holmgren, Kaj
    The Berbati Valley Project: the 1994 season.: Excavations by the tholos tomb1996In: Opuscula Atheniensia, Vol. 21, p. 191-201Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Elfros, Zara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Classical Archaeology and Ancient History.
    The Women´s Room: Social interactions in 4 century Athens2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 99.
    Emanuelsson-Paulson, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Classical Archaeology and Ancient History.
    An octagonal votive column in Delphi2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Upon walking toward the entrance of the archaeological site in Delphi, one can today see three drums from an octagonal column of small dimensions. Even if the excavation circumstances of this column remain unpublished, the construction technique and the reconstruction of the column indicate that it has been an Archaic votive column. Polygonal columns are found in Greek architecture from the Geometric period and throughout the Archaic period, during the period when local architectural innovation and design where commonly used. During the 7th and early 6th century BC this developed into a local architectural style of Doric octagonal columns in the eastern Peloponnese, the costal islands and the southern Greek mainland. They were used in secular and religious buildings, as well as freestanding monuments. Most probably these towns made a manifestation of their own identity by using their own architectural style in the Panhellenic sanctuary of Delphi, as they had also done by constructing an Archaic treasury with octagonal columns in the Panhellenic sanctuary of Nemea.

  • 100.
    Emanuelsson-Paulson, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Classical Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Archaic grave columns – ancient reality or a modern myth?2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Grave columns and pillars are often mentioned in older research publication as a phenomenon of the Archaic period. The Archaic grave columns has been claimed to be Doric, mainly dated in the 6th century BC and used in the entire Greek world. They were a status symbol, used by the rich to symbolize the funerary games, show off a prize standing on top of it or to associate the deceased with the heroes of the past. When examining these statements closer, one realizes that these assumptions are made on a very small number of excavated funerary columns and few researchers have made a comparison of the published Archaic grave columns. Architectural or freestanding columns are by no means common prior to 500 BC, even if this is the century when they are exploding in numbers. The larger part of all columns in the Archaic period were constructed in sanctuaries, but grave columns seem to be a relatively rare phenomenon. 

    Smaller grave columns, often defined as pillars or cippis in modern publications, were much more common. They were used from the Geometric period and onwards, but got a large upswing in numbers during the Hellenistic period. Most of these lack inscriptions, especially from the earlier periods. They design varies much, they can be entirely undecorated and quite roughly cut or highly polished with relief decorations, but they seldom include a proper capital as a column should. The main question is therefore if there has been a shift in definition of a grave column between the 19th and early 20th century scholars and modern studies, or if the hypothesis of an Archaic column is yet another myth base on a few randomly excavated examples? Were freestanding columns really used more commonly as funerary markers during the Archaic period? 

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